PHD | Bạt Nhún Làm Từ 1000M Băng Dính | Trampoline Made From 1000 Meters Of Adhesive Tape



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PHD | Nhà Thuyền Được Làm Bằng 1000 Chai Nhựa | Boat Houses Are Made Of 1000 Plastic Bottles



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PHD | Thử Làm Quả Tạ Bằng Đất Sét | Dumbbell Made Of Clay



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The beginning of the universe, for beginners – Tom Whyntie



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How did the universe begin — and how is it expanding? CERN physicist Tom Whyntie shows how cosmologists and particle physicists explore these questions by replicating the heat, energy, and activity of the first few seconds of our universe, from right after the Big Bang.

Lesson by Tom Whyntie, animation by Hornet Inc.

المترجم: khalid marbou
المدقّق: abdelrahim kattab الكون، جميل بالأحرى، أليس كذلك؟ يشمل حرفيا كل شيء، من البالغ الكبر إلى البالغ الصغر. ومن المؤكد أن هناك بعض من العناصر الأقل إثارة للشهية، لكن على العموم، فقد اتفق العلماء على أن وجودها هو على الأرجح أمر جيد. أمر جيد لدرجة أن حقلا بأكمله من المساعي العلمية مكرس لدراستها. وهو ما يعرف بعلم الكونيات. علماء الكون ينظرون إلى ما يوجد في الفضاء ويشكلون معا أحجية تشكل كيفية تطور الكون: ما الذي يفعله الآن، وما الذي سيفعله، وكيف بدأ كل شيء في المقام الأول. كان إدوين هابل أول من لاحظ أن الكون يتوسع من خلال ملاحظة أن المجرات تبدو وكأنها تطير متباعدة عن بعضها البعض أكثر فأكثر. وهذا يعني ضمناً أن كل شيء وجب أن يكون قد بدأ بانفجار هائل لنقطة لا متناهية الحرارة، ولا متناهية الصغر. وقد أشير إلى الفكرة آنذاك وعلى سبيل المزاح بـ "الانفجار الكبير"، ولكن مع تراكم الأدلة، الفكرة والإسم علقا بالفعل. ونعلم أنه بعد الانفجار الكبير، برد الكون لتتشكل النجوم والمجرات التي نراها اليوم. ولدى علماء الكون الكثير من الأفكار حول كيفية حدوث هذا. لكن بإمكاننا نحن كذلك أن نفحص أصول الكون عن طريق إعادة إنشاء الظروف الساخنة والكثيفة التي وجدت في بداية الزمن داخل المختبر. ويتم ذلك عن طريق علماء فيزياء الجسيمات. على مدى القرن الماضي، كان علماء فيزياء الجسيمات يدرسون هذه المسألة والقوى في مستويات طاقية متعالية. بداية مع الأشعة الكونية، ومن ثم مع مسرعات الجسيمات، آلات تسحق معا جزيئات دون ذرية في مستويات طاقية عظيمة. وبقدر كبر طاقة المسرّع، بقدر ما يمكنه الرجوع أكثر في الزمن للنظر بشكل أكثر فاعلية. اليوم، تتشكل الأشياء بشكل كبير من الذرات، لكن بعد الانفجار الكبير بمئات من الثواني، كانت الحرارة مرتفعة بشكل لا يسمح للإلكترونات بالانضمام إلى النوى الذرية لتشكيل الذرات. بدلاً من ذلك، كان الكون يتألف من بحر من المواد دون الذرية. وبعد الانفجار الكبير ببضع ثوان، كان لا يزال أكثر سخونة، ساخنا بما يكفي للتغلب على القوى التي عادة ما تربط البروتونات والنيوترونات معا في النوى الذرية. وبالعودة وراء أكثر، بعد ميكروثوان من الانفجار الكبير وقد كانت البروتونات والنيوترونات مجرد البداية لتتشكل الكواركات، واحدة من اللبنات الأساسية للنموذج القياسي لفيزياء الجسيمات. وبالعودة وراء أكثر، كانت الطاقة أكبر بكثير لتتمكن الكواركات من الالتصاق معا. يأمل الفيزيائيون بأنه وبالذهاب لطاقات أكبر بكثير، سيمكنهم انظر إلى الوراء إلى زمن كانت فيه جميع القوى واحدة ونفسها، ما من شأنه أن يجعل فهم أصول نشأة الكون أسهل بكثير. للقيام بذلك، سوف يحتاجون ليس فقط إلى بناء مصادمات أكبر، ولكن أيضا إلى العمل بجد للجمع بين معرفتنا لما هو بالغ الكبر مع ما هو بالغ الصغر وتقاسم هذه الأفكار الرائعة مع بعضنا البعض ومع، حسنا، أنت. وهكذا ينبغى أن يكون ذلك! لأنه، بعد كل شيء، عندما يتعلق الأمر بالكون، كلنا سواسية ومعا فيه.

Is the Universe Infinite?



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Explore the biggest question of all. How far do the stars stretch out into space? And what’s beyond them? In modern times, we built giant telescopes that have allowed us to cast our gaze deep into the universe. Astronomers have been able to look back to near the time of its birth. They’ve reconstructed the course of cosmic history in astonishing detail.

From intensive computer modeling, and myriad close observations, they’ve uncovered important clues to its ongoing evolution. Many now conclude that what we can see, the stars and galaxies that stretch out to the limits of our vision, represent only a small fraction of all there is.

Does the universe go on forever? Where do we fit within it? And how would the great thinkers have wrapped their brains around the far-out ideas on today’s cutting edge?

For those who find infinity hard to grasp, even troubling, you’re not alone. It’s a concept that has long tormented even the best minds.

Over two thousand years ago, the Greek mathematician Pythagoras and his followers saw numerical relationships as the key to understanding the world around them.

But in their investigation of geometric shapes, they discovered that some important ratios could not be expressed in simple numbers.

Take the circumference of a circle to its diameter, called Pi.

Computer scientists recently calculated Pi to 5 trillion digits, confirming what the Greeks learned: there are no repeating patterns and no ending in sight.

The discovery of the so-called irrational numbers like Pi was so disturbing, legend has it, that one member of the Pythagorian cult, Hippassus, was drowned at sea for divulging their existence.

A century later, the philosopher Zeno brought infinity into the open with a series of paradoxes: situations that are true, but strongly counter-intuitive.

In this modern update of one of Zeno’s paradoxes, say you have arrived at an intersection. But you are only allowed to cross the street in increments of half the distance to the other side. So to cross this finite distance, you must take an infinite number of steps.

In math today, it’s a given that you can subdivide any length an infinite number of times, or find an infinity of points along a line.

What made the idea of infinity so troubling to the Greeks is that it clashed with their goal of using numbers to explain the workings of the real world.

To the philosopher Aristotle, a century after Zeno, infinity evoked the formless chaos from which the world was thought to have emerged: a primordial state with no natural laws or limits, devoid of all form and content.

But if the universe is finite, what would happen if a warrior traveled to the edge and tossed a spear? Where would it go?

It would not fly off on an infinite journey, Aristotle said. Rather, it would join the motion of the stars in a crystalline sphere that encircled the Earth. To preserve the idea of a limited universe, Aristotle would craft an historic distinction.

On the one hand, Aristotle pointed to the irrational numbers such as Pi. Each new calculation results in an additional digit, but the final, final number in the string can never be specified. So Aristotle called it “potentially” infinite.

Then there’s the “actually infinite,” like the total number of points or subdivisions along a line. It’s literally uncountable. Aristotle reserved the status of “actually infinite” for the so-called “prime mover” that created the world and is beyond our capacity to understand. This became the basis for what’s called the Cosmological, or First Cause, argument for the existence of God.

since ancient times we've looked into the night skies and wondered how far to the stars stretch out into space and what's beyond them in modern times we built giant telescopes that have allowed us to cast our gaze deep into the universe astronomers have been able to look back to near the time of its birth they've reconstructed the course of cosmic history in astonishing detail from intensive computer modeling and myriad close observations they've uncovered important clues to its ongoing evolution many now conclude that what we can see the stars and galaxies that stretch out to the limits of our vision represent only a small fraction of all there is does the universe go on forever where do we fit within it and how would the great thinkers have wrapped their brains around the far-out ideas on today's cutting edge to begin to get a handle on infinity we are going to need some perspective on the numbers and scales that define our universe one place to start is a narrow side street in Charles Dickens London the Curiosity Shop fictional to be sure you you can find an unparalleled collection of staff old shrunken heads and your scripts newspapers books and rare examples of impressively large numbers from Zimbabwe comes a 100 trillion dollar note in late 2008 with that nation battered by hyperinflation it was worth about a dollar fifty u.s. go up two orders of magnitude to something decidedly more useful the fastest supercomputer in history will soon hum along at 20,000 trillion calculations per second a 20 followed by 15 serums you'll have to run it about a day and a half to equal the number of grains of sand on all the world's beaches that's around a sextillion a ten followed by 22 zeroes that's roughly the number of stars in the visible universe atoms in the visible universe that's upwards of 10 to the 78th power the 10 with 78 zeroes cubic centimeters a mere 10 to the 84th a septa vision Tilian to go up from there return to no less a source than the Guinness Book of World Records the largest named number in regular decimal notation the Buddha's time period Assam Kia is 10 to the 140th years or 100 Quinto Quadra Gentilly ins then there's the largest number ever used Graham's number is a calculation of angles in a type of hyper cube if you divided the visible universe into the smallest units known called black volumes the total of those units wouldn't get you anywhere close to Graham's number but it's still nowhere close to the ultimate sealing infinity for those who find infinity hard to grasp even troubling you're not alone it's a concept that has long tormented even the best minds over 2,000 years ago the Greek mathematician Pythagoras and his followers saw numerical relationships as the key to understanding the world around them but in their investigation of geometric shapes they discovered that some important ratios could not be expressed in simple numbers take the circumference of a circle to its diameter called pi computer scientists recently calculated PI to 5 trillion digits confirming what the Greeks learned there are no repeating patterns and no ending in sight the discovery of the so called irrational numbers like pi was so disturbing legend has it that one member of the Pythagorean code he passes was drowned at sea for divulging their existence a century later the philosopher Zeno brought infinity into the open with a series of paradoxes situations that are true but strongly counterintuitive in this modern update of one of Zeno's paradoxes say you have arrived at an intersection but you are only allowed to cross the street in increments of half the distance to the other side so to cross this finite distance you must take an infinite number of steps in math today it's a given that you can subdivide any length an infinite number of times or find an infinity of points along a line what made the idea of infinity so troubling to the Greeks is that it clashed with their goal of using numbers to explain the workings of the real world to the philosopher Aristotle a century after Zeno infinity evoked the formless chaos from which the world was thought to have emerged a primordial state with no natural laws or limits devoid of all form and content but if the universe is finite what would happen if a warrior traveled to the edge and tossed a spear where would it go it would not fly off on an infinite journey Aristotle said rather it would join the motion of the stars in a crystalline sphere that encircled the earth to preserve the idea of a limited universe Aristotle would craft an historic distinction on the one hand Aristotle pointed to the irrational numbers such as pi each new calculation results in an additional digit but the final final number in a string can never be specified so Aristotle called it potentially infinite then there's the actually infinite like the total number of points or subdivisions along a line it's literally uncountable Aristotle reserved the status of actually infinite for the so called prime mover that created the world and is beyond our capacity to understand this became the basis for what's called the cosmological or first cause argument for the existence of God another century later Archimedes incorporated actual infinity into measurements of curved lines and volumes his method boils down to a process of summation place a triangle inside a circle turn it into a square then a pentagon and so on as the number of sides increases to infinity their combined lengths equal the circumference of the circle by slicing and dicing curves into an infinite number of straight lines it was able to compare a variety of curves areas and volumes our committees anticipated techniques developed 2,000 years later and yet his ideas on infinity did not carry forward due to what the author David Foster Wallace described as a mathematical allergy that developed in response to Aristotle's potential infinity it was Aristotle's ideas that passed into the Christian era along with his cosmology with earth seated firmly at the center that view was not universal Islamic Hindu and even some Western thinkers posed alternate views that included infinite space in European circles the issue of infinity resurfaced during the Renaissance in 1543 the polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus argued that Earth orbits the Sun not the other way around the old Greek spheres began to fall by the wayside when a distant supernova then a comet were spotted by the astronomer Tycho Brahe these objects seem to behave independently of the other stars a monk named Giordano Bruno inflamed the issue by travelling Europe at the height of the Inquisition to proclaim an infinite universe in the year 1600 he was burned at the stake for this and other heresies just nine years later in 1609 Galileo Galilei used the first astronomical telescope to show that the universe is much larger than we thought in later writings he even sought to discredit the distinction between potential and actual infinity Galileo was forced to recant and the old Aristotelian view held sway any attempt to assign a value to infinity in numbers or in nature was doomed but that was the unique province of God finally at the end of the 19th century the mathematician Georg Cantor sought once and for all – divorce metaphysics from the abstract pursuit of math infinity he wrote had to be studied without arbitrariness and prejudice he became known for folding finite and infinite numbers into a unified theory of number sets considered a foundation of modern math one of his defenders used a paradox to show how infinite sets are subject to concrete comparisons say you've come to stay at this Grand Hotel you're in luck because here there is an infinite number of rooms oddly enough you learn there are no vacancies fortunately the manager says I can still check you in he assigns you to room number one and directs you down the corridor wonderful then he goes to work shifting the guest in room 1 to room to room 2 to 3 3 to 4 and so on so in this hotel there's a number set that includes an infinite number of guests and rooms then there's that same set plus you to infinite sets yet one is a subset of the other being able to use infinite sets of different sizes allowed mathematicians to design equations describing continuous motion and change over time echoing Aristotle a critic of the new set Theory suggested that the end of the corridor is still only a potential infinity with God representing the only actual infinity for those who pined for humble accommodations will recommend an alternative later on even as mathematicians embraced infinity astronomers in the early 20th century still saw a limited universe centered on the galaxies a flat disk of stars did the limits of our vision like the horizon at sea concealed and infinite universe beyond Albert Einstein for one believed that if that were true then the night sky would be filled with dense star light shining from every direction we'd reel from the effects of infinite gravity arguing for a finite universe he described a people living on the 2d surface of a sphere to them a beam of light moving through space would appear to go straight on an infinite journey in fact it follows a path determined by the overall gravity of the universe and curves back around like the old Greek spheres this view of a static and limited universe began to fall by the wayside in the 1920s Edwin Hubble and Milt Humason used the new 100-inch telescope on Mount Wilson in California to look at mysterious fuzzy patches of sky called nebulae they found that these patches were galaxies like our own and that some were very far away what's more they found that most are moving away from us the farther out they looked the faster the galaxies are moving this fact known as Hubble's law led to an inescapable conclusion that the universe is expanding furthermore if you run the clock back on this expansion it appears that it all began in one singular moment that moment has traditionally been described as an explosion a Big Bang how large the universe has gotten since then depends on how long it's been growing and how quickly using an array of modern telescopes astronomers have recently meld the beginning to 13.7 billion years ago taking into account the expansion of space ever since the radius of the visible universe the part we can see has expanded out to 46 billion light years these measurements have raised a new the ancient questions what's beyond our cosmic horizons is there an edge or does it somehow go on forever a new set of answers has emerged from a theory designed to address questions that arose from the original model of the Big Bang for one how did the universe get so large the Hubble Deep Field contains images of infant galaxies at less than 10% of the age of the universe near the edge of our cosmic horizons by the time one of those galaxies reached maturity it would have moved far far beyond our horizon and what of all the galaxies is visible at its horizons for another how did the universe get so smooth in every direction you look the density of galaxies is the same on large scales astronomers believe that whatever process fund the universe outward must have also blended it in its earliest moments the theory that addresses these questions was based on the discovery that energy is constantly welling up from the vacuum of space in the form of particles of opposite charge matter and antimatter the idea is that in primordial times an energy field embedded in this so-called quantum vacuum suddenly moved into a higher energy state causing space and time to literally inflate and our universe to burst forth if this theory is right then our universe is incomprehensibly large it's author the scientist Alan Guth wrote that the universe as a whole would have grown to at least 10 billion trillion times the size of our visible batch that's a 10 followed by 23 zeroes if you think that's big a variation on the theory describes the origin of our universe as a physical process that exists far beyond it out into the seemingly infinite void that had confounded Aristotle and other Greek thinkers in that case our universe would have inflated like a bubble and joined a stream of other bubble universes frothing up and expanding across an endless ocean of time and space a related idea theorizes a cosmic landscape unfolding in vast fractal patterns these new more expansive visions of the cosmos are not without their paradoxes logically speaking with infinite stars infinite planets infinite universes you will also have infinite possibilities the so called Infinite Monkey theorem has its roots in Aristotle's attempts to illustrate the perils of thinking about infinity ask a monkey to type or ask an infinite number of monkeys to type for an infinite amount of time you're sure to get a lot of random letters but there is a chance however small but somewhere somehow you'll get the full text of Shakespeare's Hamlet it's clearly absurd then again consider the increasingly strange nature of our universe as suggested by some new observations this is where we draw your attention from the famous Hotel infinity to a less well-appointed alternative you're sure to get a big welcome at the old Hall of Mirrors this ramshackle place would have thrown even the great thinkers for a loop it represents a kind of optical illusion that may be present in our view of deep space according to a new interpretation of data from one of the most important space satellites ever launched w map was sent out to make precision measurements of radiation left over from a period about 300,000 years after the Big Bang it revealed an intricate pattern of hot and cold spots now thought to represent the seeds of the galaxy filaments and walls seen on large scales the pattern was laid down by pressure waves that ricocheted through the expanding gas of the early universe one group of scientists looking at the sizes of these waves suggested that some are actually mirror images of themselves from this they argue that the universe could be much smaller than we think that's not the only strange new line of evidence tracking the movement of distant galaxies astronomers found huge clusters moving at about two million miles per hour in the direction of the constellation Centaurus with the results published in a top scientific journal the astronomers describe an immense gravitational presence that may loom beyond our visible horizon perhaps another universe that inflated near our own ideas like these may well have led to imprisonment or death in centuries past now they were part of a field of study that is bursting with data and ideas cosmology the study of the universe as a whole has long been infused with metaphysics and philosophy today it's steadily merging into the physical sciences so is the universe infinite scientists will continue to look for evidence of what lies beyond our horizons test theories on the nature of time and space but like the room at the end of an emphasis on Sur will always elude us

The Purpose of Life – By Jeffrey Lang



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السلام عليكم لقد أتيت من جامعة كنساس ونحن نلعب الربع الأخير للمباراة هذه اللحظة أريدكم أن تعرفوا أنكم طلبتوا الكثير مني اليوم لا. أنا فقط أمزح بإختصار شديد أريد التحدث عن ماذا يقول القرآن عن"الهدف من الحياة" أعتقد أنه موضوع مهم لأقصى الحدود خاصة للمسلمين المقمين في أمريكا لأننا أقلية وديانة جديدة هنا والكثير من الاشخاص لديهم اهتمام بما نؤمن وانا اعتقد السؤال الاساسي الجميع يحتاج اجابته عند النظر الي دين جديد هو: كيف الدين يري الغرض من الوجود.الغرض من وجودنا في هذا العالم سأبدا بالحديث من منظور الملحد لانني اريد ان اتحدث عن الاجابات التي يمتلكها القران للملحدين في البداية احتاج من 5 الي 10 دقايق حول ما اعتقدت لانه السبب الرئيسي الذي جعلني ملحدا لانني نشاءت في اسرة مسيحية ثم ساتحدث لمده 45 دقيقة حول تجربتي مع القران الكريم وكيف بدل القرأن منظوري هذا بسيط ولكن زوجتي تقول لي دايما ان اَلخص مسبقا قبل التحدث من السهل ان اضيع في خطاباتي زوجتي ليست واثقة في قدرتي في الالقاء في البداية اود ان اشير الي ان والدتي لم تلعب دورا في جعلي ملحدا امي كانت رائعة ,امرأه جميله ,لديها وقار وذوق رفيع الجيران احبوها هي كانت تعمل ممرضه .كانت تقضي ساعات طويله اضافيه في المستشفي كانت تعمل في جناح يختص بالتعامل مع المرضي الذين شرفوا علي الموت عندما ذهبت لاحضارها متاخرا من المشفي في ليل كل المرض – ليس كلهم – بل العديد من المرضي دعوني وتحدثوا مع واخبروني – كم كانت امي سيدة رائعه عندما توفيت,احتشد الكثير في جنازتها شخص تلو الاخر يأتيني ولديه قصة يتلوها عن امي ومدي طيبتها مرارا وتكرارا الناس توصف امي بانها"الام المقدسة" كانت شخص متدين جدا.ام رائعه .معلمه متميزة لطيفة جدا.لم اسمعها تلعن حد طوال حياتها لم اسمعها ابدا تتحدث الي اي شخص بوقاحه او عن اي شخص بوقاحه لقد كانت مثال رائع للشخص المتدين بحق هي لم تظهر هذا فقط اثناء العمل ولكن ايضا في التعاملات اليومية ابي من ناحية اخري, كان قاسي ابي ,لسبب غريب عنده غضب هائل بداخله لا اعرف من اين حصل عليه لديه عنف هائل بداخله و في كل ليلة كان يحاول ان يقمع ذلك العنف بشرب الكحول بشراهة علي الرغم من ان شرب الكحول كان يجعله اكثر عنفا ابي يمكن ان يضحك ويبكي في دقيقة معينة و يمكن ان يثور من الغضب من غير اي سبب لا يمكنك ان تخمن السبب في اللحظه التي يثور فيها يتصرف بطريقة وحشية جدا في البيت.البيت يكون في فوضي يكون في هذا مرارا وتكرارا يحتاج ال الكثير من المشروبات الكحولية وبضع ساعات اخيراً ينام وهذا يحدث ليلة ,بعد ليلة, بعد ليلة حتي اخواتي الاربعة,انا الرابع كنا نعيش مرحلة الطفولة مخيفة ومتقلبة ولكن لابد من القول إن أسوا شئ هو مشاهدة الاب يهدد ويعذب والدتي دايما ويستمر يوما بعد يوم بعد يوم بعد يوم مثل الكابوس الذي لم ينتهي أبداً في الواقع هي ليست شيئا سيئة عندما تكون هدفا لعنف الاب من الممكن ان تعتقد انه شيئا سيئا كونك هدفا لعنف الاب في الحقيقة ليست بهذا السوء في لحظة الهجوم,انت لا تفكر في اي شئ سوا النجاه عندما يصوب اللكمات نحوك او يركلك علي الارض او مطاردتك في المنزل عندما يهددك :"انا سوف اعذبك تعذيباً شديدا,الصبي !" انت لا تفكر في اي شئ سوا غير الهروب عندما يحدث انت لن تفكر في الاثار او النتايج النفسية والجسدية او اي شئ من هذا القبيل وعندما تنتهي من الممكن ان تبرر هذه المجزرة بسبب من الممكن انت بطريقة او باخرى تعتقد انت تستحقه ربما ليست بسبب ما فعلته في الوقت الراهن,يمكن ان يكون في الماضي انت دايما تلقي اللوم علي نفسك ولكن اسوء بكثير من الخوف هو الرهبة التي تتمكن منك عندما عندما تري اباك يذهب خلف والدتك لانها هي المصدر الوحيد للدفء والطيبة والحب و الحماية الذي تعرفه. ولو انه حرمه من كل هذا فمن وجهة نظر هذا الطفل . انه فقد كل شئ ولكن اسوء من الخوف هو الذنب ويأتي لك من العديد من الاتجاهات اولأ ,الكراهيه التي تنمو بداخك ضد الاب لاننا تعلمنا ان نحب ونحترم والدينا نحن نولد بهذه الروابط الطبيعية اتجاهم ولكن عند مشاهدة شئ كهذا يحدث في كل ليلة و الغضب بداخك يزيد انت سوف يتم سحبك في الاتجاه الخاطئ وطبعا الذنب الذي ياتي عتدما تعتقد انك السبب في كل هذا العنف ربما شيئا قولته او فعلته انت لم تدركه ربما لان والدك فقط لا يحبك الاثار الناجمة من الجدال بين الاب والام التي تحدث في الطابق الاسفل لكن اسوء شعور بالذنب هو انك لم تفعل شئ لتوقف اباك من آذيه والدتك بسبب عندما يصب غضبه علي والدتك في الطابق الاسفل كنت تختبئ في سريرك وترتجف تحت غطاءك ربما ترتجف وتبكي وتضع المخدة علي راسك وبالتي انك تساوم الاحترام الشخصي من اجل الامان ومع مثل هذا الحادث اللانهائي سوف تتدرك بوضوح جدا سوف تدرك مدي ضعفك ,ليس لك لا حول ولا قوة و لا قيمة لك وجبنك ثم الكره ينمو بسرعة بداخلك.ليس فقط في الرجل الذي تدعوه ب"الاب" ولكن ايضا لنفسك هذا في غاية السوء عندما تجبر صبي ان يختار ما بين امه او نفسه. هذا غير عادل جدا سمعت ان هناك محاضرة حول العنف المنزلي غداً صباحاً بواسطة الدكتور شاهين ريزوان اتمني منكم جميعاً الحضور.اعتقد انه موضوع مهم عندما كنت صغيراً كنت احب تخيل الحياه بدون والدي اردت العنف ان يختفي لا اريد ان اكون خائفاً بعد الأن كنت اشعر اني وقعت في كابوس لا استطيع الخروج منه لهذا دعوت الله مرة بعد مرة للتخلص من والدي من حياتنا لكن والدي كان دائما موجود ,لذلك بدأت ان اتسائل علي الفور هل الله موجود حقاً كنت اتساءل لماذا الله يخضع والدتي لتلك العقوبة الابدية لم اتسطيع ان اتخيل حجم الخطايا التي اقترفتها هي او اولادها لنستحق ابي لم يكن لدي النضوج الكافي للرد علي هذا السؤال, ولكن لدي ما يكفي من الخوف والغضب لاثارة هذه المسألة كنت صغير لاري الحكمة وراء ان تصبح امي ضحية عنف ابي كنت صغير لفهم لماذا الله ترك اطفال ابرياء يخافون كل ليلة في سريرهم يخافون ان الممكن الا يروا والدتهم مرة اخرى في الصباح اليوم التالي كنت صغير لاري لماذا رحمة الله تشمل ايضا والدي و فشله الفظيع كل ما ذاقته في حياتي كان فوضي وعنف وخوف لذلك كان من السهل ان اشكك في وجود الله بدأت في سن مبكر جدا اعتقد ان الفوضي وقعت في الستنيات والسبعينات عندما كنت في سن المراهقة تشجعت فقط في الشك في الله عندما اغتيل كلا من جون و روبريت اف كينيدي او عندما قتل مارتن لوثر كينج بالرصاص عندما استبعد نائب الرئيس اجنيو من الحكومة ومن ثم ريتشارد نيكسون بعده بوقت قصير اعمال الشغب التي اشتعلت في المدن الكبيرة مثل مدينتي عندما انتشرت الحرب بين العصابات في المدن ,بما في ذلك المدينة التي فيها عندما شاهدت فظائع فيتنام كل ذلك كان يؤكد الدرس الذي ترسخ بداخلي وابي قد علمني اياه جيدا وهو ان العنف والتفرقة العنصرية مهيمنة علي العالم بعد ذلك تساءلت لماذا لماذا الله جعلها بهذا الشكل لماذا لا نكون في الجنة منذ البداية لتجنب كل هذة المعاناة؟ لماذا الله جعل اطفال صغار في فيتنام يركضوا عارة في الشارع خوفا من القنابل مع انهم لم يفعلو شئ ليستحقوا ذلك لماذا سمح العنصرية ان تزداد ,لماذا سمح القاده ان يغتالون لماذا سمح للعنف ان يستمر ويستمر ويستمر لأبرياء لا يستطيعوا ان يفعلوا شيئا ولم يكن لهم يد في ذلك لماذا لم يخلقنا ملائكة ويرسلنا الي الجنة واذا كان من الممكن ان يخلقنا ملائكة وهو ما كنت دائما اثق في قدرته علي فعلها لماذا جعلنا عرضه لارتكاب المعاصي؟ لماذا لم يخلقنا معصومين من المعاصي مثلما خلق الملائكة هل هذا هو افضل عالم تستطيع ان تخلقه ….تسائلت اهذا اكثر عالم مثالي خلقته لوجودنا في الحياة انا لا استطاع ان اعرف و كل التوضيح الذي تلقيته من قسيس او دكتور او محامي او من اي شخص تحدث معه في هذا الموضوع لم اقتنع به في تلك الحالة اصبحت ملحداً عندما كنت 16 مع ان كنت في مدرسة كاثوليكية في ذلك الوقت اعلنت نفسي ملحدا في وسط الصف كنت في مناظرة مع احد القساوسة حول اهداف الله والحياة. عبرت علي ارائي ,ثم قال القسيس هذا يعني انك لاتؤمن بالله. فقلت _ حسنا , اعتقد اني كذلك في الصف الحادي عشر رسبت في مادة الدين مع انني كنت قادرا علي اكمال الاختبار بشكل جيد وعلي كل حال و عندما كنت في سن 28 و حتي اختصر القصه احد اصدقائي اعطاني نسخة من القرأن الكريم في ليلة كنت جالس في شقة في هايتس ماس في سان فرانسيسكوا كنت اعمل في جامعة سان فرانسيسكوا في ذلك الوقت كنت في ال27 او 28,لا اتذكر بالضبط كم كان عمرى نفذت مني الكتب لاقراها اخذت هذه الهدية من صديقي وبدات في قرائتها حسناً,بدات في قراءة القران من الصفحة الاولي ثم الثانية وهكذا ولكن سرعان وصلت لثاني سورة ,حوالي 37 اية من القرآن الكريم وصلت الي قصة عن بداية الخلق علي ان اعترف اني قرات علي عجلة حوالي 9 الي 10 ايات قصة عن اول رجل وإمراة تعرفت علي بعض التفاصيل التي كانت مشابهة لما تعلمته عندما كنت صغيرا ولكن لاحظت ان هناك شيئا خطا كان من الواضح لي , ان من كتب القران الكريم طبعا لم اكون مسلما في ذلك الوقت لذلك لم لدي اي فكرة من كتبه اي من كتب القران لم يفهم المعني الحقيقي للقصه في الواقع هناك عديد من التفاصيل كانت مربكة حتي انني لم افهم المعني الحقيقي للقصة لذلك قراتها مرة واثنين فقط لمحاولة فهم الفكرة التي يريد الكاتب ان يعرضها ثم قرتها مره ثالثة و رابعة الي ان ادركت ان هناك شئ غريب يحدث شعرت اني بحاجه لقراءتها بمزيد من الانتباه, احتاج ان اقرئها سطر بسطر ,اية باية بسبب ان الكتاب يريد ان يعرض فكرة اخري ولم اكون متاكدا ماهي ولكن بالتاكد الكاتب ضغط عدد كبير من المعاني في كلمة تقريباً علي الاقل اعتقدت ان الكاتب بارع وذكي جدا لذلك سوف احاول ان اعرض لكم تجربتي بشكل مختصر قدر الامكان وصلت ال اية 30 في سورة البقرة وتبداء هكذا "وَإِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلائِكَةِ إِنِّي جَاعِلٌ فِي الأَرْضِ خَلِيفَةً " الكلمة العربية "خليفة" وتعني ممثل لي او نائب لي اني جاعل في الارض خليفة ثم قالت الملائكة "قَالُواْ أَتَجْعَلُ فِيهَا مَن يُفْسِدُ فِيهَا وَيَسْفِكُ الدِّمَاء وَنَحْنُ نُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِكَ وَنُقَدِّسُ لَكَ " ثم الله قال: "قَالَ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ مَا لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ" هذه الاية دهشتني والتي لفتت انتباهي ,هذة الاية جعلتني اقرا القصة اكثر من مرة لان دعونا نري كيف بدات هذه القصة قال الله للملائكة انى ساجعل في الارض من يمثلني او ينوب عني قولت:هذة ليست الطريقة التي تسير بيها القصة كالعادة ليس من المفترض ان تضع الانسان به دور ايجابي في الارض او نوعا من مكتب تمثيلي من المفترض انك انت وضعت الانسان في الارض كعقاب علي الخطيئة بوضوح ادركت ان الكاتب لا يفهم هذه النقطة ولكن لاتزال اية رائعة جدا .بعد ذلك قرات ثاني اية تقول ان الملائكة قالوا "قَالُواْ أَتَجْعَلُ فِيهَا مَن يُفْسِدُ فِيهَا وَيَسْفِكُ الدِّمَاء وَنَحْنُ نُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِكَ وَنُقَدِّسُ لَكَ " فقرئت ذلك مره اخري , ولقد ادهشني السؤال "قَالُواْ أَتَجْعَلُ فِيهَا مَن يُفْسِدُ فِيهَا وَيَسْفِكُ الدِّمَاء وَنَحْنُ نُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِكَ وَنُقَدِّسُ لَكَ" نظرت للسؤال وقولت بالضبط هذا سيكون سؤالي لما خلقت البشر والذي ينبغي ان يكون لهم دور ايجايبي في حين انه يمكن ان يفعل اشياء سيئة؟ في حين انه يستطيع ان يفسد و يفسك الكثير من الدماء؟ لماذا يا الله خلقت هذا المخلوق العنيف و العدائي ؟ .في حين انك تستطيع خلق ملائكة؟ كما قالت الملائكة بوضوح – اننا نقدس ونسبح بحمدك انهم يسألون السؤال الاكثر اهمية في تاريخ الدين لماذا خلقت انسان وهو المخلوق الاكثر عرضه للخطا ؟ .هذا المخلوق الذي المتمرد علي تعاليم الله والذي يستطيع فعل اخطاء هائلة هذا المخلوق الذي يستطيع ان يسبب فوضي هائلة علي عكس المخلوقات الاخرى علي وجه الارض بينما تستطيع ان تخلقهم كملائكة لاحظوا اين طرح السؤال … لقد طرح في الجنة كانهم يقولوا بالضبط لماذا لا تخلقهم ملائكة مثلنا في الجنة تجعلهم ملائكة يظهروا في الجنة وكل شي سيكون علي ما يرام لماذا تضعهم علي الارض حيث يمكنهم ان يشعروا بمسافة بينك وبينهم ويفعلوا ابشع الجرائم ويتصرفوا وكانهم يمكنهم ان يفعلوا ما يشاءون وكانهم مستقلين عنك عندما يمكنك ان تجعلهم ملائكة تطيعك؟ نظرت لهذا السؤال وقلت هذا سؤالي ولا حتي قصة واحده عن بداية الخلق قراتها قبل ذلك عرضت هذا السؤال ذلك السؤال يصف كل ما فكرت به ,كل ما مررت به ,كل ما عرفته كل هذا في ذلك السؤال كما لو ان الكاتب اخذ حياتي كمثال ووضع السؤال الصحيح ليصفها لاذلالي و واثارت غضبي لماذا خلقت البشر؟ هذه المخلوقات الاكثر تدميرا وعنفا حين تستطيع ان تخلقهم ملائكة انظروا للجواب بعد ذلك بعد ذلك قال الله
"قَالَ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ مَا لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ" او كما نقول"اعرف تماما ما افعله " قرات هذا وقولت "ماذا" انت تعرف الذي لا اعرفه !! انت تعرف جيدا ما تفعله ,إذن ارجوك اخبرني ما الذي تفعله انا عندي 28 عاما ولا استطيع حتي الان فهمها ولدي عدد من الاسئلة الاخرى اريد فهمها مرتبطة بهذا السؤال لا يمكنك الابتعاد بهذه السهولة و تقول انا اعرف بالضبط ماذا افعل! ليس بعد كل هذا الالم الذي مررت بيه ,ليس بعد ما جعلتني ابدو كذلك! بالتاكيد لم ادرك اني اجادل مع الله الذي لا اؤمن بيه في تلك اللحظة وهذا كان يحدث مرارا وتكرارا اثناء قرأة القرأن احيانا ابدو هائجاً مما اقرا .أبدا اجادل هذا الصوت الذي يخاطبني ثم ناتي الي الاية التالية يتضح ان القران لا يتجنب السؤال,بل يبدا الرد قليلا ثم ناتي الي الاية التالية ان الله علم أدام اسماء كل شئ "وَعَلَّمَ آدَمَ الأَسْمَاء كُلَّهَا" ثم عرضها امام الملائكه ثم قال "ثُمَّ عَرَضَهُمْ عَلَى الْمَلائِكَةِ فَقَالَ أَنبِئُونِي بِأَسْمَاء هَؤُلاء إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ" ولذلك فمن الواضح ان هذه الاية تشير الي الاية السابقة لاحظت ان الاية تقول في السابق كنت اعرف ان ادام يعلم الاسماء ولكنها لم تكون متصلة ب اي اجابة ل اي سؤال فلسفي بالنظر الي ما تقولة الاية :"وَعَلَّمَ آدَمَ الأَسْمَاء كُلَّهَا" ادركت من الاية الاولي انه يجب عليك قراءة الايات بعناية فائقة بسبب ان الايات تحتوي علي كمية من المعاني والرموز وَعَلَّمَ آدَمَ الأَسْمَاء كُلَّهَا" من هنا نري ان ادام ليس فقط المخلوق القادر علي ان يسمي الاشياء والتي تتطلب هبة اللغة ولكن هوا ايضا مخلوق متعلم الذي علمه الله وهنا في هذه الاية .و سوف يصبح اكثر وضوحاً في الايات القادمه ان اول شئ يؤكده القرأن هنا هو الذكاء البشري هو مخلوق متعلم . انه متعلم . و ماذا الذي تعلمه؟ ماهي اعظم موهبة لديه (اٌعطيت له )؟ رداً علي سؤال الملائكة هي هبة اللغة. بسبب اللغة يصبح الجنس البشري قادر علي التعلم من تجاربة بل و يمكنه التعلم من تجارب الاخرين ايضا علي مر العصور والاماكن و التي تتألف من مئات الالاف من السنين والاميال المنفصلة عنه بحيث تصبح كل المعرفة تراكمية كل جيل يتعلم من الجيل الذي قبله انا اتعلم الان من خلال قراءة كتب المؤلفين في الجانب الاخر من العالم الذي من الممكن انهم عاشوا منذ ألفي سنة لهذا اننا جمعياً نساهم في التعليم والمعرفة التراكمية لاحظت ان القرأن يؤكد علي ذلك اكثر من مرة كمثال أية تقول اقْرَأْ بِاسْمِ رَبِّكَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ (1) خَلَقَ الإنْسَانَ مِنْ عَلَقٍ (2) اقْرَأْ وَرَبُّكَ الأكْرَمُ لماذا الله هوا الاكرام ؟ما هي اعظم هبة اعطتها لك؟ الله علم الانسان كيفية استخدام القلم و التي من خلالها علمه ما لم يعلم الَّذِي عَلَّمَ بِالْقَلَمِ (4) عَلَّمَ الإنْسَانَ مَا لَمْ يَعْلَمْ ومرات عديدة يدعو القران الانسان لأستخدام عقله حتي انه اقسم بعقله و من اجل استخدام العقل بطريقة صحيحة لان هذا العقل يلعب دور اساسي لارشاد الانسان الي الحقيقة لم اقراء من قبل كتاب مقدس يشدد علي إعمال العقل بطريقة صحيحة وتسخير العقل لمساعدتنا علي تعزيز الايمان بينا وعلم ادام اسماء كل شئ ثم قال للملائكة اخبروني باسماءهم ان كنتم صادقين وَعَلَّمَ آدَمَ الأَسْمَاء كُلَّهَا ثُمَّ عَرَضَهُمْ عَلَى الْمَلائِكَةِ فَقَالَ أَنبِئُونِي بِأَسْمَاء هَؤُلاء إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ" انت عندك اعتراض ,سؤال من هذ النوع عن خلق الانسان هذا الانسان مخلوق متعلم .قبل ان بعثه الي الارض اخبروني باسماءهم لو كنتم علي حق:ثُمَّ عَرَضَهُمْ عَلَى الْمَلائِكَةِ فَقَالَ أَنبِئُونِي بِأَسْمَاء هَؤُلاء إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ الملائكة قالوا
قَالُواْ سُبْحَانَكَ لاَ عِلْمَ لَنَا إِلاَّ مَا عَلَّمْتَنَا إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَلِيمُ الْحَكِيمُ قالوا ان هذه المهمة(الفكر) كانت فوق قدراتهم .هذه تتطلب معرفة والملائكة لا تمتلكها في الحقيقة يا الله انت السميع العليم .انه من سهل بالنسبة ياالله .انت العليم .انت الخبير .وتعرف الحكمة من وراها ولكن هذه تتطلب الحكمة و فوق قدراتنا في الاية التالية :يطلب الله من ادام ان يخبرهم باسماءهم
قَالَ يَا آدَمُ أَنبِئْهُم بِأَسْمَائِهِمْ فَلَمَّا أَنبَأَهُمْ بِأَسْمَائِهِمْ وعندما اخبرهم باسماءهم ,لاحظ انها كانت شئ سهل بالنسبة لادام .كل البشر لديهم هذه القدرة الهائلة عندما اخبرهم اسماء الاشياء كما لو شئ تافهة عندها قال الله
قَالَ أَلَمْ أَقُل لَّكُمْ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ غَيْبَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَأَعْلَمُ مَا تُبْدُونَ وَمَا كُنتُمْ تَكْتُمُونَ بوضوح يمكننا ان نري انه يعود الي سؤال الملائكة
نعم كان لديك سؤال وقلق طبيعي علي خلق الانسان نعم يمكن للانسان ان يفعل شياء سيئة ولكن انظر الي ذكاء البشري الذي لديه هذا اشياء لم تلاحظوها او تضعوها في الاعتبار والواضح ان هذا الغرض الرئيسي من هذه الايات علي الرغم من اني اعتقدت ان الكاتب اساء فهم قصة خلق الانسان ولكن في الواقع ان الكاتب اخد اعظم قصة في تاريخ البشرية و ثم استخدامها لتوصيل الرسالة الاساسية الله قال
قَالَ أَلَمْ أَقُل لَّكُمْ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ غَيْبَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَأَعْلَمُ مَا تُبْدُونَ وَمَا كُنتُمْ تَكْتُمُونَ بعبارة اخرى الم اقول لكم اني اعلم ماذا افعل؟ واعلم ما تظهرون وما تخفون نظرت وقولت "ماذا يبدون وماذا يكتمون عندما ساءلوا هذا السؤال" فكرت فيها لدقيقة وقولت اعود للسؤال لاعرف ما يبدون

Bradford Student SNAPS!! on RACIST teacher



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RACISM STILL SURVIVES…Bradford student SNAPS!!!! racist teacher call him and his friends the academic ghetto and when boy asks to move to the other side of class teacher says he cant afford it….. teacher now under investigation..

– weird amount things like yeah oh you gave me the teachers don't know i neva spender in don't care what you gotta say you been acting crazy up towards me I'm Billy forever you need to stop you need to stop with all that academic get on I can't flirt my way that whole side hurry up predominantly right I can't afford to go in I'm crazy we can hear you when I first came this far my boys would be cool classrooms will be able to peek our minds you know beat and be like you know learn in a learning environment of everybody babe but you proved me wrong like Oh everybody's stupid he lies

Sir Roger Penrose, Aeons before the Big Bang (Copernicus Center Lecture 2010)



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The second Copernicus Center Lecture was delivered by Professor Roger Penrose, a famous physicist and philosopher of science. Professor Penrose titled his …

10 Things About the Universe That we may Never Understand



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An exploration of 10 aspects of the universe that we may never understand, no matter how long we study science.

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the universe is a very strange place full of mysteries and odd possibilities that while scientists ceaselessly try to figure them out may remain complete unknowns forever no matter how advanced our civilization and our science becomes so here are 10 bizarre possibilities regarding the universe that we may never understand number 10 we may never know what gravity is one of the biggest mysteries in science is the nature of gravity for something that we interact with constantly we really don't know that much about it Newton tried to tackle the issue but only came up with a general way of expressing how it behaves but not what it is and even then Newton was very slightly off Einstein took that further but he himself spent his last decades trying to figure out just what gravity is but again to no avail today scientists know how gravity behaves in the framework of space-time and can predict it very accurately but what the force itself actually is remains an unknown ideas on this range from the existence of an elementary particle known as the graviton that mediates the force of gravity trouble is cravat ons have never been found and there is doubt that they even exist another take on it is how Einstein described gravity as a warp in space-time or an inherent acceleration towards massive objects trouble is this is an incomplete view and again simply describes how it behaves not what it is perhaps the most strange aspect of gravity is that as far as a force of nature goes it's incredibly incredibly weak look around you just to hold you to the ground you need the entire mass of planet Earth to generate enough gravity to do it yet we routinely defeat the force of gravity when we launch space probes why it's a week adds to the mystery and recent work to determine if gravity is weak because it's mostly leaking into other dimensions came up negative so gravity remains a great mystery and while we may someday understand its nature completely there's also a chance that we never will number nine is the universe infinite we live in a sort of bubble within the universe we call it the observable universe and beyond it lies more of the universe that we can't observe this is a matter of the speed of light objects beyond a certain point cannot be seen because the universe hasn't existed long enough for the light for them to reaches one open question within cosmology is how much more universe there is beyond what we can see some think it's not that much yet others think it could be substantial but there is another idea that it is infinite and if that's the case it introduces some very strange possibilities in an infinite universe it becomes plausible that if you travel far enough you will run into another earth slightly different with another you living on it still further you may find another again slightly different and so on leading to a kind of physical real alternate reality all existing within the same universe given that we will never be able to observe the entire University – the expansion of the universe this question may forever remain open number eight the double slit experiment this strange aspect of our universe is one of those kinds of things that make sense when expressed in the mathematical terms of physics but appears counterintuitive to a human but the double slit experiment always yields the same result having been performed thousands of times it has to do with the dual nature of particles as both waves and particles the idea is that you fire particles say electrons at a baffle with two slits cut into it behind the baffle as a wall you will see on the wall as the electrons pass through the slits an interference pattern indicating that the particle is behaving as a wave much like an ocean wave passing under up here however when you put detectors on the other side of the baffle and observe the particles the interference pattern on the wall disappears and becomes two slits indicating that the particle is acting as a particle not a wave in short for all intents and purposes the act of merely observing it changes the outcome of the experiment we may never fully understand why this is number seven will the universe someday cease to exist a great unknown within cosmology is what's eventually going to happen to the universe in one view it will simply go on forever until literally all stars burn out black holes evaporate iron stars form and all goes dark at some point but continues on infinitely this in itself opens up very bizarre possibilities of chance and infinite time such as the formation of a Boltzmann brain where random fluctuations if given enough time will cause some kind of a consciousness to randomly appear in the dead universe out of nowhere but it could alternatively be that the universe will someday meet an end this debate is not settled within cosmology and there have been many potential ends of the universe advanced but two possibilities stand out the first is if the proton is capable of decaying this is an unknown but if they indeed do decay the universe will effectively end when they do given that all matter in the universe will simply dissolve another possibility is that the universe itself is somewhat unstable in that it doesn't exist at it's true vacuum state if something were to happen within the universe that pushed some part of it to the true vacuum the results would be disastrous expanding at the speed of light the entire universe would be ripped apart as it moved to the true vacuum this could dramatically alter how the universe works such as how gravity functions or how matter is structured the universe is we knew it at least would no longer exist and we very likely wouldn't survive it thankfully the timeframes for this to happen are very likely far longer than our species can exist within the universe number six what set off the Big Bang regarding the Big Bang generally the earlier you go in that process the less it is understood by current science notice the Planck epoch when applied to the very first moments of the Big Bang the theories that physicists rely on to describe the universe particularly Einstein's general relativity no longer predict what exactly happened what can be done is somewhat informed speculation based on evidence of the Big Bang such as the cosmic microwave background radiation and there exist several scenarios that might someday prove to explain what exactly happened one possibility comes from string theory and its variants where the universe is suspended on a kind of membrane when this membrane collided with another membrane that impact set off the big bang others include that the whole thing was set off as a result of quantum fluctuations or that the universe is one of many in a kind of multiverse where universes blood like flowers on a tree off of other universes also suggestions have been made that the universe is the other side of a black hole known as a white hole where matter leaves the black hole whatever the case may be because we have no way of seeing what happened during the Planck epoch is entirely possible we may never fully understand what exactly happened number 5 spooky action at a distance we often view the universe as a place of immense distances any two objects can be separated by almost unfathomable distances so distant that they can't ever even observe each other but that absolute concept of separation is not necessarily set in stone in the quantum mechanical world in fact separated particles can be connected to each other through a phenomenon of quantum mechanics over vast distances and influence each other instantaneously so long as they had some physical interaction in the past that entangled them Einstein called it spooky action at a distance and absolutely hated the idea but the phenomenon of quantum entanglement is real and has been experimentally proven put simply if one particle changes behavior such as its spin the other reacts instantaneously no matter how far away it is unfortunately this behavior cannot be predicted meaning that it can't be used to convey information the universe does not allow information to propagate faster than light exactly how this occurs depends on what interpretation one holds of quantum mechanics though ultimately we may never know exactly how particles do this just simply that they do number 4 11 dimensions of space and time regarding our last entry one of the ways quantum entanglement might work is that particles might not be connected spatially in the dimensions that we perceive but might be closely connected in another dimension that we can't perceive well it's still very much up in the air whether other dimensions exist or how many there could be there are hypothetical possibilities particularly within the realm of string theory one interpretation involves eleven dimensions ten of space one of time the reason we do not see these other dimensions of space is because they are curled up and thus imperceptible to us but at the very first moments of the Big Bang they may not have been and may have played a role whether this is the case or whether other dimensions even exist at all could remain open forever number three time travel is possible at least in one direction is time travel possible the arguments against traveling to the past are numerous especially because it would violate causality it's the old what happens if you go back in time and kill your own grandfather scenario would you cease to exist but that's only part of the story of time travel and it may not be a set in stone as you might think now travel to the future is easy it's literally built into the universe and you're doing it right now as the clocks tick because of relativity however very high accelerations can affect time in a process called time dilation that allows you in your frame of reference to travel into the future simply by accelerating this is exemplified by the twin paradox where one twin stays on earth and another twin travels through space at relativistic speeds and when he gets back he's no longer the same age as his twin even on smaller scales satellites in orbit have to be corrected for my new amounts of time dilation so in short if you go extremely fast in space you will travel forward in time at a different rate than someone sitting here on earth trouble is if you go 500 years into the future you have no way of ever getting back to your own time or do you the answer is maybe but it wouldn't be easy and all practicality it is likely impossible but this may not mean that backwards time travel is strictly impossible in the universe hypotheses exist that under very special conditions such as if you had a rotating cylinder of infinite length or under certain conditions in involving traversing a black hole or a wormhole not to space but their time might allow you to at least in principle travel backwards but that we do not appear to see time travelers from the future visiting us suggest that we will never figure out backwards time travel or it's illegal or we simply go extinct before we figure it out number two the universe will someday be mostly invisible in this option we actually do understand what's happening or at least parts of it but in the very far future anyone that might exist very well may not understand the vast majority of the universe in the way that we do this is because as the universe ages and continues its expansion everything but your local group of galaxies will be so distant that light cannot travel fast enough to make up for the expansion of the universe in between essentially a civilization existing in the old age of the universe will have no idea that countless other galaxies exist in the universe because they will all be invisible they may not even be able to determine that a Big Bang ever happened or know anything about the universe as it is today they may be able to study their local group of galaxies and glean some clues about the nature of the universe but even worse an isolated rogue star system in the intergalactic medium might not even have that option available to them they would essentially be marooned on their world until the effective end of the universe itself never knowing very much about it at all number one the many-worlds interpretation it's possible to take a completely different approach to the concept of parallel universes different from the concept of a multiverse in the 1950s Hugh Everett hypothesized that other universes could exist hovering for a lack of a better term alongside our own constantly splitting off from each other and that events in those universes may all have different outcomes this leads to some strange ideas such as that in a parallel universe the dinosaurs did not undergo a mass extinction event and that humans have evolved as a result leading to a modern earth still dominated by dinosaurs perhaps even intelligent ones other possibilities are well explored in science fiction from everything from what might have happened if the Allies had been defeated in World War 2 to evil alternate universe Spock with a beer this may seem far-fetched and it is but not the underlying reasons why Everett hypothesized the possibility within quantum mechanics is a question one related to the double slit experiment why does quantum matter behave so strangely why do particles take different forms Niels Bohr hypothesized that these particles don't actually exist in any one state at all but all possible States and that observing the particle forces it to pick a state but that's only one take on it in Everett's interpretation when a particle chooses a state it actually causes a split in the universe itself creating an entirely new universe branching off from another explaining why particles can be measured in different states because they exist in all possible states spread across parallel universes in the world of the big above the quantum level this means that there could be universes in which you are dead or a very different person whether these parallel universes exist or not is an open question and probably will never be answered as it doesn't seem possible we could ever detect or measure these other timelines but this concept of collapsing wave functions can be taken to an even more profound level some have asked the question does the entire universe have a wave function would it even exist if it weren't being observed it's hard to believe that would be the case but it is a question by its very nature we probably cannot ever answer for sure thanks for listening I am futurist and science fiction author John Michael Cody a currently musing about the alternate universe jmg again the one without the goatee that streams on twitch instead of making YouTube videos and drives a Malibu instead of a LeBaron I don't think I like that guy at all and be sure to check out his books at your favorite alternate universe online book retailer and subscribe to my channels for regular in depth explorations into the interesting weird and unknown aspects of this amazing universe in which we live

The True Science of Parallel Universes



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الكل يحب فكرة الاكوان المتوازية , ربما هو إلتماس لعالم مثالي حيث لديك فرص ثانية و الأمور جرت بطريقة مختلفة. واقع بديل دخلت فيه إلى هاغواترس و أفلام حروب النجوم السابقة لم تصنع و توصل فيه سلك اليو اس بي بطريقة صحيحة من أول محاولة لكن هل هناك مكان في العلم للتخمين الحالم هذا ؟ أعني إذا ''الكون'' هو كل شيء موجود , لن تستطيع إمتلاك إصدارين منه, أليس كذلك؟ وإلا سيكون الكونان كل شيء و ما أسميناه الكون لم يكن كل شيء. وإلا سيكون الكونان كل شيء و ما أسميناه الكون لم يكن كل شيء. المشكلة هنا هي المصطلحات,
الفيزيائيون يتكلمون بشكل غير رسمي أحيانا بقول '' الكون '' عندما يقصدون حقاً " الكون المرئي" وهو جزء من الكون الكلي الذي بإستطاعتنا رؤيته. بأمكاننا ايضاً ان نتحدث عن اكثر من كون مرئي مثلا, فضائي بالقرب من حافة كوننا المرئي سيرى اجزاء من الكون الكلي التي لا نستطيع رؤيتها, لأن الضوء لايملك الوقت الكافي للوصول الينا. لكن هذا السؤال مفهوم جيداً وليس هو ما يتحدث عنه الفيزيائيون عندما يتحدثون عن الأكوان المرئية المتعددة او "الأكوان-المتعددة" بإختصار: في الفيزياء , كلمة "الأكوان-المتعددة" عادة تشير الى 3 نماذج فيزيائية للكون لا علاقة لها ببعض لم يتم تأكيد او تجريب اي من هذه النماذج اختبارياً ايضاً. نماذج "الأكوان-المتعددة" الثلاث هي: النوع #1
الكون الفُقاعي او كون الثقوب السوداء الصغيرة هو ابسط نوع من "الأكوان-المتعددة": الفكرة الأساسية هي انه ربما هنالك أجزاء أُخرى من الكون بعيدة لدرجة اننا لن نتمكن من رؤيتها او بداخل ثقوب سوداء ولن نتمكن ايضا من رؤيتها ايضاً. هذا النموذج صُنع لتفسير لماذا كوننا متميز في توليد النجوم و المجرات
و الثقوب السوداء و الحياة. كما تقول الحُجة, اذا كان كل من هذه "الفقاعات" الغير متصلة تماماً في الكون لها قوانين فيزياء مختلفة قليلاً, اذاً حسب التعريف لن يمككنا الوجود إلا في واحدة لها قوانين طبيعة تسمح لنا بالوجود. مثلا يجب علينا ان نكون في كون الارض فيه تشكلت, اذا لم توجد الارض لن نكون هنا. اذا لم تقتنع بهذا المنطق, لاتقلق كثيراً, لايوجد الكثير من الأدلة التجريبية لهذا النموذج من ""الأكوان-المتعددة" حتى الان. نوع #2
الأغشية والأبعاد الإضافية. مستوحاة جزئيا من عجز رياضيات
نظرية الأوتار على التنبؤ العدد الصحيح من أبعاد الكون المرئي لنا ,اقترحت نظرية الأوتار فكرة أن ربما ما نفكر فيه ككوننا
في الواقع مجرد سطح ثلاثي الأبعاد مطمور في كون فائق مكون من 9 ابعاد مكانيه. كمثل أن اوراق الصحيفة هي سطح ثنائي الابعاد مطمورة في عالمنا الثلاثي الأبعاد وبطبيعة الحال، إذا كان للفضاء 9 أبعاد بدلا من الثلاثة، سيكون هناك الكثير من المكان لسطوح ثلاثية الأبعاد الأخرى التي ظهرت، مثل سطحنا ، لتكون أكوان في حد ذاتها،
ولكن، مثل صفحات الصحف، كانت في الواقع جزء من كل أكبر. هذه الأنواع من السطوح
تسمى "أغشية" أو "الأغشية" للاختصار. و للتذكير، وليس هناك حتى الآن أي دليل تجريبي على هذا النوع من الكون المتعدد. نوع #3
صورة العوالم المتعددة لميكانيكا الكم. من المثير للدهشة الفزيائيون مازالوا لا يستوعبون بالكامل كيف تتحطم الدالة الموجية في الفيزياء الكمية و فرضية العوالم المتعددة تفسر ذلك بإفتراض أن كل إطار زمني للكون حقيقي و أن كلهم يحدثون بطريقة متشعبة الى الأبد. كروايات كونية تحدث فيها كل القصص المحتمله. اذا كانت الوضع كذلك, فلن يمكننا ادراك ذلك لأننا سنكون عالقين بالعيش في واحد من العديد من الحيوات الانهائية المتاحة لنا. في بعض الطرق, نظرية العوالم المتعددة تشبه نظرية الاكوان المتعددة الفقاعية بإفتراض ان "ربما كل شيء ممكن أن يحدث, سوف يحدث" وأننا فقط موجودين في سلسلة الاحداث التي نحتاجها للوجود. إذا لم تقتنع بهذا المنطق, لاتقلق, لايوجد اي دليل تجريبي لهذا النموذج من الكون المتعدد. طبعاً, اذا اردت أن تكون تَخيُلياً يمكنك دمج العديد من هذه النماذج معاً لصنع أكوان تعددية متعددة نموذج جديد عالي التوقع مبني على نماذج توقعية و غير مؤكدة تجريبياً. لكن هذا لايعني أنه لا يمكن إجراء التجارب على نظريات الأكوان المتعددة. مثلا, لو أن كوننا المرئي هو بالفعل مجرد واحد من العديد من الفقاعات المتفرقة أو الأغشية و صدف أن إصطدم بفقاعة او غشاء اخر بالماضي فذللك الإصطدام بالتأكيد سيكون له أثر ما على ما نراه في السماء ليلاً. من ناحية اخرى, نظرية العوالم المتعددة قد يتم تجريبها قريباً إذ أن الفيزيائيون التجريبيين تزيد مقدرتهم بالتلاعب والتحكم بأنظمة كمية ضخمة في مختبراتهم أنظمة تقارب الحد بين العالم الكمي و واقعنا اليومي. لذلك كما هو الحال دائما، علينا أن نتذكر أن الفيزياء
علم، وليس فلسفة وفي محاولاتنا لتفسير الكون الذي نراه, يجب علينا ان نجد فرضيات قابلة للتجريب في المبدأ, ثم القيام بتجريبها!

Alan Watts – Don't Take Life too Seriously



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~ Part 1: Social Institutions as Games :
~ Part 2: How to Play the Game :
~ continuation of Part 3: YOU are your worst enemy :
~ continue to Part 5: The Joke of Death:
~ Part 6: Don’t be Deceived :

Many more lectures on the Philosophy and Metaphysics playlist:

we'll begin by refreshing memories after what went before in discussing the theme of the Joker I have been talking about a point of view the Joker's point of view from which not only our social institutions but also all the formations of the natural world are seen as games be careful of the word game it doesn't mean as trivialities because when we say it's just a game this often means it is just trivial there can be important games as when we play the piano or musical instruments we are not necessarily doing something frivolous but we are playing and there is something in the nature of all play that is not serious but at the same time may be sincere and I tried to give you the picture of the multiplicity of natural forms on the one hand and of human social institutions and all the things that we do and consider important and busy ourselves with as human beings I tried to give you the point of view from which these can be seen as games as things being done as it was simply for themselves and not for some ulterior motives and therefore these games are in a way best played when they are played as games although it's really alright for people to take them seriously except that they are a little bit deprived they're missing something and so when the Joker sees a person taking his life seriously and regarding himself as extremely important there is something a little bit funny about it and he is inclined to get the giggles and it's all he knows that the very intensity of seriousness with which the individuals concerned are taking these games will be a kind of foil for the subsequent bursting into laughter when he sees that it wasn't serious after all you see that you might say there are these classes of people there are the very far out people and the very far in people now ordinarily we say someone's very far out when they are involved when they are exceedingly unconventional but I want you to turn the picture round and look as a conventional person look at a square as the person who's very far out that is to say he is so involved in the seriousness of the game he is playing that he is lost he doesn't know where he started from and he thinks he's there but he's completely lost because he is actually under the cover of his assurance of his status of his position in society is really a very anxious person I said a lot yesterday about the way in which our society shows anxiety because it cannot permit the existence of people who don't belong and it cannot really permit the criticism of laughter it cannot permit the presence of the old-fashioned court jester because these people are so far out they are so involved and one from a certain standpoint you see from the Joker's standpoint he doesn't condemn such people he rather congratulate them on their heroism for getting so lost and involved but to keep the far out people from going quite insane there have to be far in people and the far in people are those who keep contact with the original the goings on behind the scenes they are like the prompter in the theater where there are the actors out on the stage relying on their memories etc and they are supposed to get completely involved in the play but there's a concealed prompter was a script in front of him and he is the connection of the actor on the stage with the greenroom behind the stage and you see in in this dramatic analogy of the universe the green room is the central point the still point of the turning world the green room is how God is when he's back home not involved in all these games and takes off the mask see I'm the Hindu theory that everybody is the mask of God the like wonderful line in one of Chesterton poems and now a great thing in the street seems any human not we're moving strange democracy the million masks of God the million masks of the Joker because the Joker is the player the trick player who plays ultimately the great trick on himself so really there can be no resentment about this nobody to blame nobody to turn around during the end and say you you bastard you did this to me because it's always you who are ultimately responsible so this prompter you see keeps the actor on the stage in touch with the greenroom and so there are certain people in the world who might be a kind of a priesthood sometimes although priesthoods are apt to become corrupt and square but a kind of people in the know there always has to be somebody around in the know so that are as it were the wheel of society and of existence the wheel of the squirrel-cage the wheel of the rat race can have an actual firmly planted and at the center then there have to be the far in people so this is the domain of jokers now having developed that side of the Joker the person who sees through the social institutions of games I went on in the second session to discuss another aspect of the Joker as the fly man in comparison with the monk the fakir and the yogi who undertake all those three undertake in certain different ways disciplines which have the intent of releasing them from their Karma the individual in other words challengers his involvement his attachment his limitations his fine a toot and endeavors to overcome it but in each of these three cases the individual involved stirs up in immense opposition because he serves notice upon the devil or shall we say upon his karmic creditors that he is about to leave town and so all the creditors come rushing to the door all his past sins catch up with him and the devil lays his temptations in the way all the more thoroughly so that the sly man is the one who when he is going to leave town does so instantaneously without any prior announcement and so in this way there is shall we say a cunning manner of becoming a Buddha and that is to become one instantly without any preparation or warning whatsoever this is why Zen is called the sudden school and why star tori is a sudden awakening because it has to be done without the slightest warning now but then I pointed out that the moment you have any idea about doing this you've already ceased to be sudden if that is to say the moment you seek for some spiritual attainment which is becoming a Buddha becoming awakened becoming release getting in there you've already served notice upon your creditors so that somehow or other you find that you have to do it without intending to do it and that is a double bind where would you impose upon yourself when you say I must find a way of doing this spontaneously that's the old old basic double bind you must be spontaneous you are commanded or you command yourself to do something which is acceptable only if it happens spontaneously then you think about that and say well well well what a fix that is here am I saying I must be surprised and I'm going to lay plans to surprise myself so by going through this you discover of naturally that that can't be done you can't surprise yourself on purpose yet that's what you have to do so what about it you come to a state of total paralysis you're stuck the one thing that is terribly important to be done can't be done it has to happen it really does if you're earnest about this you want to get out of the trap but you can't do anything about it either actively or passively but then as you begin to see what you are doing all the time you notice a very odd defect which is that you can't help being spontaneous if I say to you good morning and you say good morning what is that did you plan this answer did you make preparations to grow your hair I do make decisions about having blue eyes you see about breathing is this all clam about beating your heart and what about your thinking even if it's very blocked thinking even if you feel from a certain point of view that you're all mixed up what is going on anyway you see you can't stop it it's like trying to we were discussing the good chef thing yesterday the self remembering exercise the attempt to live completely in the present well that's not only a good chef idea that's a very ancient yoga and Buddhist discipline to be completely here and now but of course as you pursue this who discover you can't do it because you couldn't even you know know when to go shopping unless you made plans and started thinking about the future because you couldn't move but then you discover you see that in the long run there's nothing to think about except that here and now there isn't anything else because even when you make plans to the future and you remember the past you're doing it all in the present your memory is the present activity there's no way of not being self remembering and present and having presence of mind so when you discover that there's nothing left to you but to have a good laugh well now I want to develop to a greater extent something I only touched on yesterday afternoon when we were discussing anxiety and laughter and the relationship between the two I suggested that anxiety and laughter are really the same phenomenon but a theme from different points of view as we all know we can have shadows of horror and shadows of delight tears of grief and tears of joy and it's the same shudders than the same tears in either case but they have a completely different meaning now life set life is a matter of oscillation light is vibration it's the young III the whole time and all the way through question is how are you going to interpret that is it tremble tremble tremble or is it laughs laughs laughs that's the that's the great thing and sometimes it's one sometimes it's the other so that the the whole thing of the Joker is the book the he comes into being as it were at the point when the anxiety interpretation of the trembling becomes the Laughing interpretation we were talking about monks who had skulls on in their cells to remind them of mortality and we think a grim thing the skull is a grim thing but Chesterton had the poem about the skirt of the skull chattering Finch and water fly are not merrier than I here among the flowers I lie laughing everlastingly no I may not tell the best surely friends I might have guessed death was but the good Kings jest it was hid so carefully so you can see the skull not as a grim thing but as a laughing thing it's all of left of a human being and all the the surface is peeled off and nothing but this beautiful bone remains it laughs now why what is it about death being a jest we discussed the problem of the zebra you remember whether a zebra is a yellow horse with black stripes or a black horse with yellow stripes and of course you can see it either way and you can argue to all this blue about which side is right and let's suppose that a black horse is the horse of ill-omen even though striped with yellow and a yellow horse the horse of joy and good omen even though striped with black this is our eternal problem we are in the state of egocentric consciousness firmly convinced that death is a threat we are so convinced to this even though individuals may say well I'm not really afraid of death what I'm afraid of is dying in an unpleasant way nevertheless since almost all spare moralists and they're people concerned with ethics seem to agree whatever their differences of opinion that survival is a good thing in some sense if not survival in this body even the most I mean the people who would rather be dead than red firmly believe that that is true because they believe there is a Hereafter where they can go and where they can be rewarded for the courageous stand against evil which they have taken you see so that's still some kind of insistence on the very the value of survival and we all cling to this idea of survival with tremendous passion but we have been fooled because survival is an important ideal only so long as you have bothering you the bugbear of death that the world might stop altogether and that your death so far as you are concerned is curtains forever and that is really the bogey you see that's all very well to rationalize and say no it's not death I'm afraid of its the pains of death but if you think about it deeply there are several stages in thinking about it deeply the first stage is the real horrors of endless night of the futility of the whole conception that one's own life or indeed the whole life of the cosmos might be nothing but a flash and beyond that nothing nothing nothing in all directions when for example we think of the physicists idea that the universe is running down that all energy is seeking a stable state supposing for example to give an illustration of what they mean I have a jar of black pepper and a jar of salt and I pour them together into another jar and I can see the white salt and the black pepper fairly well delineated then I start shaking the jar and slowly slowly slowly the black and the white disappear into a grey that can never be sorted out again into black and white and in this sort of way as things go on the universe they say it tends to attain a stable state to run down run down run down until that's the end and nobody knows how it could possibly start all over again but I always say and I feel it's in a sort of funny intuitive way that what happened once can happen again if this world started at some time supposing there was a colossal explosion which set all these galaxies flying out then a what existed before that explosion must surely have been something like the stable state to which we shall run down in the end and if it went bang once there's absolutely no reason why it shouldn't go bang again I suppose there are temperaments in logic I have a temperament whereby I just cannot it mean it seems to me absolutely basic that what happened once can happen again but there are other people who so cherished the unique that they can conceive the idea of something like existence happening only once but you see something that happens only once doesn't happen at all what happens if you a given sound consists of only one vibration what is the up crest of a wave apart from the down crest can you conceive that that's the same Cohen as what is the sound of one hand you see it always takes two you can't have a purely left-sided person imagine so in this way just as you can't have just one vibration I mean it's like we're saying the greatest strength of mind is to eat one peanut and and so you can hardly be done so there isn't just one vibration and add it but no dahhh sort of thing you you have to have it do more so in the din just the same way when you magnify this principle there isn't just one cosmos a one big explosion that starts and stops all stopping implies starting someone just wrote to me we haven't parted because we never met [Laughter] so the whole point of saying this is the realization that existence is eternal they're going out of existence implies for coming in and some Thomas had some points here when he said there could never have been a time when there was not being because if there had been a time when there was nothing there was nothing in nothing to produce something but he didn't quite have the point because what he didn't see was that nothing is productive in the sense that you can't have nothing without something they go together and all this thing is an argument again about whether the zebra is yellow striped black or black stripe yellow and what we see is that the black and the yellow the darkness and the light are simply two phases of the same and that realization is exactly what transforms anxiety into laughter suddenly to see that you just after all this anxiety that you don't have anything to worry about now that doesn't mean that there will not in our future lie some extremely painful experiences or experiences that we would ordinarily interpret as horribly painful we may all die of ghastly diseases or of radiation burns or of unimaginable things but look here I very briefly touched on pain yesterday and the way pain is interpreted if if you interpret pain as something that is destroying you and is going in the direction of total death then it's very serious indeed and it's perfectly terrifying but I've been investigating experiences of people who've undergone torture I don't know if anybody in this room has it's always possible but and then if so you can correct me but the worst part of torture is the beginning when it costs you're full of all your illusions and all your fears about black and white and the terror that black may win but it's said that as torture proceeds it slowly changes the state of mind of the victim to a kind of drunken masochistic giving in to the torture so that it becomes something that he cooperates with and that if the the torturer are notices this he knows he's through and has to kill him so in other words there is a point at which pain becomes an experience without having a negative interpretation put upon it becomes in other words converted into ecstasy it simply becomes you see a way of going through extraordinarily far out sensations which have no meaning if they have meaning the meaning of threats the meaning of death looming at the end and you know this is the tearing apart and the destruction of you then you see it is absolutely horrendous but if it has no meaning at all just transpose yourself into another dimension to illustrate it because what the dimension I'm talking about very tough one but let's go back to a simpler one let's take sounds now if you lie down and listen to all the goings on in this area and you'll hear planes moving in cars and foghorns and all kinds of crazy sounds you see people this way and that song and you could listen to that and find it very interesting very beautiful but if someone were to do what John Cage does and put you in a concert hall with the expectation of hearing music and by having a purely silent playing of the piano compel you instead to listen to all the sounds going on around you you would be shocked and feel that some kind of avant-garde hoax had been perpetrated you see it depends on the set on the way you approach the experience now you can listen to sounds that are ordinarily considered unpleasant in a totally unprejudiced way you can listen to the discordant musical noises and find them extremely interesting if you listen carefully enough you

The Big Bang Theory Scientific Method Clip Season 6 Episode 5



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have you noticed that Howard can take any topic and use it to remind you that he went to space interesting hypothesis let's apply the scientific method perform an experiment okay hey Howard any thoughts on where we should get dinner anywhere about the space station on a good day dinner was a bag full of meatloaf but hey you don't go there for the food you go there for the view fascinating let me see if I can duplicate the result Howard I've always thought the lemon was an underrated fruit care to weigh in not really oh well you know people say the Soyuz capsule is a lemon that baby got me to space and back