Day In The Life Of A Singapore Exchange Student – NUS Dorm/Campus Tour



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University life in Singapore is incredible. As I attend exchange at the National University of Singapore, I want to share with you my ordinary school day, from morning to night.

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so you want to know what a day in the life is like as an exchange student at the National University of Singapore close your eyes or days about to begin good morning another day and you pets rushing from a class as usual today's going to be an ordinary day nothing special I started off with my normal morning routine Singapore is hot so simple t-shirt and some shorts and I'm good to go thank goodness I don't live on the eighth floor although there is an elevator so it's not too bad for them I live at Prince George's Park residents this is one of the dormitories on the NUS campus and although being one of the older ones still pretty comfortable and relaxing to stay yet it's got a good mixture of both full-time and exchange students now NUS is so big that they run their own internal bus system I don't need to pay anything I just hop on and start my day this semester I'm taking a variety of different course subjects but as a business student I spend most of my class time at the NUS business school I'm in awe every time I come here this place is modern its sleek and there's always something going on here from hiring fairs to free stuff I'm lucky to have this building as my faculty home made it to class and us classes are pretty good there's some great professors and cool subjects and they usually last from three hours to two hours and they can get tiring sometimes after class a head to the deck or any of the many food canteens on campus all of them have unique stalls different cuisines and the food is generally pretty good they've got drinks and snacks vegetarian meat fresh fruits everything you want is here and it's all relatively affordable I don't call a good lunch unless I have it with some great people not only can I look at their delicious food but lunchtime is a great time to socialize all the friends I've met at NUS have been awesome they all come from different ethnicities and backgrounds and they all carry with them their own unique story after all my classes are done for the day I take a bus straight to this place every time this is my favorite spot on campus and is the hub for all things student life this is University town people always talk about the infinity pool on top of the Marina Bay Sands well NUS it's got its own infinity pool and it's open for all students Newtown is a great spot to study and there's always student life and activities going on here the stay in shape I go to the you town gym successful for all students and has all the equipment and tools I need to get a good workout after my workout I head over to the Mac Commons where I finally begin to study NUS provides some pretty powerful Mac's loaded with creative software so I edit my videos here too once it's dinnertime I head over to one of two new town food canteens fine food this place is fully air-conditioned and it is lively there are people here all the time and there's so many different types of food that there's no way that you can leave here without eating something after I'm done eating I return my tray to either the wall or non-halal shelf this place is inclusive nighttime in Singapore's warm there's no sun shining on you and it's relaxing I take one last bus back to pgp where I'm welcomed home every time I set my alarm clock hop on my bed and I close my eyes for the adventure tomorrow hey it's Jenson yeah I don't eat breakfast in the morning and yeah I don't sleep with the blanket because Singapore is so hot if you're planning to go to NUS or you're thinking of wanting to go here hopefully this video gave you a good overview and if you're not going here well now you know what I'm up to let me know in the comments below if you have any questions about Singapore and us you name it I'll answer them other than that be sure to like subscribe [Applause]

Dissertation writing (how to) – Lempies



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This video is about thesis writing, how to write a PhD thesis fast, How to write a doctoral thesis fast? Tips for thesis writing

ciao guys and welcome to lamp is as you can say today I'm not in my kitchen because I would like to talk about something completely different from cooking the Thai job for this video is how to write a PhD thesis fast as a PhD student you know how difficult and how long it take to contact those experiments and then at the end of the day you have to compile those thick documents that you have to submit for marking it's just so stressful so turning my thesis writing I've come up with a method that helped me write faster better make the writing process easier and I'm going to share those tips with you today the first section is organizing and planning do not skip this step because is really important before you start writing it's important that you think about how many chapters you are going to write in your thesis and they're pointed in each chapter it's also important that you already start selecting the writing tools the citation tools as well as the statistical tools that you are going to use when you are writing your thesis another important theme which is the thesis writing is different from what you have time before suggests masterpieces and pasta theses because especially at the University of studying they are not due dates so it is important that you set those due dates for your soul nobody's going to give you those days not even your supervisor for instance set up a due date when you want to finish with chapter one once you want to finish with chapter two when you want to submit your pieces so when February or when that time comes you know if you are ahead or behind your schedule so you can start working hard and put in more time another important tip that people use to pretend to forget is before you start writing check if you have met all the university administration requirements that I need it for the pieces to be submitted imagine if you have completed all the writing then just before you submit you discover that oh you have missed a course and that course is gonna take you six months to complete before you submit is going to set you back six months just think about that and make sure that you compile those or your soil those things out before you start writing what I did in my thesis I had a separate word file where I have outlined or where help dealt with organizing and planning and I outlined my thesis structure in a different file and I have done that before I start writing so that one it is time to write I have a clear mind on what and how I'm going to do the writing the next step is quantifying have a method to quantify or to measure your performance when you don't have a method like that you are not sure if you have contributed how much you've contributed or if you have not contributed anything every day my objective was to contribute 500 words every day and what I did is that I had I had an excel file with the two color codes and also with different columns where I have recorded certain information and one of those was the dates and the part of the thesis where I have written or we have wet on that day how many ways have I written in a day and where to continue the next day and then the color codes were like my favorite color and my least favorite color the favorite color I highlighted all the lines or all the days where contributed something always make my objective which is 500 words per day and then the least favorite color was for the days where I have not made my objective maybe I did not write anything or I've written fewer words than what are suppose to you can also make it fun for example are some rewards and Punishment think about it say ok if I finish my if I finish writing chapter 1 by the end of January if I have Flint I'm going to add myself and by myself my favorite book or go to the club with my friends without feeling any Quixote like ok I haven't written my things I haven't finished just have that method it is important that you know you're quantifying and you know how much you're contributing and you can pace at which you are compiling this document I invite you to check the link in the description below there you can download my thesis writing tracking templates for free the next step is actual writing it is important that you separate writing from editing writing is actually when you are composing your text and editing is when you are correcting and modifying your text if you don't separate the two it will be very discouraging when you write a whole page in one day and in the end you TD like 50 to 90% of that because you editing the same day and you feel really frustrated and discouraged so set some days where you are just writing and then after we have done or you have completed writing the chapter 7 chapter move on and say someplace for editing only the thing about writing is also fine and appropriate time that works for you for me it was always I write in the morning because that's when I'm most active so I had thesis writing was the most difficult task during that time I was doing this and I try to make sure that I tackle it in the Pony before I start any other task so that I'm John and I can continue in the day and do other table just without feeling any guilt also have a retry that where for you or that much villager that put you in that action mode start writing some people start adding with the cup of tea a cup of coffee for me is always a cup of tea and some motivational code I had this up my phone that I read every morning it takes about 20 minutes I'm done with that and I can get into my writing writing for me was always every day about two to three hours and that was very appreciated because in the day SS PhD student you still have other daily tasks our to continue that a hackney they do other tasks that I have to contribute to my departments like a scientific seminar other experiments meetings and research proposal writing at the end of every writing day it is important that you indicate where you are going to or what you are going to write next or at which content or at which page you are going to continue writing the next day the next step is keeping the momentum once you have started writing you want to continue until you finish because if you take a long break during your writing this session or during your writing time then you send to you sometimes back again imagine you take a vacation for a month in that one month you didn't do anything about this is writing when you come back you need some time to refresh your mind about the traffic and everything you are writing on the property means that will be just time wasted I had three ways that kept me going that was every single day I made a schedule of way to continue the following day that is really important imagine for instance the next day you want to write about introduction to chapter one what I would do is the day before is think about what do I want to introduce in Chapter one and how many program – I want that chapter to contain and what information I want to provide or what information I would like to provide to my old is in each program that is important because the next day when you start writing your mind is clear and has a straight direction what kind of literature to look for because you are sure of what you want to say to your audience you your writing will be easier and will be way faster another thing that kept me going in my case was I wrote every single day I also wrote during the weekends on Saturdays and Sundays but this worked for me very well because I was working in the morning every day I woke up at 5 or 6 a.m. and I wrote not longer than two hours or not longer than three hours so two to three hours if I woke up at 5:00 in the morning I would wake on till 8:00 and by 8:00 when my family member wake up I've already done with my writing we can continue the day as usual have breakfast together and still enjoy the weekend I didn't miss out on anything and I also wrote when I was on vacation because I had still I would just wake up in the morning and I had already selected tools that did not make me which is that I had also selected two that were flexible that I would have I had them on my personal computer and I used those everywhere I was I wrote when I was on the train who knows on the bus when I was on vacation it was possible another thing that kept me going then I had to make waking up early every day you have it once you get into that then you keep the momentum every single day you add 500 wet it's going to be faster before you know it you'll be done with a thesis writing and get it out of way the last step here is reviewing once you've completed everything you have the phone document from chapter one to the last chapter send it to a reviewer as soon as possible and the Muslim probably the best person to send it to then be your supervisor in that case the person will give you the second opinion as soon as possible so if you need to to major changes you can do them as soon as you can if you you can go ahead and review your document as many times as you want but you have to understand that that is all your opinion do not waste time doing that first CQ supervisors opinion and then he or she is going to tell you if you are in the right direction before you waste a lot of time just deleting and adding things when you're not sure what to ready to and if you need a professional if you're like for English or anything whatever language you're you're writing in this will be also the best time to look for a reviewer so that you can already booked an appointment for sometimes in I Prince put that person to reserve time to work on your document because reviewing a speaking from a personality exam plan it means this document is actually a very large document with about 150 to 200 pages so you need to book for reviewing in advance in summary to make your thesis writing easier and faster organize the thesis outline and have a time plan before you start writing do not skip this step it sound ridiculous that you just want to jump in and start writing but if you're not sure about what you're going to write then take you a whole lot of time and slow down your writing process and bring a lot of and frustration during this process second thing is split your writing into smaller section that are manageable you can just say I want to write and you don't even have an outline you don't set out the chapters you can't digest that much weight you have to speed it down into sections that are manageable and the last step is or the last point is have a clear mind about what you want to communicate to your audience when you have a clear mind about what you want to communicate you also have a clear direction about what kind of literature research article you want to look for and you want to read an ask to your document and that guys will help you write faster and easier and get your PhD as fast as possible tip the given time so guys that was it for today thank you so much for watching I hope you find these tips useful during your thesis writing if you have also some extra tips that I haven't spoken about please leave them in the comment section if you enjoy watching this video please give us a like and subscribe to our channel for more and I wish you all the best with your thesis writing

COLLEGE MOVE IN VLOG 2018 // RYERSON UNIVERSITY



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FINALLY!! here is my college move in vlog 2018! I will be going to Ryerson University in Toronto, Canada and I can’t wait!! Hope you enjoyed this video as I had so much fun showing you guys everything 🙂

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hi guys it's moving day well my half movement day I guess so I got early move in so today's Sunday the 19th and I'm just gonna drop my stuff off and then I can actually move in and live there next Sunday so I'm with my best friend Diana she's gonna come and help me and she's gonna film everything so it's 11:00 now and almost so I'm in and we're gonna get going on the road we're gonna pack the car and head to Toronto this is my lovelies look how cute it is yeah and it's so fun like honestly I'll fit a lot of stuff in here it's really skinny because I think I'm space in between my bed and the wall zucchini legend perfect that's all are you guys excited to move me in oh also you guys I like from about to show a lot of stuff in my dorm hall but this is my laundry basket I got it from the store called JISC and it's like a star and like it like squishes down but like obviously I filled it with all my stuff yeah that's really cute if you're wondering I'll do an outfit of the day my tank top is from brandy of my sweater so brandy I'm wearing rule em and leggings and my white tee does enemies so yeah babe make a sound – am low we're finding parking and we have an hour to write in okay yeah it says this way I have to know such a big closet that's more ok let's see who this is the fridge oh wow they did give us a lot of stuff every night oh we have little glasses oh my god we have a cutting board that's a nice toaster you microwave all this stuff oh my god I totally forgot that I have to decorate a whole living room I don't know he might I feel go go good it's right here oh my god it's big how do you turn the lights on Wow and there's my other roommates oh then there's stairs oh this is like different moment of truth to see if I need a mattress pad it's so oh my god it's so soft I know yeah we I literally don't need a mattress pad this is like a memory where are you bringing this over and the first one to suborn it out okay here's my oh oh thanks so much right now yeah okay these are my sheep Oh guys I also got a new lamp from my off hey I'm almost white or gray but this is white and this is gray I'm hopeless should we have tickety-boo no just my command hooks like a big tip bring the scissors with you thanks for doing my bad guys okay wait oh this will fit in that hole oh okay so I have a huge bin and I put all my clothes on so like PJ's and things shoes I might yeah first time on the bed you should bring your bin stuck over here the gray bins so I like a great thing going and my wall is gray and then like the rest are white and yeah so good boy I should take this up another bend down and then now it's all my products we can put this on the bed maybe I should forget what I put in here oh my calendar indigo they all hang this up now with my commander yeah that's so cute but then I can't really write on it no like cuz it's right on my desks and be hard to like go and write oh yeah and it on my polaroid Oh guys wait when we put my lights up they're gonna be so cute oh wait I don't think I brought my lights I did it why did you bring that I forgot you know what for now we break I would just leave all this little bag dang it I wanted to put my light oh I didn't bring my wall flower start writing that down on your nose but I thought I could put all my makeup stuff and like shake I put in my drawer and I forgot my command hook so I can't even hang up where okay okay then we can do that at least I also forgot to show these in my dorm hall but I got command hooks I'm just sit down and tell me where you want it like if you're looking at me and they're actually comfy then they hide out like the shamans yeah Wow we'd be good mighty Foreman oh yeah guys my one card picture is so bad I had like I have like a twitchy eye and I was like you know it's fine whatever and it looks really bad so wait it's focus well doesn't need to focus perfectly but yeah so my pictures very ugly so when you're taking your photo ID picture make sure it's nice because you're gonna regret it I like how I literally don't have anything like my Kleenex box and I thought I was bringing so much today it's fine okay I'm gonna give you like an official apartment or you walk in and then it's re moving thing and then my theme each like floor has a theme so mine's like greyish blue and I love it and then I'll go down this hall so this is the first bathroom so I have as I said I there's four of us so two of us I'm Sarah each bathroom so let's see that this is kind of like a bigger shower and then there is one two three four rooms and then this is the other one I have no clue where the lights are right here yeah okay oh wow there's a little fan how nice so it's the second bathroom and this one kind of has like a smaller shower that looks like that okay and then down this is a huge storage closet which I'm so excited about to put all like winter coats and our extra stuff and then this is my room so this is like my closet area I've these two great bins from Canadian Tire that I got and then that's like my closet this I'm not keeping here but it's all my bathroom stuff and I don't want to put it there and then I put some things like here and this little thing I haven't put it up there this is probably gonna put in the living room and then in this little area I put my laundry basket I have a plug there and then I have my bed and my cute rug and then I like this like mini dresser kind of so my sister and Diana kind of put stuff here and then also I'm gonna get more storage for under the bed because a lot can fit there and then my sheets you guys saw about these from Ikea and then my dad and I window and I have a little ledge which I'm excited about this is my desk my chair that's actually comfortable and these are like pretty small but I'll just put like my essentials and then my lamp so far that I have literally a Kleenex box and my cute calendar and that's it this is my view but that's all I have Kuwait I actually love that I have my own little haul that's so nice all in there stairs there's this little sitting area cute it's cute yeah cute this is like a study area oh my god I can write something right what are you saying oh no oh my god Diana it sixteen no you're gonna see well we're gonna notice I'm not done we're going so this is like my mail and yeah I guess wow this is what I'm gonna be doing my god it tells you how to do laundry okay fat mood oh wow look at it he listen I'm so excited to use this mail thing and you clean it be like money we just try to literally do parking at that stupid meter for 20 minutes and didn't work so we're moving the car but now I'm all moved in and I my roommate she's really nice I'm gonna show them around my campus and stuff I have never seen you guys ok so right now we're in the Ted Rogers School management building which is like where I have one of my classes you guys I can barely hear swingers but now we're just looking all right and then I'm gonna go to the engineering building because I have a summer class there in like two days and I want to find okay I'm looking for my classroom right now heads 14 maybe it's the other way yeah I found my classroom they're not that bad they're kind of comfortable my first time in electro did you elect your host like this guy yeah okay so I just wanted to end this vlog I'm really hope you guys enjoyed it I just got home I'm so tired miss sit down and edit this video because I'm so excited I think I got pretty good footage and yeah so basically this was early movement as I said so obviously I can't stay there because I'll actually move in the 26th and I don't think I'm gonna film that because number one I don't have like many more things to bring obviously I'm gonna like to finish my bathroom bring more kitchen stuff but I don't know if I'm gonna vlog it because all of my roommates will be there and everyone will be there from the building like today there so they no one there like it was just me and a couple other people but then obviously next week will be everyone so be really busy and yeah but of course I will be doing a full dorm tour don't worry I'm so excited to do it but yeah I literally love my little apartment so much I'm so excited I'm so thankful like it's literally beautiful and I'm just I'm so excited so I hope you guys enjoyed this video I'm sorry I'm really so tired right now but yeah thank you so much for watching and I'll see you guys all next time bye

June 2019 Current Affairs in Hindi – 15 June 2019 – Daily Current Affairs for All Exams



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June 2019 Current Affairs in Hindi – 11 June 2019 – Daily Current Affairs for All Exams



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Day In The Life of a University Psychology Student (& Study With Me) | Beauticole



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Day In The Life of a University Psychology Student (& Study With Me)

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hello everyone and welcome to a bit of a different video so today I'm going to be doing a university day in the life type video and this is a collab with a lot of other youtubers as well so I will link all of their channels and their videos in the description box down below I'm pretty sure they're all going to be doing study sort of videos probably mainly like studying with me so definitely go and check their videos ours well but I'm actually really excited to do this video because it's a bit of a different one as I'm actually gonna be like vlogging but on my main channel and if you are subscribed to find flocking channel which you definitely should check your little blog you need to check out my Florida vlogs if you haven't already links below and on the screen sorry about the promo but yeah if you haven't already subscribed to that there no please do because I honestly love blogging it so much so with this it's like my perfect video because I've got like my two favorite things in one video I've got flogging I've got main channel videos so yeah it's gonna be a lot of fun and I really hope that you enjoy it and it gives you a little bit of an insight into kind of university life and if you're thinking about going to uni or if you're joining in September then I hope this kind of gives you a rough idea every day is completely different I'm not gonna lie but this is just gonna be the kind of typical type day so today I actually have a lecture at 11 I'm also sorry about my voice I've honestly not long worked up not long way dark I cannot even speak not long woken up so it's a little bit cranky but yeah I have an 11:00 a.m. lecture it's currently around five to ten so I need to go have some breakfast and I also need to do some makeup because I'm looking pretty rough and I can't believe I'm actually starting a main Channel video like this this never happens usually I'm sat here in front of my photos with a professional camera well this is quite professional camera it's both working camera but with my main camera and I have makeup on so I apologize about the state of what I don't like but yeah I'll probably update you in the process of doing my makeup we won't block anything in the kitchen just because the cleaner has a tendency in the morning to just turn up and like come in and meet you in the mornings and I thought that'd be quite embarrassing it from vlogging or if the cameras like on doing a time-lapse and she just chiefly gets in the background so I'm not gonna do that but yeah it's currently five to ten I'm kind of in a bit of a rush because usually a bit before this but I'm not gonna lie I did struggle to get up this morning so yeah I'll update you when something else is going on in a bit right so I'm back in my room as you guys can see and I'm going to put on a YouTube video to what she wants to do a makeup I always do this I don't know if anybody else does this but I can't just sit there get my makeup in silence I always have to have a youtube video on in the background so I'm not entirely sure what I'm going to watch I want something that's kind of relatively long so I can just keep it on I don't have to keep changing it so let me have a look what new videos uploaded yesterday any videos I've already watched Zoe's vlog which obviously is long so that's a bit gutting I'm actually gonna watch Alice Forbes blog because she blogged when she went to the UK blog Awards and it's a good really good book so I'm gonna watch that because it is 24 minutes long and I'm going to just sit here do a makeup this is kind of my little stage show and I've got my laptop here I'm gonna move it along a little bit all the makeup and stuff here which I'm not gonna lie it looks a bit of a mess look at it like if you do want to see a full in depth of all of these drawers and stuff then I have got a makeup collection on my channel so definitely check that out it was filmed a while ago but all of it is pretty much the same so yeah I'm just gonna do my makeup and then I will probably update you after when I'm looking a little bit fresher okay so I've just finished doing my makeup I haven't really gone that extravagant just because all I'm doing is going to a lecture so I don't need that much makeup but I'm about to set off in a bit it's 25 to 11:00 so have around it's 25 minutes but I need to get that as well even though it's not far it's neutral you just down the hill from here because my information is on a compass it's just so close to everything which is really handy so I would recommend that if you can't stay on campus if you are going to a compass university that you do because it honestly saves you so much time and it means you don't have to get up like really early so yeah I need to prepare everything for the lecture this lecture though I'm not gonna lie is not really a fun one this module is just like assessed through online tests every Thursday the online test goes onto the dearly system and you get like a week to do it but yeah so this is basically all the lectures are for they're just the weekly tests and this lecturer is talking to us about nuclear physics might have might've been joking the lecture last week we were learning about like nuclear Fisher and that nuclear valves and that is not even nuclear valves I don't even know what I'm talking about but she was basically just talking us through how like a nuclear reactor works and I thought that has no relevance to psychology at all it apparently does because to do with the topic of human factors which obviously it's a psychological topic and if you want to be a psychologist in that sort of field and I guess it's helpful to learn what are things you looking out for but I I'm not looking to do that so it is not really that fun for me but yeah it's gotta be done it's a two-hour lecture all of my lectures are pretty much two hours and then I have tutorials in seminar lots of seminars tutorials and workshops as well but yeah I'm gonna go to that in effect and then also me and my friend Anya who's on my course but going to McDonald's afterwards because it's on Wednesday tree-like every single Wednesday this tradition it will go to my keys to get some food kind of yeah just cheer us up after that annoying lecture series so yeah it is finished in a couple of weeks so that's good so we're not to do any more of physics because this is like bringing me back to Lucy's when I was doing physics and I hated it because I was so bad at it so yeah it's all the fun so what gonna do is I'm going to sum up to power put on a bag you stop and drink out everything and then I'll probably eat you just before I leave okay so I think I'm pretty much ready to go I'm quickly gonna show you my bag and what I bring round with me just because I never actually got round to doing a what's in my uni bag like at the start of the year I did say I was gonna do one I'm not gonna lie but I just didn't get around to doing it so yeah I'm gonna show you quickly there's not really much to show you it's not really interesting but in case you kind of wanted a bit of advice of what to bring then this is for you okay so this is my bag I'm sorry it's flopping it's never know what's happening like what's going on here I think it's just because like of the weight imbalance other you know this is my bag it was from TK Maxx last year it's really handy because it has different pockets so I could put my laptop here in the back pocket which obviously it's the first thing I have and I really recommend that you bring a laptop if you are doing any subjects where there is a lot of information to spring out you in the lectures because honestly if I to write out what the lecturer is saying and what's on the slides and stuff I would not get it done so my laptop is my Saviour and always just comes around with me and then I have I want to show you my new bottle because I am obsessed with this look how cute it is I absolutely love it as you can tell I got it from Disney it has all like the different Disney parks and stuff like in symbols it's really really cute and I absolutely love it I will include that in the hall as well which should be coming soon I am going to be doing an American haul as promised a lot of you guys have been asking me and requesting it as well so yeah definitely look out for that soon make sure you're subscribed so I have that drink and it is glass so it is a bit temperamental like not temperamental but if I dropped it it would be a pretty disastrous so there's just hope I don't what else I have in here I have my phone and the only other thing I'm really hovered here is my academic diary which I'm not gonna lie I don't use because I don't know I just don't get the time to actually write it down or rather just do like a to-do list and then I also just have my purse and also my keys on my cuff kits a man yard and that's pretty much everything in my bag so I'm about to leave because I probably should head down I need to put some shoes on no quickly but I don't really know what I'm gonna next update you I might try and film like a little bit in the lecture but it is a really busy lecture like there's 300 plus students that are on my course I'm pretty sure so the lecture theater is massive is pretty full I don't really know if I'll get a block but I'm like a little bit I don't think I've vlog on me either like I just don't really know what got a vlog because yeah I just don't know yeah but if I don't blog anything that I'll probably you want to get back because I do want to get some revision done later because I do have exams coming up I think it's like a month or something which is terrifying because I'm nowhere near prepared I've only revised like one and a half lectures out of 16 so I need to do some more flashcards so you will see that later probably do a cheek time ups as well of that because you do love the good old time lapse in a study with me type video so yeah I'm just rambling on now but I also quickly before I forget I have choir tonight as well which is from 6:30 to 9 so Wednesday's are quite busy day for me just because there's a lot going on so yeah I'm going to go now and I will see you in a bit ok so I'm back from a lecture now it's currently I think it's 2 o'clock it's a 2 o'clock yeah and you drop my camera sorry um but yeah I went to my lecture as you would have seen I did true a little bit of a clip like it wasn't very long but I just wanted to give you kind of an insight of what the lecture theatre looks like in case you've never seen one because some people might not off and then I also went to metals with my friend which was really nice and we had a good catch up I didn't vlog anything there just because I didn't really know if she wants to be on camera and I didn't really want to just whip it out in front of us and just leave it there for time mats I don't know it's partly awkward about doing that so I didn't but now I am back and about to do some work because I have until around half five like six ish which is what I'm gonna have dinner over I go to choir and as I mentioned earlier I do have a lot of revision to do because I have exams coming up which is pretty stressful because I also have some coursework to you as well which is the report which I can't start until we've had the workshops which are next week so it's all kind of coming at once which is really annoying so I'm going to get out the stuff that I need so I need this from over here these are my lecture notes that I'm currently making flashcards on this is the second lecture that I'm doing is taking me it's so long because the lectures like so in depth like all of this which is double sided and two pages is all just one lecture which is pretty stressful so I'm just going to continue make my flashcards I'll probably do a time lapse for you so it kind of acts a bit like I study with me I also have like I drink here as well I'm gonna show you my setup actually just because it's easier ignore all of this mess I don't really know why it looks so much for this I have my laptop which I will be using to play music actually I want to just quickly give a shout out to I'm loving a set of YouTube videos at the moment they are all from different channels so there's no point mentioning the channel but their Disney instrumental kind of music so there's a 3-hour one which is so amazing it's a relaxing piano on I go through all the Disney songs but just in piano and just it is really relaxing so it's definitely good to have us back our music because it's got no words I do sometimes have like just my generic playlists on most the time I do have that but I find that sometimes you just need something that haven't got words so I definitely recommend that you type in like Disney instrumental music onto YouTube and they also have like lives of other ones for different types of things like if you're into Harry Potter there's the Harry Potter soundtrack and stuff so definitely recommend you check that out yeah this is what my flashcards look like at the moment if you've seen my how I flashed across video then you would have seen this kind of layout that I do but yeah this just works for me I'm going to continue with doing these I have done quite a few already this is from the previous lecture to this one and then as I said I've got my drink and I am going to get on and do some flashcards okay guys so I've just finished that lecture and made them into flashcards and I quickly want to show you the video that I was like listening to in the background so this is the video it's on YouTube or it's not even focusing it there we go so it's called relaxing piano at Disney piano collection three hours long it's actually really good because it is free hours long so you can just leave it on in the background you don't have to change your music which is really handy but this is the massive pile of flashcards left and already this is only two lectures wait hang on I've got blank ones at the back let me work out here we go this is how many I've done obviously as you can see there is quite a lot so yeah I'm kind of getting somewhere now I'm really happy that I finished that and I just want to quickly give you an overview of the exams just because otherwise I feel like it won't make much sense so I have two exams I have the cognition exam and I also have the bio psychology exam so at the moment I've revised one cognition lecture and one biopsychology lecture and there are wait how many are in age sixteen lectures altogether so there's eight lectures in each I've done one from each so as you can see I've got a lot more to do so I'm actually just going to carry on now because I'm kind of in the vibe at the moment I don't really want to stop so I'm gonna carry on with cognition and try and get some of the second lecture done but yeah I need to get out my folder so I'm just gonna grab my follow-up which is here it was on the floor if you haven't seen my how I organized my for this video then definitely check it out I feel like I'm just premiering all of my videos but they are like helpful if you do want to know a bit more about anything that I've kind of shown today so yeah definitely check out the other videos but I'm just going to get out my electric now so I'm quickly gonna show you because I might as well I wasn't here so I need to go to psych 103 which is here here's a module outline and then this is the lecture that I've already revises the first cooking is shown and then this is the second one so I need to revise all of this this lecture is on short-term and long-term memory it's a lot of stuff that I basically just did a level so it's a lot about all of the different modules and stuff of memory if you do psychology one about but if you don't you probably think what the heck are you talking about but yeah I'm just going to go through highlight that and start making my flashcards because it is currently close to pass three so I have a couple more hours to get on with this and hopefully gets more done okay so it's currently five to five and I am going to stop with doing the flashcards because I'm not gonna lie I'm getting pretty tired and fed up all right in these flashcards for that's taking so so long but I'm also going to stop to make some food as well I'm going to be having lasagna tonight I am being a little bit lazy and not actually making anything I'm literally just shoving in the oven I just need to be quick tonight and I didn't really want to bother making anything even though not good I don't really make anything anyway at uni I just typically get stuff that I can shove in the oven pretty much so I'm going to go and do that now what else do I need to do before I go out I don't really know I think I just need to pack my bag and then I'm gonna head to choir so yeah this is what I've done so far I can't really show you just because I put it away but I just managed to do a few more and yeah so I'm gonna put this away fully just leave it there for now and then I'm gonna go into the kitchen and go and put my phone in the oven right so I don't think I've ever actually probably shown you my kitchen by I think I probably showed you in a blog this video actually so I probably did but this is kind of an overview of the kitchen if you're wondering it's not really interesting just just typical kitchen really but I'm gonna get the honey out of the fridge if I can do this one hundred here we go so this is my fridge it's not very exciting they're not really that much in there this is the Sun you're gonna have how long does it say let me check and from chilled wait that's microwave not put in the microwave from chilled 35 to 40 minutes on 178 degrees so let's go do that okay so that's at the oven 117 and then I'm going to take the film off put it in the oven and then just chill and wait 35 to 40 minutes okay so I'm back from choir I felt like I haven't flocked in ages it's because I didn't vlog anything after than here because I was in a little bit of a rush to get to choir so I was acquired from half six until now which is half nine so it was a pretty normal hustle but it went really well and I'm not really sure what I'm gonna do now because I'm really tired so I'm probably just going to chill out I am actually going to make myself a cup of tea though and I've also seen Sophia enchancia have just uploaded a new video nor vlog I was gonna say it's flawed but it's not a bogus video so I'm gonna probably just watch that and that's what I tend to do at this time of night I want some settling down for the evening I just like to watch something on YouTube or on Netflix or something that's so yeah I'm probably gonna go and do that I'm going it to go into the kitchen now to make myself a cup of tea so yeah I'm gonna show you the process let's go to pick it Jim okay so I've got my Disney mug which is another sneak peak for my America haul I probably shouldn't be showing you all of this just because it kind of ruins it but you know you probably want to see anyway so this is my little Disney mug I got this from Walmart and it's so much cheaper than like what the Disney prices would have been so that's why I got it so let's put the kettle on and I need to grab myself a decaf tea bag because you know that's how I roll the decaf light and they get one out perfect and let's wait for the cat okay let's pour this in and not get it all over me because that would not be good right one-handed okay so I'll call you over a little bit change of scenery they refer to the window area because you know it's where the bin is fire I don't really know why I'm a bit delirious doesn't even know why I'm talking to you about changing occasion when I talk about the bin like this is even relevant probably not right get this tea bag out squeeze it up guys get all that tea you know making the most of it okay here we go perfect let's get rid of it in the bin underneath there the guy let's go get the milk okay Matty is ready got myself a cheeky little timeout wafer as well all right how am I gonna do this I'm gonna try and vlog whilst bring him a cup of tea like how am I gonna do this guy's I can't wheel because I've got no hands-free because once I look in the camera once I've done the mark this is not gonna work I'm gonna stop recording and do this sensibly before I spill burning or tea all down meat because that would not be fun oh right guys you'll be pleased to know I made it back safe with my cup of tea in one piece I'm a chocolate bar and I'm now sitting up a desk about to watch severe insurances new video which I'm very excited about because honestly they are one of my favorite youtubers they're just the funniest girls and I really don't meet them one day because I seem so lovely wait we're even is it Sofia and see out where is a video at here we go here it is okay so doing a cake cook-off and it's a four to six minute video so that's gonna be me for the next four to six minutes and then I'll get back to you after when I'll probably just be getting ready for bed and just sitting in bed relaxing before I go to sleep hey guys so I'm about to start getting ready for bed now because it is what is the time 25 past 10 I'm sorry if you can hear noise outside as well there are some people standing right outside my window making a lot of noise and screaming because they're going out so yeah perks are being right next to the entrance to the actual accommodation it's great especially at 3 o'clock in the morning whoo but yeah I'm just gonna move my makeup now and then I'll update you once I'm in bed okay so as you can see I am in bed now and I'm going to end this video here and if he said I'm gonna end the vlog here but I'm clearly not because it's not a flop video but it really like feels like one so if you want me to do more of these type of videos then definitely let me know in the comments down below I am hoping to start doing weekly vlogs which is really really exciting and I'm thinking of starting them probably in September just because I want to do a lot of daily vlogs in the summer so if you do want that then definitely let me know as well by giving this video a thumbs up and also let me know in the comments because I think you would really like that because my vlogs have been going down really well at the moment so yeah that would be fun it's not really like a setting stone idea but I just wanted to put it out there in case you guys had any opinions on it but yeah I really hope you enjoyed this video please give it a massive thumbs up I've probably said that a million times now but please do and also subscribe down below and I hope that it gives you a good insight into what University is like and I hope it didn't really bore you because I did try and make it a little bit interesting and show you the kind of fun stuff as well it's like the study stuff but obviously it's hard to show you when I only have a day to show you if that makes sense because I am going out tomorrow night which would have been good to film for you but yeah that's a different day so if you don't need to do more than definitely let me know I don't forget to check out the other girls channels as well because I will link them all down below definitely subscribe and give their videos lots of love because I know that really appreciate it because it will work so hard in the videos and I've got to stop rambling because I just know I'm gonna ramble for so much more longer does that even make sense I don't even know I'm going to various it's currently 11 o'clock so I should probably get to bed and I will see you it really soon in another main channel video bye

May 2019 Current Affairs in Hindi – 24 May 2019 – Daily Current Affairs for All Exams



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Niall Ferguson: Why I Opposed And Now Support Brexit



Views:1415|Rating:3.93|View Time:13:12Minutes|Likes:11|Dislikes:3
Historian Niall Ferguson exsplains how he came from opposing to embracing Brexit.

Free Energy Experiment Using DC Bulb _ New Science Project



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Free Energy Experiment Using DC Bulb _ New Science Project,
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COSTCO BOOKS AISLE – CLASSICS, CHILDRENS BOOKS, HARRY POTTER, BOOK SHOPPING (STORE WALK THROUGH)



Views:1573|Rating:5.00|View Time:6:31Minutes|Likes:15|Dislikes:0
A look at the books section or books aisle at the Costco store in Ocean Township NJ or New Jersey with a large selection of books on sale at a good price or discount including classic books, children’s or childrens books or kids or kid’s books including middle grade novels, Charlotte’s Web and Tom Sawyer, young adult novels and all of the Harry Potter books and Harry Potter complete collection or boxed set by J.K. Rowling or JK Rowling, Star Wars books, A Wrinkle in Time books and complete series, Judy Blume books, books for preschool kids and chapter books, fiction and nonfiction books, romance novels and mystery and suspense books and much more and this book shopping shop with store walk through is filmed in 4K resolution with my GoPro Hero 5 Black video camera. NJShoreBeachLife is a travel and tour guide channel that has videos of New Jersey beaches and boardwalks and ocean front water views including some walking and driving point of view tours, static beach shots, horseback riding videos, fun NJ activities videos, store walk throughs and other interesting stuff relating to the NJ shore scene (including the towns of Asbury Park, Long Branch and Pier Village, Bradley Beach, Avon by the Sea, Ocean Grove, Belmar, Spring Lake Heights, Seaside, Point Pleasant, Atlantic City, Sandy Hook, Manasquan, Monmouth Beach, Sea Bright, Ocean Township, Deal, Allenhurst, Lake Como and the Highlands). Thanks for watching.

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📗TOP 10 Young Adult Books 2018! | Recommendations + HONEST Reviews for Popular Novels | Katie Tracy



Views:22021|Rating:4.86|View Time:8:30Minutes|Likes:600|Dislikes:17
Who doesn’t love a good YA book? Especially when there’s romance😉Here are my favorite YA novels and recommendations + rant reviews on these popular teen fiction reads!😍
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📘TOP 10 Favorite Stories (Wattpad + Published Books)

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3. Isla and the Happily Ever After by Stephanie Perkins
4. To All the Boys I’ve Loved Before (Trilogy) by Jenny Han
5. PS. I Still Love You by Jenny Han
6. Always and Forever, Lara Jean by Jenny Han
7. The One by Kiera Cass
8. My Life Next Door by Hunter Fitzpatrick
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10. Things I Can’t Forget by Miranda Kenneally
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Please like, comment & subscribe if you enjoyed! I appreciate all the advice/feedback I receive 🙂 It really means a lot to me. More teen, tips, fun, diy, travel, and lifestyle videos to come so definitely subscribe to stay tuned ♡ I hope you enjoyed this video, thank you for watching!☺
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This video was inspired by my favorite youtubers: Bethany Mota, Zoella, Alisha Marie, MyLifeAsEva, Meredith Foster (Stilababe09), LaurDIY, MamaMiaMakeup, Tara Michelle, Sierra Furtado (SierraMarieMakeup), Rclbeauty101, Niki and Gabi, KrazyRayRay, Aspyn Ovard, Hayley Williams, Gabrielle Marie, Jessie Paege, Alexa Mae, Adelaine Morin (co0k1emonster), Cath in College, Study to Success, Nicolas Chae, John Fish, and Josh Beasley who continue to motivate & inspire my channel 🙂 Don’t forget to check them out!

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WHAT SHOULD YOU STUDY AT UNIVERSITY? – How to Choose your Degree for Uni / College | natalie danza



Views:1357|Rating:4.38|View Time:16:17Minutes|Likes:28|Dislikes:4
Wondering what Degree to apply for or which University (or College) offers the best course for you? I made this video to help you understand and consider some of the most important aspects of deciding what undergraduate degree to do.

Please note that as well as all the subjects you already study at school, there are many other courses which universities and colleges offer which might interest you, for example: Anthropology, Cinematics, Environmental Science and many, many more!

University League Tables 2018:

I am sharing some of my personal stories about my Undergrad Degree and also jobs I’ve had after leaving Uni to help you make a more informed decision.

This video is for people who are unsure of what career they want to pursue later in life but who think they would like to go to university. It is just my personal opinion and how I see the decision-making process. I realise that this philosophy won’t be applicable to many people who already have a clear idea of the career they want to follow once they have completed their degree and who already know what degree they need to do in order to follow that path.

If you think this video might help someone you know, please share it! 🙂

EXAM WAS TOO LONG!! 9-1 GCSE ENGLISH LITERATURE PAPER 2 2018 REACTION!!



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2 hours 15 minutes is ridiculous!! How was it for you guys!?!?

EXAM WAS TOO LONG!! 9-1 GCSE ENGLISH LITERATURE PAPER 2 2018 REACTION!!

Economic Survey 2018 – 50 expected MCQ Questions – UPSC/RBI Grade B/IBPS/SBI PO & Clerk/JAIIB/DBF



Views:113568|Rating:4.84|View Time:29:4Minutes|Likes:2455|Dislikes:81
#StudyIQ Pendrive Courses for Various Govt. Exams, Click here to know in detail OR Call 95-8004-8004

UPSC/CSE – This is our Flagship & Most Selling Course. This course covered Length & Breadth of UPSC vast syllabus and made by Elite & Very best faculties from all over India with StudyIQ Trust. Click here to watch Demo Videos, Course Content, Authors, Etc.

SSC & Bank – This is our oldest Course, made by Founders of StudyIQ. 1000+ videos so far and new videos added every week. Click here to know more.

UPSC Optionals – We have covered almost all major UPSC Optionals. Click here to find yours

State Exams PSCs – Currently we have 18 States covered, More to come, Choose your state. Click to watch demo videos, know about authors and all.

Defense Exams – CDS, NDA, CAPF, SSB, AFCAT, Airforce. Click here to get into the Army, Navy or Airforce

SSC JE Exams – Civil, Mechanical, Electrical, Electronics. Click here to know more

RBI Grade B – Grade B is the most popular Job after IAS. This course made by well-experienced faculties of Study IQ. Click here to watch demo videos, Authors, Course content.

NTA NET – Start your preparation for UGC(NTA) NET prestigious exam. We have courses for both Paper 1 & 2. Click here to check

UPSC Prelim Test Series – Our flagship test series for UPSC Prelims. More than 60% Sucess rate in 2018. Click here to enroll right now

DMRC Exams – Courses for Delhi Metro Technical & Non-Technical Exams. Click here to know more

Insurance Exams – LIC, NICL, and other insurance exams. Click here to know more

Law Exams – Find courses for Undergraduate and Judiciary Exams. Click here to check

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Teaching Jobs – CTET, DSSSB. Click here to know more

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Reese Witherspoon reacts to journalist who wrote dissertation on Legally Blonde (The Full Interview)



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Reese Witherspoon gave the sweetest response when our reporter Lucy Ford handed her a 15,000 word dissertation she’d written on Legally Blonde at university… and Oprah and Mindy Kaling were there, which just make this whole thing even more insane!

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Will Self & Niall Ferguson on a bit of everything.



Views:62793|Rating:4.48|View Time:1:25:Minutes|Likes:582|Dislikes:67
Niall Ferguson and Will Self sit down for a conversation about Brexit, Europe, Trump, Populism and much else.

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Filming by: Driftwood Pictures –

[Applause] I wondered whether we could kick off Neil with an anecdote that I heard the other day which I think you'll enjoy I hope the audience will enjoy and which I think may serve to open up a lot of issues that preoccupy us both here's the anecdote a friend of mine was at a luncheon party being held in the Cotswolds at which members of a network known as the Cotswolds what are they called the Cotswolds Network mafia or whatever present including the the ex Prime Minister David Cameron after lunch Cameron was seen somewhat in his cups sitting in a winged armchair and rather loudly bemoaning his fate whereupon another attendee of this lunch party came up to the armchair he was sitting in put his hands either side put his face up to Cameron's and said I don't know children present I have not even my Golf Club changes its rules on a majority vote so the question really is why do you think the the brexit vote if you do didn't think this I don't want to put thoughts into your mind why do you think that the brexit referendum vote needs to be honoured above all other deliberations in our democracy at the moment or do you think that I don't think I do think that it seems to me that first of all we slipped into the error of a majority based referendum without quite think through and I look back on the 1970s Scottish devolution referendum different rules that rule would have been a much smarter rule to maintain in referendums but by the time we got to proportion proportional representation a decision had been taken that that wasn't fair and that the Scottish devolution referendum had been fair and I think we did not sufficiently explore the significance of that change it very nearly brought the union between Scotland and England to an end that rule in 20 of the close run thing in 2014 and that should have warned everybody that having a referendum on on British membership of the EU would be extremely risky I certainly came to think in the course of the year running up the referendum that it was going to be 50/50 at the beginning of that year I thought it'll be fine the status quo will be maintained the status quo tends to survive referendums the closer we got to it and the more time I spent in provincial Britain because you had to get out of London the more I realized it was going to be 50/50 and I think it's fair it's fair of course to question David Cameron's handling of the issue but I don't think that was the fatal mistake I think I'll put it this way the fatal mistake has already been made it would be very hard to have the referendum on any other basis because we've done several on the majority basis the big mistake and I haven't wrote about this in the Sunday Times today was actually not to call Angela Merkel's bluff when she failed to cut him any slack at all on the fundamental issue of migration and I think if he had simply said it was February of 2016 sorry that's not acceptable therefore I am going to recommend brexit then I think the Europeans would have folded so that was his mistake and when you nixed see him in the Cotswolds mafia which I've no doubt you now belong to will you must you must say that to him because that was that was I'm only a member of a much less a criminal network centered on the Chilton's I Chilton Kimura yeah yeah and that wasn't a sort of this happened to a friend of mine because it really happened to me really happened to a friend of mine I assure you had I been in a position to put my hands on either wing have Mr Cameron's armchair I don't think I'd have been quite so restrained because it seems to me that that I don't think a lot of thought went into it either strategically or tactically that this was a classic case of constitutional changes being dickard with in our polity on parties and grounds just as the the devolution votes were initially originally triggered by Blair's desire to race shore up his own incumbency I think that and I'm not going to be as harsh about David Cameron as you are I think the decision to promise a referendum was indispensable to the election victory that David Cameron then won I think if that pledge hadn't be made you kid would have become a far more dangerous force and more Tories would have defected there would have been a kind of revolt in the Shires of that form so I can understand why he did it I do remember thinking when he made that speech in which she committed to the referendum oh dear he didn't need to do that it seems to me that it was risky but I came to realise why he'd done it and that it was an essential way of winning the election and it works I mean they won that majority which is now easy to forget was rather a remarkable achievement but it was a Pyrrhic victory a classic Pyrrhic victory because and here's another mistake that I think was fatal they decided to run the campaign against brexit on economic grounds in the way that they had run the campaign against Scottish independence now if you say to The Scotsman look this is really going to cost you quite a bit of money the Scotsman naturally responds we're not doing it in that case how many pennies did you say and I think George Osborne seeing how affected that had been in the Scottish referendum campaign decided to play the same cards in the brexit campaign and the Treasury reports that were really the main ammunition on the remain side were designed to explain to English and Welsh voters that it'd be very expensive to leave the European Union and in my experience when I went to provincial Wales and provincial England talking about this the general response in the pubs for example in South Wales was fine we'd be very happy to pay in order to address the issue that you David Cameron and you George Osborne aren't talking about which is immigration I'll tell you it you want an anecdote where his Sunday afternoon lots of anecdotes um I was in a pub in place called puff coal and I was sitting next to the man who owns the biggest off-licence in Bridgend I've moved in old right circles this is my network he said you don't you you know what my best selling beers are I said no Gareth I I don't know what your best selling beers are these days do to put me in the picture he said polish and a few idiot beer I said I infer from that fact that you must be a great supporter of the remain campaign as these are your biggest customers he looked at me as if I'd lost my mind is it don't you see how much bloody money they're making here and I said after I'd had that conversation – George Osberg we have a problem because your economic argument doesn't matter to him his best customers are polish Polish and Lithuanian workers and he's gonna vote for brexit that's the problem because it's an issue of it's about immigration much more than it's about percentages of GDP like that was the other reason that it went the way it did so in your column today in the Sunday Times you're giving mud tea a slap over I would never hit a woman but they did write a kind of critique of her because I think she's massively overrated and I think it's it's time to recognize Merkel Angela Merkel is known as Meucci in case you're wondering Angela Merkel's fairly disastrous track record on a whole range of issues of which immigration is probably the most serious and that's the one you really focus in on the letting in of the 1 million Syrian refugees you point to increase in crime statistics of various sorts by the way they weren't all Syrian refugees probably about half of the people who came into Germany when she opened the gates in May 2015 until now were refugees and half were not hmm and the refugees only make about a third were from Syria mmm just just in your new book and I want to obviously get on to discussing your new contribution really to story ography to the you know a shift in your own work which I followed over many years from a kind of narrative of history that's based to some extent on individual actors or actors in various constellations this idea and and really no Marxist you but it struck me that what you're proposing in the square and the tower is a kind of dialectical relationship between networks and hierarchies in terms of historical developments and I do want to discuss that little Park Fair thought but but I also very much wanted that and I felt that it would be because there's not you know it I mean love isn't breaking out all over but there isn't any personal antipathy between us that it would be very useful and and important in fact in front of an audience like this to really drill down on this anxiety that I detect in your work it's not even an anxiety a kind of almost revulsion against what you see as the rising Islamic population of Europe and although you are pains throughout your journalism your published history to draw a distinction between Islamophobia and a robust critique or kind of it's really like your your friend up in Bridgend you do seem to have this idea that this is a a unilaterally bad thing more Muslim people coming into European society and just polled there for a minute and the other thing is I sorta find very difficult grasp about your thinking is what are what are we who are living in Britain meant to do in respect of our fellow British Muslim citizens how are we to comport ourselves in response to them given that you seem to view them as a Trojan horse for the destruction of our civilization well what you've said will it in in every conceivable way misrepresents my position right and then and egregiously yes number one I am not in any way prejudiced against Muslims my wife is a former Muslim and well former could be the operative word there I mean for example let me let me continue yeah there is no respect in which I have ever evinced prejudice racial or religious prejudice because I was brought up to believe in freedom of religion free speech free thoughts free worship racial equality was drilled into me by my mother and father I mean I'm gonna drill it into you will because I will not be accused implicitly or explicitly of racial or religious prejudice that is an Atma to me and my family and it always has been okay just to be clear so it's not about that okay it's not about that the issue is not immigrants I'm an immigrant I don't agree with the man in the pub in Wales it's absurd to be worried about immigration per se regardless of where people come from it doesn't matter fundamentally whether they're from Lithuania or Libya that's not the issue the two things that we need to get clear here number one history shows that any really large increase in immigration a big surge a change in the rates of migration nearly always has unintended consequences because not everybody has drilled into them the values of my mother and father gave me and so he it was entirely predictable entirely predictable that if really large scale increases migration occurred as they did to the United States in the last 30 years to Europe in the last 20 that there would be a political backlash and it was a foolish mistake of members of the political elite and the intellectual and academic elite to pretend that that was not going to happen and to talk as if there were only economic benefits to immigration and anybody who raised any other issues must be a bigot secondly there is a problem with Islam not Muslims Islam a problem that dates back a to radicalization if you want to call it that an increasing fundamentalism from the 1970s in both Sunni and Shia in Islam the radicalization of Islam in our time is one of the great phenomena of modern history it's completely against the trend that you would have expected if you thought that Islam was going to behave like Christianity secularization didn't show up in the Muslim world the opposite showed up a deep resat realization and an increasing literacy in the interpretation of the holy scriptures because islam has a problem and I'm here only quoting my wife who's been writing and talking about this since 9/11 we can't simply assume that the jihadist Network will go away when it is manifestly growing in most parts of the Muslim world if there is large-scale migration from Muslim countries whether it's to Europe or to North America it is highly likely the the network of dawah which is extreme ideology and jihad which is violent extremism will grow at a dispray the principal cause of terrorist violence in the world today responsible for between 80 and 90% of terrorist deaths every year is radical Islam worldwide wherever you look so are we simply going to pretend that's not the case are we just going to tell ourselves is all going to be fine and repeat nonsensical platitudes such as Islam as a religion of peace and anybody who discusses Islam problem is an Islamophobe I am NOT an Islamophobe I'm not a Muslim a folk anymore than my wife is but we are clearly concerned by the growth of organizations like Islamic state the obvious penetration of West European countries including the UK by that organization and the failure over 20 years the failure of counter radicalization initiatives which have nearly all run into the sand so that's the answer to question I'm not appalled by immigrants I'm appalled by the spread of jihadism and have a reasonable ground to be appalled by that when I'm married to a woman who is threatened with death by these people hmm I mean that seems to me to be a pretty good reason to be worried you cannot leave Islam apostasy is punishable by death look at the Pew report of a couple of years ago in which they polled people in Muslim majority countries asking them the question do you think the punishment for apostasy should be death very large majorities in Iraq in Pakistan in most Muslim majority countries they polled said yes now let me have one final point because this is such a fundamental issue if we had a coherent strategy to integrate newcomers into our economy into our society into our culture there would be much less cause for concern but what makes the German problem particularly concerning it's much worse than the British problem British economy is quite good at integrating immigrants not as good as the US economy but pretty good the North European economies and the continent are very bad at it the unemployment rate for non native born people in places like Germany Sweden is is more than twice that of the of the native-born population so they don't integrate well economically they don't integrate well culturally I know that I've lived in Germany I've seen the extent to which the even the Turkish communities which date back several generations now remained of mentally not well integrated into major German cities and I think at this point having run this extremely reckless experiment of essentially admitting around a million people and showing little sign of expelling those who's who's a asylum applications are rejected the Germans are taking a huge risk and the rest of us should be much more concerned about it than we are do you not think that the politicization they move towards more fundamentalist interpretations of the Koran that you identify in the 1970s do you think you're right to equate that with Islam qua Islam because you say the implication there is that Islam is unique of the monotheism Zinn having this tendency towards violence well not so that because it'd be easy to say that in most 18th century Christianity very violent but what very clear is Islam so what I'm saying well is not just Islam is different from Christianity and Judaism is not just a religion Islam is also a political ideology because the Prophet Muhammad did not recognize the separation of mosque and state the point about Sharia is is a code for living and present in Christianity as well as an idea but where are we now in the 21st century Christian I think it is the Austrian Constitution that says supreme authority will be vested in God but in practice in practice the separation of church and state in this country in most European countries is a firmly established reality and secularization of Christian communities is extremely far advanced situation in Islam is different partly because Islam is a newer religion and historically perhaps it will take a long it'll just take a few more centuries for these things to happen to Islam but it is designed differently well it's fundamentally designed differently it's designed differently because it does not recognize this separation between the secular and the temporal that is fundamental to Christianity so read the new tire you surrender I see a nail never says render onto scene are you saying you know that every British Muslim is a time bomb waiting to go off the kind of language which is irresponsible on your part of course not in fact only a minority it's clear a minority of Muslims are drawn into radical organizations and so no no it's not every Muslim that's absurd issue the issue is that the network is extremely effective at selecting vulnerable people in communities all around the world in Muslim communities as in Muslim countries as well as in Western countries and drawing them into a credibly destructive ideology which i think is profoundly dangerous and is certain on present trends to grow well there's a paradox though isn't there because I mean you talk about a I draw you back to this thing I teach in the British University that has the highest proportion of people from British Asian and African Caribbean and British African communities were 65 percent ethnic minority I often find myself in classes with young women in his jobs sitting in front of me while I'm teaching what should my attitude be towards these young hijab wearing women or young men with ah beards that are obviously influenced by some kind of if not jihadist militant Islamic tendency how should I respond to these people as a pedagogue I'm a leader of young men and women how should I respond to them in the classroom I've been teaching a lot longer than you will and I've taught in some extremely ethnically diverse student communities Harvard and at Stanford Stanford only around a third of the student body identifies as white there's substantial there's exploring ethnic diversity in most American colleges now it's a it's mandated it's something that their admissions policies pursue and the answers your question is very simple you should teach them exactly in the same way as you teach every student so our values lie in our openness as teachers not in it my my I'm simply channeling ion here because this is really a fight that she is fought and an argument that she has made much more eloquently than me but I I feel obliged to do it all she has ever argued for is that Muslims like Christians like anybody in your classroom should be allowed to engage in critical thinking about everything including their faith and just the way that Christians are able to think critically or Jews are able to think critically about their faith and if at the end of their semester with you will they decide you know what maybe I should be an atheist like will self they should be able to be that's all that's what a free society means and if the response is no no that's not actually that's not allowed as Muslims are not able to have that conversation and if you start to raise questions about oh I don't know the eternal Verity of the Koran there'll be trouble if that's the reality then we then we have a problem but if you should treat them exactly the way that you treat any student and they should be able to engage with your often blasphemous and pornographic books just as much as with my altogether less salacious literature [Applause] I'm not an atheist perhaps that's why I'm a little bit more tolerant than you [Applause] respects am i intolerant what have I said that's intolerant because like a lot of atheists since you believe in an article of faith as an article of faith in in the the truth of this statement and you judge everybody according to this truth okay I'm the under the least dogmatic atheist you'll ever meet I was brought up an atheist I never made a decision about that I go to church I'd quite like to have religious faith it'd be nice it's not something that's likely to happen but it seems to me that to infer from that intolerance is bizarre I am a devotee of the fundamental enlightenment skepticism of late 18th century Scotland and that skepticism I think should be applied to every faith and we should be as skeptical about it as Voltaire was sceptical about Christianity about Islamic faith we should be skeptical about atheism possibly no yes on that I'm not Christopher Hitchens I I'm absolutely it the most doubting of atheists all that seems to me to be required is a perhaps an Muslim enlightenment is the right way of putting it they are called it an Islamic Reformation in her last book a transformation is clearly necessary if this religion is to coexist peacefully with the rest of the world in the 21st century and I think that's possible by the way and it doesn't get nearly enough attention an increasing number of Muslims are thinking critically are challenging are the the clerics with their intolerant messages of anti-semitism and hostility to the infidel it's happening I I'm far more optimistic about that than I was 10 years ago and I think that there is a growing network of skeptical Muslims Maajid Nawaz in this town is one of them and what is fascinating is that they are going ahead with their free thinking even in the face of death threats from the jihadists and I salute their courage because that's not a risk I have to take I'm not an apostate nobody comes after me say I'm gonna kill you because you stopped being a presbyterian it's a big difference you say so I think in the new book you say that the government's prevent strategy hasn't gone far enough but it the government's prevent strategy is in direct contravention of ideas of intellectual and academic freedom in the context the university is a British academic I'm now asked to monitor my students behavior in a way that seems to me absolutely incompatible with the Enlightenment values that you promulgate that's a free society well you don't need to do anything well the universities prevent strategy in order to teach there well so you cannot be a teacher at a British university unless you act as a agent of the state in surveying your own students I think you should resign so in other words you think that prevent strategy has gone too far it's it's clearly gone too far for you I happen to think that if there were clear evidence of jihadist penetration of the student body that I was working with I want something to be done about it so you think it's acceptable within the university if a student is a member of a Muslim organization in the university to monitor their computer traffic for example that it's immediately acceptable no of course not but that is mandated under the prevents traffic the issue is whether groups like Islamic state are managing to penetrate Muslim communities including student communities because young people are especially vulnerable that's the issue what are you gonna do otherwise how are you actually going to prevent this network growing or perhaps you think it's not growing perhaps you think that we can simply live with the growing or perhaps you think not growing network of Dawa and jihad a few but I didn't think that then fine I think I hail that nobody ever blows up you or a member of your family oh well that's just tendentious argument and it's beneath you sir I don't see what's in dentists about it or maybe or maybe or maybe you think the tens of thousands people are killed every year by these groups simply where you and I differ is that you seem to feel that this is innate in an in a religious ideology and think it's innate at all I just said to you that it's perfectly plausible Islam will achiever and enlightenment or a reformation to be in your book you say in your book you say Islamic state is a true portrayal of Islam what I've done is to know that all the gotough if you like well actually the quotation is from Graham wood mm-hmm and it's Graham would not me who wrote that that's right you're quoting somebody else but the Brandon Graham woods Artland in the Atlantic approvingly I merely quoted in order that you recognized the literalism of Islamic state which Graham comment what she wrote about on the basis of firsthand observation in Iraq and Syria is it's an important thing you can't kid yourself well we don't they say they say constantly what we are doing is in line with the word of the Prophet they just you look at their texts you can say oh they're quoting out of context yeah selectively quotation is exactly what they do but that's what they say they say they're doing that and it's not surprising if people are drawn to that message when they feel on dissatisfied frustrated with the compromises of western western city reasoning this is a dial Ellis this is circular reasoning you're just moving for your premises back to your conclusions what are you saying well that there's no problem no you're saying that I think you're delusional I think there is a problem but I don't think it's by any means probably currently face and the one that you started talking the other thing is when you accuse me of being a bigot the other should we talk about more important things well the other I just just to finish off on this because you also are very want to point out that the errors in in Middle East and particularly you know I in common with many of the kind of liberal elite as you style them who you're most opposed to I was forgetting that you're a man of the promise areas will with your education liberal early weird weird guy okay when what's weird about my saying that you're a member of the elite nothing at all I just thought we were gonna have a sort of non ad hominem well we would have done if you hadn't started to misrepresent my position on him that's just an error of phat tonight you had the opportunity to create yourself perhaps you can do the same at this I mean I would see and I think a lot of people in this hall would see a lot of the problems as resulting from the post 9/11 aimed to bring democracy to regimes in the Middle East through the barrel of the gun but you seem to not regard the millions of displaced people in the Middle East the three failed States and rising as being productive as being the pom primer to Islamism you seem to want to locate it intrinsically in the faith and I I think that's a mistake I think we should be much more pragmatic about this and we should face up to what a disaster the post 9/11 interventions have been but rather wanting you to answer that directly it might be more interesting to say where we differ is that you're and I'm somewhat puzzles having read your new book as to is what it is you want do you want to return because in your comments on post 9/11 politics in the Middle East what you seem to abour a lot in world and this goes right back in your work is a power vacuum Natura bores this power vacuum and you you feel for example that Obama should have maintained true presences in Iraq I mean you wrote a whole book saying that America wasn't taken taking the responsibilities of it's you know quasi Empire seriously so do you think it's just being a lack of force that has ended us up with these failed states and these millions of pseudo refugees in Europe well their loss of nerve let's get a couple of things straight um 9/11 didn't cause al-qaeda no I made a cause 9/11 let's not confuse the chronology that the the extremist wave in Islam long predated the invasion of Iraq so that's number one and so to but indeed I mean really what most aided al-qaeda was the CIA's funding and the Mujahideen in the Afghanistan conflict which which which I I write about it we do book Colossus which perhaps you've read or perhaps you just read The Guardian Review the book said and it was published written just about the time that the decision to take to invade Iran was taken published more less as it was happening number number one this is going to go wrong and the argument of the book was it is highly unlikely the United States will make a success of his interventions in Iraq and Afghanistan because of three deficits a man part deficit as Americans really don't want to spend more than six months on any given tour of duty in those places a fiscal deficit because the u.s. is simply not fiscally capable of sustaining an imperial enterprise and an attention deficit because American voters will lose interest in this whole thing in about four years and that's completely accurate completely correct and so the idea that I was a cheerleader for the invasion of Iraq is a complete misrepresentation I was deeply critical of the neoconservatives at that time and I said this will fail that was why the subtitle of the book was the price of America's empire or in the UK of the rise and fall of America's Empire so I wish we could just for once finally lay to rest this cliche which is entirely wrong that I was in favor no I was high and never said that I said you seem to be in favor of maintaining what's the argument I made once they had done it hmm with all the consequences that were predictable to pull out as hastily as Obama did was very likely to lead to a return to that chaos that we'd seen at the time of Fallujah and that is that what happened Iraq was in fact pretty stable after Petraeus surge and the Bombers decision to pull all the US troops out and and simply hand it over to Maliki was a disaster and that was you know I wish we could all go back to I don't know 1920s and do this differently but we're here it's it's a hundred years since Ike speak Oh more than that then a hundred now we can't endlessly argue about whose fault it is that people are engaged in brutal acts of violence in Syria in Iraq the issue is how can we stop this how can we stop this and we failed not only did the Bush administration make a mess in Iraq the Obama administration allowed Iraq to descend back into into anarchy and then allowed Syria to descend into an even worse Anarchy how that can be regarded as a success is beyond my comprehension and yet European politicians including it should be said Angela Merkel essentially offered no no answer other than to criticize the United States and here we are with the massive refugee crisis which isn't over flows out of North Africa and the Middle East's are ongoing the roots are less easy than they were in 2015-16 but people are still traveling and more and more people are joining them heading from coming from furthest everything in in Africa this what a grave is a grave state of affairs the prospects are extremely troubling and you say what do I want what I want is for people in North Africa and the Middle East to have the kind of light and life or quality that we have the ability to sit in a hall like this and have the discussion we've had without fear that somebody's gonna blow the place up which is the fear that you have in a crowded room in the Middle East or North Africa today what we need to ask is how on earth can the rich countries of the world help to stabilize these countries but you like counterfactual history what do you think would have happened if coalition forces hadn't gone into Iraq in 2003 I've often thought about that indeed I made the argument that if you didn't do that if you simply left Saddam and in power that there would be a crisis sooner or later but not as severe a crisis is the one precipitated by his overthrow because clearly it wasn't a stable state of affairs we had no certainty about what his plans were but Saddam Husein was not a nice man and certainly the Middle East was not a state in a stable state in 2002 but I think it's clear that as I argued at the time the United States was taking on something that was beyond its power in trying to transform Afghanistan and Iraq into demands it's relevant to this poverty as well we had a military involvement that I needed ended with us losing in fact having to draw from Basra under the actual guard and I at the time will in an article in 2002 that the United States that the United Kingdom should not participate I strongly had urged the Britain not to become involved in the invasion of Iraq I said it would be a tremendous mistake because it was not not clear to me at all what quiet was in Britain's national interest to support so uncritically the American initiative so some change oddly on the part of people in the British and American governmental elites who who were involved in those decisions actually kind of shame might because I mean shame isn't a particularly constructive emotion there's plenty of it I mean lots of people have spent the last ten years beating themselves up for the decisions that they took I've have friends who've completely transformed their own political position on the basis that they think they made mistakes I think there's been plenty of of self-criticism and you don't hear terribly much these days from the more strident near conservatives who argued that it would it would be easy but I think the issue that is is really worth discussing is what can we do because at the moment there is no coherent plan in view and that seems to me from a European vantage point you were all geographically much closer to this than I am because I live in California there really needs to be a great deal more than what we currently have which is a rather feeble discussion along the lines of if we can only get more aid to these places perhaps they'll stop coming a macron seems to me to be thinking somewhat more creatively about these problems but that's partly because like most French leaders of the last half century he has a somewhat colonial view of West Africa but I don't think we have yet satisfactorily answered the question what is the responsibility of rich countries when poorer countries descend into anarchy whether we caused it or not what do we do we have singularly failed to solve the problems of poverty and misrule through aid the great effort of the second half of the 20th century to solve the problems of failed or failing States through various forms of aid I mean these things have been far less successful indeed it's very striking when one makes this comparison far less successful than what the Chinese are currently doing through their one belt one Road initiative which is just to build lots of infrastructure and isn't the previously wasn't there and I fear that gradually the initiative is slipping away from the Western world to China because the Chinese approaches and they abhor Anarchy even more than I do the Chinese approaches well if we can build an electricity grid if we can build a rail network of a traitor and a road network and if we can stabilize the security forces then what's not to like and at this point that's the way the world is going we drifted very far from the central thesis oh you do love the book but one of the central arguments of the square in the tower is that the Chinese have a vision of the 21st century which number one is coherent with respect to economic development and number two is coherent with respect to political development and that that development is not in the direction of democracy what is the today's news xi Jinping just became the permanent leader of China the Chinese understand very well the problems of Economic Development and social control and that's the thing that I find always absent from discussion in Europe there's no recognition of the extent to which the global geopolitical terms of trade are turning against this part of the world and in favor of a new and fundamentally undemocratic power if you think you are trouble doing your job as an academic in the UK you talk to some of my Chinese colleagues hmm and and that's that's progress for you I mean it's not a question of North European exceptionalism it's not you're not being paying glossing about the rise of European in the square and the tower you do think that there is something there's some kind of genius loci in this part of the world that is majorly responsible for a kind of step change in human development and you want to see that into the future what what the book civilization argues is that rather by chance a series of ideas and institutions began in northwestern Europe that work everywhere but they began here it was here actually right in this part of the world that the idea of competition economic and and political competition with autonomous corporations that were directly under imperial rule that idea too cold and it was in this part of the world that the Scientific Revolution happened which fundamentally changed our relationship to the natural world it was here in northwestern Europe that the rule of law based on private property rights evolved but I never argued that that was anything I think that's not but come let me finish because important point you subtly implied that I thought this was the result of some superior quality of North Western Europe no it's random and one of the key points of civilization is that when these ideas and institutions were copied in other parts of the world beginning with Japan and the major hero they worked there too hmm at the end of civilization says here comes China which is going to download four out of the six killer apps of Western civilization and we don't know whether that could work Chinese are basically downloading for they're not going to download the rule of law based on private property and they're not going to download the idea of political competition but everything else modern medicine the Scientific Revolution that they're done competition that consumerism the the work ethic that has all essentially been replicated from Western mob and that is that that is where we are I have argued throughout my work for those who bother to read it that there are ideas and institutions that are universally applicable hundred years ago people thought that people from northwestern Europe and the places where they had settled were richer because there was some racial superiority or cultural superiority and I have always said in my work that's wrong that's not the case it was actually cheered unlock that economic and political competition took root in places like England and it was partly because the crime in the monarchy was so weak in this country I mean that's that's there's nothing there's no superiority in that if anything it was the inferiority of English monarchy that made a more representative system of government risible I may not have read all of your work you are a very prolific historian I've read all of yours all of them well not not the journalism only the Bluetooth read all of my 23 published poems not all of them no thank you for that nearly what they're done was it it's like I said weird inverted kissing contest but you are very keen on I didn't read the one about Apes right if I had seen the movie you get to be a major motion picture but that wasn't you you are a narrative historian and sometimes then sometimes you've written a book on historical counterfactuals you certainly I think and you're gonna say I'm horribly misrepresenting you but that seems to be par for the course at the moment there is a poof so if so I'm sorry but it seems to me you do a lot of your work has been an S perhaps necessary kick back against Marxist historians against historians who place human development within a matrix of pressures over which the individual has very little control we think of Marx history is made by the great mass of individuals in content distinction to this you've tended to place you know what we might call great individuals you have an example in the current book of Napoleon's indefatigable 'ti as a worker putting him as a very powerful no dinner in a hierarchical kind of network as opposed to a distributed network you did the counterfactual histories they all seemed to have at their center an idea of what human agency is what human free will is and you know I sense that's not very philosophically well grounded on your part for example why are you so preoccupied by historical counterfactuals do you think they are that the displaying of contingency in human affairs somehow allows you wiggle room for human free will if so you're sadly deluded I wonder what the Arsenal score is I think that's a bit of a cheap way out of a debating point Neil is to try and pretend well think through English fashion to come a Philistine at the point B raise your game sir not not talk start talking about games remember what Montaigne said it's trust a man who takes games too seriously I think maybe doesn't take life seriously no I think games are very serious because we learn from games because I don't know the score that the future is uncertain and there is in fact no way of predicting whether Arsenal will defeat Manchester City or not and that is the state we are in at any given time with respect to the future and it relates to all the issues that confront us I don't know if Angela Merkel a week from now will still be the German Chancellor she might not be if the German Social Democrat Party members vote not to go into the great coalition I don't know whether Donald Trump will be a rep re-elected for a second term as president but you can't rule that out either no matter how much you despise him the true nature of the historical process is that it's uncertain and all attempts by philosophers of history including Marx to create some structure that makes the historical process simple and predictable are doomed to failure because history is too it's too complex to model Marx's model was a very crude one anyway borrowed from Hegel and Ricardo strange mix of political economy and German idealism and it doesn't work I actually have a lot of sympathy with Marx and I was joking the other day that I'm I'm a Marxist in some ways I'm just on the side of the bourgeoisie but in the end when you try to understand in any serious way historical change you realize how unhelpful Marxist categories were people don't in fact belong to mass classes whether you think there are two or three of these classes that's not ever how it looks when you get up close and do serious historical research which is the central the central part of what I do so the reason that I'm interested in counterfactuals is that we cannot know and most history is written it seems to me without sufficient respect for the ignorance of contemporaries about the future most historians are drawn into some form of teleology or other and whether it's Marxist or not when a lot of the historians who were writing when I was sadly see it in your work teleology adverse to it because constantly I remind people that there are multiple futures at any given point that was why I wrote virtual history it was why in the pissy of war I argued that there was a choice that Britain didn't need to intervene 1914 and that might actually had been an argument and a very good argument on the left by the way to stay out of that disastrous war there was a choice in 1938 Britain didn't need to appease Hitler it was in a weak position in 1938 ruction was right Chamberlain was wrong and so on so almost all my work is designed to say to people there were alternative paths and often it was it was sheer chance that sent history in the direction it it took right so we get rise of the West is not that strongly determined and it could indeed have been terminated if the Ottoman Empire had been better managed in the vital 16th and 17th century period when the Ottoman Empire could read him destroyed what was happening in northwestern Europe it got quite close to do now with two sieges of Vienna so I don't accept that there's teleology in my work on on the contrary I think I try my best to give you the reader a sense of what it was like then not to know not to know what was going to happen not to know what the future would be like as soon as you do serious historical and read the letters and diaries of people who lived the history you realize they didn't know the Jesus College betting book which I remember discovering one evening it's full of bets about what will happen in World War two made by the fellows of Jesus as the war unfolded they didn't know that it would end in 1945 with an Allied victory they had no certainty that Hitler would attack the Soviet Union and changed the entire course of the war that's what most history books are badass because historians are drawn into certain narrative fallacies they want to tell a story that makes sense often historians are drawn towards the rules and regulations of literature they want historical actors to be like characters in novels who have a kind of consistency not your novels admittedly but in in traditional novels they want literary form to be there to make history intelligible but the terrible truth about history is it's a total mess it's a total chaotic shambles and what the historian has to do is somehow to extract from this shambles a shape a shape that is intelligible but always to show the reader that the historical actors have great uncertainty they labor under massive uncertainty the only people who don't are the people who believe in some teleological ideology whether it's Marxism or Islamism the people who think history is on their side and they still exist today if anybody ever says to you in there or you hear them say in a speech the arc of history is bending my way run it's a terrible sign there is no arc of history have you finished okay yes forever so what I'm quite happy to go watch the football if you've had enough so what I wanted to do to probe here okay I accept your argument that your non teleological in that sense you don't see a purpose lying beneath all this but you didn't really answer the question what do you think the capacity of individual humans really is in terms of their free will well silly debate because the real issue is it's not a story shows it's a silly debate in war in peace the truth is that we have some agency but will constrain that's boring the interesting thing is that if one thinks of people as nodes in networks which is much more illuminating than members of the proletariat if you think about all the people in this room you asked me to raise my game and say in terms of speech time professor Fergusson in the last half hour you've dominated by about 70% to 30 when you agree like Scotland England yesterday's all about possession constant all about lasers about you know will you let me finish as if I'm hoping the timer actually you ridiculous being annoying you're really being annoying well I'm being annoying because I'm calling you to account in perhaps ways that you need to be accountable you say you start to answer questions to answer my question and in fact dismiss it in the first half pause you say Tolstoy said we're constrained in some ways and me friends that's boring there's no Neil it's not boring that's the absolute gravamen of what you're meant to be doing as a historian disentangling the extent to which individuals are constrained and the extent to which they can act that's not boring that's your job so no bothering back yeah football school so as I was trying to explain the argument in the square and the Terr is that you can't understand anybody on their own in isolation because no man is an island or hardly any people are completely disconnected most of us are connected to one to one of many networks and that connectedness is the analytically powerful tool that historians until very recently did not use we did not as historians think at all about networks in a rigorous way if we could graph the network of the people in this room because each of you is a node including the chief node here each of you is connected to others in the room we could graph the network we could find out quite a lot about the network of people who come to these events with information probably we could get it from Mark Zuckerberg if we asked nicely and that would be the way to think about why this event happened why it came into existence and what its purpose was if indeed it has any purpose so the key argument I'm trying to make in my recent work is that the individual is not it's not the individual versus great historical forces that's the boring thing that Tolstoy talks about at the end of war and peace and which people have been writing boring s is about for any number of years the interesting thing is that the individual is always connected to multiple networks usually and it's those not works that have powerful explanatory force and we can understand the structure of networks by analyzing we can look at how distributed decentralized they are we can find that which people in this room are the most connected obviously will with his Cotswolds and who was the other one Chilton mafia has a network but is he the best connected person in the room or is it John Gordon who introduced the event or is it somebody else maybe there's somebody in this room listening who's better connected than all of us maybe George Soros is sitting near the bag so we can I think use these new and there are quite new tools to understand how the individual operates in the context of the multiple networks to which he or she belongs that's interesting yeah it's an interesting book but it but like any historian you must be in some sense advocating how we should add even given the contingencies that faces you know you you you are known as a conservative historian I think that's not a tendentious thing to say or you know see you you have a message for how people should behave in terms of their actions within polities within other kinds of economic networks in terms of you have ideological preferences history has a purpose even if your history has a purpose even if history doesn't have a purpose so what is the message of your of the square and the tower well I'm not sure that it is the historians role to say this is how you should live that's er give up your very lucrative column in the Sunday Times it's not lucrative at all it's really the least lucrative thing I I do I always found sucking on mr. Murdoch's tailpipe was really lucrative it's just an offensive thing to say I've done it myself now that's an offensive thing to say to yourself the public sphere is the public sphere I mean one could comments on what happens and and I try to show that I think history has a way of illuminating our contemporary problems I think of myself as not as a conservative historian I've never been a member of the Conservative Party I'm not a member of the Republican Party I'd be called the conservative any number of times but I'm really just the classical liberal as I said my roots are in the Enlightenment and classical liberalism but I'm an applied historian I think politics is not really something that you bring into history as far as possible you should leave it Max Weber said this about lecturing I think it's true about historical scholarship put the politics aside I just add up I think the key thing is to apply history to try to learn from history what we can do about today that's what I'm really about I was repeatedly told when I was an undergraduate that we could learn nothing from history this was a current feature of the Oxford history faculty back in the 1980s Oh No how vulgar only journalists do that we're far too grand to learn from history what a kind of petty bourgeois thing to want to do what am I doing here if we're not trying to learn from history what's the point now we are trying to learn mystery there's nothing else to go on you can't solve any of the problems that you've raised what should we do about Islamic terrorism what what should we do about that the breakdown of states in North Africa the Middle East there's no other way of answering these questions than by referring to history and try to understand what it is that makes state faith states fail or what it is that causes in a violent ideology something to go viral in the book I try to show that we have some really good work still to do on why the ideas of Lenin went viral in the Russian Empire in 1917 18y the ideas of Adolphe hitler went viral in germany between around 1928 and 33 we don't really know nobody's really done the work on the Nazi network or the Bolshevik Network that research doesn't exist because for generations historians I think wasted time on non questions like was the key to Hitler's rise the petty bourgeoisie or the bourgeoisie or the that was such a silly debate but the main as I understand it the main arguments in have been between kind of Daniel Goldhagen and kind of German exceptionalism and Christopher browning ordinary men and the idea that no this could happen anywhere but maybe you regard that as a bit of a sideshow that today it's been it's now 20 years old the issue to me the really surprising thing is despite the fact that there is good work being done on social networks in other fields like 18th century selectional history nobody's actually bothered to analyze the Nazi Party all the Nazi vote in in terms of a network nobody's really tried to track why it was that Hitler's ideas went viral when they did and yet we could do that and I hope I hope to do that and then in the next year or so that's a really interesting question because if we can understand better why toxic ideas go viral and suddenly become believed by billions of people then I think we start to have a handle on what we can do about this this very toxic version of Islam which is being used to justify the violence right that's the kind of thing that interests me it's bit of a doorknob remark as if one we're leaving a therapists but but it might open up the debate if we've got a bit of time for questions from the floor I mean what struck me I enjoyed reading your book very much I enjoy reading all of the stuff of yours that I've read you write in a very engaging and accessible way unlike you unlike me because I mean I think James Joyce had a bad effect on you well that's the conclusion I came to as I read why we love Joyce I hate Joyce I hated Ulysses and Finnegan's Wake is impossible how about Dubliners do you like that flaner Brian was the more interesting and funny by James Joyce is overrated really job almost is overrated as Angela Merkel well it's good to see you here coming to us from your northern fastness but you really belong here in London Neil because your this is the native land of the philistine and you're proving to be a monumental one painting joints makes me a Philistine then I'm a Philistine if imitating Joyce makes you a good writer then I'm a bloody teapot more offensive first lady men in the book you say very little about climate change but I assume that you do believe in the International Panel on Climate change's predictions on the the rises in global temperatures by the middle of this century believe in them as an article of religious faith no not as an article religious faith but you believe that global warming is anthropic and will continue yeah I think there's a pretty high probability of that right and the other really big statement you make in the book is that you view the complex of technologies which I tend to call bi-directional digital media and and I think we're we at least agree on that the significant part about and there is one thing that we agree yeah is there by directionality but you don't view them as being fundamentally different to any other technologies networking technologies of the past I mean not really in other words you don't think there are a major game changer in terms of what's likely to happen in the world oh they're a game change I mean the but only in terms of their scale and speed fundamentally what the internet and the personal computer have done is is not different from what the printing press did in the sense that it's transformed the public sphere and as in the 16th century we we are tremendously naive in our thinking about what will happen when we all become or have become far more connected the the key argument of the book is that we've gravely underestimated the downside of this hyper connected world in just the same way that Luther underestimated the downside risk of a religious Reformation based on the printed word but I don't think it's qualitatively different it's quantitatively different that you know the printing press was quantitatively different from the written book was it was not qualitatively different okay I think I've had enough should we open it up for questions has anybody got any questions perhaps you could mate wait for the microphone to arrive I think you have to choose no no you have free will you have to choose thanks for your time guys I just wanted to ask a question about a term that Professor Scott Galloway references called the four horsemen so that is Google Facebook Apple Amazon I just wanted to get your two opinions on the influence of these massive companies that have massive amounts of capital massive massive influence on new technology and also they're sort of CEOs as these demagogue figures obviously you mentioned Zuckerberg and also sort of someone like Jeff Bezos whose other wishes man of all time I just want to get your opinions on these four companies in particular and how they shape our future and if there are any sort of historical comparisons to our the influence these private companies have Thanks well Scott Galloway has become very critical he's a New York University professor who writes a lot on technology issues but he's become extremely critical of these so-called four horsemen and has argued in in a recent our article in Esquire magazine that they should be broken up that there is essentially a problem of monopolies now in technology Facebook moon optimizers social media and Apple has a kind of monopoly at least in areas such as music Google as a mostly on searching Amazon has an awfully on online retail that's roughly the argument and he's now come around to the view that that that can only be addressed with antitrust they need to be broken up in the way that Standard Oil was broken up long ago so I I share his concern because I think there are clear problems of monopoly bars these are natural monopolies net Network economies produce winner-takes-all and it's not clear that an antitrust action against Amazon would be successful in fact I'm pretty sure that Jeff Beezus would like that action to be brought in order that he could win it and I think he would win it easily certainly with on what grounds would he win and because because will the law on antitrust since the 1960s is very clearly said the test is how far the consumer is better or worse on and there's no way that you're going to be able to show that the consumer is worse off because of Amazon it's clear that the consumer is better off in a whole range of ways the only way that you could bring an antitrust action successfully would be and it would need I think to happen at the Supreme Court level if there were a radical change in the legal definition of monopolies in the United States in in Europe of course there's different legal tradition and I think there will be more aggressive legal pressure on the big companies in Europe but I think it's probably a doomed venture to try to do antitrust I think the issue really is whether there's a full a level playing field in terms of regulation and there's not because in fact at least three of these companies I don't think it's true of Apple but at these three of these companies enjoy a tremendous advantage over their their terrestrial non internet competitors and that is that they are not treated as content publishers this is especially important for Google and Facebook they are not treated as content publishers in the way that your friend Rupert Murdoch is they are treated as a technology platforms and under obscure piece of legislation from the mid-1990s the communications and decency Act title 230 they are not liable for any of the content that appears on their platforms and that lack of any liability is a huge advantage to facebook facebook is now the biggest publisher in practice of content in the world and it is now the source of 45% of Americans news and yet it's not treated as a Content publisher it's treated as a network that's the anomaly so I think Scott Galloway is half right he's right that there's a problem but I think he's wrong to think that it's gonna be solved with antitrust is there no mirror in a way I mean you're eminent scholar also financial history do you not see some kind of congruence is between transnational capital flows and the impossibility of implementing antitrust law against the fame companies I mean that I'm not saying it a direct causal level but at the level of congruence you know in a sense and it also relates to this concept you bring up in the square and the tower of the administrative state you know that in a sense all states can do now is to throw out cheese pairing regulation but they can't actually stop these big companies moving their capital very rapidly away you know if there were any real attempt to clamp down on them they could evade it and also they could destabilize currencies fiat currencies in the process I don't know about that I think that we shouldn't exaggerate the power of any corporation relative to the state the administrative state maybe produces functional but as we saw with the for example with the tax bill you can pretty easily pull the levers of the US Treasury and the US Justice Department and change the way that those companies manage their assets so I don't know that there's there's we've reached that dystopian situation in which the corporations are more powerful than the state they're very powerful but ultimately the state is more powerful if it wants to exert its power and also it's very difficult indeed for me to imagine a facebook Google or Amazon or for that matter Apple relocating from the United States these are American corporations as much as General Motors was an American corporation and I predict that as they fight what will be an increasingly tough fight in Washington over regulation they will become more not less American they'll become less cosmopolitan and global at their ultimate argument I would predict is you can't do too much bad stuff to us because we have to compete with them meaning Baidu Alibaba tenzen and the bat companies the Chinese companies are now almost the equals of the two of the big American technology companies there are no European players in this game it is a two-player game US China and the internet is now essentially two worlds the American and the Chinese the question which will be resolved I think in the coming decade is who's going to control the rest of the world because we thought it was going to be the US companies and it kind of is at them at this point but the Chinese companies are making a huge push to expand especially in emerging markets and it's going very well so I think we'll see an increasingly national argument increasingly Apple and others will say we are American companies we need to work with you but at this point we have a conflict between Silicon Valley and Washington it's getting ugly I think it will ultimately resolve itself when the technology companies realize that they really need friends in Washington even if they're Republicans sorry off me okay I see you know waiting for a while let me a personal question how often do you think about counterfactual Niall Ferguson and secondly if how come you learn from history if if if history is one damn thing after another well I constantly think about counterfactuals in my own life and I see each day as just a succession of dilemmas of varying magnitudes it's clear that I could be in a completely different place tonight if I had not had the luck of going to a good school in Glasgow Academy getting into a good University if the luck had gone the other way and I hadn't gotten so probably not be sitting here and neither would he so I'm deeply conscious of contingency in my own life I mean the lot goes further back I can tell but I I think it's important to live with a sense of one's luck and be aware that it could turn at any point I'm haunted by the question what terrible thing is about to happen to me that I failed to think about that I didn't plan for so that's probably the answer to the the more autobiographical part of your of your question and I've forgotten the second part because yeah well you kind of answer it in the square in the tail the gentleman was saying what if history is just one damn thing oh yeah now that how can we learn well yeah you do you do address Alan Bennett you'll be unperfect yeah he revived that in in the history boys it was one thing after another yeah then in Bennett's framing well I think the answer is that that that that it's not that that history is not some kind of weird timeline of events big and small though it's often represented that way on wall charts I prefer to think of the historical process as this complex system or indeed a space been filled with multiple complex systems which we can't fully understand because they're not they don't work like with linear relationships that they're not at all predictable and so what we can learn from history is only really by by rough analogies so the the way I tend to think is that when you're confronted with a problem whether it's personal or historical you should ask the question what is this like it's not exactly like anything but what is it roughly like and if you can't think of a bunch of analogies you probably don't know enough history this was how I thought about the approach of the financial crisis 10 years ago I read a book called the ascent of money the ascent of money was written in the expectation that a financial crisis was going to have and it was right and the reason I thought it was going to happen was it just looked familiar what was happening in 2006-7 that extraordinary booming economic period that that culminated in the crash was recognizable to a financial historian it was like in the pre the previous years before any big crisis so I tend to think that that's the right way to approach it try to find those analogies and then think rigorously about them and I do that's really what I do for a living most of the time even when I was writing this column that you didn't like about Angela Merkel's policy my question was what is it what is this like what is it like when a really large movement of people occurs I mean there are plenty of analogies for that it's often happened in world history and we can I think compare and learn from the comparisons and that's how we should proceed what you can't do is what economists and political scientists have been doing for the last 50 or so years and say let's imagine a model of how this might work and let from first principles let's drop a model and then we'll try and cram the data to fit the model and and that pursuit of models with relatively linear relationships and predictable opens I think that will prove to have been almost as futile as medieval theology as an activity this young man can you wait for a microphone I'm gonna be a little bit boring and I mentioned Bitcoin which we're probably all bored of after the the winter they've just had he struck me and you're sort of listen to your views on it Neil and in the media that if not if you're not warm towards it you're at least room-temperature towards it which is quite unique as someone who is one of a better word mainstream commentator and I guess just then going back to your last answer what is Bitcoin like it starts and what isn't it like as well it's not like the Dutch tulip mania of the 17th century which is what everybody compares it to Jamie Dimon did that but but he was only one of many I think Paul Krugman has done it it's not like that and that that suggests they don't know anything about the Dutch tulip mania it's more like what happened in the 18th century when for the first time equity in corporations was traded that was in financial innovation without any real precedent the creation of the South Sea company in the Mississippi company in France allowed a huge experiment with with in effect the first stock markets to happen and of course what happened was a bubble in both in both cases and i think bitcoin is that kind of a financial innovation that is it's so game-changing in the sense that it really has this block chain is so game-changing bitcoin is just one iteration of this of this experiment it is so game-changing that it is cool subtracted a great flood of money and then as always happens in the bubble along come the charlatans with their initial coin offerings to do such things as we shall tell you about later just give us the money and the suckers so that all happened last year and you could see it in California I had a ringside seat people were coming to me with and they still are hasn't stopped initial coin offering ideas that they wanted me to endorse and it was like I would read the white papers and say but but you're just like one of those eighteenth-century speculators you you want the money but you won't really say why so a huge number of these things some of which have been Bitcoin based most have been etherion based will turn out to be scams but I'm look warm in the sense that I think out of this experiment as in the case of the 18th century equity finance experiment something will remain it's not quite clear what the ultimate end useful use case of blockchain is but I think there will be one I don't think I don't think blockchain is going to create new currencies that will replace fiat currencies and that since I don't think it's right to think of Bitcoin as a coin or for that matter of banknote I think it's better to think of these things as ways in which smart contracts could be could be used I mean I think that's probably where we go the blockchain can be used for a whole range of different things payments is probably the least efficient of these things but there are a bunch of different contractual exchanges that could be done through blocking governments I think could make their health care systems more efficient through blockchain that's already happening in Estonia so I think Bitcoin itself will seem like one of these prototypes that is that 10 years from now we'll think that was picturesque it'll be kind of a little bit of a museum piece in the same way that the South Sea company wasn't really the future of the British economy but equity finance survived and became central to finance and I think blockchain will become pretty central not just to finance but and possibly to bureaucracy generally in the coming 10 years very annoyingly I think that the hall is about to be invaded by rampaging theists who regarded as their place of worship so we're gonna have to wind up there I think Neal's gonna be around for a while in the foyer in we'll be signing his Magisterial work of history a noble successor to the works of McCool a a towel and I'll also be there signing my knock off modernist share take your pick [Applause]

Student Reality 2019 // University in the UK



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Now there are many myths about University in the UK. Some say sharing a bathroom is a nightmare, some say you need to iron, some say you do work all the time… I can confirm none o this is true. In today’s video, we look at the reality students at university face. UK University uncovered. The truth about university revealed. the University of York is what i am basing my student expectations vs reality at university upon. Student Reality at University in the UK. A day in my life. Coming soon!

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I am currently studying Bsc Economics and Finance at the University of York! The University of Cambridge didn’t except me. An Economics degree uncovered with Student Vlogs! You can expect to see days in my life (as a UK university student), truths about an Economics degree (at university), Student life hacks, a-level revision tips and how good University really is!!!

What did you study at A-level????? Edexcel Maths, AQA Economics and Edexcel Government and Politics
What grades did you get at Alevel????? BBB + C in a EPQ
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let's see this then Oh microeconomics I can produce more need to do some forms probably them tomorrow washing washing I'll do that tomorrow as well wash up tomorrow who's my room tomorrow pack the ski in tomorrow a YouTube video the book of ideas what should we do today watch really is 10 myths about University expectations vs. reality then guys so guys welcome back to another video on my channel now today in case you ting guess from the skit I've been looking in my book of ideas and we're doing expectations vs. reality at university because obviously I've been at University for two times now it's coming up to the end of the time and I kind of know the reality of university and put it this way my expectations they were a bit different now there are a few updates that need to be said before we get into the video basically recently I was helping out on this second year's film it's towards their final degree I was a lead actor in a in the short film because I'm just trying to figure out what I want to be in a life like I'm not sure I don't really think I want to be stuck behind a desk a whole day kind of thing even though I'm studying economics swiftly move on from that one I'm also going on the university ski trip this week for the whole week and I've been working harder overall this term since I got the motivation in the sense that if I get 60% and above in June time I'll be heading to the University of Sydney I should be working right now I feel bad every time I'm not revising probably a lot people do fail ofwell and the other day me and the boys went out and we took this photo basically was doing some case sided challenge I don't got as much anymore now I'm focusing on whole black et cetera but there was just this one picture that summed up University and I'm gonna leave that links down in the description below so click the link to student here and you'll be able to see that photo that accurately sums up University and obviously before my Instagram you'll all you've seen that and I'm going to be doing a Q&A very soon a snapchat video Q&A send your snapchats video questions the student vlogs on snapchat you know how my name is no stupid books that are just do drugs and you should be featured in next week's Q&A without any further ado let's get into the expectations at University versus the reality so as many of you guys know I'm actually in cated accommodation and it's shared bathrooms and I share a house with 16 other people now obviously whether it be in 16 other people you sometimes think oh god it must be a nightmare to have a shower in that place and truth be told before I came to uni that is exactly I was thinking the actual reality is that the showers free ninety-nine percent of the time there's three showers in our house one on each floor and pretty much I mean let's go have a shower now because I'm sure we'll be free it's never ever a problem to have a shower there's always one free like shared bathrooms and stuff isn't even that bad plus they you get clean like most days view as well so yeah I can confirm this completely fine you can have a shower whenever you like it unis there's no waiting around or anything oh go on let me go back to my memories going nowadays now that I'm almost not teenager in two years Brenda this one is a myth so basically before I came to uni I was like god I better learn to cook I better learn to you know I am my clothes so I learned to iron I haven't ironed once so when everyone tells you you need to learn to iron to go to university you fully don't I haven't ironed in that cupboard right up there and I just haven't even used it once like I'm leaving and just set on depop however why is lately my college basically told me that if you hang up on a coat hanger your clothes that need ironing into the bathroom turn on the shower the steam just like basically ironed your clothes for you so we might as well just do a live test cuz that will confirm you definitely don't even need to iron if you need to iron so it's like I was prepared for this video I've got the shirt here and it's fair to say it's a bit kind of wrinkly let's go see what the shower and hanging it up with this theme does now I'm gonna hang out like this and a turn-on for heat put it over there and then we'll be able to see if it gets all the wrinkles out I'll probably come back in about 10 minutes though if he's with it so while my t-shirts iron in itself in the shower I mean if everybody did use this lie fact though the showers probably would start to get a bit busy there's a few other misconceptions about you neither I myself kind of had and you guys may have them first up is that you know I thought I would do a lot more work than actually do now don't get me wrong since I've had this motivation I've started working a lot harder with the journey to Sydney and everything but if I didn't have that motivation I genuinely would do literally no work outside of my lectures unless I had the old question must one revise basically and another thing is that at school you never really bunked a lesson and you wasn't paying for a better uni if you just are you just miss your lecture then no one really cares it's just kind of seen as a normal thing miss your lecture even though you're paying for it that I personally I go to my lectures but I know a lot of people just kind of don't get me wrong I have missed a few lights sometime just like CBA for this especially when you've been out the night before damn it's so easy to just alike and miss a lecture oh I can watch our lecture capture yeah that's all right and then you say that you don't watch it and then it comes round to the the next lecture in that module you're like oh I didn't go to that last lecture so I probably shouldn't go to this one because I haven't caught up yeah just gets into a cycle and then before you know you've missed the whole time hello oh hi mum yeah lectures are fine yeah no I've never missed one no it's a hundred percent oh yeah yeah yeah yeah asteroids about it ten mum wake up at seven yeah I'm doing my washing on time top that up you're breaking up and that's another thing you never really have a good sleep schedule at uni your sleep schedules just permanently messed up you're just tired most of the time now is a fairly accurate thing I thought I'd have some kind of level of pattern where I go to bed at 12 then wake up a like nine everyday but it just doesn't mind like that because they're going out just completely changes your sleep cycle yeah so this is the house parties another thing at uni I was like down there's gonna be house parties every single night now don't get me wrong there are a few house parties every now and then but genuinely there's not as many as I thought there would be and even so they normally end up getting shut down by the porters because obviously you get complaints when some people are trying to sleep and some people trying to party and what actually there is every time you go out though is like a group of people probably bout 20 people just praying in their kitchen but that's never like year eleven year twelve year thirteen house party type of things like I kind of missed them to be fair good old days and another reality of university and it's probably what a reality more of life is that obviously back in the day I used to come home from school you know do some more revision I didn't really have much else to do maybe get told to do the dishwasher you know just just standard chores but University when you've got to do some cooking for yourself when you've got to do your own washing when you go do your own like Hoover ring the room making the bed and walking everywhere your time just goes time goes so quickly at university whether it be you spend ten minutes walking from lecture to lecture throughout the day there and back it just takes up so much time so on a Monday less I have five lectures I spent ten minutes walk in there to one of them and back that's 20 20 minutes unless I do that for all five lectures that's crazy I spend an hour to an hour and 40 minutes walking to and from my lectures on a Monday so all of these little things like walking doing the laundry everything just adds up and it just takes up so much time the reality isn't clear until you come to university how much of a struggle doing your washing is it's honestly one of the biggest pains in my life let's go check on the ironing lifehack okay you know what yeah that's actually not that bad results like it's actually done quite nicely if I left it in there for some longer time I definitely would not need to iron that so now it's been confirmed to me that I didn't even need to learn to iron before I came to uni if I could go back a thousand years and choose to be catered or uncatted I would choose to be catered hated is so nice now obviously the food is not worth the money but the thing about being catered is it's can you be bothered to wash up to cook the F at the time that's what you're paying for the savior of that not the actual quality of the food the quality of the food is not worth it but the actual time-saving this definitely be catered well yeah it seems like we are now at the end of this video so if you have enjoyed leave a big thumbs up for me you're new around here and you're watching this one the first hour don't forget the double comment down below or apply to all comments within the first three hours so yeah if you got any burning questions head to the www studio forum where you can ask your questions once you log in and then basically I always answer them that's for importing questions expect this ski blog when I am back and expect lots of study of me because I'm about the hard work especially now because of the Easter I pretty much have study leave for a long time but I have not yet occasional lecture so I'll be at uni studying three days but yeah thank you so much for 20,000 subscribers honestly like when I told my mom when I told my nan I don't think she knows what YouTube is and when I told one of my cousin's they said that's not as many use Jay Paul you spin your boys student vlogs and make sure you subscribe down below cop the merch supersoft you know a cowboy's quality jump up yeah subscribe down below see you again soon you know the deal with oh there is I just I just Taylor Swift songs every time she releases though I'm like that's alright and then suddenly out no I'm just like damn I love this song yeah so I'd add that in one I'm trying to get a thumbnail obviously I'm taking sing lessons now to get that resolved state university anthem 2018 coming you know the deal

my night time routine (university student) 2018



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hey guys today I'll be showing you my simple nighttime routine just an FYI this video is sponsored by audible which is a great service that allows for you to listen to audiobooks on your tablet phone and laptop stick around towards the end of the video where I'll be telling you guys the book that I've been listening to lately normally the first thing that I do when I get back home from campus is just relax and watch an episode of a show afterwards I start doing a little bit of light work since I do a majority of my assignments in the morning I tend to not really stress myself out at night after that I have dinner with my roommates and after dinner I start to wash up I remove my makeup from the day and I brush my teeth essentially the key point of the night is for me to basically relax and de-stress at this point I've changed and I'm hopping into bed before I head to bed I either meditate or listen to a book so for tonight I chose to listen to an audiobook the book that I'm currently listening to at the moment is the power of habit why we do what we do it's a great book that talks about how we form habits how you can make new habits and how to essentially change your life around with routine I'm already half way through the book if you're into informative self-care books then I would definitely recommend this particular one I listen to all of my audiobooks on the audible app it's great because they have a huge selection of books that you can listen to if you guys are interested you can get an exclusive 30-day free trial and a book of your choice for free go to audible.com slash jasmine or text jasmine to 500 500 anyways I know my routine is kind of boring and in lochia grandma but I hope you enjoyed the video nonetheless thanks for watching

Alien Contact: What Happens Next?



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Are we alone in this vast universe? Some think that’s highly unlikely. With new technologies joining the search, NASA estimates we’ll find definitive evidence of aliens within 20 to 30 years. Which raises the vital question: And then what? Will the news inspire jubilation, despair, or fear? Will aliens be seen as gods or interlopers? Evidence of alien life will provoke fundamental questions about our place in the universe–not just about who they are, but also who we are. Join astronomers, astrobiologists, anthropologists, philosophers, and linguists as we ponder these issues.

PARTICIPANTS: Kathryn Denning, David Kipping, Karen Lewis, and Marcelo Magnasco

MODERATOR: Wendy Zukerman

MORE INFO ABOUT THE PROGRAM AND PARTICIPANTS:

This program is part of the BIG IDEAS SERIES, made possible with support from the JOHN TEMPLETON FOUNDATION.

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TOPICS:

0:17 – Participant intros
1:50 – How are scientists searching for intelligent life?
5:10 – Sending messages into space
6:59 – What kind of alien signal are we likely to detect?
9:00 – Would we be able to interpret an alien signal?
13:44 – What is the closest that intelligent life could be to Earth?
16:25 – How would we know if far away transmitting civilizations still exist?
20:00 – How well can we communicate with dolphins?
24:19 – Dolphin research film
26:27 – Understanding dolphins vs. understanding aliens
28:44 – What are the steps to understand an alien language?
38:02 – What happens on earth after we contact alien life?
44:40 – “War of the Worlds” broadcast controversy and damage
46:40 – Will the discovery of aliens unite humanity?
50:39 – What if we’re alone in the universe?
53:10 – Could AI help us find aliens?
54:20 – Using our children to bridge languages and species

PROGRAM CREDITS:

– Produced by John Plummer
– Associate Produced by Laura Dattaro

This program was recorded live 6/3/18 at the World Science Festival and has been edited and condensed for YouTube.

And so today, we're going to talk about what
happens if and when intelligent life contacts us. So what would that be like, what should
we say, will we understand what they're saying? So to help us discuss this, our first guest
is an anthropologist at York University. And she researches, amongst many other things,
the evolution of intelligence, the colonization of space. She's collaborated with The NASA
Astrobiology Institute, the SETI Institute, and the 100-Year Starship Program. Please
welcome Kathryn Denning! Our next guest is an astronomer at Columbia
University, where he leads the Cool Worlds lab. His research team is focused on discovering
new planets and moons. Please welcome David Kipping!
Also joining us, we have a philosopher from Barnard College, which is at Columbia University.
She specializes in the philosophy of language, and is the co-founder and co-organizer of
PhLip, an annual conference that brings together philosophers and linguists from all over the
world. Please welcome Karen Lewis! And our final guest is a biophysicist, and
head of the Laboratory of Integrative Neuroscience at Rockefeller University. Among many things,
he studies the brains and communication skills of dolphins, which is kind of like an alien
species. So he's an expert in deciphering alien languages. Please welcome Marcelo Magnasco!
So David, catch us up to speed on the ways in which science is currently searching for
intelligent life. Sure. So probably the most famous program
that's trying to look for evidence of extraterrestrial civilizations is called SETI. S. E. T. I.,
that's the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. And traditionally, ever since Frank Drake
first started this project, I think back in the 1960's with a famous project called Project
Ozma, they started listening for radio signals, essentially hoping that somebody was transmitting
our direction. And that makes a lot of sense. Radio, which is a form of electromagnetic
radiation, travels at the speed of light. So it's the fastest form of communication,
and it's very cheap to produce and receive. So it kind of makes sense, as a way to look.
More recently, scientists, and I guess you might bunch me in with this group, have been
thinking about other ways that you might be able to reveal the presence of extraterrestrial
civilizations, one of which might be that they are not intending to tell us that they
are here. They're not deliberately messaging us, but maybe we can still tell that they
are there by virtue of their technologies. Maybe they're building some giant alien engineering
megastructure, and we might be able to see them in their act of building that, or maybe
see the waste heat, for instance, from the giant machines they're using. So recently,
both of those approaches have emerged as sort of the main avenues we're using.
And how do you see if someone is trying to build this weird, alien structure, you know,
thousands of miles away? Yeah, that's a good question. It's almost
like Arthur C. Clarke would say that such an advanced civilization would be indistinguishable
from magic, in a way. So how on Earth can you look for something which could essentially
be magic? And that's kind of what, in a way, we do. We look for things which are unnatural.
So we think we understand how stars work. We think we understand how planets are built
around planetary systems, and we look for stuff that essentially just cannot be explained
by any other means. There's a very famous type of signal that
we look for called a Dyson Sphere, maybe some of you have heard of that before. Freeman
Dyson famously proposed that in the 1960s, and it's essentially saying: well, you know,
if energy growth continues at 2% per year, which is about how energy growth has been
increasing over the last few decades, eventually in the year 3500 or something if you extrapolate
it, we would need the energy from the entire Sun. So how do you take the entire energy
of a star? You build a shell around it. So we could maybe look for these giant shells
built around stars. So you won't see the starlight because it's been blocked out, but you would
see all of the waste heat that they were generating. So they can't get around the laws of thermodynamics,
hopefully. If they can beat thermodynamics, then basically we have no idea about how physics
works at all. And if they have to obey thermodynamics, then they should emit, still, some waste heat
energy. And we look for the heat signature of stars which do not appear in visible light,
but appear in infrared. And that would be a giveaway that somebody is extracting all
of the light energy, and doing something with it. So that's a type of signature that we
can look for. Any luck so far?
No, actually, but people have looked. So there's been about 100 thousand nearby stars which
have been surveyed for Dyson Spheres, and about 100 thousand galaxies which have been
surveyed. And so far, there's no conclusive evidence of such a civilization. Which in
a way, is kind of depressing. It means that theses super-advanced civilizations, if they
exist, they don't do that very often. They don't use entire stellar outputs of stars.
Yeah. So we're not just, as a species, in terms
of trying to find alien life, we're not just searching for it actively. We're also sending
messages. We're broadcasting. Can you tell us a little bit about that?
Sure. So there's an institute called METI Institute, so Messaging Extraterrestrial Intelligence
Institute. It's an outgrowth of a thread that was kind of present in SETI from the beginning,
which was the idea that one way to conduct the experiment, instead of just listening,
listening, listening, go, “Yoohoo,” and see if anybody answers.
So there's a pretty major division, I would say, within the world of SETI on that subject.
Some people are very firmly of the opinion that we should just listen, not broadcast.
Others say, “Look. If there's anything out there to be worried about, chances are it
knows we're here already. So we may as well say 'hello.'” Really, quite different sets
of opinions on that, and some friction. And where do you sit on this? And it's quite
controversial the things that go down. It is quite controversial, and it's related
to the question of risk. I should say, as an anthropologist rather than a person who
is an astronomer, or somebody composing messages to transmit, I kind of study the debate. So
I'm going to be annoyingly agnostic on this one, as well, and not commit. What I like
to do instead is kind of look at this question for those who say, in the public in particular,
that we should transmit, why are they saying that? What are their interests, and what are
their concerns? And for those who say we shouldn't transmit, what are their reasons? And then
it all kind of spins out into this larger question about, “Okay, well we all share
this planet together. How do we decide these things?” So it kind of spins quickly into
a question of public-scientist relationships, and different camps on Earth, and all of that.
So if we do … Say SETI does pick up a signal, David, what kind of signal are we likely to
get? Well, that's a hard question to answer. It
could be, classically, the signal that people have been looking for is just a high-powered,
narrow frequency. Narrow bandpass-range radio transmission. But that's all it is. It's just
like a pulse. This star essentially appears very bright when you look at the specific
wavelength of light, which corresponds to radio.
Typically, the frequencies they look at is something called The Water-Hole. That is a
frequency space in the universe which is naturally very quiet. So stars produce radio waves,
quasars produce radio waves, galaxies emit plenty of radio. So you have to choose a frequency
where the universe is not noisy. So there's this one particular bandpass called The Water-Hole
that, collectively, SETI scientists have been sort of honing in on. And if you saw a very
high-powered frequency that was way above the cosmic background noise, then you would
say, “Okay, maybe there's something interesting here.”
But we've seen those. Actually, [email protected], which is essentially this screensaver you
can download and it processes through data that SETI have collected, sees about 72 signals
like that per day, on average. So there are 72 high-powered frequencies above the background
noise, and most of them are just terrestrial interference. So this is just, you know, our
own radio transmitters bouncing off the atmosphere and coming back down, or satellites in space,
military satellites, even. And it's very difficult to go through each one of those and figure
out is this genuinely something alien, or is this something just that was interfering.
So you know, one of the dreams for a long time of SETI has been: what if you could put
a radio telescope on the back of the Moon, on the far side of the Moon? You wouldn't
get any of the radio interference from the Earth whatsoever. So it'd be a very, very
quiet region, and you just have the cosmos to deal with and no human interference. So
if we could build any kind of radio telescope for SETI, that'd probably be the radio telescope
that'd we'd want and then maybe we would have a much clearer view of these things.
So say we did get a signal that wasn't terrestrial interference, Karen, would we be able to interpret
it? You're the linguist. Okay, well, that's a great question. So I
think there are a lot of challenges in interpreting a signal. First of all, it's a matter of recognizing
the signal as communicative in the first place, right? We don't want to try … I mean, maybe
there's other ways to tell that it's evidence that there's intelligent life out there, right?
If it's evidence of technology that they couldn't have if they weren't intelligent. That would
be a non-linguistic way of communicating that there is intelligent life. But if you think,
“Okay, there's a signal, and it's a piece of language, and they want to communicate
something,” how do we even figure out that something's trying to be communicative in
the first place? So if you think about what a language is,
a language is a symbolic system, first of all. Meaning, however you encode it, whether
there is sort of sounds that are coming out of my mouth right now, or a writing system,
or a signing system, or braille, or anything like that, those are just … Say the sounds
that are coming out of my mouth, they're just sounds, but they encode certain meaning. Other
sounds don't encode meaning. And some are very complex and don't encode meaning. For
example, think of a song, or something like that. Music is made of notes, but the notes
don't pick out, or refer to a particular thing in the world. So the first thing is just recognizing
that there's a symbolic system here, rather than something else that occurs in nature,
something that's not suppose to have meaning at all.
And second of all, the way language works, what makes in linguistic is that the speaker
or the sender wanted to communicate something with that message, and we have to figure what
they wanted to communicate. If it's just this random noise that came off into the universe,
then we're trying to interpret something that's not interpretable. So the first thing is just
trying to figure out whether this is something we should be interpreting in the first place.
The next challenge is, of course, if we think it is something we should be interpreting,
is how to decode that. And I think there are challenges in all sorts of levels. One, we
have to figure out just what the individual … so every language is made up of building
blocks of meaning. So for example if I just say something simple like, “This chair is
red and white,” there's the words in a sentence that are building blocks. There's meaning.
So we want to figure out something like “chair,” where it refers to this sort of thing.
And then there's the syntax, the grammar, how they form together. So when I say, “This
chair is red and white,” predicating the properties of being white and red of the chair,
and we figure that out because we know the grammar of English. So whatever the communication
we have, if it's anything linguistic, it's going to have these building blocks of meaning,
and a way that they go together to communicate a message. And we're going to have to figure
out both what those building blocks refer to, and then, how they click together to make
a message. And that's even furthermore going to be complicated because, chances are, the
aliens have very different things they want to talk about than we do. So they're not probably
going to be talking about chairs, or grandparents, or people.
Internet bubbles. Or internet bubbles, or anything like that.
So even sort of searching for what these building blocks could refer to is really hard, because
chances are it's going to be sort of outside of our concepts. And so, even if somehow we
decode that a certain word refers to something, we have a hypothesis of what sort of thing
it refers to, we're not going to have any sense of sort of what role does that thing
play in their society. Just as if we sent messages about chairs. Even if somehow they
could figure out the word “chair” referred to this sort of thing, they have no idea what
a chair is really, or what role it plays in our society. So there's this sort of … Even
if you can, somehow, and I doubt you can, get through all those first layers, you're
going to have at the end, even if you somehow decode the message in a certain sense, you're
not really going to understand the message. And if I can just add something to that. In
terms of trying to translate these messages, it maybe seems to us right now like it's a
long way off that we'd be able to do that. So maybe the advanced civilization might anticipate
that, and they might not actually attempt to send, necessarily, a specific message,
but just a broadcast that they are, in the first case, just intelligent. So maybe you
could just send a prime number sequence. So just a series of, you know, like morse code
almost like, “beep, beep-beep, beep-beep-beep,” and just send the series of prime numbers.
And then at least we would know that there's no way that that was a natural process. There's
nothing in nature that just spits out prime numbers. So you might not be able to necessarily
tell how to build some giant machine like in Contact, the 1997 film, but you might at
least be able to say, “Hey there's definitely somebody smart, there, because that shouldn't
happen naturally." And David, at the moment we're just kind of
… The fun world we live in as we get a signal from far away, how far away are we talking
here? What is the closest that intelligent life could currently be based on how much
we've scanned the universe so far? Yeah, sure. So we do … I mean, one of the
revolutions of the past 10-20 years in astronomy has been the discovery of all of these planets
in our solar neighborhood and beyond. The galaxy is about a hundred thousand light-years
across, to give you some sense of scale, and we have surveyed fairly well within about,
I'd say, about two thousand light-years of the Sun looking for planets. And we now know
that most stars have planetary systems around them, and something like 10% of those stars,
Sun-like stars, have also Earth-like planets around them. So there is no shortage of Earth-like
planets, some order of tens of billions, likely, in the Milky Way Galaxy alone.
The nearest example is probably our nearest star, actually. Proxima Centauri is the nearest
star, you can't actually see it in the sky because it's too faint. It's a red dwarf star,
much smaller than the Sun. But it is the nearest star. It's just four light-years away, and
we now know that it has an Earth-like planet around it. Whether that planet truly is Earth-like,
though, you know, does it actually have a habitable biosphere around it, does it have
liquid water on it? We don't know. We just know there's a planet there that is essentially
the same mass as the Earth, and it has, in principle, the right distance from the star
that it could have liquid water. Okay, so say that is where intelligent life
is, a mere four light-years away. So if they had sent us a signal, how long ago would they
have sent that signal? So if they're continuously broadcasting it,
then we would be able to see it at anytime. All we would have to do is just look up, and
we'd be able to see it. But when did they make the call?
It would be four years. I mean, if it's four light-years, then radio, just like light,
travels at the speed of light. So it would take four years for backwoods communication.
So every text message we would send them, there would be … Essentially, we would send
it, it would take four years to get there, and then another four years to come back.
So there would be an eight-year turnaround time on communication for us to get a reply
when send a message back. So that makes it very possible that we could
have a little nice back-and-forth, but what happens if intelligent life is thousands of
years away? Thousands of light-years away. Yeah, that's when it gets hard, and this is
where METI, the messaging aspect is somewhat limited because we've only been producing
radio waves for what? A hundred years, would you say? Something like that. So only a hundred
light-year bubble around the Earth, actually, would be aware of our radio transmissions.
Everybody else in the Milky Way, up to a hundred thousand light-years away, they might be able
to tell there's a habitable planet here, but they wouldn't know that we were producing
radio waves because there hasn't been enough time for those radio waves to have reached
them yet. So yeah, certainly when you look at the grander scale of the Milky Way, it's
a very limited volume of the Milky Way that would certainly know that we were producing
radio emissions. So Kathryn, tell us: if we did get a signal
that was from a planet thousands of light-years away, how do we know that civilization is
still existing? We don't. So I mean, that's one of the really
difficult things. So let's assume a signal does come in, and I think everything that
you've said in terms of the content et cetera is super important, and they're all sort of
facets of the search is conducted that means that a signal would be somewhat averaged out,
and so a lot of the content would simply drop out. So first of all, I think it's important
to realize that content, if it is there, would be difficult to decipher.
And so anything that would conceivably tell us kind of the status of that civilization,
we just really, actually, wouldn't have access to. So let's say that we do get a signal,
it's only one as opposed … I mean, observations would of course continue to see if there is
a steady stream or something like that, but let's say that a signal comes in. We would
really have a difficult time, I think, deciding whether than civilization or that society,
let's use that word instead, perhaps, is extant or extinct. And then that kind of changes
the equation in some ways. There's been a couple of great science fiction stories, for
example, about transmissions from an alien society, but basically they're just transmitting
to say , "Goodbye, we're dying." How does that make us feel better? I don't know.
Is there anyway that we can study societies on Earth to know? Like, does society have
a lifespan, and then we just build nuclear weapons, and eventually kill ourselves?
Right, okay. Great question. When Carl Sagan was writing about the lifetimes
of technological civilizations, he was very concerned about our own. So for example, when
Cosmos came out in 1980, he was kind of fighting a battle on the side at the same time, a really,
really, important one, regarding the effects of nuclear winter, and the fact that a nuclear
war isn't winnable. So he was very preoccupied with at that time with this idea of our technological
adolescence. You know, how do we, as a global society, deal with the fact that we've achieved
the capacity to destroy ourselves? And he was hoping that if we find a signal from the
great beyond, that if would be proof that another civilization has survived this technological
adolescence, and has kind of come out the other side and that maybe they could teach
us something about how to be a sustainable, ideally peaceful, civilization.
But the thing is, you know, if we're trying to understand civilizations out there from
civilizations here … Personally, my opinion as an anthropologist is that: we can speculate
all we like about alien sociology, but it is speculation.
But we do. But that's what we're here to do. Well, that's what you're here to do. But actually,
I don't think that we can say anything all that meaningful. So there's kind of been every
theory put forward about, for a civilization to last a long time they would have to be
peaceful. Others say, “No, they would just have to be hyper aggressive and wipe everybody
out.” The problem is is that we don't have the data to distinguish between those possibilities
at this time. And so if a detection is achieved, we won't
actually know for sure what that means, and you'll have kind of every conceivable specialty
on Earth saying, “Well, this means this, and this means this.” But we won't actually
know. So then that comes into these questions about, well, what do you want to believe?
And how much do you want to believe it? That kind of is a nice lead-in to … Let's
take this alien adventure into phase two. So say we don't just get a signal, but the
alien spaceship arrives here, and they come out. We're going to also shift this conversation
into a couple of gears, but Marcelo, let's spend some time talk about your research.
You essentially talk to an alien species, if you will, dolphins.
Yes, sort of. So after decades of research, because when
these aliens come we're going to want to communicate with them. After decades of research, how
well can we communicate with dolphins? Well, I would say not really that well, at
all. In my particular case, I studied dolphins 5 years ago thinking that it was assumed that
we would be able to have an understanding of at least whether or not they have something,
a communication system, approaching the complexity of human language. And 5 years later, I can
tell you that I still don't have an idea. It's remarkably difficult to understand all
of these issues. The moment you step away from, anthropomorphism, right? I mean, it's
very easy to imagine that you can communicate with the great apes, which we have so much
in common. But the moment you step into a completely different physical environment,
like water … Trying to communicate with these other animals, okay? There is some extent
to which we understand each other as mammals all do with one another, and some extent to
which we don't. Can you tell me, perhaps, an example of where
maybe you had your best communication with a dolphin after 5 years? Where you really
felt, “Yeah, we're getting somewhere here?" My best communication, okay? So my best communication
was once, we were diving. We were pursuing a group. We had a group of teenage dolphins
off of Belize, and they were just lounging around and horsing with one another. Some
of them were sort of sleeping, a siesta. It was 2 pm. And they were all teenagers, if
I recall correctly. They were all male, and they were just horsing with each other. You
know, teenage style, okay? They were raking their teeth on each other and stuff. And there
was a group of these two teenage dolphins that were going like that. The essential group
of teenagers at the cafeteria that are always together going around, and sneaking up to
everybody else. And we had been following them with helicopter drones, okay? And at
some point the batteries cut out, and I decide: Okay I'm going to jump in the water with the
GoPro, and record from the water because we had been on them for like an hour and a half,
okay? And it was really fascinating, you know, all this display of behavior.
And I get in the water and there's these two teenagers that come around. And dolphins always,
when you're in the water, you hear them well before you can see them.
What sound do they make? So the sounds that dolphins make are a combination
of two very different sounds. One of them is whistle-like, at very high-frequency. It's
sounds like. And a different sound is made by the echolocation clicks. That sounds like.
And they can pulse that at an extremely fast pace, okay? And when they do that, it sounds
like a creaking door, maybe. Like this chair that's creaking, like. Kind of thing. And
so, these two guys were just lounging around, okay? They come around, and they look at me.
They echolocate at me. They turn, and the moment they turn, they start chattering. And
I had the most distinct impression they were laughing at me.
So that's the one time I understood what they were … I don't know exactly what they were
saying about me, okay? Maybe they didn't like my fins, maybe they thought that my figure
in the water was unshapely and gangly, okay? Or maybe they were commenting on the fact
that having both eyes on the front of the face, instead of the sides, makes me look
like a flounder or something. I don't know, okay?
Maybe that's what first contact will be like. They were definitely laughing at me.
We actually have a video of your research. We have two videos. What if we play … This
is one of dolphins surfing. Do you want to introduce it?
Yes, I think that the video … So here we are on a boat, okay? You can see we have two
Gopher balls, and you heard the sounds of the dolphins as they came about right to the
front of the boat. So what you are seeing is the film made from the front of the boat.
Dolphins from, you know, we know from the that they love the boat ride. They love to
surf on the pressure wave on the front of the boat, and this is one of the things that
we're trying study. We're trying to get them to catch their communication
in a very restricted activity, so that by restricting the nature of the activity, we
can correlate what they are doing with their emissions. And we have a better chance at
… Otherwise, language is combinatorial and there is no way can explore all possible combinations
of all possible things, okay? You're never going to be able to fill up a table with all
the combinations. So what we do, in this case, is we try to restrict the kind of behavior
so that the presumably there's a restricted set of words, or verbs, or whatever it is
that they use. So they're unlikely to say, like, “Hey,
let's go to the shore,” if you're in the middle of a-
Yeah, so if they are doing acrobatics, and there is a systematic wave that goes like
every time that one is going to jump over the other one, we have at least proof that
there's a correlation between a given vocal emission and given physical act. Okay? Being
next to the dolphins, we don't believe that there's any way that we can actually figure
out the language if we cannot correlate behavior. That's why I don't think that you would learn
an alien language, at least by listening to a transmission, okay? Because I mean, you
would have to find error curves and means of defining how to transmit the dictionary.
Okay? And what I mean by this, and how do you refer to physical objects if you don't
have a common frame. So you talked about this a little bit, but
what does your knowledge about how much we now understand about how dolphins speak, how
much confidence does that give you that we'll understand what the aliens tell us?
Hmm Doesn't look good, eh?
Well, I mean, we live with dolphins. We have known dolphins for two thousand years, okay?
I mean, go to the Metropolitan Museum, you'll see them all over the Greek wing. You'll see
they were sacred animals in Greece. So I don't know. It doesn't give me great confidence.
If the moment that you step away from certain commonalities … I mean, the interesting
thing is that dolphins are still mammals, recognizably mammals, and they have a certain
… They are able to recognize gestures and interact with us in ways that I would not
anticipate would necessarily be the case with an alien species, who might not even be made
out of carbon. It might be some gas cloud with, you know, entrails and stuff.
Just a walking fart. Yeah. So who knows what they are, okay? I
mean, the moment you posit, you know, people with limbs and stuff, you're really positing
a lot. Right? And it's interesting, dolphins do not have arms, yet when trainers point
at something, dolphins understand they're pointing at something, and they ran to that,
okay? Even though they don't have means of pointing with hands. So there's all these
commonalities that come from having a common neural substrate. We have brains of an essentially
similar texture, okay? Whatever our engines in our brain that powers motion, that powers
attitudes, they come from a common ground, okay?
And therefore, when we interact together, we understand gestures. Dolphins are very
gestural. You know, there's a lot of nonvocal communication between them, in addition to
the vocal communication, which is a lot. So I don't know, I mean if you work together
with an alien with which you cannot even understand physical gestures, where do you start? I have
no idea. This takes us, what a beautiful segue, Karen,
to the linguist. Where do we start? You are our Amy Adams, sent to the aliens that've
come forth. And they say, "Karen, just sort it out." What are they saying? What other
steps? Walk me through what would you do? What are you gonna do?
Well that was great … I don't know. I don't know how much we could do. In one sense, the
stuff Marcelo brought up is very relevant. Because so now in this scenario I'm faced
with aliens, so I can get a little bit of sense of what … Do they resemble something
like a mammal? So, in one sense, chances are the aliens share no kind of similarity to
our brain architecture, to our neuro-architecture. So I can't assume that the way they process
the world is the same as the way I process the world, or they way a dolphin processes
the world. But I could at least maybe see if they have something that looks kind of
like arms, or legs, or sense whether they have vision.
So the first thing I think I would do, and I should say I'm not a field linguist, so
I don't … I'm not like Amy Adams in the movie, a field linguist, I think, and she
goes out into the field. Those are people who actually go out and talk to people, and
try to figure out how foreign languages work. But I think one thing that I would do, and
one thing that I don't think is highlighted very often is just figure out what their physical
senses are. Like, can they see? Do they see things in roughly the same way? Do they process
vision in roughly the same way we do? Can they hear? At what frequency can they hear?
What kind of sounds, or gestures, or other signals are they emitting? To get a sense
of what kind of modality I'm even going to try to communicate with them.
So to go back to Arrival, Amy Adams decides to start writing in English, which is not,
I think, how I would start, by writing on a whiteboard in English. Because that might
be one of the hardest ways for them to figure out what I was saying to them. And I think
at some point, I don't know if I'm remember this right, but she starts to teach them one
of the first things. It's something like her name, and then that she's walking, which is
a really weird thing to start with. Maybe not the name, but you have to assume that
they have a practice of naming, too, and that they're going to understand what you're doing.
And then, these animals don't walk at all, that she's dealing with in the movie. They're
kind of cephalopods that move through this weird kind of substance, like this.
They did walk, though. They kind of walk. They kind of like-
Shuffle. Shuffle.
Yeah. So I'm not sure. This is just to highlight
that it's not clear what kind of concepts they would have. So it's not clear where you
can start, but I think starting by seeing how they respond to the environment. Just
taking data on sort of what sounds, or images, or other kind of data they emit under what
certain stimuli would be the place to start. Can you give me an example?
Can I give you an example? Yeah. Sure. So just very simply, the idea would be suppose
I take an object like a red square, and I put it in front of them. And then I see if
they say anything. Or if they pick it up, what do they say? And then I can maybe vary
that, like try a red ball. And then, if something is in common … I mean, this is a very toy
example because it would take a lot more data than this. But if they something in common,
maybe they're picking up on red. And then pick at something else that's the same shape
as the cube, but a different color. And if there's something in common that they emitted
with the first thing, then maybe they were talking about the shape. So maybe this gives
me some indication of what their language is like, and some indication of if they're
picking up on color, or shape, or something like that.
Tell me about this idea that David had suggested with using math. Prime numbers, was the example.
Yeah. What do you think of this idea? What if we
just started, you know- So there's two things to think about when
using math. So some people talk about … His idea of using just a sequence of prime numbers,
I think for that, the question is: what do you want to do in communicating? Now, if you
want to just indicate that there's intelligent life here, then I think that might be a good
way to go. Alright, because if it's true that prime numbers don't occur in nature, you might
be showing: here's some sort of signal that there's something non-natural here, something
that had to be produced by an intelligent species.
They're not going to be in particularly impressed, are they? They're not going to be like, "Whoa,
they're sending me prime numbers, these humans!" Yeah, but if you want to do more than just
say, “Hey, we're here,” if you want to communicate, then you might have to go beyond
math, or beyond at least simple sequences of things like prime numbers.
The second thing, I think, to keep in mind, is some people talk about math as this universal
language. But math, itself, is not a language. When we're talking about mathematical concepts,
they still have to be encoded in some sort of symbolic system. That is, they're still
going to be these units of meaning that are somewhat arbitrary that match on to the concepts.
It won't be completely arbitrary, like in the sense of representing numbers, we can
do one beep for one, two beeps for two, or something like that. But once you get beyond
the numbers, if we want to encode addition, let's say, we encode it in our mathematical
system by writing a little plus. But that's just one of the many ways we could arbitrarily
encode addition, or something like that. And they're still going to have to decode it.
Or if they send a message to us about math, we're still going to have to decode it.
And there's still going to be a syntax. Our writing system for math, if we want to write
two plus two is four, first we write the two, then we put the plus in the middle, then we
put the two, equals and four. But there's systems, like in computer programming languages,
where you might put the plus up front. Right? That's just a very simple system. And so,
there's still a syntax, there's still a grammar to math, and there's still an encoding, and
someone's still going to have to figure that out. So I think it's solves some of the challenges,
because I think there is good reason to think that any … Especially if the aliens have
arrived on Earth, that they have enough understanding of mathematics to have built a spaceship,
and come here. And so we still have some of the systems because maybe that's the one place
where we share some concepts. It could solve some of the problems, rather, because that's
one place where we share some concepts, but we haven't solved sort of many of the layers.
If I could just add to that a little bit, it actually touches on the METI, as well,
the messaging. Because when the first messages were being designed, and Carl Sagan helped
design some of the messages, one example is the Arecibo Message that was very famously
broadcast from Puerto Rico, this giant Arecibo array. And another was these gold disks, and
carvings that were put on the Voyager spacecraft that Carl Sagan also had a hand in putting
on. And on them, there is a little bit of maths, and they're often designed to try to
teach you the syntax. So it gives several examples of two, two, four, and it doesn't
really matter what the symbols are. If they see enough examples, hopefully they can figure
out what the syntax is. And then also just diagrams. This what a human being looks like,
this is the local pulsars around us so you can locate exactly where the Earth is, for
instance. That was on these original messages. The downside of that is, though, with gold
disk it's kind of … You just hold it, and you can kind of just look at it, and there's
no way to decode it. You're just sort of really studying the content. The Arecibo Message
was a 23-by-73 pixel image. But if they didn't know it was that way around, if they did 73-by-23
instead, you just get garbage. So you have to know the key to construct the image.
So a visual representation seems appealing because you can teach them all of our maths,
and what a human being looks like, but if they don't know the correct key, they might
unlock it and it looks like garbage to us, and they're like, “Oh, that looks like something
I recognize.” And they might think that's the correct signal. But if they don't know
in advance what they key is, then they're kind of stuck.
May I add that I think that it's a huge assumption to think that the aliens think that 1 plus
1 is the beginning of math. Okay? That we are based on whatever, beings on sort of scale,
energy scale. We have fingers, we count on our fingers. We start with counting, okay?
If we have an intelligence who operated in the quantum mechanical regime, quantum computing
is fundamentally distinct from our mathematic computing. And they might not have the notion
of objects as, you know, counting objects as their primary method of counting. So it
might not be that an alien civilization considers one, two, three, five, seven, eleven, to be
proof of intelligence anyway. Okay? So even at this level, if you do not put a bound on
which kind of life you're dealing with, then you cannot conceivably put a bound on how
we are going to communicate with it. I think you're right, that in a way, you kind
of have no choice but to put a bound. Because otherwise
sufficiently similar to us. So when you take a baby, and you put them
in any culture, they can learn the language. So should we just give the aliens a baby,
and then wait for it to grow up? Let's check with the ethics board.
Child services may be called Could we just make a baby live amongst the
dolphins, and then could we then get it to decipher what's going on?
Yeah. That's going to work. if we were to discover and contact intelligent
life, it would be one of the biggest moments of human history, if not the biggest, how
do you think it would go over on Earth? Kathryn, what does happen next?
It depends. As an anthropologist, that's the only answer I can give. So it depends on what's
happening in the world at that time, it depends on who you are.
Say, right now. Say, tomorrow. Tomorrow, what time?
9:30. Early? 9:30?
Yeah, commute. Everyone's coming to work. Commute? Okay, alright. How does the detection
unfold? Twitter.
Twitter, okay. Alright. So we got Twitter, we got 9:30. Who's it coming from?
The aliens. Oh, it's coming straight from the aliens?
Do you guys want to participate in this hypothetical? Awesome, okay. Now this we can have fun with,
okay. So the aliens have hacked Twitter. Say it comes from the SETI Twitter account.
Okay, say it's coming from one of the SETI Twitter accounts, okay. Found it, “Hi.”
Okay. Yeah, little alien emoji.
Right. So I think, you know, here's the really interesting thing, then. I think we're going
to have a whole lot of human questions at that moment, right? So like, maybe in the
Q and A, we can talk about what your questions would be at that moment. Like what would you
want to know? So there are a lot of really important things that would affect the reception
of that signal. First of all, let's imagine you're in North Korea, and you've just heard
this news from the U.S. What's your reaction? Other places in the world, similarly. So would
they accept, say, the authority of a scientist coming out of the U.S. about, you know, we
really did find this thing. Given all the atmosphere around fake news
and all that, I think there could be a lot of distrust, a lot of confusion, and a lot
of uncertainty about who to trust, let's say. I should specify here, I'm Canadian. So let's
say that the president of the United States decides to get in the Twitter theme.
Kind of hard to- I know, it's really unheard of, but like,
what happens then? So does that contribute, or detract? You know, it certainly messes
things up creatively, and interestingly. Then, you know, there's the effects on the stock
market. So people are kind of going, “Okay, what doe we want to invest in? What do we
want to divest from? Okay, weapons, pharmaceuticals, prepping equipment.” You know. You can kind
of easily imagine things like that. From the surveys that have been done on people's anticipations
about extraterrestrial life, et cetera, some people are very anxious about it. Some people
are very excited. Some people are like, “Beam me up, please.”
Or like, “No, no, no, I'm heading for the hills.” So there could be a lot of different
responses, and I think when I said it depends, it depends also on what else is happening
in the world. So if you're in a war zone already, if you're recently recovering from a war,
if you been traumatized in any way, this might really be the last thing that you want. If,
on the other hand, you're just kind of very hopeful about what aliens might provide to
human civilization, you know … And there's also, from the surveys that have been done,
there's a real kind of difference in degree of likelihood to believe. So there are regional
differences, there are political differences, there are religious differences.
Can you be more specific? So who is more likely to believe?
Well. So there's also questions about, you know governmental authority, and how people
are more likely to believe in conspiracies, et cetera. So I mean, there is differences
between the West, the Midwest, the Northeast. There's male/female differences.
Wait, wait. So if there was a sign, who is more … Like the West, the East? Like Californians
versus New York, like a little more specific. I don't have the statistics right in my head,
because I wasn't the one who did the research. I think the point I'm just trying to make
is that there is variation, and then that's going to kind of affect kind of the overall
reception. And then there's the question of, “Oh my goodness, well, what do we do?”
Because, again, some people are very much in favor of sending a reply, and whether or
not there's a global response that's says, “Yes, let's write a message together, and
send it.” You know somebody is going to. It's just going to happen. And then other
people will be upset, because it'll be like, “I wish we had just stayed quiet.” And
I think there could be a scope for quite a lot of friction here. So the research that
has been done on potential receptions to contact, it indicates a lot of instability. So I think
one frame that SETI is understood within is just the idea that this would just be a continuation
of all the research that has indicated that we're not the center of the universe. So we
are just on a planet, orbiting a sun, among many planets orbiting many suns. So that's
been the huge contribution of astronomy over the last few centuries, has been kind of de-centering
us, right? So that's one frame of understanding. But
another is that, okay well, these are other sentient beings, it's not just about our place.
So then it all becomes about, well, what's the relationship going to be like? And how
does that play into existing relationships here on Earth?
So Marcelo, as someone who doesn't research this specific question directly, as a regular
civilian but rational thinker, how would you feel?
Well, first of all, the most important thing is to know what kind of signal we got. Namely,
if we got a signal from two thousand light-years away, okay, and these guys might not even
be alive by now, it's very different than if you have a huge UFO fly into Central Park.
Yeah. So it's obviously a different thing. In every
single science fiction movie which you have an arrival of a hostile civilization, their
UFOs are creepy. And whenever a friendly civilization comes, the UFOs are cute. And this is absurd,
okay? Namely, that there is no basis for thinking that we have a common aesthetic code, or that
they would make any devices for transport according to our preferences of what is creepy
or cute, right? So all of the sudden, here comes this huge, enormously creepy UFO, and
the guy says to us, “Hey, hello, how are you?” Right? We don't know. We're making
this whole thing up. There is actually almost a dress rehearsal
of exactly what happened, though. A real example of this, which is the War of the Worlds broadcast
in 1938. So that was radio broadcast by Columbia Broadcasting Systems, and it's H.G. Wells'
famous story that was made for radio with a narrator. And it's done in a way that's
like a news report, if you listen to it. So people who just tuned in halfway through really
thought it was an invasion, because it sounds … There's like journalist on the scene during
the moments when the aliens come out of the spaceship, and stuff, and start lasering everyone.
So people were pretty panicked about it, and actually the telephone switchboard of the
broadcaster got completely inundated with phone calls of concerned people. Police arrived
at the radio station, and then there was journalistic reports the next day. And The New York Times
had a headline about, you know, people confused thinking their radio broadcast was real.
So that was kind of like a one of the few insights, although that wasn't really contact,
that was a hostile invasion. So that was not surprising that people panicked, in that case.
But it's one of the few historical incidences where we have some insight as to how people
might react thinking it was a genuine event. That's an interesting one, too, because it
kind of spun out into this whole new kind of distrust in the popular media. Because
the feeling was: well, if you can pull that on us, that's not cool. So it actually started
an interesting trend. But there's also been a lot reanalysis of that one, about you know
just exactly how much people were panicked, et cetera. But there've also been echoes.
So there was a case, for example, a few years later in Quito, where the same thing was rebroadcast.
Unfortunately, it went really, really badly in that particular case, and it was because
they'd only recently come out of a war themselves, horrific invasions, et cetera. And the people
who had fought defensively in that war, didn't think this was funny. They torched the radio
station, people died. You know? And that doesn't get cited, but that's something that I think
of, for example, when I kind of think about potential negative consequences.
Just a question for everyone on the panel, what do you think of this idea that if we
know there's alien life out there, we'll all forget our differences, and like save racism
for the aliens? That's the usual kind of hopeful take on things.
It's part of the kind of Sagan-esque justification for shifting our frame of reference, and for
… And when I say justification, that sounds a little bit harsh. It's the cultural frame
of reference that says by having that confirmation, that again, another society has survived their
technological adolescence, that it could bring out the best in us, somehow. From what I understand
of world history, I don't really buy it. I think it has just as much potential to bring
out divisions, especially if there is actually some degree of actual contact.
I don't think it would be surprising to see jockeying, because this is something that
we've seen in real contact episodes on Earth. It's not just, you know, one side and the
other side. It's like, “How can I make this work to my advantage?” And so, it's people
trying to build alliances, and then it becomes my enemies enemy is my friend. It gets very
complicated, it's doesn't just kind of come down into, “Oh, we're all suddenly unified
in humanity, holding hands, singing Kumbaya,” et cetera. I think it's likely to be more
complicated than that, and not necessarily all so adorable, alas.
I was going to jump in. I agree. I think it's also just very unlikely that, even in the
presence of a new “other,” that's perhaps way more other than any of the ones we have
on Earth, like the alien being the new “other,” it's unlikely that we're going to overcome
thousands of years of racism, and xenophobia, and notice our commonalities in those moments,
rather than, perhaps, those differences being highlighted by the fact that we now have to
deal with some sort of eminent, potentially, harmful event. This is really, highly speculative,
maybe or if the aliens remained interacting with people of Earth over a long, long period
of time, they would be so different that there would be more alliances between Earth people
and they would be the new “other,” but I don't think that would be anything like
an instant reaction. And I don't even think that would necessarily be a likely thing to
happen over a long period of time. David?
Well, I just often say to my class that you could travel for a billion light-years in
any direction in the universe, and you will not meet another human being. That every human
being on this planet is extremely rare, and precious in the context of the entire universe.
Even though it seems like there is a lot of us, there's like maybe 8 billion, or 7 billion
people right now on the planet, if you divide that by the size of the universe, there's
very, very few of us. So I think just even forgetting aliens exist, or not, if you just
take a cosmic perspective, that you would maybe think of your fellow human being as
being a bit more worthy of your kindness and compassion, then if you just had this us versus
them attitude. How's it going to react when the aliens come? So I think it's almost … The
better approach is just to think about the vast, vast scale of the universe, rather than
to worry about interspecies relations. So if we haven't had the feeling of warmth
already, then forget it. We're done. Yeah.
Is that the bottom line? Marcelo? It's a tough one, right? Basically, everybody
goes “aw,” when they look at dolphins. So maybe there's hope for aliens unifying
us, but of course, it depends on which guise they come, right? If they're hostile, it's
okay, they see immediately an exasperation of all of your divisions. So and so is collaborating
with them. Okay? Or they are going to treason, or this, or that, and that's going to be inflamed
in no time flat, right? So I don't know. David, in the popular imagination, and even
in sort of scientific thinking, now, the pendulum has sort of switched with just with the numbers
game. That there is probably intelligent life out there, somewhere. Whether we would ever
communicate with it, we don't know, but it seems like the scientific pendulum has switched.
It's probably out there. What if it is not out there? What if we are alone? How does
that change your thinking? Yeah. So I'd just first say that I personally
challenge the idea that the numbers game proves that therefore there is intelligence everywhere.
I mean, this kind of goes back to the very beginning of the show, but there's no reason
why the probability couldn't be very, very tiny. People will often cite the fact that
life emerged early on the Earth as proof of the fact that, therefore, life must start
very easily. But it took four billion years of evolution to get to this point, and in
a billion years the Sun will make the Earth uninhabitable. So it kind of had to have started
pretty soon, else we wouldn't be here to observe it. So it's a bit of a circular argument.
So you really can't take the early start to life on Earth as meaning anything.
So to answer your question more directly, if it does indeed turn out that life is incredibly
precious, then I guess that just really reemphasizes my original point about how precious human
beings are on this Earth, that there is obviously a set of circumstances which happened here
in this solar system which makes it extremely special in a cosmic perspective. I would still
be pretty skeptical that forever, throughout the entire history of the universe, there
will be no life elsewhere in the universe. I leave intelligence aside, and just say life
elsewhere. And the reason is because in ten trillion years there will still be some stars
which are burning hydrogen, and will still have planets around them in the right distance
for life. In ten trillion years. And the universe is only about ten billion years old. So we're
at the very beginning of the story of the universe, still. And actually, most stars
are these small-end dwarfs, which will still be burning into the far distant future. So
I think maybe we're just, if we happen to be alone right now, it probably means we're
just one of the first, rather than we're necessarily gonna be the only ones that will ever, ever
exist. I'd probably take that perspective, a little bit more. I think the idea that the
fact that we're alone right now proves that's it, we're done, we're the only ones that will
ever be, I wouldn't quite buy that argument. So there's plenty of time left in the age
of the universe for other things to happen. We're gonna open it up to everyone in the
audience, now. If you have questions, just hold out until we have a microphone on your
mouth. With respect to David's point about being
early, do we think maybe A.I. could help us find them better than humans?
Yeah, sure. I think certainly machine-learning techniques, of which artificial intelligence
is sort of an extension of that, are already being used to help the search for extraterrestrial
intelligence. So this algorithm that you can download on your computer called [email protected],
actually basically does that. It essentially uses some machine-learning algorithms to scan
through these huge libraries of data, which have been collected, all the radio transmissions,
and see if there is anything that looks like a significant pattern amongst that data. And
those algorithms are improving all the time, and as we get closer and closer towards these
very sophisticated A.I.s, I have no doubt that it would greatly help us sift through
more and more data. So yeah, I think you're exactly right, that as our software more generally
improves, we can expect to be able to do a more complete job of surveying the sky for
advanced civilizations. So you tossed this idea in a haphazard way
of giving a baby to an alien, and I'm actually curious if there might be a sort of more realistic
implementation of using the natural resources that we have in our own children to bridge
languages with dolphins, or aliens, or other human civilizations. Is that something that's
been done, or that could actually be, you know, labor laws notwithstanding, used?
I guess I can take that one. So there has been a large number of what's called cross-fostering
experiments, and I'm nowhere familiar with all of that literature. But what typically
happens is that unless you're actually giving a human child to another human … And let's
remember that there really are, genetically speaking, no races, so it's just a member
of the same species, okay? That's not cross-fostering. But for instance, if you raise a canary among
zebra finches, the canary will try to learn to sing like a zebra finch that has a very
different song. And at some level, it will acquire many of the elements of their song,
and it will fail to acquire others because at some level there's a breakdown in how matched
their hardware can imitate the, you know … Canaries sing something that, if you slow it down,
it sort of Gregorian chant, where zebra finches are rappers. And there's simply no way in
which a canary can sing a zebra finch song. They just are ill-equipped.
So cross-fostering experience really run a whole lot of differences in hardware that
are insurmountable, right? Like in this particular case, you can't have a human baby breathing
underwater. So you can't leave it to dolphins. I mean, it's part of the joke, right? But
you really cannot … There's a limitation to how much you can cross-foster across species
that are actually physically distinct. So dolphins, for instance, they communicate
in another sound range, some of which we can hear, most of which we cannot. They see in
a visual range that, they don't see red, they don't see orange. Their vision starts in the
green, and it goes all the way to violet, and maybe beyond. And therefore, they see,
naturally, in a different spectral range, just like they speak and hear in a different
spectral range. There's nothing innate in a human baby that if a human baby is raised
with a species that speaks at a different frequency range … They wouldn't be able
to hear that, because they're ill-equipped in the same sense that we will never, no matter
who raises us, we will never see ultraviolet or infrared. It just the way our sensors are
encoded. So there's intrinsic limitations of how much you can do of this. And because
the physical environment determines so much how we perceive the world, our senses are
exquisitely adjusted to our sensory environment, and to our evolutionary history. So I don't
think there's anyway to actually do anything of the sort.
I just want to jump in on that and say another limitation on this kind of thing is that a
lot of linguists think that humans have something called universal grammar, which is something
to do with like an innate language faculty. Even though languages can be very different,
all human languages have some commonalities in their grammar. And in a sense, there's
some part of us, some part of the hard-wiring in our brain, that we're the kind of creatures
that are just born knowing how to pick up human languages. And then we're immersed in
particular language, and that's why babies can learn whatever language that they are
born into. But there's no real reason to think that an alien language … Maybe dolphin language
because at least we have some commonalty, I'm not going to speak on dolphins. But there's
no reason to think that an alien language is going to share the universal grammar. So
even if we could take one of our human babies, all the other concerns notwithstanding, and
send them to live with the aliens, it's not clear that a human baby would have the righWSt
kind of brain to even pick up the alien language. I was just going to say, following on, I think
one of the things that children have, and are encouraged in, is curiosity. And I think
that's the first place that any kind of communication challenge starts.
And the reason that I'm just thinking about this is because of laboratory mice. So one
of the most studied creatures on the planet, right? And it took decades for somebody to
notice that they sing. I know, right? So google white mice singing, it's going to be really
interesting. But you know, it's because they're outside of our frequency range, so nobody
could hear them. And nobody noticed that when the mice are doing this, it's like and they
have their little mouths open, they're singing. But it took somebody kind of looking differently,
and micing them, and then putting it through a computer to realize, “Oh my goodness.”
And now of course, there's this lovely study on what are mice singing, and when are they
singing to each other, and what does it all mean? But it took that kind of spark, that
moment of curiosity. And I think that's something that we can all kind of encourage in ourselves
as we address our many different communication challenges, aliens or not.
And with that, we've run out of time.Thank you very much. Thanks, everyone. And please
thank our guests.

MPPSC Rank 1 Sampada Saraf – How to prepare,Books,Resources,Strategy,Time Table – Topper Interview



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University Lecturers going on Strike…. #GiveUsOurMoneyBack



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Me and my flatmates have a chat about Lecturers across the UK are going on strike and if we should get a refund. Us as students have already paid the respective universities for the lecturers time to be spent with us, students. But as industrial action in about to occur it will mean many students will not have lecturers, seminars and more due to their university teachers going on strike? should students receive compensation. Tuition fee money back petition over lecturers strike. why are lecturers going on strike in the UK? Will UK Students be compensated for the lecturers they will be forced to miss? find out in this video I guess…. also I ask my flatmates if they think us students should get our money back. Some of us students say yes and some say no. uk lecturers strike. uk lecturers strike 2018. why. who. when.it’s an interesting one….

lecturers going on strike student petition.”University students facing a month of industrial action by tutors are to demand compensation for lectures they miss but have paid for in tuition fees.UK campuses are planning to demand compensation from their universities for disruption to their degrees.”

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so guys welcome back to another video on my channel now today we're going to be talking about the lecturers going on strikes I've just been to the library obviously working away quite hard and all I could hear about was people talking about am I gonna get time off for the lecturers going on strike or why are they going on strike literally so many people were talking about it it's a very important topic at the moment I've seen like numerous articles on it and a disclaimer I haven't done loads and loads of research into it I've just read your standard Telegraph articles everything like that so basically if you don't know what's going on lecturers across all different universities that are part of one of these unions and part of another Union says they're all linked together I think going on strike because it turns out that they could lose after ten thousand pounds per year every year in retirement due to the new pension contract or pension scheme or something like that now obviously if that was me I would definitely go on strike ten thousand pounds is a lot of money that's how much pretty much we pay in tuition fees I've spoken to many students is like a general topic in the house at the moment and it's kind of like we understand why the lecturers are going on strikes and if you read our articles online everybody understands why they're going on strike what we don't understand is why enough will we not get a refund for the time we are going to miss due to the lecturers going on the strike now I have a annoying yeah I have no clue what's going on I know if my lecturers are going a strike at of this thing like I'm just we're basically in the dark I shall wait and see you another 10 days whether my lecture is actually going on strike and how much time we'll have off if any at all I don't the problem is that it's like when you pre-order a service you would expect for that service to arrive we've pre-ordered tuition lectures everything like that if that didn't arrive we don't get what we've pre-ordered we would expect the money back you apply you get a refund so I don't get why you wouldn't be entitled to a refund because the lecturers are going on strike now we're not pointing the finger at anyone we're not blaming anyone we're not really angry and then to get even worse value for money because the lecturers are going on strike it's a bit you know it's a bit suspect and we ain't no no we're not happy about it I mean we're not asking for like a thousand pounds refund basically all we want is the monetary value of the hours we're gonna miss in terms of lectures to be refunded to us like I mean you comment down below if you think that's fair now obviously it works out that some people have more contact hours so they're the one lecture will be worth less maybe in terms of monetary value but that's just how it is now if you're if you're doing GCSEs or a level which are pretty like man I would love it if my teachers went on strike and super honest yeah I used to love it I used to love snow days I honestly loved what my teachers when I strike I wish they'd want to strike every day because you got the day off you didn't have to go into school but you wasn't paying for it then you wasn't paying nine thousand pounds nine thousand two hundred fifty pounds every year now if you don't go to a lecture is essentially like you just almost theoretically wasted about thirty pounds although you can watch on lecture capture now obviously there are loads of petitions going around about I know what are they going to do give us a refund you know stand standard stuff but basically I was thinking even if there is like a successful petition there becomes an application form that we can fill in to get a refund or the other it's going to literally take about ten hours to fill in like it'll probably like this what's the infamous economics and finance degree seventeen thousand number and no I don't find this number I mean miss idli I can be lazy we are not pushovers like I think sometimes people fill a hole students they're lazy they'll forget about it they're pushovers no no no no I'm not asking for a refund if I don't miss any lectures come on you're asking for a refund if I miss lectures by then yeah it's an interesting one I'm gonna go try to find some of the house and by basically I'm gonna camp out in the kitchen hopefully some people walk into the kitchen and then I can flog them I was gonna calculate how much money I would potentially lose but where I just don't even know how many hours I'm gonna be missing or if my lecturers they even go on a strike I just can't do it but it works out thirty five pounds per lecture let's go find my house base and often if they think we should have a refund I mean this is Sunday they're all pretty embarrassing most people won't answer their doors but I'm in content so on netball isn't a sport somebody's somebody's on our sea on a Sunday every wizard library re-rolling told you what do you think yeah should be a refund no Alice it should we get a refund because the lecturers got on strike should be like oh so poor that will get extra lectures that's what I thought was like I feel like they go on strike we just don't get it back yeah Charlie you know the lecturers are going on strike Direct Michigan yeah is actually a lot to be discovered oh I keep thinking about science student yes true is true so you and should be our money back when the length has gone strike I mean I want to but if they can't afford to pay these lectures pensions give yeah that's true the mystery will continue for like when the one movie dropping will find out like a number two weeks and the strikes into eaten it strikes into it there's a depth fire on our kitchen table nice and as as a dead fly up some jar up here look at this drinking game so it's drinking Jenga and basically like player one every time you pull one out you have to drink yourself or it might be like make a rule or it might be like choose a player to drink but yeah on a serious level like our kitchen is actually a mess I just don't think the cleaners can reach the ceiling and I don't think anyone else fancies doing that our football game will called off today s wife [Applause] well it's a duck should we get a refund when our lecturers go on strike of your miss lectures it's difficult one because I felt like a lot of people hear lectures of gold so I miss a lot yeah yeah what seminars or lectures obviously and so though obviously some people vo to love like time what they're paying better not in grandage yes Julian he's a lot of money from people but then another course aside minor don't think many lectures actually going on strike yeah it's hard to draw the line between Haiti reimburse mmm and who do not come on I just read I say yeah yeah whatever something you missed a few lectures must really good and also complicate the viewers want to know if you're making it too many lectures because you know you missed the whole week Oh a whole week of lectures coming to a few more lectures yeah how many times you been out what state a how many times you've been out this week it's a Sunday today so we've had a whole seven days how many of you been out this week yeah I went no Wednesday Wednesday de vigo went out Thursday no didn't well probably yeah that's what we are this week that's not what girls so three three a week that's five yeah nice he's getting better would make more make sure he passes it's the great dory but yeah guys yeah I caught some opinions of my fellow students in the end basically yeah they're all valid points some people I agree if we're going to get the hours back then it's not a big deal and also I know it's hard to kind of work out who should be given what in accordance to how many hours and contact hours that have each week so obviously it's gonna be tricky and like you and said as well he said to me off of the blog how can they afford to our pace units back three hundred pounds which is kind of true the amount of students that are going to miss the lectures supposedly as well it's mainly art students that are going to miss out on lectures and maybe not so much like the science is the math type of vibe economics hopefully not now obviously by comments down below you know you don't like my kitchen a bit messy and to be honest it is very messy if you saw next door's kitchen that's not that's not clean kitchen I went in there off the priest day this place is a super tiny compared to their kitchen I hope you have enjoyed moment if you have enjoyed subscribe down below leave a comment and let me know what you think about this whole tuition fee lecturers going on strike should we get our money back and so on so and so on I was saying I'm very easily on the fence right now I think you're gonna fully miss them then we should get our money back and I think if we're going to go them back or if they're going to be compensated in another week or after the strikes then fair enough we shouldn't be refunding because we still get what we pay for and obviously I do understand that the logistics are going to be very hard to license it all out on there they're rightly probably so is going to be a long application form you know the deal you

Liberalisation उदारीकरण Privatisation निजीकरण & Globalisation वैश्वीकरण – Indian Economy



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