Lecture 1 | Modern Physics: Special Relativity (Stanford)



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Lecture 1 of Leonard Susskind’s Modern Physics course concentrating on Special Relativity. Recorded April 14, 2008 at Stanford University.

This Stanford Continuing Studies course is the third of a six-quarter sequence of classes exploring the essential theoretical foundations of modern physics. The topics covered in this course focus on classical mechanics. Leonard Susskind is the Felix Bloch Professor of Physics at Stanford University.

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this program is brought to you by Stanford University please visit us at stanford.edu this quarter we're going to learn about field theory classical field theory fields such as the electromagnetic field gravitational field other fields in nature which I won't name right now propagate which means they change according to rules which give them a wave-like character moving through space and one of the fundamental principles of field theory in fact more broadly nature in general is the principle of relativity the principle the special printless the the principle of special relativity in this particular case the principle of special relativity well let's just call it the principle of relativity goes way back there was not an invention of Einstein's I'm not absolutely sure when it was first announced or articulated in the form which I'll spell it out I don't know whether it was Galileo or Newton or those who came after them but those early pioneers certainly had the right idea it begins with the idea of an inertial reference frame now inertia reference frame this is something a bit tautological about an inertial reference frame Newton's equations F equals MA are satisfied in an inertial reference frame what is an inertial reference frame it's a frame of reference in which Newton's equations are satisfied I'm not going to explain any further what an inertial reference frame is except to say that the idea of an inertial reference frame is by no means unique a reference frame first of all was a reference frame in tale of a reference frame first of all entails a set of coordinate axes in ordinary space X Y & Z and you know how to think about those but it also entails the idea that the coordinate system may be moving or not moving relative to whom relative to whomever we sitting here or you sitting here in this classroom here define a frame of reference we can pick the vertical direction to be the z axis the horizontal direction along my arms here to be the x axis X plus that way X my X is minus in that direction and which one have I left out I've left out the y axis which points toward you from me so there are some coordinate axes for space XY and Z and I didn't this in addition to specify a frame of reference one also imagines that this entire coordinate system is moving in some way relative to you sitting there presumably with a uniform velocity in a definite direction if your frame of reference is an inertial frame of reference in other words if when you throw balls around or juggle or do whatever is supposed to do in an inertial frame of reference if you find yourself in an inertial frame of reference then every other frame of reference that's moving with uniform velocity relative to you now remember what uniform velocity means it doesn't just mean with uniform speed it means with uniform speed in an unchanging direction such a frame of reference is also inertial if it's accelerated or if it starts standing still and then suddenly picks up some speed then it's not an inertial frame of reference all inertial frames of reference according to Newton and also I think also Galileo Galileo was often credited with the idea but I never read enough of Galileo to know whether he actually had it or not neither did I read enough of Newtons they both wrote in languages that I don't understand what was I saying oh yes right according to both Newton and anybody else who thought about it very hard the laws of physics are the same in all inertial reference frames laws of physics meaning F equals MA the forces between objects all the things that we would normally call laws of nature or laws of physics don't distinguish between one frame of reference of and another if you want a kind of pictorial example that I like to use a lot when I'm explaining this to the children or to grownups I like to think about the laws of juggling there are very definite procedures that you train your body to do uh in order to be able to juggle balls correctly now you can imagine yourself being in a railroad car moving with perfectly uniform velocity down the x axis and trying to juggle do you have to compensate for the fact that the train is moving and for particular when you throw a ball up into the air that you have to reach over to the right to compensate for the fact that the train is moving to the left my left your right the answer is no you don't the laws of juggling are the same in every reference frame and every inertial reference frame whatever you do in one reference frame you do exactly the same thing and you'll succeed or fail depending on whether you're a good juggler or not but it will not depend on whether you're moving with uniform velocity so the laws of juggling are the same in every inertial reference frame the laws of mechanics are the same in every inertial reference frame the laws Newtonian laws of gravity are the same in every inertial frame according to Newton what about the laws of electrical phenomena well there there was a clash the clash had to do with Maxwell's equations Maxwell's equations were the field equations the field theory that governed the electromagnetic field and the way that it propagated and sent waves electromagnetic waves that we ordinarily call light or radio waves or so forth and the fundamental dilemma as you all know I'm sure you all know the fundamental dilemma was both according to well here was the dilemma Maxwell's equations said light moves with a certain velocity if you take the various constants that appear in Maxwell's equations and put them together in the right way you get the velocity of waves moving down an axis and that velocity comes out to be a certain number out of Maxwell's equations you have two choices one is to believe that Maxwell's equations are true laws of nature as good as any other laws of nature in which case the principle of relativity says they should be the same in every reference frame but if it follows from Maxwell's equations that the speed of light is three times ten to the eighth meters per second which is about what it is if it follows from Maxwell's equations that light moves that fast and if Maxwell's equations are laws of physics fundamental laws of physics and if the laws of physics are the same in every reference frame then the speed of light must be the same in every reference frame but that was very hard to swallow because if a light beam is going down that axis and you chase it and run along with it that lets say three-quarters of the speed of light then you want to see that light ray moving much more slowly than three times ten to the eighth meters per second relative to you on the other hand the light ray going in the other direction since you're sort of running into it you should see going even faster so all these possibilities could not simultaneously be correct that the laws of nature are the same in every reference frame and that Maxwell's equations are laws of physics in the same sense that Newton's laws of physics namely the same in every reference frame something had to give well the point was of course that they were good laws of nature and that they were the same in every reference frame the thing that had to give is our concepts of velocity space and time and how we measure velocity especially velocities were up which are up near the speed of light now I'm not going to spend the full amount of time that I did previously on the special theory of relativity that can be found on lectures from how long ago and there on the Internet I believe relativity and electromagnetism I think that was maybe about three quarters ago I've lost track yeah they're up there they're on the net and they're the lectures on relativity special relativity and electromagnetic theory we're just going to cut through it real fast we're going to cut through the basic ideas of relativity a little more mathematically than I would do if I were teaching it for the first time I teach it the first time I tend to teach it the way Einstein first conceived of it how do you measure distances how do you measure velocities how do how does the propagation of light influence these things instead I'm going to take a more mathematical view of it and think about the properties of various kinds of coordinate transformations coordinates now consists not only of XY and Z but also time T so imagine every event in the world is characterized by just like every particle would be characterized by a position x y&z every event taking place in space-time is characterized by four coordinates X Y Z and T let's suppress for the moment y&z let's just forget I forget them for the moment and concentrate on X and T that would be appropriate if we were mainly interested in motion along one axis let's focus on that motion along the x axis let's suppose there is no motion along y&z then we can forget y&z for the moment momentarily we'll come back to them and think of motion along X and T and the various reference frames that might be moving along the x axis alright here's here's time vertically is space horizontally physicists always draw space horizontally and time vertically I found out that mathematicians are at least certain computer scientists always draw time going horizontally I didn't know that and I got into an enormous argument with a quantum computer scientist which was ultimately resolved by the fact that he had time going horizontally and I had it going vertically these are traditions I guess traditions grow up around subjects but time is north and X is east I guess or at least time is upward yeah yeah yeah that's what that that that's the point that is the point yes they're thinking of time is the independent variable and everybody knows that it's a law of nature that the independent variable should be horizontal ok all right now let's in let's imagine a moving observer moving down the x axis with a velocity V let's take his origin of spatial coordinates his origin of spatial coordinates at time T equals zero is just the same let's assume that my I'll be the moving observer I move down the x-axis I am my own origin there's nobody who was your origin that seat is vacant over there so that absent a human over there is the center of the x-coordinates in your frame I'm the X prime coordinates and of course I being very egocentric will take my x-acto is origin to be where I am there I do I move down the x-axis we pass each other our origins pass each other at t equals 0 so that means at T equals 0 your axis and my axes are the same or your origin in my origin is the same but then as I move down the x axis my core my coordinate center moves to the right most of the right that's supposed to be a straight line that's as good as I can do under the circumstances that's a straight line and it's moving with velocity V which means it's X prime equals SR it means x equals VT but it's also that's the way you describe it in terms of your coordinates my centre you described by saying x equals VT how do I describe it I just say X prime my coordinate X prime is 0 X prime equals 0 is the same as x equals VT all right what's the relationship between X Prime and X and T well it's easy to work out if you believe this picture the X prime coordinate is the distance from my origin the x coordinate is the distance from your origin so one of these is X the other is X prime the upper one here is X prime the low and here is X and the relationship between them is that they differ by an amount VT in particular X is equal to X prime minus VT or X prime is equal to X plus VT will have it wrong yes I do X prime is X minus BT and X is X prime plus VT yeah I think I have that's correct now all right what about time itself well according to Newton and according to Galileo and according to everybody who came afterward up until Einstein time is just time is just time is just time there was no notion that time might be different in different reference frames Newton had the idea of a universal time sort of God's time God upon his cloud ticking off with his with his super accurate watch and that time was universal for everybody no matter how they were moving and so everybody would agree on what on the time of any given event in this map of space and time here and so the other equation that went with this is that T prime is equal to T let's forget the top equation here let's just forget it one might say that this was the Newtonian or the Galilean transformation properties between X and T your coordinates and the coordinates that I ascribe to a point in space-time now let's examine a light ray moving down the plus x axis if it starts at the origin here then it moves along a trajectory which is x equals CT C being the speed of light now shortly I'm going to set C equal to 1 we're going to work in units in which C is equal to 1 but not quite yet incidentally once you understand a bit of relativity working in coordinates in which C is not equal to 1 is about as stupid as using different units for x and y are if we used yards for x and feet for y then we will have all kinds of funny factors in our equations which would be conversion factors from X which is measured in feet to Y which is measured in our yards the cycle has its uses log scale has its uses no long skilling long scale well let common interest yep I'm not sure we good but okay I'm just saying it is quite often in practical circumstances that one uses different scales yeah you sometimes you might there might be a good reason I mean um it wouldn't be totally unreasonable for a sailor to use different units for horizontal direction and vertical direction hmm I mean he's used to moving around horizontally he might use what miles miles versus fathoms or something nautical miles versus paddles yeah Persian is relative but um when you talk about a frame of reference you need to specify a period of time because obviously goes that 15 billion years there is no yeah we're ignoring now the fact that the universe began at some time and we're imagining now as Newton did and as the early Einstein did that the universe has just been here forever and ever and ever unchanging totally static and space and time have properties which don't change with time now of course that's incorrect in the real world and at some point we will take up the subject of cosmology and find that's not right but as long as we're interested in time intervals which are not I suspect this is what you're getting at as long as we're interested in time intervals which are not too long in particular time intervals over which the universe doesn't expand very much and so forth we can mainly say the properties of space don't change over a period of time and so everything just stays the same as always was is that what you're asking it seems that that this assumption if it is made it needs to what you're describing so well so the question is without imagining to some point as it doesn't lead it doesn't lead to what I'm describing where is this this room for different formulas here this is a formula which is based on an assumption the assumption being that time is universal that's what Einstein found was wrong basically what he found is that when you're in a moving frame of reference to different the observers will not agree about what time a particular event takes place this is the culprit here this one and some modifications to this one but in any case to see what's wrong let's go to Maxwell's equations Maxwell's equations say that light always moves with this velocity C being some numbers in meters per second okay 3 times 10 to the 8th meters per second we will later as I said say C equals 1 let's imagine a light beam moving down the x axis let's describe how X prime sees it in other words you see the light move this way to the right how do I see the light well let's see what I see let's just work it out X prime will be X which is CT for that light ray minus VT which is the same as C minus VT all this says is that I see the light moving with a diminished velocity a velocity C minus V why is that because I'm moving along with the light so naturally I see it move slowly the slow compared to what you see it what about the light going in the other direction supposing it was a light beam going in the other direction then how would you describe it you would describe it as x equals minus CT and if I do exactly the same thing I will find that X prime is equal to X that's minus CT – VT which is the same as minus C plus V times T so what this says is that I will see the light moving also in the negative direction that's the minus sign but I'll see it moving with an enhanced velocity C plus V if this were the right story and if these were the right transformation laws for space and time then it could not be the case that Maxwell's equations are laws of physics or laws of nature in the sense that they were true in every reference frame they would have to be corrected in moving frames just like the juggler who had to reach to the right who didn't actually but who thought he had to reach to the right to collect the ball when train is moving the physicist interested in light beams would have to correct things for the motion of his reference frame now it's an experimental fact that this is not the case that you don't have to correct for motion was the famous Michelson Morley experiment Einstein he just rejected he just felt this can't be right Maxwell's equations were much too beautiful to be relegated to the approximate or to the contingent on which reference frame and so he said about to find a framework in which the speed of light would be the same in every reference frame and he basically focused on these equations and after various very very beautiful Gedanken experiments thought experiments about light and about measuring and so forth he came to a set of formulas called the Lorentz transformations I'm going to explain them the Lorentz transformations in a more mathematical way not fancy mathematics but just get we want to get right to the heart of it and not spend the three weeks doing it the best way is to a mathematical problem but before I do let me set up a different mathematical problem which is for most of you you've seen me do this before but nonetheless let's go through it again the problem of rotation of coordinates we're going to do this quickly let's just take spatial coordinates now for the moment two dimensional spatial coordinates let's forget X and T and just concentrate on X&Y two coordinates in space instead of events in space-time concentrate on a point in space a point in space has coordinates and we can determine those coordinates the x and y coordinates just by dropping perpendicular to the x axis in the y axis and we would describe this point as the point at position let's just call it X Y now there's nothing sacred about horizontal and vertical so somebody else may come along some crazy mathematician a really nutty one who wants to use coordinates which are at an angle relative to the vertical maybe a couple of beers and you don't know the difference between vertical and worth worth worth we should give this direction a name oblique yeah all right the oblique observer the blue observer can blue be seen everybody can see blue okay good ah the blue observer also characterizes points by coordinates which he calls X Prime and Y Prime the X Prime and the Y prime coordinates are found by dropping perpendicular to the X Prime and the Y prime axis so here's X prime is y prime and given a point X Y there's a role it must be a role if you know the value of x and y you should be able to deduce the value of X I'm in y-prime if you know the angle between the two coordinates between the x coordinate and the X prime coordinate and the formulas simple we've used it least in these classes many times I'll just remind you what it is that's X prime is equal to x times cosine of the angle between the two frames between the two coordinate systems minus y times sine of the angle and Y prime is equal to minus plus I think X sine of theta plus y cosine theta I just want to remind you about a little bit of trigonometry all of trigonometry is encoded in two very simple formulas I've used them this signs on these signs of are on the right let's Ella and X prime is bigger than X for small theta since ours here are all so it's Auto Expo Rhine is bigger than it is is it yeah let's see if you rotate it to the next so that y is y prime is zero it's further out X prime rook will have it backward yeah what's your gift I'm not gonna fit nobody so let's say just make sure the links take survive is the little perpendicular there no my life primary so that's y prime y prime is this is why I'm here right right that's why I'm in X prime is bigger than X so there has to be a plus sign on the second you know its prime is bigger than X let's see um yeah X prime is bigger than X yeah X prime is bigger than X looks like that's probably right probably sign but then this one must be man negative yeah okay there's an easy way to correct for it another way to correct for it just call this angle minus theta that would also do the trick because cosine of minus theta is the same as cosine of theta and sine changes sign when you change theta 2 minus theta so if instead of calling this angle theta I called it minus theta then my previous formulas would be right it's true true but the it's an excuse all right what do we know about sine and cosine it's important to understand sine and cosine everything you ever learned about trigonometry can be codified in two very simple formulas if you know about complex numbers the two very simple formulas are that cosine of theta is e to the I theta plus e to the minus I theta over 2 and sine of theta is e to the I theta minus e to the minus I theta over 2i those two formulas contain everything about trigonometry you don't have to know any other formulas other than these for example I will assign you the homework problem of using these two formulas to find cosine of the sum of two angles but the way you would do it is just write the sum of two angles in here and then reexpress the Exponential's in terms of cosine and sine that's easy to do e to the I theta is equal to cosine of theta plus I sine theta and e to the minus I theta is cosine of theta minus I sine theta so work through these formulas get familiar with them they're extremely useful formulas once you know them you will never have to remember any trigonometric formulas again the other thing to know is that e to the I theta times e to the minus I theta is 1 all right e to the anything times e to the minus the same thing is one those things characterize all trigonometric formulas in particular as was explained to me by Michael a number of times if we multiply e to the I theta times e to the minus I theta we will get one on this side but on this side we will get cosine squared of theta plus sine squared of theta naught minus sine squared but plus sine squared cosine squared and then ice minus I squared sine squared that gives us cosine squared plus sine squared cosine squared theta plus sine squared theta so that's equivalent to the fact that e to the I theta times e to the minus I theta is 1 all right now the most important fact that again follows from the simple trigonometry is that when you make the change of coordinates from XY to X prime Y prime something is left unchanged namely the distance from the origin to the point XY that's something which is you know you count the number of the molecules along the blackboard from here to here and that doesn't change when I change coordinates so the distance from the origin to the point XY has to be the same independent of which coordinate axes we use well let's take the square of that distance the square of that distance we know what it is let's call it s squared I'm not sure why I use s but s for distance s s for distance s for space I think it must be for space that I'm using it for the spaces for the spatial distance from the origin to the point XY we know what that is it's Pythagoras theorem x squared plus y squared but as I said there's nothing special about the XY axes we also ought to be able to calculate it as X prime squared plus y prime squared well it's not too hard to work out that X prime squared plus y prime squared is x squared plus y squared it's easy to use do X prime squared plus y prime squared will have x squared cosine squared theta it will also have x squared sine squared theta when you add them you'll get x squared plus y squared you know you know the rigmarole so it follows from cosine squared plus sine squared equals 1 that X prime squared plus y prime squared equals also equal is equal to x squared plus y squared work that out make sure that you have this on the control that you understand why from the trigonometry not from the the basic physics of it or the basic geometry of it is clear make sure that you understand that you can see that from the trigonometry okay one last thing about sines and cosines if I plot on the blackboard for every angle if I plot sine or cosine along the horizontal axis supposing I plot cosine of theta along the horizontal axis and sine of theta along the vertical axis then if I plot all possible angles they will correspond to a bunch of points that lie on a unit circle Y on a unit circle because sine squared plus cosine squared equals 1 so one might call the properties of sine and cosine the properties of circular functions circular in that they're convenient for rotating they're convenient for describing unit circles points on unit circles are described in terms of coordinates which are cosines and sines of angles and so forth it's natural to call them circular functions these are these are not the functions that come in to the transformation the new transformation properties first of all these are wrong and I don't want to use X what's X ya ya now just wrong Newton had it wrong Newton or Galileo however it was postulated who postulated it Einstein modified it now we're going to have to make sure that Einstein's modification doesn't change things in situations where Newton knew where Newton's equations were good approximations the situations where I'm Stan's modifications are important is when we're talking about frames of reference moving very rapidly up near the speed of light before the 20th century nobody or nothing had ever moved faster than a hundred miles an hour probably well of course some things did light did but for all practical purposes light didn't travel at all it's just when you turned on the switch the light just went on so light didn't travel nothing and anybody's experienced direct experience traveled faster than 100 or 200 miles an hour and well I should say nothing travels faster than 100 miles an hour and then live to tell about it so all of experience was about very slow velocities on the scale of the speed of light on the scale of such velocities newton's formulas must be correct they work they're they're very useful they work Nutan got away with it so there must be good approximations it better be that whatever einstein did to the equations in particular to these two equations here had been a reduced to newton's equations in the appropriate limit okay let's come back now to light light according to the Newton formulas doesn't always move with the speed of light but let's let's try to figure out what it would mean of a better formula of a replacement for this but light always moves with the speed of light first of all let's set the speed of light equal to one that's a choice of units in particular it's a choice of the relation between space units and time units if we work in our light years for spent for a distance and years for time then light moves one light year per year the speed of light is one if we use seconds and light seconds it's also one whatever whatever scale we use for space if we use for time the time that it takes light to go that distance one unit of space if we use that for time units then the speed of light is equal to one now from the ordinary point of view of very slowly moving things those are odd units but if we were electrons with neutrinos and whizzing around like photons they would be the natural units for us speed of light equals one so let's set the speed of light equal to one as I said it's just the choice of units and then a light ray moving to the right just moves along a trajectory x equals T C is just equal to one a light ray moving to the left is x equals minus T how can we take both of these equations and put them together sorry x equals minus T can I write a single equation which if it's satisfied is a light ray either moving to the left or to the right yes here's an equation x squared equals T squared it has two solutions x equals T and X equals minus T the two square roots or x squared equals T squared is equivalent to either x equals T or x equals minus T in other words this equation here has the necessary and sufficient condition for describing the motion of a light ray either to the right or to the left supposing we found a replacement for this equation which had the following interesting property that whenever let's let's write it this way X square minus T squared equals 0 this is even better for our purposes x squared minus T squared equals 0 that's the necessary and sufficient condition to describe the motion of a light ray supposing we found a new set of rules a new set of transformation properties which which um had the property that if x squared minus T squared is equal to 0 then we will find that X prime squared minus T prime squared is equal to 0 in other words supposing this implied this and vice-versa then it would follow that what the unprimed observer you and your seats see is a light ray the primed observer me moving along also see as a light ray both of us agreeing that light rays move with unit velocity now this doesn't work for Newton's formula here it just doesn't work if X is equal to T it does not follow that X prime is equal to the T prime in fact it says something quite different okay so the form of these equations must be wrong let's look for some better equations now at this point let's in fact let's even be a little bit more ambitious it turns out being a little bit more ambitious actually simplifies things let's not only say that when X square minus T squared is equal to zero then X prime squared minus T prime squared is equal to zero let's say something even bolder let's say the relation between XT and X prime T prime is such that x squared minus T squared is equal to X prime squared minus T prime squared in other words pick any X and any T and calculate X square minus T squared then take the same point except reckoned in the primed coordinates in other words we take a certain event a light bulb goes off someplace you say that corresponds to X and T I say it corresponds to X Prime and T Prime but let's require just to try it out see if we can do it let's look for transformations so that X square minus T squared will always be equal to X prime squared minus T's prime squared that would be enough to ensure that everybody will agree about the speed of light why if x squared minus T squared equals X prime minus T prime squared for all X and T and so forth then when X square minus T squared equals zero X prime minus T prime squared will be zero and then if this is a light ray so is this a light ready everybody get the logic ok good so let's assume now that let's ask can we find transformations which have this particular property now it's not so different from looking for transformations which preserve x squared plus y squared equals x prime squared plus y prime squared it's just a little minus sign other than a minus sign here X square minus T squared look of these two is very similar and the mathematics is quite similar here are the transformations which preserve x squared plus y squared what are the transformations which preserve x squared minus T squared well they are the Lorentz transformations they are the fundamental transformations of the special theory of relativity they're not this but they're closely related or perhaps one should say closely analogous to these equations here but we have to substitute for circular trigonometry hyperbolic trigonometry so let's go back and remember a little bit about hyperbolic functions instead of circular functions well I didn't want to erase that all right these are the basic rules governing circular functions cosine theta this sine theta is equal to this and the e to the I theta in terms of cosine and sine all right let's see if we have a yeah we do have a blank blackboard here let me write whoops what did I do here I erased something I didn't mean to erase incidentally does everybody see how I got this side from the side you just add and subtract the equations appropriately and you isolate it to the I theta e to the minus R theta that's elementary exercise alright hyperbolic functions what are hyperbolic functions alright those are functions of the form hyperbolic cosine cosh hyperbolic cosine first of all the angle theta is replaced by a variable called Omega which I will call Omega Omega is called a hyperbolic angle it doesn't go from zero to two pi and then wind around on a circle it goes from minus infinity to infinity goes from minus infinity to infinity so it's a variable that just extends over the entire real axis but it's defined in a manner fairly similar to cosine and sine cosh Omega is by definition you're not allowed to ask why this is definition e to the Omega plus e to the minus Omega over 2 all we do is substitute for theta or for Omega theta I theta substitute Omega and that gives you hyperbolic functions likewise or similarly there's the hyperbolic sine and that's given by e to the Omega minus e to the minus Omega over 2 essentially you throw away all eyes out of that formula out of the top formulas just throw away all Sun all eyes the equations on the right-hand side become e to the Omega equals hyperbolic cosh Omega plus sin Chi Omega and e to the minus Omega equals cosh so mega- cinch Omega I think that's right is it right gosh – cinch it is yeah it is right okay now what about the analog of cosine squared plus sine squared equals one that simply came by multiplying this one by this one so let's do the same operation multiplying e to the Omega by each by e to the minus Omega gives one and now that gives cosh squared minus cinch squared you see we're getting a minus what we want we want that minus the minus is important we want the well somewhere is under here was a formula with a minus sign yeah we want to get that – into play here that's cos Omega squared knockouts Prakash squared Omega minus sin squared Omega so it's very similar everything you want to know about hyperbolic trigonometry and the theory of these functions is called hyperbolic trigonometry everything you ever want to know is codified in these simple formulas these in these and they're more or less definitions but there are the useful definitions now yeah go ahead yeah not only is it worth mentioning I was just about to mention it so I squared minus y squared is what hyperbola yeah right exactly so if I were to play the same game that I did here namely plot on the horizontal and vertical axis the values not of cosine of theta and sine of theta but cosine cosine cosh of that of Omega and since Omega what's in other words on the x-axis now we're going to plot cos Omega and on the y-axis cinch Omega then this is a hyperbola not a circle but a hyperbola and it's a hyperbola with asymptotes that are at 45 degrees you can see let me show you why why the asymptotes are at 45 degrees when Omega is very large when Omega is very large then e to the minus Omega is very small right when Omega is very large e to the minus Omega is very small and that means both cosh and cinch are both essentially equal to e to the plus Omega in other words when Omega gets very big cosh and cinch become equal to each other and that's this line here cash equals cinch along this line here so when Omega gets very large the curve asymptotes to to a curve which is a 45 degrees it's not hard to see that in the other direction when Omega is very negative that that it asymptotes to the other asymptotic line here so that's why it's called hyperbolic geometry it the hyperbolic angle the hyperbolic angles the caches the cinches play the same role relative to hyperbolas as sines and cosines do two circles any questions No so cosh Omega equals zero how would you plot that hi purple okay show me hmm Oh cos squared minus sin squared equals zero no that's no no cos squared minus sin squared equals one in the same sense that sine squared plus cosine square it never equals zero I think what I think you want to ask a different question I think oh well since Omega equals zero is the horizontal axis the costume a equals zero is the vertical eyebrows right okay well this is the x-intercept yeah it's it's the vertex I just think here's one point on a minute oh man the x-intercept there is one yeah because Kostroma cost of zero is one to see that just plug one r 0 in here 1 plus 1 divided by 2 is 1 at least it was yesterday yeah stores okay so now we we're sort of starting to cook a little bit we're starting to see something that has that nice minus sign in it but what's it got to do with X and T and X Prime and T prime we're now set up to make let's call it a guess but it's a guess which is based on the extreme similarity between hyperbolas and circles cautions and cosines and so forth he is the guess I'm going to make and then we'll check it we'll see if it does the thing we wanted to do my formula instead of being this has gotten with and we're now going to have instead of x and y we're going to have x and t time and x later on we'll put back y&z we're going to have to put back y&z but they're very easy okay so let's start with X prime X prime is the coordinate given to a point of space-time by the moving observer namely me and I'm going to guess that it's some combination of X and T not too different but not the same as where is it X prime equals X minus VT I'm going to try cosh Omega X let's write X cos Omega minus T sin Omega sort of in parallel with this I could put a plus sign here but you can go back and forth between the plus and the minus by changing the sign of Omega just as you did here so this let's do it this way X cos Omega minus T sin Omega and T prime going to look similar but without the extra minus sign here this you know the relation between sines cosines and cautious and cinches is one of just leaving out an eye you go from sines and cosines the clashes and cinches by leaving out the I well if you track it through carefully you'll find that this minus sign was really an I squared it's not going to matter much I will just tell you it was really came from some I squared and if you leave out I I squared just becomes one squared is no minus sign so here's the guess for the formula connecting X prime T Prime with X and T it equals let's say X since Omega – no – plus T cos Omega in this case there are two minus signs in this case there was only one minus sign okay but but let's check what do we want to check we want to check that X prime squared minus T prime squared is equal to x squared minus T squared your ask you're probably asking yourself what is this Omega what does it have to do with moving reference frames I'll tell you right now what Omega is it's a stand-in for the velocity between the frames we're going to find the relationship between Omega and the relative velocity of the reference frames in a moment there has to be a parameter in the lower end these are the lines in these are the Lorentz transformations connecting two frames of reference in the Lorentz transformations as a parameter it's the velocity the relative velocity that parameter has been replaced by Omega it's a kind of angle relating the two frames a hyperbolic angle but we'll we'll come back to that for the moment let's prove that with this transformation law here that X prime squared minus T prime squared is equal to zero ah is equal to X square minus T squared I'm getting to that point in the evening where I'm going to make mistakes all right this is easy you just work it out you use all you have to use is that cosine squared minus sine squared is 1 you can work that out by yourself but we can just see little pieces of it here X prime squared will have x squared cos squared Omega t prime squared will have x squared sin squared Omega if I take the difference between them I'll get a term with an x squared times cos squared minus sin squared but cos squared minus sin squared is one fine so we'll find the term with an x squared when we square take the square of the difference between the squares of this and this and likewise will also find the T squared the cross term when you square X Prime you'll have XT cost cinch when you square T Prime you'll have XT costs inch when you subtract them it'll cancel and it's easy to check that's our basically one liner to show that with this transformation here x prime squared minus T's prime squared is x squared minus T squared which is exactly what we're looking for let me remind you why are we looking for it if we find the transformation for which the left-hand side and the right-hand side are equal then if x squared equals T squared in other words if the right-hand side is 0 the left-hand side will also be 0 but x squared but x equals T that's the same as something moving with the speed of light in the X frame of reference if this being 0 is equivalent to the left hand side being 0 it says that in both frames of reference the light rays move with the same velocity so that's the basic that's the basic tool that we're using here X prime squared minus T prime squared is equal to x squared minus T squared all right that does follow by a couple of lines using cos squared minus N squared equals 1 but what I want to do let's take another couple of minutes now let's take a break for five minutes and then come back and connect these variables Omega with the velocity of the moving frame of reference somebody asked me a question about the ether and what it was that people were thinking somehow Einstein never got trapped into this mode of thinking um well what were they thinking about when they were thinking about the ether what exactly was the michelson-morley experiment well I'll just spend the minute or two mentioning it certainly Maxwell understood that his equations were not consistent with with Newtonian relativity he understood that but his image of what was going on is that the propagation of light was very similar to the propagation of sound in a material or water waves propagating on water and of course it is true that if you move relative to the atmosphere or move relative to the substance that sound is propagating in you'll see sound move with different velocities depending on your motion if you're at rest in a gas of material isn't there's a natural sense in which is a particular rest frame the rest frame is the frame in which on the average the molecules have zero velocity if you're in that reference frame then first of all light has the same velocity that way as that way number one and it has a velocity that's determined by the properties of the fluid that the sound is moving in okay Maxwell more or less thought that light was the same kind of thing that there was a material and the material had a rest frame and that particular rest frame was the frame in which light would move with the same velocity to the left as to the right and he thought that he was working out the mechanics or the behavior of this particular material and that we were pretty much at rest relative to this material and that's why we saw light moving the same way to the left of the right one would have to say then that Maxwell did not believe that his equations were a universal set of laws of physics but that they would change when you moved from frame to frame just happened by some luck we happen to be more or less at rest relative to the ether to this strange material um of course you could do an experiment with sound if you're moving through the sound you can check that the velocity in different directions is different you do let's not worry exactly how you do that that's what the Michelson Morley experiment was Michelson and Morley I suppose said look the earth is going around in an orbit maybe at one season of the year we just happen to be at rest relative to the ether by accident and some other season six months later we're going to be moving in the opposite direction and we won't well we won't be at rest only at one point in the orbit could we be at rest relative the–this or at any other point in the orbit we wouldn't be so if we measure in November that light moves the same than all possible directions then in what's what's the opposite of November May then in May we should find that light is moving with great with the different velocities in different directions and he tried it and a very fancy and sophisticated way of measuring the relative velocity in different directions but he found that there was no discrepancy that the light traveled the same velocity in every direction at every time of year there were all sorts of ways to try to rescue the ether but none of them worked none of them work and the result was one had to somehow get into the heart of space and time and velocity and mid distance and all those things in a much deeper way in a way that didn't involve the idea of a material at rest in some frame of reference that that propagated the light okay oh where are we I forgotten where we were when we stopped somebody remind me whoo-hah Omega yeah what is Omega forgotten Omega Oh how Omega is really metal speed of light but to the velocity of the moving reference frame here we have two reference frames X T and X Prime and T prime what's the relationship between them well the whole goal here was to understand the relationship between frames of reference moving with relative velocity between them Omega is not exactly the relative velocity but it is closely related to it okay let's say let's see if we can work out the relationship we know enough to do it let's see if we can work out the relationship between Omega and the velocity of the moving frame all right again let's go back to this picture there's a frame of reference moving let's redraw it here's my origin moving along okay what does it mean to say that from your perspective my frame of reference so my origin is moving with velocity V well by definition this is not a law now this is a definition and says that this line here has the equation x equals VT that's the definition of this V here my origin moves relative to your origin it moves with a uniform constant velocity that's an assumption that we're talking about two inertial frames of reference and you in your frame of reference will write x equals VT that's the definition of V if you like what will I call it I will call it X prime equals zero all along there I will say X prime is equal to zero it's my origin of coordinates okay now let's come to this transformation law here and see if we can spot how to identify V well X prime equals zero that's this trajectory moving at an angle with a velocity V X prime equals zero is the same as saying X cos Omega equals T sin Omega X prime equals zero set this side equal to zero and that says that X cos Omega equals T sin Omega all right so whatever the connection between velocity and Omega is it must be such that when X prime is equal to zero X cos Omega equals T sin Omega well let's look at that equation it also says that X is equal to sin CH Omega over cos Omega times T well that's interesting because it's also supposed to be equivalent to x equals VT now I know exactly how to identify what the velocity is as a function of Omega the velocity of the moving transformation the moving coordinate system must just be sin Chi Omega over cos Omega that's the only way these two equations can be the same x equals VT x equals sin Chi Omega over cos Omega times T so now we know it we know what the relationship between velocity and Omega is write it down the velocity of the moving frame now this is not the velocity of light it's just the velocity of the moving frame must just be cinch Omega over cos omega well actually i want to invert this relationship i want to find sin and cos omega in terms of the velocity i want to rewrite these Lorentz transformations where are they i want to rewrite these Lorentz transformations in terms of the velocity that's the familiar form in which you learn about it in in elementary relativity books X prime is equal to something with velocities in it to exhibit that all we have to do is to find Cinch and cosh Omega in terms of the velocity that's not very hard let's let's work it out the first step is to square it and to write V squared is equal to cinch Omega squared over cosh Omega squared that was easy next I'm going to get rid of since Omega squared and substitute where is it I lost it one is equal to cos Omega squared minus cinch Omega squared alright so wherever I see cinch Omega squared I can substitute from here namely cosh squared Omega minus one is equal to sine squared Omega so here we are this is just equal to hash of Omega squared minus one divided by cost of Omega squared or let's multiply by what I want to do is solve for cost Omega in terms of velocity I want to get rid of all these cautions and cinches of Omega and rewrite it in terms of velocity so first x cost Omega squared we have cosh squared Omega times V squared equals cosh squared Omega minus one or it looks to me like this is cosh squared Omega times one minus V squared equals one what I've done is transpose yeah cos squared times V squared minus cos squared itself that gives you cos squared 1 minus V squared equals 1 change the sign can everybody see that the second line follows from the first I'll give you a second yeah yeah yeah it's clear ok finally we get that cos Omega is equal to 1 divided by 1 minus V squared but now I have to take the square root cos Omega / one minus V squared and then take the square root and that gives you cos Omega now we've all seen these square roots of 1 minus V squared in relativity formulas here's where it begins the kayne we begin to see it materializing what about sin Chi Omega let's also write down sin Chi Omega well from here we see that sin Chi Omega is just equal to V times cos Omega this is easy since Omega equals V times cos Omega sorrow sin Chi Omega is V divided by square root of 1 minus V squared let's go back to these Lorentz transformations over here and write them getting rid of the trigonometric functions the hyperbolic trigonometric functions and substituting good old familiar velocities let's get rid of this and substitute the good old ordinary velocities ok so we have here X prime equals x times cos Omega and that's divided by square root of 1 minus V squared then this minus T times sin Omega which is V over the square root of 1 minus V squared or if I put the two of them together and combine them over the same denominator it's just X minus VT divided by square root of 1 minus V squared I think most of you have probably seen that before maybe slightly different let's let's clean it up a little bit X prime equals X minus VT divided by the square root of 1 minus V squared what about T prime T Prime is equal to t minus V X over square root of 1 minus V squared T prime is equal to T times cos cost is just 1 over square root and then x times sin CH that gives us the extra V in other words the formulas are more or less symmetrical and those are all good old Lorentz transformations now what's missing is the speed of light let's put back the speed of light the put back the speed of light is an exercise in dimensional analysis there's only one possible way the speed of light can fit into these equations they have to be modified so that they're dimensionally correct first of all one is dimensionless has no dimensions it's just one velocity is not dimensionless unless of course we use dimensionless notation for it but if velocity is measured in meters per second then it's not dimensionless how do we make V squared dimensionless we divide it by the square of the speed of light in other words this V squared which is here which has been defined in units in which the speed of light is 1 has to be replaced by V squared over C squared likewise over here V squared over C squared now velocity times time does have notice first of all the left hand side has units of length the right hand side this is dimensionless X has units of length but so does velocity times time so this is okay this is dimensionally consistent as it is but over here it's not the left hand side has dimensions of time that's all right 1 minus V squared over C square that's dimensionless this has units of time but what about velocity times X velocity times X does not have units of time in order the given units of time you have to divide it by C square okay let's check that velocity is length all the time times length divided by C squared that's length square R which gets correct but it's correct all right this is probably familiar to most of you who've seen relativity once or twice before these are the equations relating to different moving coordinate systems moving relative to the x axis but you see the deep mathematics or the mathematical structure of it in many ways is best reflected by this kind of hyperbolic geometry here and you know most physicists by now never write down the Lorentz transformations in this form much more likely to write them in this form easier to manipulate easier to use trigonometry or or hyperbolic trigonometry it's a little exercise it's a nice little exercise to use this the hyperbolic trigonometry to compute their to compute the compounding of two Lorentz transformations if frame two is moving relative to frame one with velocity V and frame three Israel moving relative to two with velocity V Prime how is three moving relative to one the answer is very simple in terms of hyperbolic angles you add the hyperbolic angles not the velocities but the hyperbolic angles the hyperbolic angle of three moving relative to one is the hyperbolic angle of three moving relative to two plus two moving relative to one and then you use a bit of trigonometry or hyperbolic trigonometry to figure out how you do the inches and kosh's of the sum of 2 hyperbolic angles very straightforward and I'll leave it as an exercise to see if you can work that out much easier than anything else ok so there there we have the Lorentz transformations yeah oh oh absolutely yes that's that's that's a good point yeah when we that's right if we have frame 1 let's call this x1 and y1 x2 and y2 and finally x3 and y3 well then the angle of – let's call F of 3 relative to 1 let's call it theta 1 3 is just equal to theta 1 2 plus theta 2 3 the angle connecting frame one with frame 3 is just the sum of the angle theta 1 2 plus theta 2 3 so in that respect the Lorentz transformations are much simpler in terms of the Omegas it's the Omegas which combined together to add when you add velocities now how different is omega from the velocity let's work in units in which the speed of light is equal to 1 where is our formula for velocity all right let's take this formula over here what a cinch Omega 4 small Omega let's put the C squared there a let's not put the C square there or not put the C square there since Omega is essentially Omega when Omega is small just like sine is omega where is theta when theta is small the cinch function the cost function looks like like this the cinch function looks like this but it but it crosses the axis with a slope of 1 for small Omega cinch Omega is proportional to Omega for small velocity one minus V squared is very close to 1 if the velocity is a hundredth of the speed of light then this to within one ten-thousandth is just 1 if we're talking about velocities a millionth of the speed of light then this is very close to 1 and so since Omega and velocity are very close to each other it's what's going on here Thanks okay so for small velocities Omega and velocity are the same the actual correct statement is that V over C is like Omega the dimensionless velocity over the speed of light is like Omega for small Omega and small velocity so for small velocity adding velocities and adding omegas are the same things but when the velocities get large the right way to combine them to find relationships between different frames is by adding Omega and not adding velocities when you add Omega like compounding velocities as you've got it there I guess you won't go greater than 45 degrees that guess because that would be faster than light no but Omega no more you see this bit the speed of light is V equals one that corresponds to Omega equals infinity yeah yeah so Omega Omega runs over the whole range from minus infinity to infinity but when it does V goes from minus the speed of light to the speed of light so you can add any omegas and still add any omegas Omega that's right there's no there's no speed limit on Omega is this like we just go on that diagram it looks like it's greater than 45 degrees if here where where I make a and I guess they use the definition of state along the hyperbola yeah that's right sorry where are we right there today I guess that's theta though isn't it this is Theta that's a good oh god yeah right right yeah Omega is the distance along hyperbola that's right distances that's right Omega is a kind of distance along the hyperbola all right now let's let's talk about that a little bit all right now that we've established the basic mathematics structure of the transformations I think we should go back and talk about some simple relativity phenomena and derive them oh one thing which is important which I yeah well let's see we're here are my Lorentz transformations over here I said we should we ought to at the end make sure that our transformations are not too dissimilar from Newton's in particular when the velocities are small they should reduce to Newton that's all we really know that's or at least that's all that Newton really had a right to assume that when the velocities are smaller than something or other that his equations should be good approximations isn't adding velocity good enough isn't velocities adding good enough in fact you're right in fact you're right but let's just look at the transformations themselves all right as long as the velocity is a small percentage of the speed of light an ordinary velocities are what a hundred miles an hour versus 186,000 miles an hour what is that it's small right and it's doubly small when you square it so for typical ordinary velocities even the velocities of the earth around the Sun and so forth fairly large velocities what 60 kilometers per second or something like that 60 kilometers per second is pretty fast that's the that's the orbital earth around the Sun it's pretty fast but it's nowhere near 300,000 kilometers per No yeah looks here on a thousand meters per second we're I'm sorry three times ten to the eighth no three times three hundred thousand kilometers per second right 60 kilometers per second three hundred thousand kilometers per second small fraction and then square it so for ordinary motions this is so close to one that the deviation from one is negligible so let's start with the top equation for the top equation this is negligible and it's just x prime equals X minus VT the bottom equation here you have a C squared in the denominator whenever you have a C squared in the denominator that's a very very large thing in the denominator this is negligible compared to T so here the speed of light is also in the denominator just forget this and it's just T but it's just T prime equals T it's just D prime equals T so in fact Newton's formulas are essentially correct for slow velocities no no significant departure from Newton until the velocities get up to be some some appreciable fraction of the speed of light okay let's talk about proper time proper time and then let's do a couple of relativity examples yeah question the bottom equation when X is very large yes that's right when X is exceedingly large you get a correction but that correction that X has to be very large look let's let's discuss before we do anything else let's let's let's talk about that a little bit X minus VT one minus V squared over C squared yeah let's alright in my drawings I'm going to sitt C equal to one but in the equations you can leave the C there okay this equation we understand apart from this one minus V squared over C squared in the denominator it's just this x equals V T or X minus V X minus X minus VT that's Newton let's look at this one over here okay let's look at the surface T prime equals zero T prime equals zero is the set of points that I in my moving reference frame call T call time equals zero it's what I call the set of points which are all simultaneous with the origin T prime equals zero is just everyplace in space-time which has exactly the same time according to my frame of reference and I will therefore call all those points synchronous at the same time what do you say about them if T prime is equal to zero that says that T is equal to V over C squared X now let's set C equal to one for the purpose of drawing just for the purpose of drawing I don't want this huge number C squared to distort my drawings too much it says the T equals V X what does the surface T equals V X look like it looks like this T equals V X which is also X is equal to 1 over V T so it's just a uniform line like that all of these points are at different times from your reckoning this ones later this ones later this ones later and so forth according to my reckoning all these points are at the same time so we disagree about what's simultaneous this was this was the hang-up incidentally this was the basic hang-up that took so long to overcome that took Einstein to overcome it the idea that simultaneity was the same in every reference frame nobody in fact it was so obvious that nobody even thought to ask a question is simultaneous does it mean the same thing in every reference frame no it doesn't in more in your reference frame the horizontal points are all simultaneous with respect to each other in my reference frame what I call horizontal what I call simultaneous you do not okay so simultaneity had to go let me point out one more thing about these equations I'm not going to solve them for you but I will tell you the solution anyway how do you solve for X and T in terms of X Prime and T Prime well think about it in the case of angles supposing I have a relationship like X prime is equal to X cosine theta what is it plus plus y sine theta and y prime is equal to X minus X sine theta plus or Y cosine theta and supposing I want to solve for x and y in terms of X Prime and Y Prime you know what the solution is just change theta 2 minus theta and write that X is equal to X prime cosine of minus theta but what's cosine of minus theta right cosine theta plus y sine of minus theta what's sine of minus theta minus sine theta times y and likewise for y prime Y prime is equal to minus x times sine of minus theta so that becomes plus X sine theta plus y cosine of minus theta which is cosine theta you don't have to go through the business of solving the equations you know that if one set of axes is related to the other by rotation by angle theta the second one is related to the first one or vice versa the first one is related to the second one by the negative of the angle if to go from one frame to another you rotate by angle theta and to go from the second frame back to the first you rotate by angle minus theta so you just write down exactly the same equations interchange Prime and unprimed and substitute for theta minus theta same thing for the Lorentz transformations exactly the same thing if you want to solve these for X and T write down the same equations replace primed by unprimed and change the sign of omegas to minus the sines of omegas change sinus rgn of all the sign all the cinches okay in other words just send Omega 2 minus Omega and that will solve the equations in the other direction yeah yes it's also the same as changing V 2 minus V yes the way to see that is to go right what was it what do we have cosh Omega yep yeah that's right via sign yes that was correct yeah you just well you change Omega 2 minus Omega it has the action of changing V 2 minus V you can just check that from the equations good alright let's let's talk about proper time a little bit proper time if you're doing ordinary geometry you can measure the length along a curve for example and the way you do it is you take a tape measure and you you know sort of take off you take off equal intervals equal equal little separations you can think of these separations as differential distances DS squared small little differential distances and that differential distance is d x squared plus dy squared with the x squared and the y squared are just the differential increments in x and y DX and dy this is d s alright so that's the way and you add them up you add them up that's the way you compute distances along curves it's quite obvious that if you take two points the distance between those two points depends on what curve not the same for every curve so I'll measure the longer curve you have to know not only the two points but you have to know the curve in order to say what the distance between those points are of course the distance between its longer straight line that's that's well-defined but the distance along a curve depends on the curve in any case D s squared equals the x squared plus dy squared is the basic defining notion of distance between two neighboring points if you know the distance between any two neighboring points in a geometry you basically know that geometry almost essentially completely so given this formula for the distance between two points you can compute if you like the distance along a curve because you've got to take the square root of this and then add them up don't anhedonia the squares add the differential distances all right the important thing is here that square root of DX squared plus dy squared which is the distance between neighboring points doesn't depend on your choice of axes I could choose X Y axes I could choose X prime y prime axes if I take a little differential displacement the X and the y or I just take two points two neighboring points don't even give them labels and measure the distance between them the distance between them should not depend on conventions such as which axes are used and so when I make rotational transformations the X square plus dy squared doesn't change the X and the y may change but the x squared plus dy squared does not change the same thing is true in relativity or the analogous thing we don't measure distances along the paths of particles let's say now that this curve here is the path of a particle moving through space-time there's a particle moving through space-time and we want some notion of the distance along it the notion of distance along it another example would just be a particle standing still as a particle standing still particle standing still is still in some sense moving in time I wouldn't want to say that the distance between these two points and space-time is zero they're not the same point I wouldn't like to say it's zero I would like to say there's some kind of notion of distance between them but it's quite clear that that distance is not measured with a tape measure this point and this point are the same point of space boom here at this point of space and that at a later time boom again at the same point of space two events at the same point of space how do I characterize and some nice way the distance between those two events that occurred in the same place you don't do it with a tape measure all right what do you do with a clock a clock you take a clock and you start it at this point tic tic tic tic tic tic tic a stopwatch you press it at this point tic tic tic tic tic it picks off intervals and then you stop it at that point and you see how much time has evolved that's a notion of distance along a particle trajectory it's not the distance the particle moves in space it's a kind of distance that it's moved through space-time and it's not zero even if the particle is moving standing perfectly still in fact what it is is it's the time along the trajectory what about a moving particle well you can imagine that a moving particle carries a clock with it of course not all particles carry clocks but we can imagine they carry clocks with them as they move and we can start the clock over here and then the clock over here what is the time read off by this moving clock the time read off by a moving clock is much like the distance along a curve measured by a tape measure in particular it should not depend on the choice of coordinates why not this is a question that has nothing to do with coordinates I have a clock made in the standard clock Factory the standard clock Factory and I don't know we're in Switzerland someplace makes a certain kind of clock that clock gets carried along with a particle and we ask how much time evolves or how much time elapses or how much the clock changes between here and here that should not depend on a choice of coordinates it shouldn't depend on a choice of coordinates because it's a physical question that only involves looking at the hands of the clock in fact we can ask it for little intervals along along the trajectory we could ask how much time elapses according to the clock between here and here well the answer again should not depend on what coordinates you use which Lorentz frame you use and there's only one invariant quantity that you can make out of the D X's and DTS describing this point describing these two points there's a little interval DT and there's a little interval DX now we're in space and time not ordinary not ordinary space and the quantity which is invariant there's really only one invariant quantity that you can make out of it it is DT squared minus DX squared it's the same quantity x squared minus T squared for a whole you know for a whole interval the T squared minus DX squared that's the quantity which is invariant it's minus D it's the negative of what I wrote over here x squared minus T squared okay this quantity is equal to the X prime squared minus DT power sorry DT prime squared minus the X prime squared the same algebra goes into this as goes into showing that X prime squared minus T prime squared equals x squared minus T squared incidentally this is the same as saying T prime squared minus X prime squared equals T squared minus x squared doesn't matter which way you write it all right so that suggests that suggests that the time read off the invariant time read off along a trajectory between two points separated by DX and DT is just the square root of DT squared minus DX squared why the square-root incidentally okay you're going to integrate in detail I can integrate DT yeah well alright why not just DT square minus the x squared for the time between here and here is it here's an answer supposing we go to you two intervals exactly the same as the first one we go an interval over here DX and DT and then we go another DX in DT what happens when we double the interval to DT squared minus DX squared it gets multiplied by four because everything is squared well I wouldn't expect a clock when it goes along you know when it goes along a trajectory for twice the the interval here to measure four times the the time I expected to measure twice the time so for that reason the square root is the appropriate thing here okay that's called D tau squared the tau squared the proper time along the trajectory of an object you're right that's just the towel or D tau squared being the x squared minus DT squared the Tau is called the proper time let's go I think we'll let's see the towel is called the proper time and it is the time read by a clock moving along a trajectory it's not just DT that's the important thing it's not just DT the T squared minus the x squared let's do one last thing let's just do the twin paradox in this language I think I think I've had it I'm going to finish you can do the twin paradox in this language all you have to do is to compute the proper time along two trajectories one that goes out with a uniform velocity turns around and comes back with the same uniform velocity versa a trajectory which just goes from one point to the st. the another point along a straight line and it's no more weird it's no weirder really from this perspective than saying the distance from one point to another along two different curves do not have to agree the proper time along two different curves in general will not agree what is a little bit weird is that because of this minus sign the proper time this way is less than the proper time this way that's the consequence of this minus sign here moving with some DX decreases the proper time all right we'll do a little bit more next time but then I want to get to the principles of field theory and and connect some of this with field equations for interesting wave fields the preceding program is copyrighted by Stanford University please visit us at stanford.edu

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Bourbon for Breakfast (Chapter 22: The Economics of Here to There) by Jeffrey A. Tucker



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The state makes a mess of everything it touches, argues Jeffrey A. Tucker in Bourbon for Breakfast. Perhaps the biggest mess it makes is in our minds. Its pervasive interventions in every sector affect the functioning of society in so many ways, we are likely to intellectually adapt rather than fight. Tucker proposes another path: see how the state has distorted daily life, rethink how things would work without the state, and fight against the intervention in every way that is permitted.

Read ‘Bourbon for Breakfast: Living Outside the Statist Quo’ online:

Playlist for complete audio presentation:

Links to more online writings by Jeffrey Tucker:

It’s a Jetsons World: Private Miracles and Public Crimes

Audio version:

Right-Wing Collectivism: The Other Threat to Liberty

A Beautiful Anarchy

Bit by Bit: How Peer-to-Peer Technology Is Freeing the World

Of Course the Alt-Right Is Against Capitalism

Nine Books to Understand the Collectivist Right

The Violence in Charlottesville

The West Is a Portable Idea, Not Blood and Soil

Five Forgotten Champions of Fascist Control

Fascism Is Not Just an Epithet. It Is an Ideology.

Five Differences Between the Alt-Right and Libertarianism

The Intellectual Conceit of IQ Ideology

Why the Holocaust Should Matter to You

The Orlando Bloodbath and the Illiberal Mind

The Surprising Modern Origins of Trump’s Ideology

The Link between Extreme Environmentalism and Hard-Core Racism

Class and Race Are Never an Excuse to Gloat Over State Atrocities

The Eugenics Plot of the Minimum Wage

Why Did Leon Trotsky Favor Eugenics?

Nazis on Twitter? That’s What Blocking Is For

Must a Jew Bake a Nazi Cake?

Policy Science Kills

It Shouldn’t Matter Who the President Is

Waking Up to the Reality of Fascism

Two-Faced Totalitarianism

King Canute vs. the Climate Planners

5 Essential Books for Liberty Lovers in Dark Times

Why Open Borders?

Gays Need the Freedom to Discriminate

How Policing Works in a Privatized City

In Defense of Private Property: Aristotle and Mises

Blurred Lines: When Guns Become Speech

Progress and Poverty, Then and Now

There Is No Human Right to a Big Mac

The Attack on Hobby Lobby Is Incoherent and Unjust

What Silly Putty Teaches Us about Invention and Marketing

The Palace Is in Turmoil but the Country Is Not

What Is “Neoliberalism” Anyway?

Why Do People Become Communists, and Why Do They Stick With It?

Pope Francis Has Forgotten the Church’s Own Grand Libertarian Legacy

The Power and Glory of M&Ms

Only Markets Can Win the War on Poverty

Liberty and Community Go Together

Be the Master of the Thrift Store

The Six Mysterious Elves of the Commercial Marketplace

Bureaucracies Are Authoritarian Too

Is Government Dr. Jekyll or Mr. Hyde?

How the Market Crushed the Champagne Cartel

The Malleable Modern History of a Prohibited Product

Five Anti-Capitalist Movies that Backfired

The Drug War’s Arms Race: From Opium Dens to Flakka Freakout in 100 Years

Canadians Confused by the Correct Use of the Term Liberal

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What is Logic? (Philosophical Definition)



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A definition of Logic as a field of philosophy, as well as several types of logic studied in philosophy, including second order logic, non-classical Logic, and modal logic.

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Information for this video gathered from The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy and more!

Information for this video gathered from The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy and more!
(#Logic #Modal)

welcome back to Carnegie store today we're going to be continuing our series dumbfounding definitions dizzying distinctions and diabolical doctrines a series sorting through some of the jargon of philosophy in this video we're going to be answering one of the questions at the center of philosophy which is what is logic now logic is one of the most basic areas of philosophies what all the rest of philosophy is built upon logic is the codification of language into a deductive system basically we're taking kind of our flowy flowering ounces of an English language and codifying it quantifying it in something that looks like math logic is the bridge between English and math logic has two main parts semantics the meanings of symbols and logics and syntax the rules that those symbols follow the purpose of semantics is to codify words and concepts in a language and put them into those shapes and symbols that make up a watch language the purpose of the syntax and the rules and the grammar is to show which arguments are valid and which are not valid of course meaning the truth of premise implies the truth of the conclusion now there's a number of different kinds of logic the most basic kind is known as first-order classical logic also just first-order logic classical logic or elementary logic it's what you'll start studying whenever you study logic after first-order logic you can kind of move up to what's known a second-order logic or higher logics contrasting with first-order logic you have non classical logic generally people to deny some element of first-order classical logic and somewhere in between first-order logic and non classical logic you have modal logics in this video very quickly we're going to go through each of these categories and give you some resources or a couple of them if you're interested in learning more so first-order logic can be generally divided into two parts you've categorical logic and propositional logic categorical logic looks like this it comes all the way back in ancient Greece all men are mortal Socrates is a man therefore Socrates is mortal he dropped pictures with Venn diagrams and do things like that it talks about the uses of terms in a language that's what it uses it is the application of predicates to objects if you want more on categorical logic I have a whole series it's about a third of the 100 days of logic propositional logic on the other hand runs arguments like this if it is raining then it is cloudy it is raining therefore it is cloudy its arguments are kind of in this form they build up truth tables and it uses full sentences of a language it connects those sentences with operators like and or it implies propositional calculus is basically another name for first-order logic it's the combination of categorical and propositional logic also known as classical or first-order logic all of these concepts are covered in a series I have known as the 100 days of logic if you're interested in learning about any of these check out that series now modal logics does a number of different modal logics we'll cover four here you have a Lepik modal logic which is the logical possibility in necessity this is the most common logic that people think of when they think of modal logic but you also have other logics that follow the same pattern such as Dejan tuka logic which is the logic of ethics and obligation you have temporal logic the logic of time the past in the future and epistemic or docks a stick or justification logic which is the logic of knowledge belief and justification if you're more interested in any of these logics we have another series called the three months of modal logics that cover all of these with a month for each of them now second-order logic is logic we don't have a series on yet but while first order logic quantified over objects or individuals such as all baseball's around second-order logic quantifies over properties or sets of objects so for all sets of for all properties for example all sets with more than three members are sets that have more than two members second-order logic and higher-order logics are the building blocks of set theory and hopefully we'll get a series on them soon we've already started touching a little bit on set theory but we haven't gotten to it properly non classical logics on the other hand are going to be logics which deny some element of classical logic such as perhaps the law of excluded middle this leads to new types of logic known as non classical logic which will have different conclusions from our original logic some examples may include many valued logic intuitionistic logic and para consistent logic once again it's another topic that I hope to have a series on if you have opinions on what my next big logic series should be on non classical logic or a second-order logics please offer them in the comments below check out my series on the 100 days of logic for more on first-order logic or the three months of modal logics for more on modal logic stay tuned for more logic series on second-order logic and non classical logic coming soon watch this video and more here at Renee DS org and stay skeptical buddy

Lecture 1 | The Theoretical Minimum



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(January 9, 2012) Leonard Susskind provides an introduction to quantum mechanics.

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Lectures From the Institute: David Diener and Virtue



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Dr. David Diener began his formal post-secondary education at Wheaton College where he graduated Summa Cum Laude with a B.A. in Philosophy and Ancient Languages. After putting his philosophical training to work by building custom cabinets and doing high-end finish carpentry for an Amish company, he moved with his wife to Bogotá, Colombia, where they served as missionaries for three years at a Christian international school.

He then attended graduate school at Indiana University where he earned an M.A. in Philosophy, an M.S. in History and Philosophy of Education, and a dual Ph.D. in Philosophy and Philosophy of Education. He has taught at The Stony Brook School and Taylor University and has served as Head of Upper Schools at Covenant Classical School in Fort Worth, TX, and Head of School at Grace Academy in Georgetown, TX. He currently works at Hillsdale College where he is the Headmaster of Hillsdale Academy and a Lecturing Professor of Education. He also is an Alcuin Fellow, serves on the Board of Directors for the Society for Classical Learning and the Board of Academic Advisors for the Classical Learning Test, and offers consulting services through Classical Academic Press. He is the author of Plato: The Great Philosopher-Educator and serves as the series editor for Classical Academic Press’ series Giants in the History of Education. The Dieners have four wonderful children and are passionate about classical education and the impact it can have on the church, our society, and the world.

the topic of today's talk is the cultivation of virtue and the Telos of Education before we can really begin digging into this topic I want to start by laying out a few basic definitions and grounding assumptions first of all the Greek word Telos means goal or purpose or end the goal toward which something is directed i cannot underestimate the importance of the fact that every model of education whether it's secular or religious progressive or classical whatever every model of education has whether it admits it or not whether it's implicit or explicit a tell us that is to say every model of education has a goal a vision of the good life that it is attempting to pass on to its students or to put it another way every model of education is based on a set of values there is no such thing as a values free or values neutral education every system of education is based on and inculcates certain values into its students and this truth has been recognised throughout history from ancient to modern from pagans to Christians to atheists basically everybody let me just give you one example the 20th century philosopher Bertrand Russell writes in his book on education we must have some concept of the kind of person we wish to produce before we can have any definite opinion as to the education which we consider best think about that before we can figure out what kind of education we want to put together we have to know where it's going what kind of person is it trying to produce and so the question is what should our goal or what should the Telos of education be now there are two problems with most contemporary discourse about education the first is that contemporary dialogue about education typically avoids discussion of tell us altogether there's just really not much talk about the purpose of Education out there the emphasis in educational research and policy development is overwhelmingly on the how of Education and why is almost completely overlooked so we get things like how to raise test scores how to increase graduation rates how to help students with educational challenges how to train teachers to use technology etc and there are unfortunately a plethora of teachers administrators and even educational theorists around our country who would be hard-pressed to give a clear definition of what the purpose of education is at all that's tragic because it means that as a society we are working hard to make sure that our educational train is running efficiently without seriously asking where that train ought to be going consider a metaphor used by David Hicks in his book norms and nobility he writes both policymaker as strategist and school administrator as educator resemble the farmer who tries to plow a field with his eyes on the plow rather than on that imaginary point on the horizon on which he must fix his gaze if he expects to leave a straight furrow when I was learning how to drive I remember one of the first lessons I learned is that if you want to drive down the middle of the road you can't look right over the hood right I would I would I started sort of looking right over the hood of the car and trying to drive to stay in the middle and my dad said no no you have to look up look look down the road and I said but I got to stay on the road right here and he said no no but when you look down the road it what you're doing right here will work itself out ok and David Hicks asthma is making the same point with with his metaphor of the plow if we want our educational system to take us in the right direction we've got to lift up our eyes away from just the how do I create a lesson plan how should we do assessment how how how how and ask the question of where are we trying to go what what is our goal what is the direction toward which we are aiming so the first step of the problem is that we don't talk enough about the goals of education the second step of the problem is that when we do talk about education goals we often unfortunately have them all wrong in the 21st century most people simply assume that the primary purpose of education if not its only purpose is to equip students with the knowledge and technical skills that they will need in order to go out into the world and be successful and generally if you push hard enough on what do you mean by successful you get something that's reducible to pecuniary plenitude in other words to be rich the idea is to put it baldly education is a means toward the end of making money thus when you ask the question for example why is k-12 education important you get an answer like well it's important to have a good education so you can get into a good college you say well why is that important well you have to get into a good college so you can get into grad school why is that important well so that you can get a good job well who cares who wants a good job well so that you can make a good living you know and and have a good happy successful life now note a couple things about that chain of reasoning first of all education is merely instrumental on that line of thinking there's nothing good in it in and of itself about education it's merely a means to an end it's not an end in and of itself and note also that there is a Telos in mind I said all education is directed towards some tell us there is a tell us or goal here the purpose of Education is ultimately to make money William tereska wits describes our situation thus we talked about national competitiveness the 21st century labor force technology and engineering and the outlook of our future prosperity but we never talked about the premises that underlie this conviction conversation as if what makes for a happy life and a good society were simply self-evident and as if in either case the exclusive answer were more money unfortunately this is how many people in our contemporary society think about education I have heard international leaders in education give talks about education in which the closest thing to any sort of teleological claim was something insipid like well school prepares students for college and career Sir Richard Livingston's 1944 read lecture he summed up this illiberal approach to education in a way that I think transiently depicts our current educational milieu as well he said this it is characteristic of today that when we discuss which subjects should be studied or which languages should be learnt the first consideration is nearly always utility we ask what is most useful for the machine not what is most likely to make a good human being at times the right motto for our education seems to be prop tier V Tom Vivendi pair dairy cows us that is for the sake of livelihood to lose what makes life worth living the material in life tends to dominate spiritual and moral life as forgotten wisdom and even judgment recede into the background in a 1975 essay titled a remarkable man Wendell Barry similarly writes that we think it ordinary to spend twelve or sixteen or twenty years of a person's life and many thousands of public dollars on education and not a dime or a thought on character there are many people however who don't bat an eye at the notion that the basic purpose of education is to teach job skills so that people can go out and find jobs and make money and even a cursory examination of of statements by public politicians our presidents government's governors federal state educational policymakers demonstrates that our leaders often view the importance of our country's educational system primarily in economic terms the goal of education it would seem is to prepare people for jobs so that they can have a successful career and contribute to our economy now there are two basic problems with this view the first is that it's just plain dumb and the second is that it runs contrary to thousands of years of profound educational thought and if you think that just plain dumb doesn't sound very sophisticated or nuanced you could substitute this it is philosophically theologically and functionally anemic in other words it's just plain dumb it doesn't make sense conceptually it doesn't work practically so what I'd like to do in the rest of our time today is to paint a picture of a much more robust understanding of the Telos of Education that has the cultivation of virtue at its center and I hope that you walk away from this talk convinced of two things first I hope that you're convinced that we ought to hold the cultivation of virtue to be a central goal of education and second I hope that you walk away being convinced that this indeed has been the standard understanding of education for centuries and that contemporary views of Education that neglect the centrality of virtue are historical anomalies now there's no way in our short time together today I can cover the central role that virtue has played throughout the entirety of the history of educational philosophy so instead what I'm going to do is first focus on the Greek philosopher Plato who is both the founder of the Western philosophical tradition and also widely considered to be the father of philosophy of education as a discipline as the 20th century philosopher Alfred North Whitehead famously quipped the safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato in other words Plato wrote about all the big questions he wrote about all the big ideas and for the last over two thousand years since then we've just been adding footnotes to what he wrote okay maybe a bit hyperbolic but the point is he's a central figure in this tradition so if we're going to focus on one thinker who's thought has shaped the last couple thousand of years of Education in the West it makes sense to focus on Plato and then after examining Plato's thought in some depth I will close by offering offering a rapid-fire sequence of other thinkers statements about the role of virtue in education to show that there is in fact a long tradition of thinkers who are basically in agreement about virtues centrality in education Plato who lived from 427 to 3 47 BC clearly understands education to be fundamentally teleological in other words he recognizes that all education again whether explicitly or implicitly has a goal or goals toward which it is directed furthermore according to Plato the primary and ultimate goal of education is to form people who are virtuous the primary purpose of education is not to transfer to students a body of knowledge the primary purpose of education is not to teach practical technical skills the primary purpose of education is not to prepare students for a specialized vocation rather the primary purpose of education is to cultivate students into virtuous human beings who are equipped to live well now I want to pause for a second and just unpack this word virtue and what we mean by this the Greek word for virtue r8a is broader in meaning than the English word virtue our essay is an interesting word that's usually translated virtue or excellence and while the word does have moral overtones it's not an exclusively moral term rather it refers to the capability of a thing to fulfill its purpose or nature so for example a knife can be virtuous insofar as it is able to cut well that is to say fulfill its purpose as a knife and function according to its nature a cow could be excellent or virtuous insofar as it is capable of producing milk that is to say of fulfilling its purpose as a cow so similarly the virtue of a person is the quality that enables a person to fulfill his purpose and live according to his true nature for what it's worth the latin word vir tous from which we get our word in English virtue also has a broader meaning the latin word vir tous comes from the Latin veered which means man so etymologically virtue means something like manliness and to be virtuous is to be manly now we shouldn't think of that in any sort of macho sense right the idea is rather to be virtuous is to be an actualized human being a person who lives with excellence and thus embodies all that human beings were made to be the co Supremes in his preface to the four cardinal virtues that these four virtues can enable man to attain the furthest potentialities of nature this isn't just moralism when we talk about forming virtuous people we're not just talking about people who do the right things right they don't cheat on their taxes they don't lie etc that's part of it but it's something broader we're talking about forming people of r8a of virtue or excellence who are enabled to fulfill their purpose and live according to their true nature who can be all that they were made to be above all else the truth for which Plato searched was truth about the nature of virtue if you read his dialogues it's really remarkable that all throughout them Socrates is continually conversing with different interlocutors to figure out that the nature of different virtues so in the Euthyphro its piety in the Republic its justice there there are others that in nummy know it's the it's the nature of virtue itself okay Plato lived in a context in Athens in which the Sophists had convinced many Athenians that the measure of educational success was one's ability to win an argument convinced a jury or please an audience they use rhetoric and their message was that the education they offered was valuable was worth what it cost because it could make students successful if you come to us we will train you how to go into the court and win plato's critique of this view as relevant today as it was over 2400 years ago is that utilitarian ends such as these are paltry substitutes for the true Telos of education the purpose of Education is the formation of human beings who are good throughout his works Plato is explicit that the purpose of education is to form people who are virtuous or good in the Republic for example he writes that the final outcome of education I suppose we'd say is a single newly finished person who is either good or the opposite nobody what he's not saying there he's not saying you can judge whether an education was well done or not on whether the student gets into college or whether they go out and get a job or whether they make a lot of money or whether they have lots of friends no he says what what determines whether the education they received worked or not is whether that person is good that's the key question he goes on to argue that the form of the good is the most important thing to learn about and that it's by their relation to it the good that just things and others become useful and beneficial in the laws he similarly explains that what he means by education is not training for a particular trade or business but education from childhood in virtue and he goes on to explain that this virtue consists in having one's loves properly aligned such that one adores what is good and abhors what is not he writes there is one element you could isolate in any account you give of Education and this is the correct formation of our feelings of pleasure and pain which makes us hate what we ought to hate from first to last and love what we ought to love call this education and I at any rate think that you would be giving it its proper name thus in contrast to the Sophists whose primary goal was to equip students with practical skills that they could go out into the world and use to be successful in Athenian society for Plato the ultimate goal of Education is right conduct not success as society defines it this understanding of the goal of Education significantly affects how Plato understands the value and purpose of various curricular subjects and he's explicit that the subjects he thinks ought to be studied should be studied not because of their content per se but rather because of their ability to turn the soul away from darkness and toward goodness and truth he admonishes that each of us must neglect all other subjects and be most concerned to seek out and learn those that will enable him to distinguish the good life from the bad and always to make the best choice possible in every situation so Plato recognizes that the various subjects in the curriculum are not ends in and of themselves rather they're educationally valuable only insofar as they promote the realization of Education ultimate goals that is the formation of virtue I'd like to just briefly point out as an example of this the rationale that Plato gives for the four subjects that later came to be known as the quadrivium arithmetic geometry what we call music he calls harmonics and astronomy the the the four subjects of the quadrivium are part of the liberal arts the Trivium is the other three of the traditional seven liberal arts so the traditional Trivium is grammar dialectic and rhetoric and then again the quadrivium arithmetic geometry music and astronomy those are the traditional seven liberal arts and in the Republic Plato gives a rationale for why certain subjects should be studied and he covers the four subjects of the quadrivium and I want to point this out because sometimes within classical education circles there's this idea that the math and science courses are a little bit less a part of the liberal arts right literature and history we say nurture our humanity and our character we get that they help us to become virtuous but math and science are technical they're not liberal arts they just help us do stuff build bridges and figure out which size of a jar of salsa in the in the grocery store is a better value etc okay Plato however disagreed and his rationale gives us insight into the true purpose of all areas of study so briefly arithmetic a lot of people don't understand why studying math is important and you know the students say why do we have to learn this when are we ever going to use this and then teachers try to come up with you know various reasons well you maybe you'll go into a field where you or well you know wouldn't it be nice if you could figure out whether the six ounce jar or the nine ounce jar is a better value at the grocery store whatever okay Plato though argues that arithmetic is valuable not because it enables us to carry out business but because it leads us toward truth and the ability to grasp being he argues that the true purpose of Education in arithmetic is not and I'm quoting here like tradesmen and retailers for the sake of buying and selling but rather for ease in turning the soul around away from becoming and toward truth and being have you ever heard that explanation given to eighth graders for why they should learn algebra now geometry he turns to geometry and he says geometry is knowledge of what always is he argues that geometry draws the soul toward truth and produces philosophical thought by directing upwards what we wrongly direct downwards the inscription above the door of Plato's Academy in Athens again as the founder of the Western philosophical tradition it that inscription is indicative of his estimation for geometry it said let none but geometers enter here in other words what he's getting at is when you study geometry you study shapes perfect triangles circles cubes okay etc you're able to abstract from the reality in which we live in which there really are no perfect circles or no perfectly equilateral triangles they don't exist actually oK we've never touched one or drawn one or seen one but nevertheless we mentally can understand it okay so what it does what it does is it enables us to see these eternal shapes and patterns truths that are true no matter whether we draw them well or not whether we imitate them or not and he says that helps us to understand the nature of reality in an important way astronomy Plato praises astronomy because it compels the soul to look upward and leads it from things here to things there and then finally harmonics or what we would call music Plato claims that the study of harmonics is useful in the search for the beautiful and the good but pursued for any other purpose it's useless and think about that the reason why we study music the reason why we learn to play music is because it's part of our search as human beings for the nature of the beautiful and the good it's not for entertainment it's not to make us feel good or give us a beat to dance to it's because ultimately Plato says it helps us to understand beauty and goodness and that's part of what it means to be a human being and live a virtuous life ok so note that while he understands that the subjects are very are valuable in practical ways as well knowing arithmetic does help you in the marketplace for example he recognizes that those disciplines do have ancillary practical value his essential point however is that these practical benefits are not the primary reason why they should be studied their purpose is not simply to provide technical training however practical they might be they nevertheless have a much deeper function in other words the disciplines of the quadrivium lead us toward truth and enable us to make sense of the world and our place in it and the same could be said of course of the other disciplines of the Trivium that's an important thing for us as a human as human beings to do it's important for us to understand who we are and the world around us and how we should live in it so for Plato the principal question that must be asked of any educational proposal is not how much does it cost or will it work practically the question is will it promote the moral formation of the students toward whom it's directed will it help them to live virtuously that's the question now before I stop talking about Plato and give you some quotes from other thinkers throughout history I do want talk a little bit about knowledge because obviously education has to do with acquiring knowledge right we give tests in which we ask students to to show that they've learned certain certain bits of knowledge that we have taught them it's interesting that according to Plato knowledge without virtue is worse than useless it's pernicious and the goal of education is therefore not merely to impart knowledge again that's a part of it but it's not merely to impart knowledge but also to nurturing students the virtue and wisdom that they will need in order to use that knowledge for the good education is most fundamentally concerned with conduct not with knowledge and the problem with knowledge says Plato is you can use it for good or for ill even if you have great knowledge of the world it still doesn't answer the fundamental question what then should I do how should I use this knowledge in the Republic for example Socrates explains that the one who is most able to guard against disease is also most able to produce it unnoticed and that the person who is clever at guarding money must also be clever at stealing it knowledge in other words is not intrinsically good for without a moral compass to guide its use it can bring about great evil thus David Hicks writes that where knowledge grows without wisdom and without reverence it threatens both our humanity and our world so think about the fact for example that the same knowledge of construction and architecture that you need in order to build a cathedral could be used to build a gas chamber the same knowledge the question is not what do you know but what virtue do you have that will enable you to use what you know for the good the purpose of Education is not just the assimilation of facts or the retention of information but a habituation of the mind and the body to we'll and act in accordance with what we know in the youth Adiemus Plato makes a similar point about supposed goods like wealth he says you know what are things that people think are good well money's good being healthy is good having good looks is a good Hey he says look unless any of those things is guided by wisdom they are greater evils than their opposites you you are better off being poor and virtuous than wise I'm sorry there's a second you are better off being poor and virtuous than rich and corrupt the rich person who's corrupt can do a lot more damage in the Meno Plato again claims that supposed goods like health strength beauty and wealth can both benefit and harm us and that whether they benefit or harm us depends on whether we use them rightly or wrongly think about all the harm that money can cause if it's misused think about all the harm that strength just physical strength can cause if it's misused think about all the harm that beauty can cause if it's misused he's explicit that the acquisition of these supposed Goods must not be taken to be the purpose of education in the laws he writes a training directed to acquiring money or a robust physique or even to some intellectual facility not guided by reason and justice we should want to call course and illiberal and say that it had no claim whatever to be called education a knowledge is not enough obviously education is partially concerned with giving students knowledge but according to Plato that can't be the whole story the purpose of education is intrinsically moral in nature and the ultimate goal is to form students who are equipped with wisdom with an understanding of the good with a love for the good such that they can use whatever knowledge they may possess in way that are virtuous so those are a few of the key ideas of this incredibly important thinker Plato with regard to the purpose or Telos of Education and in this last section what I would like to do is turn away from Plato and now look at some other thinkers who have in many ways echoed his thought up until the end of the 19th century so within the past 150 years or so something akin to the Platonic view that I've just described has been the overwhelmingly dominant view of the purpose of Education the centrality of virtue in understanding education –zz purpose is not particularly Plato nor to the Greeks nor to the ancients rather it has been a commonly accepted understanding of Education that endured for millennia and was supplanted really only in the second half of the 19th century and then in some cases into the 20th century I could trot out nearly endless examples to demonstrate that this is the case but I will restrict myself to a few that collectively offer a sort of inductive argument to demonstrate the point okay that these ideas I've been talking about from Plato are not are not unique to him throughout the history of education many people have thought something very similar so Plato's student Aristotle another Greek philosopher is highly critical of his fellow Greeks who failed to embrace a system of education with a view to all the virtues but in a vulgar spirit he writes have fallen back on those which promised to be more useful and profitable Hey with regard to what subjects should be taught Aristotle notes occupations are divided into liberal and illiberal and too young children should be imparted only such kinds of knowledge as will be useful to them without making mechanics of them and any occupation art or science which makes the body or soul or mind of the free man less fit for the practice or exercise of virtue is mechanical wherefore we call those arts mechanical which tend to deform the body and likewise all paid employments for they absorb and degrade the mind the object also which a man sets before him makes a great difference let listen to this last part if he does or learns anything for his own sake or for the sake of his friends or with a view to virtue that action will not appear illiberal so note that what Aristotle is saying here is not that learning mechanical arts is necessarily worthless what he's saying is that the reason for which something is learned is of the utmost importance in determining its value learning carpentry or engineering or economics can be worthwhile provided that it is learned with a view to virtue and not as we just saw with a view toward what is useful or profitable the Roman philosopher and orator Cicero similarly writes when to an excellent and admirable natural disposition there is added a certain system and training of education then from that combination arises an extraordinary perfection of character such as is seen in that godlike man whom our fathers saw in their time africanus and in Caius Laelius and Lucius furius most virtuous and moderate of men and in that most excellent man the most learned man of his time Marcus Cato the Elder and all these men if they had been to derive no assistance from literature in the cultivation and practice of virtue would never have applied themselves to the study of it well what Cicero is arguing in other words is that all these great heroes of Rome these great men understood that the purpose of studying literature is to cultivate a life of virtue he says if they wouldn't have thought that that's what they were gonna get from it that it would have developed virtue in them would have helped them to live more virtuously they never would have studied it of course why would you study something if it's not gonna lead you to be a more virtuous person the 14th and 15th century Italian Renaissance educational thinker Petrus Powell various wrote in 1404 we call those studies liberal which are worthy of a free man those studies by which we attain and practice virtue and wisdom starting to see a theme here that education which calls forth trains and develops those highest gifts of body and mind which in noble men and which are rightly judged to rank next in dignity to virtue only couple hundred years later in 1643 the founders of Harvard College wrote a pamphlet in which they expressed the mission of Harvard College thus let every student be plainly instructed and earnestly pressed to consider well that the main end of his life and studies is to know God and Jesus Christ which is eternal life and therefore to lay Christ in the bottom as the only foundation of all sound knowledge and learning like Plato and these other thinkers the founders of Harvard recognized that education is a fundamentally teleological activity it's directed toward something and the end toward which it is directed is one of an intrinsically moral nature the 17th century British philosopher John Locke writes in his 1693 book some thoughts on some thoughts concerning education I'll say that again the 17th century British philosopher John Locke writes in his 1693 book some thoughts concerning education that what all parents desire for their children assuming they take any care of their education at all he says is contained I suppose in these four things virtue wisdom breeding and learning I place virtue as the first and most necessary of those endowments that belong to a man or a gentleman as absolutely requisite to make him valued and beloved by others acceptable or tolerable to himself without that I think he will be happy neither in this nor in the other world couple more quotes coming across the pond to to the United States founding father Benjamin Franklin writes in a 1750 letter to Samuel Johnson I think with you that nothing is of more importance for the public weal than to form and train up youth in wisdom and virtue wise and good men are in my opinion the strength of a state more so than riches or arms think about that it is better for our country to have wise and good citizens then to be strong and have wealth and military power so education according to Benjamin Franklin is essential for the well-being of our society but not because it trains workers or equips us to help manufacture other countries rather education is essential insofar as it forms students into wise and virtuous beings as Tracy Lee Simmons writes in climbing Parnassus the healthy society begins with healthy souls and the healthiest souls are not formed without intellectual and most of all spiritual labour in 1787 the famous Northwest Ordinance was written in which the government gave its official support for the development of schools the Northwest Ordinance states religion morality and knowledge being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged here again the underlying assumption is that education is not merely about the acquisition of knowledge but also about the religious and moral formation of human beings the famous african-american thinker and activist w eb de bois writes of education in 1903 this if we make money the object of man training we shall develop moneymakers but not necessarily men if we make technical skill the object of education we may possess artisans but not in nature men men we shall have only as we make manhood the object of the work of the school's intelligence broad sympathy knowledge of the world that was n is and of the relation of men to it this is the curriculum of that higher education which must underlie true life and he goes on to declare I insist that the object of all true education is not to make men carpenters it is to make carpenters men education must not simply teach work it must teach life again the point is that if we just teach students to do a certain job in society we've not necessarily helped them to live well but if we teach them how to live well then they'll be able to do that whether they end up as carpenters or teachers or architects or go on down the line whatever career they go into education is not just career preparation it is to make people in whatever career they choose into virtuous human beings human beings who are able to live well the famous 20th century British mathematician and philosopher Alfred North Whitehead claims in a 1929 essay technical education in its relation to science and literature that the art of education is never easy it is the training of souls and finally Arthur Holmes another prominent philosopher of the 20th century wrote in 1975 the question to ask about an education is not what can I do with it but rather what is it doing to me as a person education has to do with the making of persons now I could go on giving examples like this all day long and the point I want to make is that the centrality of virtue in Plato's understanding of Education is not a historical anomaly in contemporary society many people are trying to make education into something that supposedly is value neutral but almost no educational thinker throughout history would have agreed that that's a good idea or even possible school schools are thus not weird experiments but rather a continuation of an educational legacy that stretches back for over two millennia and arguably even much further back if you go back into the Hebrew tradition throughout history education has almost never been thought to be a wholly secular enterprise but rather one that is intimately connected with the development of morality and virtue in students the contemporary charade of value and virtue free education is thus not only a philosophical and practical absurdity but also demonstrates an asinine refusal to accept the nearly universal recognition of the importance of moral training that has existed throughout the history of Education that's the fancy of way of saying it's just plain dumb ok I'll say that once more as we close the contemporary charade of value and virtue free education is not only a philosophical and practical absurdity but it also demonstrates an asinine refusal to accept the nearly universal recognition of the importance of moral training that has existed throughout the history of Education the cultivation of virtue has been absolutely central in the understanding of Education tell us or purpose for thousands of years and it should be in our own understanding of Education as thank you you

Greek Art – AP Art History Study Video



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Hi, I’m Grace! I am a junior in high school who is making videos for students taking AP Art History as a part of my Girl Scout Gold Award. I understand the stresses of taking an AP course and going through AP exam season, and I think educational videos can be a great alternative to traditional studying practices. There are a great lack of helpful videos on this subject, so I hope that these videos will be informative and enjoyable.

Greek art and architecture Greek art is characterized by its devotion to the many gods and goddesses that were a part of Grecian culture before the rise of Christianity in Europe most of what is survived from these periods of Greek art is its sculpture architecture and pottery the artworks as well as the architecture are easily identified by historians through an abundant use of symbolism as it relates to each of the deities it is meant to worship within the AP our history curriculum Greek sculpture is separated into three categories based on the age and style of each of the works archaic 600 to 480 BC classical 480 to 323 BC and Hellenistic 323 to 30 BC archaic sculpture is the most ancient of the three periods and is best represented by the few grave monuments that have stood the test of time the most notable of these sculptures are the Kouros which take the form of young male warriors and serve as grave markers these figures stand facing the viewer with idealistic features of perfect symmetry the Anna vases chorus from 530 BC demonstrates the transition of sculpture in this period to more realistic features and dynamic stance this chorus might have originally been painted with bright colors similar to that of the peplos kore a and painted with its archaic smile to bring a sense of life to the figure however this sculpture is not meant as a portrait of a particular man but a general representation of a male warrior classical sculpture is distinguished from archaic works by its use of contrapposto or the asymmetrical balance of hips and shoulders and the shift of weight to a particular side figures are still incredibly idealized with the measured proportions or canons that served as rules for the perfect body during this period elderly rulers were depicted as young warriors with strong and muscular bodies poly cletus's dori forests or the spear bearer is a marvel sculpture of a young athlete with alternating elements of tense and relaxed appendages a perfect model for contrapposto the sculpture was found in Pompeii inside of a gym like Center though he was not originally designed in Italy the original classical sculpture does not survive today because when the Romans took over Greece they made marble copies of Greek Ronn sculpture using lost-wax casting so the bronze can be melted down for weapons Hellenistic sculpture is identified by its greater use of movement and realistic modeling creating a heightened sense of drama there are clear expressions by the figures of joy or misery invoking more emotional reactions than former styles additionally negative spaces use more creatively allowing four sculptures to be viewed from all sides and angles the seated boxer from 100 BC is a rare Hellenistic bronze depicts a more elderly athlete defeated and injured in a fight copper is used to highlight different parts of the figures in addition to sculpture Greek art included innovations in pottery red and black figure designs decorate em for Azure craters types of vases meant to hold wine or oil these figures painted on each face reflected classical and Hellenistic styles of contrapposto and dynamics in the nyah biddies crater from 460 BC the artists depicted the story of Naya been a woman who bragged about her fertility to the goddess Leto mother of Apollo and Artemis as a punishment for her hubris Lido's twins kill each of Naya bids 12 children this vase is also significant because of the first of its kind to neglect the use of Isis f ilysm a tradition of depicting heads on the same level Greek architecture was designed primarily as temples to honor the pagan gods but these structures were not meant to be accessed by the public the front in the back of the temples were nearly indistinguishable for this reason the only difference being their statuary decorations the temple facade would have had a pediment cornice meat opes triglyphs architrave and columns these columns are made up of capitals and shafts with three different types of capitals to distinguish between Doric the most simplistic ionic with scroll light fixtures and Corinthian made up of small leaves surrounding the column perhaps the most notable work of Greek architecture is the Parthenon constructed atop the Acropolis in Athens the temple is Doric with different ionic elements within the rear room and the interior frieze another important revelation during this time in Greece was the use of algebra and geometry to create the proportions of the Parthenon this temple was meant to honor the Athena and throughout antiquity a gigantic statue of the goddess stood inside decorated with gold and ivory Greek art on the whole was an extremely influential period for future artistic movements the traditions of this era completely inspired the Italian Renaissance a rebirth of the Classical era inspired by the ancient masters although much of what originally existed whether it be paintings bronze sculptures buildings or pottery that failed to survive the centuries Greek art continues to influence the artistic and especially the architectural world in the modern day

Major Episodes in American Labor History – Part 1 [Lecture 7 of 10] Thomas E. Woods, Jr.



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Thomas E. Woods, Jr., history professor at Suffolk Community College–and a prolific specialist in American Colonial history, the Progressive Era, and modern political history–presents this seminar covering the material in his books, and details and defends the Jeffersonian-Rothbardian perspective. Here is the cutting edge of libertarian history that completely rethinks the meaning and impact of the welfare-warfare state. Recorded at the Ludwig von Mises Institute in Auburn, Alabama; June 20-24, 2005.

Playlist for the complete ‘The Truth About American History’ seminar:

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Dr. Thomas E. Woods, Jr. is senior fellow in American history at the Ludwig von Mises Institute and is the author of nine books, including the New York Times bestsellers Meltdown: A Free-Market Look at Why the Stock Market Collapsed, the Economy Tanked, and Government Bailouts Will Make Things Worse, and The Politically Incorrect Guide to American History. His latest, Nullification: How to Resist Federal Tyranny in the 21st Century was released in July 2010.

Thomas Woods’ official website:

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DISCLAIMER: This media presentation is owned by the Ludwig von Mises Institute and is protected under Creative Commons license (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0).

This YouTube channel is in no way endorsed by or affiliated with the Mises Institute, any of its scholars or staff members.

all right good morning this morning I want to start talking about issues involving labor unions and labor history and in a way that the title is sort of misleading because you know there's much that can be said about labor markets that is not peculiarly Austrian but I didn't know how else to make it at least remotely provocative sounding so I put the word Austrian in the title again I want to start off by recommending a few books that are useful or at least a few authors you should look out for and the first one because I think it's been a relatively neglected book from about 1987 is a book by Howard Dickman named Indust called industrial democracy in America and you should make sure that if you look into this that you get the book by Howard Dickman because there's another book called industrial democracy in America by other authors which is not really as good his book it's subtitled ideological origins of national labor relations policy then of course you can hardly go wrong with wh Hut who's of course written a great deal on on labor economics and incidentally on matters of Labor history and then two of the great sort of free market labor economists out there would be of course Morgan Reynolds and Charles Baird now I've discussed this matter with one of those two gentlemen I've noted that it seems that this is an area in which there's tremendous work still to be done when there I know that I know what it's like being a young scholar and you're wondering where's my niche and what work still needs to be done and what can I do what's my role well here here's an area you might consider and that is the area of labor history because labor history is currently written is practically unreadable because it's written by people who frankly understand apparently almost nothing about the economics of how labor markets work it's it's based almost entirely on sentiment I mean it's it's it's like it's like Lisa Simpson is writing all these books you know she's she writes she is very Union sympathetic and but what we need are people who have a sound understanding of this and then can apply it to historical episodes in fact studying labor history oftentimes the best thing to do rather than trying to read labor historians who time after time sometimes distort what actually happened is to go back to the most primary source you can find for example in the late nineteenth century even the New York Times was actually relatively reliable in at least telling you the nuts and bolts of what happened in various strikes that would be a much better place to go actually than to go to many of the books that have been written so we net we definitely need sound work in labor history my father was a teamster for about 15 years okay and there is a Simpsons reference here of course that the Teamsters are doing some work at the Simpsons home and Homer Simpson walks outside and sees a few of the Teamsters just standing around he wants to see if he can out lazy the the Teamsters so they were all seeing who can stretch the loudest and you know be as obnoxious as possible now but but the fact is my father was a teamster so you know I I don't I don't want to just make cheap shots at these folks I want to be making sort of you know more you know deeper more significant points but the fact is that any Marxist worth his salt would think that I'm just the victim of false consciousness and if I come from a working-class family then for heaven's sake I should favor working-class interests well I do the back as I do favor working-class interest which is precisely why I hold the position as I do well practically everyone every every student over the course of his education hears the same kind of predictable story about the history of American labor labor unions and that is that American laborers were terribly exploited and their wages were reduced to practically subsistence level and then it was only due to favorable legislation or to the work of labor unions that the condition of Labor began to improve but had it not been for these it is simp taken for granted that you know the the vast bulk of us would still be working 80-hour weeks and our children would be working in mines a lot of my friends are working 80-hour weeks because they're lawyers or investment bankers yeah they make more money than I do but you know I like my 15 hour week and my leisure time very much much too much to give up for any other profession now Boombah Burke actually said on the issue of labor that he noted that a lot of times people form their judgments on this matter really of out of emotional factors really more than anything else and he says that this issue is quote on a field where the heart as well as the head is want to speak what people wish to believe they believe very readily well the standard tale of labor history is in fact almost entirely false and those parts of it that are true for example the low standard of living that people undoubtedly did enjoy in the 19th century are true for reasons other than those alleged by pro-union historians who see in them only confirmation of their prejudices against the market economy well as late as the 1920s labor law in America was based more or less on the following considerations first essential principles included freedom of contract and Association a labourer was perfectly free to reject any offer of compensation that an employer might make to him and conversely an employer was likewise entitled to reject any offer made by a laborer an employee was free to withhold his labor services if unsatisfied with his employers terms likewise a group of laborers jointly exercising this individual right were permitted to do so but no one was allowed to prevent individuals who wish to work from exercising their right to do that strikers like anyone else were forbidden to interfere with consumers right to shop where they liked strikes could not obstruct suppliers from making deliveries since to do so would again violate the rights of others and finally since the employers plant was private property the employer had the absolute right to decide who would be permitted to enter and complete strangers who wish to enter for the purpose of agitating his employees could be lawfully excluded altogether now incidentally the way I'm going to do this is start off with some historical background look at American labor law and then later try to address some of the myths of labor union ISM and try to explain what was the actual cause for the rising standard of living in in American history because again it's sort of carelessly assumed that because we had labor unions and then we had a rising standard of living that the unions caused the rising standard of living but of course that's a logical fallacy now this this outlook this posture whereby both sides in the labor relation were permitted to make offers voluntarily reject whatever offers they wished is is evident already in the early 19th century and it is not true as is often alleged by Pro Union historians that unions per se were being enjoined by the courts to cease and desist their activity it was not union activity per se that that the law sought to penalize it was if a group of workers wish to organize themselves and to engage in in peaceful activities a non-obstructive strike or various other to various social or other types of activities negotiating type activities the law did not stand in the way it was simply when you began to bash people's heads in because they wanted to work when you didn't or when you tried to obstruct deliveries to your employer or engaged in other kinds of property destruction or whatever that was what the law does something chose to forbid in 1806 for example there was a case in Philadelphia involving a group of journeyman who formed a union and then tried to get all local boot makers to hire only members of their Union and to fire and the existing employees anyone who was not a member of that Union well a judge found the Unionists guilty of risk of conspiracy and restraint of trade and levy defying upon them but he was levying the fine not because they organized themselves into a union but because they attempted to interfere with the peaceful labor relations of other people who just happened not to be union members other cases like this in the early 19th century in other states only solidified this principle so from the very beginning we see that the courts are acknowledging that people have a right to form unions to join them to partake in their activities but they do not have any rights to interfere with the lives of non-union workers and their employers now a very prominent case that is quoted a lot in in free-market type books typically isn't isn't ninth is an 1835 New York case called people versus Fisher this case involved unionists who are trying to prevent an independent boot maker from undercutting them in terms of wages apparently boots a very very competitive industry at the time the man who and this is what the court said court finding against what what the unionists were trying to do the court said the man who owns an article of trade or commerce is not obliged to sell it for any particular price nor is the mechanic obliged to labor for any particular price he may say that he will not make coarse boots for less than one dollar per pair but he has no right to say that no other mechanic shall make them for less if one individual does not possess such a right over the conduct of another no number of individuals can possess such a right all combinations therefore to effect such an object are injurious not only to the individual particularly oppressed but to the public at large it may be that Pennock who is the independent from greater industry or greater skill made more profit by making boots at seventy-five cents per pair than two then the defendants at a dollar he had a right to work for what he pleased his employer had a right to employ him for such a price as they could agree upon the interference of the defendants was unlawful its tendency is not only to individual oppression but to public inconvenience and embarrassment well even into the 1920s as I say this this understanding continued to prevail in the law and a case that professor Baird cites in a number of his works is that of the 1921 case of American steel foundries versus the tri-city central trades council now in this case this is this is a case that involves some actions that had occurred years earlier because sometimes obviously these cases take a long time to be heard but what basically took place is that in late 1913 American steel foundries closed its doors business conditions were unfavorable and they had to lay off about 1600 workers some of these workers were members of unions that were affiliated with the tri-city central trades council but the company had all haven't permitted people of whatever union or no union to be employed well a number of months later the company in fact reopened but on a limited basis and they rehired about 350 workers some of them union members but they rehired them on different pay scales there were there were pay cuts ranging from two cents to ten cents an hour compared to what the workers had been earning before the company had shut down in late 1913 well this tri-city trades council the vast majority of whom had never been employed by American steel foundries decided to declare a strike in protest of this wage cut although the lower pay scale paid to these 350 workers well out the 350 workers who had been rehired when the when steel foundries reopened only two of them joined this strike the other 348 wanted to keep working on the terms they'd been offered but the tri-city trades council which from the point of view of the firm is made up almost entirely of strangers decided that they were going to go ahead with this strike and they set up pickets substantial pickets made up basically of strangers at every single entrance to the firm and so for a period of about four weeks this in effects stranger picket engaged in repeated beatings and assaults against those workers who went in and tried to work we have reports of at least several employees who slept at the plant so they could continue working because they were afraid of facing the pickets well finally a federal court issued a restraining order and managed to put a stop to the violence well the union argued that the court had no authority to do that because they argue that the Clayton Act of 1914 had put restraints on the ability of the courts to intervene in that way but the Supreme Court in this 1921 case disagreed what the Supreme Court declared for one thing was first of all talked about what the Clayton Act said the Clayton Act had been called the magna carta of labor union ISM by Saved Samuel Gompers because the the the Clayton Act of 1914 had apparently at least exempted labor unions from prosecution under the Sherman Antitrust Act for conspiracies and restraint of trade but what the court found was that the Clayton Act protected unions only when they were carrying and they were lawfully carrying out their legitimate objectives and that the law protected only peaceable persuasion by employees so that the law does not protect of course people engaged in violence well interestingly in this tri-city trades council case of 1921 the Supreme Court went so far as to declare that even if you have a picket line that's peaceful let alone what was happening in this case where people are actually being beaten even when you have a picket line that's peaceful the Supreme Court declared that that is inherently intimidating and in effect tends to act as a barrier to entry to the struck firm and and in that way interferes with any firm's ability to carry on it's operations and so the court declared that a picket would would have to restrain itself to one one you could have one picket per entrance but you couldn't have you know flying squadrons of strangers showing up at every single entrance only only employees of the struck firm could actually serve as as picketers and although the picketers could talk to of course would speak to non striking employees they could only engage in non-threatening discussion if they in effect threatened people well then the court can enjoin that type of behavior because in effect this isn't this is inherently threatening behavior so that's a that's no needless to say labor historians hate this decision but this is that was it doesn't matter what the what their opinion is that was the state of the laws of 1921 things begin to change though in the 1930s first under Hoover and then under FDR so prior to the change in the law the the formation of unions per se was not considered legally actionable but simply the use of coercion to coerce others to deny employment to people who did not join the union well first we get in 1932 signed by Herbert Hoover the norris-laguardia act which had a number of important provisions but it will not be nearly as sweeping as what will come in the more distant future first this legislation made so-called yellow-dog contracts unenforceable in the courts these were contracts in which an employee could be required as a condition of employment to promise to restrain from union activity now again this is a this is a position that a lot of people to this day oppose that an employer should not be permitted as a contract as part of their contractual arrangement of their employees to be able to demand that employees not participate in union activity but of course in a system of free contract you know whatever terms people voluntarily agree on would would be considered acceptable and if and if of course if they can't attract enough employees by offering those terms they would under the pressure the free market be obligated to abandon them anyway Morgan Reynolds has actually an interesting article in the Journal of libertarian studies I think it's the only article he wrote for it so it's easy to track down if you go to mises.org and you look for Morgan Reynolds he has an article that among other things points out that yellow dog contracts in many cases were in fact initiated by employees themselves who had had experience with unions who found that oftentimes they were they were not they turned out not to be beneficial to the workers and they would rather not be bothered by a group of hostile strangers trying to interfere with their negotiations with their employers so oftentimes the this the the initiative for yellow dog contracts contrary to popular belief came from the employees themselves well according to this plank of a norris-laguardia act if you forbid yellow dog contracts you're saying that employers cannot boycott union labor they can't say that I'm going to hire you you have to promise not to engage in labor union agitation but on the other hand unions were not forbidden to boycott non-union labor they could of course carry on their their activities the Act exempted labor unions from prosecution under the Sherman Antitrust Act once and for all and in effect it's severely prohibited art private severely impaired the ability of the courts to issue injunctions in labor disputes in fact even when the even when the labor disputes had turned violent the the burden of proof to demonstrate that violence was in fact taking place was so high and unreasonable that in practical terms it made it impossible for courts to issue injunctions to stop this violent activity so in other words replacement workers could be being beaten and there was nothing that in effect a judge could do about it now the reason that that labor unions so disliked injunctions was that an injunction the purpose of an injunction was as fact laid by Morgan Reynolds I think explains that the best he says an injunction temporarily restrained union actions pending a trial and this explains the intense union campaign against its use in labor disputes because once violence ridden strikes were enjoined for a few days they were they were very difficult to revive reorganize and rekindle now it is one of the many myths by the way of American labor history that the courts just issued injunctions frequently and indiscriminately that it has issued injunctions even when labor unions were engaged in perfectly peaceful activities but this is why you should look at the work of a labor economist Sylvester Petro whose work the the labor policy of a free society was dedicated in part to ludwig von mises and he who wrote a great many scholarly articles on this subject and he actually did a study of work stoppages between the years 1880 and 1932 he found that injunctions were extremely rare he said federal injunctions were issued at not even 1% of all work stoppages while state injunctions were issued unless than 2% of all work stoppages and he says that even these very few injunctions were issued not to thwart labor union activity per se but instead to put a stop to violence against persons and property well now even this protection of the employers rights yes employers have rights to would henceforth be absent incidentally there was a book that was published in 1930 called the labor injunction that was written co-authored by Felix Frankfurter the justice and he in this book the thesis was that labor unions had been treated unfairly in the common law with excessive use of injunctions against peaceful activity and this revisionist work that's been carried on not only by Petro and others vigman has shown that in fact the the the frankfurter book is completely entirely dishonest I mean it's either grossly incompetent or just frankly dishonest now the New Deal of Franklin Roosevelt added to this the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 which tends to instead be called the Wagner Act because of Robert Wagner who introduced it now it used to be the case that a worker if you didn't want to join a union or pay the pay union dues then you just didn't you you just refrain from joining and you didn't pay the dues but the Wagner Act overturns this standard Liberty from the point from from when you begin with the Wagner Act and going forward if a majority of workers in a particular bargaining unit decide that they are going to unionize then that union represents all workers whether it was include the workers who decided to join the workers who did not want to join the workers who didn't vote one way or the other it represents them all and you know and this is this was argue it was argue that this was perfectly perfectly fair so from then on if a majority of workers choose to unionize all the workers must join and and pay union dues now the usual defense of this was to say that look the Wagner Act calls for a single certified bargaining agent to represent all workers in a given bargaining unit and so if you're going to have a single labor union to represent all workers which is called for by this act then it stands to reason that every worker who works in this unit should have to join that Union and pay dues because why should they get to freeride you know why should they enjoy at no cost of themselves all the benefits that come from the labor union negotiating on their behalf that was the that was the argument so therefore it makes sense to coerce and it's just to coerce all workers into paying union dues because all of them are enjoying the benefits of being represented by this single union well of course this overlooks the real problem which is the idea of having an exclusive union in the first place if the unions would just bargain on behalf of their own voluntary dues-paying members then there wouldn't be a problem of non-members getting union benefits for free if individuals were allowed to represent themselves or and to enter into contracts with employers on their own terms those who wish to remain non-union would not be free riding on the benefits bestowed by labor unions since the union would simply not bargain on their behalf but federal labor law no longer guarantees workers this freedom now it is true that in 1947 you get the taft-hartley Act which was passed at a time when much of the American population had grown extremely impatient with labor unions and and strike striking activity but the taft-hartley Act is quite mild effect in its provisions and it really doesn't overturn any of the major planks of the National Labor Relations Act which which again in summary had in effect taken the position of exclusive bargaining that once one union is decided Union represents every single worker and every single worker must pay union dues it doesn't overturn the idea that there has to be just one Union and that Union has exclusive representation but what it did do was to give the states in effect the right to pass right-to-work laws which at least at least said that that a union couldn't force union membership and and union dues on workers as the price for keeping their jobs but it doesn't say that you can have company unions or any such thing as that that's that's still forbidden but it at least means that you could in some states I don't know how many maybe 20 twenty-something states now have right-to-work laws which at least mean that you know you can you can exempt yourself and not but you not be in effect driven out or denied employment now it's interesting that just a year before the National Labor Relations Act was passed franklin roosevelt had opposed this idea of exclusive representation in 1934 the United Auto Workers had threatened to shut down the entire auto industry unless they were recognized as the exclusive bargaining agent for all Auto Workers to avoid that strike franklin roosevelt intervened and settled it on the basis of proportional representation he said that the United Auto Workers represents only its own members and people who want to belong to other unions or company unions or whatever would represent those people and people who wanted to have no union at all would represent themselves and Franklin Roosevelt said that in his opinion this was the only kind of union representation that was consistent with the American tradition of Liberty so he took the position at least in 1934 that we shouldn't have this position in which you have an exclusive bargaining agent and you can coerce people to be represented by it even if they don't want represent representation services from that Union now why why why the president changed his mind is a an interesting matter in itself but let's just continue on this visit this front now this this there's a term we need to introduce called Union security Union securities that is the is the sort of you know not so terrible sounding term that is used to refer to the practice whereby workers who don't even want the representation services of a union have them forced upon them and typically have to pay for them this was these these were the terms of the original 1935 legislation this is called unions union security because it is security for the Union and for the people who work for the Union because of course it guarantees them an income they're going to be collecting dues from everybody and that practice whereby people are coerced into paying these dues as a requirement for keeping their jobs which as I say was the original intent of the 1935 Act is obviously of great benefit to unions so so in effect what right-to-work laws do is they abolish Union security so that people don't have to join a union as a condition of employment but nevertheless it keeps this principle of exclusive representation intact for everybody else ok let's see yeah one of the things we want to do oh yeah know another thing that's been said in defense of this in defense of the idea that when a majority of workers vote to to choose a particular union to represent them that therefore it's legitimate for all workers to be in effect coerced into being represented by this one Union sometimes it's argued that this is just democracy and you know we recognize democracy in political affairs and there's no reason that democracy should not be extended into labor relations but the the traditional common law principle was that when I sell my labor services I am engaged in an action that is in the private the sphere of private human action not in the sphere of government action and that democracy in government you know involves you know if you're gonna have a government the idea of democracy is that we restrain it by having it at least be somewhat responsive to the popular will but we don't we don't arrange all of human affairs according to this principle I mean we don't decide our dinner based on what the state of Alabama wants us to eat you know we don't decide what our favorite color is based on what the consensus on this phone on our city block is we don't apply the democratic principle to private affairs because we would consider that to be a completely unjust interference on the part of a majority of people on the rights of the minority and likewise that had been that the view with regard to labor union ISM that the individual individuals retain the right either to represent themselves or to choose to be represented by a different organization now Labor Relations law has very often consisted of bizarre turns of phrase and Strauss strange almost Orwellian principles and the National Labor Relations Act is no exception because notice what notice what it says it says that it is an unfair labor practice for an employer by discriminant I description in regard to hire or tenure of employment to encourage or discourage membership in any labor organization so on the one hand it would be unfair for an employer to discriminate in hiring or in granting tenure to encourage or discourage membership in any labor organization hmm well that would seem to make Union security illegal a it would be unlawful for for an employer in effect to be hiring or not hiring on the basis of union activity because of course that's what the unions would in effect say you can't hire anybody unless they're going to be in our Union I mean once you hire them we're gonna force them into our Union says here it would be an unfair labor practice for an employer to encourage or discourage membership in any labor organization but it goes on to say provided that nothing in this act shall preclude an employer from making an agreement with a labor organization to require as a condition of employment membership therein well the translate that into normal English was that saying is that employers are forbidden from encouraging membership in a union but they can compel membership in a union like what you know this is this is how when you have laws on the you know that are based on special interest you get bizarre results such as this okay now once a union has been certified by a majority of workers I mean basically typically the way this goes is that once there's interest among the workers and in setting up a union establishing an Union certifying a union as their exclusive bargaining agent well what they first what they try to do is to get workers to sign cards that authorize the Union to act as their agent and once they get maybe a third of the workers assigning these authorization cards then the National Labor Relations Board will step in and conduct a certification election so in other words if a third of the of the of the workers have signed these cards that's sort of prima facie indication that there is an interest in organizing a union and so the National Labor Relations Board will oversee or will will though they'll be petitioned for a certification election then that election will be carried out by secret ballot which is at least an improvement over the old just raise your hand and if if the Union gets more than half 50% plus one of the workers then it gets representation privileges well we've already seen that that that privilege applies of permits the the Union to represent or claim to be the represent the Institute of institution of representation for all the workers regardless of their own feelings about unionization but what's significant is that there is no there is no routine decertification election like it's not like every two years they they go back and say well how do we feel now even if it's 20 years later and most of the workers have either died or retired or moved on to other jobs and the bulk of the remainder you know are either indifferent or not interested in the Union it is presumed to continue I mean there's no automatic desertification and you have to really jump through hoops to get a decertification election taking place now this principle of exclusive representation which once a union has been certified it is declared to represent everybody when it comes to democratic countries the United States is basically alone in organizing its Labor Relations in this way Canada also does it this way but basically they got the idea from the United States other democratic countries / meant a variety of representation within a particular firm including including things like company unions but also just a variety of different unions or no union at all this is considered to be a decision up to the individual worker and it's that you know in in other countries the assumption is the old traditional American assumption that people should not have to submit themselves to the will of the majority in cases involving the disposition of their own labor services now at front at least from 1935 to 1947 and then there were still some problems after 1947 there were limits on the free speech of the employer that were that were in place the National Labor Relations Act in fact said well actually let's just just point out that the the foot before going into that that an employer could not actually say to the workers hey you shouldn't vote in favor the Union like when he knew that a certification election was coming he shouldn't go around saying you shouldn't do that you should or shouldn't do this he had to be absolutely quiet so he had to permit total strangers to come onto his property and propagandize his workers and he in effect had to stay entirely out could not really speak in a way that would tend to influence the election well in 1947 with the taft-hartley amendments which is amending the National Labor Relations Act we get this statement that seems to give free speech rights to the employer it says the expressing of any views argument or opinion or the dissemination thereof shall not constitute or be evidence of an unfair labor practice on the under any of the provisions of this act if such expression contains no threat of reprisal or force or promise of benefit now there as I say there was that there was no free speech provision in the Wagner Act employers until 1947 were just required to sit there and they could they couldn't do it do anything but this provision that was inserted in 1947 it turns out has got a loophole you could drive a truck through because notice it says that an employer cannot be engaging in unfair labor practice just because he expresses a view just because he says something but if expressing that view contains a threat of reprisal or force or promise of benefit well then he can be hauled into court well the thing is almost anything that an employer might say with regard to labor union ISM could in some way be twisted as being a threat of reprisal or a promise of benefit I mean if the Union says hey you know I think this was really not in your interests and some day you may regret this well there you go that's a that's a threat isn't that some kind of a threat you may regret this well you better be more precise how will I regret this well you know things may things may turn bad for you that the the company may may go out of business because of the the wage demands or something can't say that so it turns out that yes you can speak against unionism but only in some weird way that no one really knows what you know exactly how to do it so for instance the Supreme Court in 1969 in a case that involved the National Labor Relations Board and the Gissel packing company made a unbelievable judgment it involved a company that in 1952 had had suffered a strike that had paralyzed it two of its plants were were shut down for three months and it did tremendous damage and eventually when they reopened they reopened on a non-union basis well years later the mid-sixties the Teamsters got the requisite number of signatures on those cards and they were going to hold a certification election well during that the campaign to try to get workers to go ahead and vote to certify the Teamsters the employer went around telling people you know did you not forget what happened in 1952 the the last time we had unions here we had this strike it was not in the best interest of anybody it paralyzed everybody people lost their jobs and that could happen to you again and if you became unemployed some of you would have especially because of your advanced age would be hard for you to find other jobs think about what you're doing well the Supreme Court declared that those were those statements were threats of reprisal and so even though the certification election went against the Union the court as as Baird points out set aside the election results and imposed a bargaining order on the employer so the employer was was ordered to recognize and bargain with the Union as exclusive bargaining agent without a second election so in effect although the employer as Baird points out may express general views about unions what he says cannot sound like a threat well in effect the employers now can't say anything that's sort of remotely anti-union because you could always twist that around to sound as if it were a threat of reprisal now the National Labor Relations Act also once also requires that once a single certified union is established employers are required to bargain in good faith with that organization now whether an employer has bargained in good faith is of course not an easy thing to determine what what exactly would constitute in good faith well don't worry the National Labor Relations Board will determine what constitutes in good faith so oftentimes what it means is that if if if a if a company just simply says look this is the package we're prepared to offer this is the only reasonable package the best package we have and they say that's final that's our final offer we can't possibly improve on it they would almost certainly be accused of not bargaining in good faith so what they have to start doing is they have to come out like it's a big game they have to come out with a terrible offer so that the union will say well that's terrible how about this one and then so in other words they have to in effect provoke kind of an argument back and forth they can't just come out and say we think this is the best thing take it or leave it you have to come out with a ridiculous plan the union has to start with a ridiculous plan and then they have to argue with each other employers under the Act are required to permit union organizers who were not employed in their firm to use their own property in order to persuade their employees to unionize with their with their union union workers can in fact block the employers access to replacements they can block deliveries coming in they can block customers not only is mass picketing now permitted which remember under the tri-city trades council case only you could have one picket per entrance but now you can have mass picketing you can have total strangers picketing and employers are now forced to rehire in many cases strikers even if they've been engaged in acts of violence they have to rehire them now a national there's a National Labor Relations Board ruling that actually said that obviously if a striker let's say killed somebody you wouldn't really be obligated to rehire him but the National Labor Relations Board said that the the employer can refuse to rehire a striker if his misconduct during the strike is so violent or of such serious character as to render him unfit for further service but on the other hand you have to rehire him if simply his behavior constitutes a trivial ruff incident that occurred quote in a moment of animal exuberance now the the the explanation was that certain kinds of impulsive behavior being quote normal outgrowths of the intense feelings developed on picket lines must have been in Congress's minds when they developed this law and and were defending the right the right to strike and so Charles Baird points out that excused instances of animal exuberance have included beatings stabbings bombings threatening of non-striker's families destruction of property blocking entrances to struck firms with broken glass and nails and hurling brickbats so an employer in other words in all of those cases has been required to hire back people who were guilty of such offenses it also meant under the the Wagner Act that the principle of vicarious responsibility did not hold so if the union organizer actually says to his his Union you know I have everybody I want you to go beat people over the head you know he bears and the Union as an organization bears no penalty for that would bear no penalty for that at all now there are two kinds of strikes that since the late 1930s have been recognized in American labor law and they've sometimes been called on the one hand economic strikes and on the other hand unfair labor practice or ULP strikes now an economic strike is what we sort of all tend to think of we think of a strike a strike that is undertaken in pursuit of higher wages better working conditions shorter hours perhaps and the like an unfair labor practice strike on the other hand is undertaken in response to a perception that the employer in the course of bargaining or perhaps in his very refusal to bargain has violated National Labor Relations Act rules so if he so in other words in the course of the bargaining or it has in some type of behavior or in trying to you know what whatever I mean if in any way he violates any of the standards that we've seen then that would the strike against him in that case would be an unfair labor practice strike so for example a lot of times when there's collective bargaining going on the union's bargaining the company's bargaining they're going back and forth but if they hit a brick wall in the bargaining well sometimes a union will strike and say the employer is not bargaining in good faith so it's an unfair labor practice strike now what's the difference who cares whether it's an economic strike or an unfair labor practice strike well the difference is that ever since about 1938 when the Supreme Court ruled on this employers are not allowed to hire permanent replacements in unfair labor practice strikes they can they can hire only temporary replacements when that strike is over they have to hire back any employee who wants to be rehired in that type of strike they have to hire them back immediately or otherwise they would have to start paying back pay to them so it's very significant what type of strike it is but with an economic strike employers do in fact have the right according to the Supreme Court to hire permanent replacement workers so strikers therefore have a right in the law to be immediately reinstated after every ULP strike is over and they have the right to be reinstated at the end of an economic strike when in cases where replacements have not been hired if there are still openings that have not been filled by replacements then the strikers in effect have a claim on those positions now this may seem like an artificial distinction and and of course in some ways it is the way that the court defended this distinction was to say that an employer who finds himself the subject of an economic strike whose workers are striking for higher wages or whatever has not necessarily done anything that violates the law he may simply just not have offered a package that was satisfactory to the workers and that's not if so facto legally actionable whereas in an unfair labor practice strike the presumption is that the employer has in fact broken the law because he's violated some principle of American labor law and so he should not in you know there's a sort of standard legal principle in it that if you break the law or you're doing something that's unlawful you shouldn't enjoy material benefits as a result of that so there should be a particular penalty in effect imposed obviously on a firm that is breaking the law whether we think that law should exist or not then one that the presumption is he's not breaking the law so in fact this is what the Supreme Court says although section 13 of the National Labor Relations Act provides that nothing in this act shall be construed so as to interfere with or impede or diminish in any way the right to strike it does not follow that an employer guilty of no act denounced by the statute has lost the right to protect and continue his business by supplying places left vacant by strikers and he is not bound discharge those hired filled those hot those hired to fill the places of strikers upon the election of the latter to resume their employment in order to create places for them okay so some some labor union sympathizers have argued that the Supreme Court here is not making rendering this decision in line with the original intent of the National Labor Relations Act that the Act did not in fact envision this but Robert Wagner himself said in 1939 that he was in favor of every step that the Supreme Court has taken toward clarifying the meaning and defining the scope of the Act now it may seem by the way because the although the law prohibits the the employer to just fire a striker typically with the exceptions there there are exceptions to that but that you can't just fire a striker you can hire permanent replacements as we've seen you can hire permanent replacements in the case of a of an economic strike and you can hire temporary replacements in the case of an unfair labor practice strike but what the heck is the difference between firing somebody for striking and on the other hand hiring a permanent replacement for that person permanent replacement for that person seems like the same thing and again unionists have long claimed that this is just a semantic difference and there is no there is no difference but there actually is there actually is a difference for one thing a permanent replacement has in other words of what I mean to say is a striker who's striking in an economic strike who has had a permanent replacement worker hired to replace him has indefinite preferential rehiring rights that is to say that in the future if an opening comes up at that firm the first people the employer is legally obligated to go to to ask do you want this position would be strikers who have had permanent replacements to replace them so that so in fact any time there's any job vacancy at all the employer cannot hire any new person until any eligible striker who is interested has been reinstated and there's no time limit on this could be years and years in the future he must go and give preferential hiring consideration to people who had been strikers and it's not even just that if the same job that the striker went on strike for reopens that I have to go to that person if any job in my firm comes open I have to go to that person even if it's a job that even if I'm a tire manufacturer and I start making bagels I have to go back to the original strikers and ask would you like a job making bagels so it is actually a fairly substantial difference between being fired in which case of course you would have no claim whatsoever on the employer whereas if you're if you have been permanently replaced nevertheless you are the first person to get any any opening not necessarily in fact it can it can even be it can be it can be for hire it can be for a more prestigious position in fact so it wouldn't even necessarily have to be at the same wage if the if the worker has found substantially equivalent employment elsewhere then this then this provision would would lapse now all of these legislative measures obviously make it much easier for labor unions to accomplish their goals and now in order to fulfill the purpose of a labor union which is to increase the state of purpose is to increase the wages of their members what labor unions have to do is to restrict an employer's access to alternative sources of labor so the idea is to artificially reduce the number of people in the labor force so to reduce the supply and therefore that would increase the price that would increase the wage that's the purpose of of the labor of the labor union so the labor unions typically are organized you know partly against their employer but they're primarily organized against other workers they're organized against people who want employment let's say with this firm and who are non-union they're not interested in that they want to restrict the supply so as to increase wages for their own work that's the point so non-union workers who wish to seek employment on the terms offered by an employer whose firm is unionized must be prevented from doing so so Edward Chamberlain of Harvard University once described the the legal status that labor unions have thereby been granted he said this if a is bargaining with B over the sale of his house and if a were given the privileges of a modern labor union he would be able one to conspire with all other owners of houses not to make any alternative offer to be using violence or the threat of violence if necessary to prevent them to to deprive to deprive B himself of access to any alternative offers three to surround the house of B and cut off all deliveries including food except by Parcel Post for to stop all movement from B's house so that if he were for instance a doctor he could not sell his services and make a living and five to institute a boycott of B's business all of these privileges if he were capable of carrying them out would no doubt strengthen A's position but they would not be regarded by anyone as part of quote bargaining unless a were a labor unit it's for this reason that Hayek once said I think it was in constitution of Liberty High have said we have now reached a state where unions have become uniquely privileged institutions to which the general rules of law do not apply now of course because there is such sympathy there's this kind of a mythos that surrounds labor unions that makes it an unthinkable offense that you would cross a picket line or continue working when a strike is going on or actually take a job at a plant at which you had not previously been important employee but take a job during a strike because you wish to work on the terms that are being offered I was wondered why it is that such people are considered to be the lowest of the Lummi don't they have families aren't they workers like why are they dehumanized but for example Jack London once wrote because of course we all know that those people are called scabs right you're a scab if you want to you know if you want to provide for your family in that situation you're just a scab Jack London said after God had finished the rattlesnake the toad the vampire he had some awful substance left with which he made a scab kind of kind of dehumanizing to think well any case what will often happen then was it would be that the police you know we need the public police to keep law and order well they'll just stand there like you know somebody's getting his head bashed in policemen will say hey I think I got to go give that guy a ticket over there he's going 43 miles an hour in a 40 mile zone so in other words they'll just stand there and let this type of behavior go on even in the face of intimidation violence often times this will just not happen there won't be any redress on the part of the by the public authorities so in effect coercion or the threat of coercion is at the heart of the labor union experience because how else are you going to keep other people from voluntarily entering into agreements with employers and thus apparently at least apparently driving down wages well you have to intimidate them into not doing this or use violence against them or build up this sort of again this mythos in people's minds that they wouldn't dream of doing it this is why Henry George once wrote in the 19th century those who tell you if trade unions bent on raising wages by moral suasion alone are like those who would tell you of tigers that live on oranges now there are a couple of examples of of incidents that occurred in the course of American labor history that I found particularly revealing and what they tell us about labor law for example there was a United Mine Workers strike in the early eighties in which and as Morgan Reynolds points Isis a non-union miners and mine owners armed themselves shut down their operations during for the duration of the strike truck convoys used lead trucks with five footlong magnets to sweep up nails and spikes on the road these were some of the tactics that were being used when UMW ambushes and gun battles broke out Kentucky governor John Y Brown adopted a policy of what he called strict neutrality declaring we're not going to camp on one side or the other a non-union line operator protested the concept of neutrality toward breaking the law is not found in any statute or practice in our society but in other words this you know violence could be used and then abide by unionists and the governor will say well you know Who am I to decide was right in this situation or there was an interesting arbitration ruling by the National Labor Relations Board in the mid-1970s that declared that was was speaking of a firm that had kept its plant open during a strike and the the ruling said this although the company had a legal right to keep the plant open its decision to do so gives it some share of responsibility for creating an environment conducive to violence so the company right the company kept its its its plant open and so it's it's really sort of their fault isn't it they should have just shut down now the the result of lit of union activity then is to reduce the number of jobs in an industry and to raise the money wages of union labor while at the same time and here's the thing that is not seen relegating many workers driven out of this line of work now by the decreased quantity of Labor demanded there two other lines of work whose money wages must decrease as a result of the greater supply of workers now forced to compete for them but it's not simply that labor union activity tends to displace people that well I'd like to get a job in this but I'm not in the Union and they don't want to let me in they want to restrict they want to restrict the number of workers so I'm sort of forced out of this industry I gotta go work for something else it's not just simply that well I would have worked here but now I work here and so it's just a wash the gains to certain workers are more than offset by the disabilities inflicted upon other workers I mean I mean quite apart from the the you know the subjective factor you know and mentally of being driven from your chosen field when union activity reduces the number of people who can be profitably employed in skilled trades it correspondingly increases the number of skilled laborers who are now forced to find work in fields that are well below their level of competence the outcome of this placement of skilled labor is no different from a situation in which laborers never possess these skills in the first place if Union privilege prevents some workers from putting their skills to proper use the effect is the same as if they had never gone to the trouble to acquire them at all thus society produces below its potential and wealth that would otherwise have been created never sees the light of day now of course the much of the reason that labor unions have the sympathy they do is that people have this sense that of course without unions how could workers be prosperous they don't have a strong negotiating position employers have a much stronger negotiating position and so therefore they have to have a counterbalance to that natural advantage that employers are alleged to enjoy and this is a this is a position that we we see an effect given voice even in Adam Smith's book The Wealth of Nations in speaking of workers and employers Smith said as follows he said it is not however difficult to foresee which of the two parties must upon all ordinary occasions have the advantage in the dispute and forced the other into a compliance with their terms the master is being fewer in number can combine much more easily and the law besides authorizes or at least does not prohibit their combinations while it prohibits those of the workmen well not in the u.s. certainly now we have no acts of parliament against combining to lower the price of work but many against combining to raise it in all such disputes and here's the key the masters can hold out much longer a landlord a farmer a master manufacturer or merchant though they did not employ a single workman could generally live a year or two upon the stocks which they have already acquired many workman could not subsist a week few could subsist a month and scarce any a year without employment in the long run the workman may be as necessary to his master as his master is to him but the necessity is not so immediate well I think that's a fairly standard understanding that most people have but yet I'm going to suggest that this is in fact not an accurate way of thinking about what actually happens in labor markets and that it doesn't correspond to either to sound theory or to in fact the experience that that various countries have had throughout recent history now if it's true first of all that that because the employer can allegedly can afford to wait longer because he's got bigger stocks of things he needs for subsistence whereas the worker is typically living very very close to subsistence and can't just sit around and wait if the employer can just sit there and say look this is my offer I'll just sit here and wait for you to crawl up to me and take it if that really is true then certain things should follow from that that don't in fact seem to follow from that I if labor is more easily exploited let's say than capital I mean you can't say to a you know pile of steel you know I'm only gonna I'm only gonna give you five bucks a pound so you just sit there and I'll just sit here and wait you know it wouldn't work with an inanimate object or the seller of an inanimate object also being an employer presumably has stocks to hold out so he can hold out so the the argument of labor exploitation would be that it's easier to exploit labor and hire it at a wage that its level of productivity you know doesn't just in other words when you hire labor the argument is that I can hire people for like nothing because they're gonna starve otherwise but with I use capital well pretty pretty much when I when I purchased some capital equipment you know I got to purchase it at the going rate I have to purchase it at a rate that is in some way commensurate with the benefits that will accrue to me from it because I'm buying it from after all another capitalist who himself has stocks of goods so I can't exploit capital in the way I can exploit a laborer well if that really were true then we would expect to find profits being much higher in labor intensive industries than in capital intensive industries but this does not seem to have empirical support there are also certain myths of labor union history that are incorrect that are based on this presumption that the labor is added at bargaining and negotiating disadvantage for example before there was anything remotely approaching substantial unionism in the United States there was already a very substantial upward trend in wages throughout the 19th century all through into the 20th right now labor unions account for I think there are nine percent of American labor is actually unionized it's it's basically always been a very in substantial figure relatively small it's gone up it went up in the 30s of course because the law was giving it a lot of advantages but it always been relatively small by the year 1900 it was about 3% 3% of the labor force is unionized and yet American workers into the 1920s we're continuing to have substantially higher wages than their much more heavily Union unionized counterparts in Europe they got the eight-hour day sooner and and and so on there's a standard view that says that large-scale employers the great big companies tend to exploit unorganized workers but in fact the empirical evidence is that the larger firms were in fact paying better than the smaller firms there's this claim that workers are in a disadvantage because they don't have as many as much in terms of savings where they can subsist on that while they're waiting for the employer to give in but in fact there does not seem to be any difference in the wage rates that workers with substantial savings received and workers without savings received now labor union ISM in fact impoverishes society in in a variety of ways that are not immediately apparent they're not intuitive I think first we have the distortions in the labor market that we've seen and in people being forced to go into fields for which they're over qualified because unionism has shut them out of the field for which they had they have trained but in fact the damage that unions have inflicted on the economy in recent American history is actually far greater than anybody might suppose and I cite in my book a study by by veteran Galloway that was published by the jointly by the National legal and Policy Center in the John M Olin Institute for employment practice and policy but that Galloway did this study in 2002 that is available online I think to this day and I think I could in fact if you just did a google search of all those names Vetter Galloway national legal and policy center John Mo Land Institute you'd probably find it but here's what they concluded and this sounds absolutely counterintuitive at the beginning they concluded that over the past half century alone labor unions have cost the American economy a whopping fifty trillion dollars that seems like they must have just they forgot to carry the one or they've got too many zeros or this can't possibly be be so but in fact this is not a misprint that was in fact that that was in fact their conclusion and they write this they say the dead weight economic losses that are brought on by labor union ISM are not one-shot impacts on the economy what our simulations reveal is the powerful effect of the compounding over more than half a century of what appears at first to be small annual effects now the study did find that Union labor does typically earn wages that are fifteen percent higher than those of their non-union counterparts but it also found that wages in general suffered dramatically as a result as a result of an economy that is thirty to forty percent smaller than it would have been in the absence of of labor union ISM now I I have a bunch of I think pretty overwhelming evidence on this about how unionism has in fact contributed to to not the well-being of workers but actually to the overall impoverishment of American labor but I think I'm going to save most of that for for next time and then I'm gonna look at a couple of historical episodes next time but I will just simply conclude with a thought experiment before taking any question the thought experiment is this as we know the usual argument is that in the absence of labor unions employers will pay unconscionably low wages but George Riesman has got a useful thought experiment to the contrary he says let's suppose you have a car in New York City which by the way is an unbelievable hassle where would you park it it costs a fortune it's a nightmare there's traffic all the time anyway and let's just say you decide that you just want to get rid of this car and you pretty much take anything that you can get for it in fact you take $1 for the car in fact let's say you would pay somebody to take this car off your hands now the question is does that mean that in practice you are in fact going to have to pay somebody to take that car away or you're gonna have to accept a bid of $1.00 well the fact is there are a lot of people in New York who want to buy cars and they're gonna outbid each other if a potential buyer offered you $1 you would turn them down even if even if it were true that in a state of complete despair you would have sold it at $1 that is not a relevant factor here what you would do in a desperate situation it's not relevant to what you would do in in a real-life situation you have in which you have many buyers so this person because of his low bid will miss out on the opportunity to own the car all together since his rivals will simply outbid him well in effect the same thing happens in the labor market I mean this is how Charles Baird explains it he says this idea that workers without unions will inherently have a disadvantage in bargaining power relative to employers is the basis for most individuals support of unionism and is picked up again in the Wagner Act in fact the Wagner Act expressly says in the act itself it actually includes a statement saying that because we all know that laborers are at a disadvantage in bargaining therefore we have to do this I mean they just state it as if it's it's obvious but that disadvantage is a hoary myth says beard a workers bargaining power depends on the workers alternatives if a worker either works for employer a or does not work that as if employer a is a monopsonist that is the only the only buyer effect in that case the worker has little bargaining power if the worker has several employment alternatives on the other hand he has strong bargaining power there may have been instances of monopsony or oligopoly in the 19th century but they were short-lived monopsony has not been a significant factor in the American labor market since the introduction and widespread use of the automobile and in fact Baird at another another occasion says that Henry Ford did more for the typical American worker than did Samuel Gompers the the who's the head of the American Federation of Labor for a long time because Henry Ford by making the automobile affordable now makes it possible for him for employees to to drive around and to get a variety of employment offers and then to be able to to choose between them the empirical evidence that simply does not bear out the conventional wisdom regarding unions if it were true that employers were really in a position to impose whatever wage rate they wished then why in the decades before large-scale labor union is and why wasn't why weren't wages heading toward zero in fact real wages were increasing dramatically at that time or why is it that skilled workers would earn more than unskilled workers they should all be earning subsistence according to the exploitation theory even you should be able to just because hey they can't wait that they're gonna starve they've got to take whatever offer you give them Why should there be any differentiation and the wages paid to skilled versus unskilled workers why not just pay them both both the same pittance well this has all been sort of a negative overview sort of Italy first laying out what the basic principles are of American labor law at this point and then looking at why it is that in fact labor unions do not are not responsible for the increased standard of living in fact why they help to depress it but although I do want to continue on that line a little bit next time I want to give a an alternative explanation alternative version of history that explains what in fact does account for the rising standard of living that American workers have enjoyed from the 19th century to the present so I think that'll be it for right now and we'll see what anybody if anybody thinks anything about this or has any comments or any any horror stories to share with us because my father sure had plenty of them because my father worked because he felt like it was the right thing to do and there'd be people he felt there are people who were taking advantage of the unionized situation who would hurt their thumb and they'd be out for 8 weeks and that drove him crazy he sort of felt like the honorable thing is to do your do your day's work and so you know we hope that my father being now nine years deceased that he has received his eternal ward for that yes well III guess let's see I'm trying to think of what what exactly are the things I went to I'm going to talk about things like the the homestead strike and the Haymarket incident and things like that but yeah it is interested that I think that actually is a valid point about the where the actual unionization is taking place is where wages are actually already quite strong to go to the next window and the first thing they did was and then at the end of each week they took all the social security and the federal and then this huge last thing they dumped it into this what is science and this is your money going to Washington and it was Garko every week you know this image is huge and so anyway but the first thing they knew they they couldn't do much for the taxes but they do one thing they could do have to take that union every every week and pay that so they stopped paying the unions oh that's like one of the best things I've ever heard of man to stop it yeah oh that's an outrage that's an outrage all right good yes yeah I know I know what I mean I I haven't I haven't done much study of government unions and people who are unionized who are under government employment because I sort of to me well it enters me is what are the effects of this stuff on the private sector and I sort of feel like if you know if you know government employment is all screwed up well you know all the better you know I feel like Bob they would say yeah means sometimes used violence that's very selective interpretation especially I think actually not not really because I think that that you know it like Bob Higgs for instance who is you know as small government or you know whatever a guy as you can find nevertheless he likes President Grover Cleveland in spite of what a lot of people criticize him for which is that he you know he sometimes did intervene in labor disputes or to or to try to to restore order the midst of strikes and that and that sort of thing and and and Higgs absolutely insisting that case after case he's totally justified in doing so that the violence that's taking place is typically on on the part of the on the part of the Union and that you know intervening or or having injunctions are exactly the we're exactly the right thing to do so in fact there's there's a reasonably good discussion of the Pullman Strike as I recall in crisis and Leviathan but but but I mean but yeah I mean I might my my reading of it is that you know is that is that I mean I guess well I guess well hold on on the gun question and we're gonna revisit the goon question like that they bring in their goons cuz I am going to talk later today about the what I just say that the the Homestead Strike because there you did have some people who are considered to be goons the the Pinkerton Detective Agency was was hired but typically that was done even though the Pinkertons were hated by people that they were typically hired because the public police weren't protecting the plant they had a history of not protecting the plant so if you know that the public authorities aren't going to protect the plant then you really have no choice other than to then to you know arm yourself with whatever private organization you can find not many people have spoken on behalf of the Pinkerton Detective Agency over the past hundred years but that's about the best I can do other LC yes Harry sir and as much as government that certain actions okay I haven't thought of it that way but hmm that's I never I never would have thought of that but that may be a legitimate Rothbard Ian's point where rothbard would say that when you're dealing with government enterprises or for example when you're dealing with the question of how do you discern Europe and how do you how do you assign property rights to you know government-owned firms and properties whatever and I recall reading as well that broth bars view often times which would also be his view of slaves working on a plantation would be that they they're the legitimate owners likewise people who are people in the in Eastern Europe the actual workers themselves would be the legitimate owners because there's no way that the the communist state could be a legitimate owner of anything and of course for Rothbart there's no way that any state could be a legitimate owner of anything because it doesn't acquire it through the normal process of voluntary consent that any normal civilized human being does so therefore if you want to look for who is the actual legitimate morally acceptable owner it may actually be the workers themselves with people who I mean perhaps there's something Lockean here the people who themselves are exerting their labor in this area they have a legitimate much more legitimate claim to be the owners so in this case in the case of government unions then I think it you may be able to have a point in saying that maybe the employees of these institutions are at least in some way perhaps more legitimately the owners and so they might be able in fact to engage in things like preventing people from coming onto the property because perhaps it is their property but at the same time there is the fact that that these institutions are taxpayer-funded and so you know I could just as well say that I'm at least a partial owner of that thing and so couldn't I in fact impose some kind of rule as to how it's going to go into function it's a complicated question and so it makes me more and more happy that I haven't done any work in government unions but but thanks I never thought that yeah dan the current immediate response of government employees in government sectors they which are is a hesitation towards privatization of like a special things like like police officer union in the sense that I think that the way in which these occupations develop in terms of their entrepreneurial incentives is kind of thrown out of whack being that all government operations are in a sense a subsidy and throw this allocation of resources in terms of in a very curtain area in the sense of who who capitalizes on a profit opportunity is the real entrepreneur and in the general production process of say like any consumer good like if you have been unionized labor force a car maker for these it's less thrown out of whack without a subsidy the labor the laborers recognize how the capitalist is making a killing off of our Labor's that we're going to collectively bargain so as to obstruct some of that profit to be entrepreneurial ourselves versus an entirely government subsidized industry like say police security is thrown out of whack right off the beginning from from the capitalist so the people who are or the employees like right yeah yeah that's right I know I mean and as I got to the end of my thinking that issue through I was not so certain at the end of my answer as I was at the beginning I think for at least some of those reasons Thanks okay yes sir and then I'll go here and then come back to you and I was engaged to come in it was Institute statistical process control to be able to guarantee quality as it came out and convinced General Motors that we now had quality product and they were they scheduled a visit to them to the plant there were three plants and writing on it was about a five million dollar contract with a company that did a gross 10 million so this this was a pretty big deal one of the employees was not happy with this whole idea of accountability and responsibilities one person and brothers and sisters and friends to cause a lot of violence on the day that GM was going to show up well you had people's jobs and everything else so they'd be bored the threats got really real we walked out and there were about 10 cars out in the parking lot and these were finally people they had not related to them and this is private property again so the I told me and this is a non union organization so I told the president my company as well what I would do is just fire them so he didn't fire it well the next thing make a long story short the NLRB found against us that we did not allow for Oregon organized labor to protest to be able to organize on our property – or there was no union there how could you how could you find against us the result was that the president of the company had to assemble the entire organization and the person right on the spot and the NLL in their finding insisted that the President had to publicly apologize in front of the entire organization that he fired her wrongly and that it was his heartfelt remorse it's unbelievable that the the National Labor Relations Board must be made up of just ideological zealots who take pleasure in hobbling you know a productive decent normal human being like this I mean I mean actually writing out what the guy has to say to humiliate himself I mean there's something too seriously twisted I know it because you make sure just ask you know who is John Galt you know you just okay yes yes let's see you know what let me check on that over the break and just to just to refresh my memory on it try to get to the bottom of that question okay and then certain then that'll be the last one got multiple paths and those patents were used widely commercially so he more than pays for his wages productivity cost of our agency from his patents the agriculture industry use them how when treat the US government entity getting packed and so those patents basically paying through the whole operations undertaken see we had a our agency was small spoon at Department a second small funding Bailey 16 points that was one question the other was I know for a fact the Guild's the Middle Ages it involved Jews to join Union their gills restricted in the United States well I mean there's certainly that mean that the Union sort of had a reputation for having for racial discrimination you know throughout I think that they had that reputation I mean even into the late 60s you could still see that yeah on the only the medieval guilds are sometimes pointed to as wonderful examples of what we need that because they had both the the workers and the employers in them and it was a it was mutually harmonious and everything but but I was just reading the other day that that the guilds were so anti-competitive that you were actually forbidden if you were a seller if you were actually you know you actually have our master producing some product you could not even sneeze in front of your store because that might draw undue attention to you you weren't supposed to try to outdo you know your your competition or undersell them or call special attention or advertise you know such as that was possible in those days but even sneezing might be your secret way of getting people to look over in your direction so you have to just stand there like an automaton waiting for people to come by I I happen to think that would not be a good model you know for the economy all right let's go eat thanks a lot

What Does a Pianist See? | Eye Tracking – Episode 1



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Using eye tracking glasses, we answer the question of what a pianist sees while playing.
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I'm Daniel belly ASCII and I'm a professional pianist I've been playing for 33 years I am a professor a filmmaker and a Steinway artist you guys ready yeah look at the camera get me out look at me all right we're not good in looking at the footage I expect that for the most part I won't be looking at my hands but probably just getting reference zones for the more involved pieces I will have to at least coordinate where my hands have to go so I'll look probably ahead where my hands have to be do I give it a try I'm Charlotte Bennett and I've been studying with Daniel belly ASCII for two years you know your your eyes are generally a lot busier than I would have expected only because there's peace between the two hands especially that segment sits in a fairly limited register it was me making this ticking okay great yeah Huck's little feel that I play if I look at one hand or the other is who's possibly jumping so it's interesting for me I didn't I don't have to realize I'll do that the insight reading you have to be a little bit ahead of where your hands are so the eyes have to be ahead and I find it interesting that I kind of scan vertically as well as linearly horizontally so I'm going up and down up and down and I'm scrolling along folks things were in peripheral vision the whole time we were really looking directly at one thing or the other totally different than where he's looking I'm looking directly at the music in Cana looking directly between the two instead of keeping them both of my peripheral vision it's really interesting again that's something that I would expect as a teacher is until you get really comfortable with the keyboard you're going to continuously look back and forth like this between the sheet music and the keyboard and because I've just had so much more experience relatively speaking you know no offense but I I just feel very comfortable at the keyboard and I don't have to look careful with that left hand yeah right maybe next time a little slower yeah

Goldberg Variations Complete (J.S. Bach BWV 988), with score, Kimiko Ishizaka piano



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“Counterpoint passes back and forth between the hands in a conversational and judiciously balanced manner, while a strong lyrical inlpulse informs the cross-handed variations’ rapid, bravura passages (Vars 5 and 19, for example). Ishizaka’s restrained and concentrated way with slow minor-key variations (Vars 15,21 and 25) lets the music’s agonising harmonic tension speak softly for itself.”
– Jed Distler, Gramophone Magazine

“She has the fleet fingers to speed through the virtuoso variations with compelling clarity and the sensitivity to probe the dramatic potential of the slower, more profound numbers, pleasurably aided by her consistently lovely tone.”
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“The sound quality of the recording is top notch”
“In fact, the album’s an audiophile gem.”
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J.S. Bach’s “Goldberg Variations”, BWV 988, recorded by Kimiko Ishizaka on a Bösendorfer grand piano, with score following provided by the iPad app from MuseScore. For more information on this project, see

#0:00 Aria
#5:00 Variation 1
#6:57 Variation 2
#9:03 Variation 3
#11:00 Variation 4
#12:10 Variation 5
#13:44 Variation 6
#15:22 Variation 7
#17:35 Variation 8
#19:31 Variation 9
#21:38 Variation 10
#23:24 Variation 11
#25:33 Variation 12
#27:49 Variation 13
#32:04 Variation 14
#34:20 Variation 15
#38:54 Variation 16 “Ouverture”
#42:03 Variation 17
#43:47 Variation 18
#45:37 Variation 19
#47:03 Variation 20
#49:08 Variation 21
#53:02 Variation 22
#54:36 Variation 23
#56:55 Variation 24
#59:41 Variation 25 (“Black Pearl” – slideshow)
#1:09:01 Variation 26
#1:11:03 Variation 27
#1:12:55 Variation 28
#1:15:20 Variation 29
#1:17:30 Variation 30 “Quodlibet”
#1:19:32 Aria da Capo

Die Goldberg-Variationen | 哥德堡变奏曲 | ゴルトベルク変奏曲 | 골트베르크 변주곡 | Вариации Гольдберга

The Best of Beethoven



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THE BEST OF BEETHOVEN

01. Symphony No. 3, Op. 55 (Eroica): I. Allegro con brio (00:00)
02. Symphony No. 5, Op. 67: I. Allegro con brio (13:46)
03. Symphony No. 6, Op. 68 (Pastoral): III. Allegro (21:02)
04. Symphony No. 6, Op. 68 (Pastoral): V. Allegretto (26:04)
05. Symphony No. 7, Op. 92: II. Allegretto (35:34)
06. Symphony No. 7, Op. 92: III. Presto (38:56)
07. Symphony No. 9, Op. 125: Ode to Joy (42:24)
08. Piano Sonata No. 14 in C-sharp minor, Moonlight Sonata: I. Adagio Sostenuto (1:07:38)
09. Bagatelle No. 25 in A minor, WoO 59 (Für Elise) (1:11:47)
10. Rondo a Capriccio in G Major, Op. 129 (Rage Over a Lost Penny) (1:14:24)
11. Minuet in G major, WoO 10, No. 2 (1:21:53)
12. Duet for Clarinet and Bassoon (1:24:24)
13. Piano Concerto No. 5 in E-flat major, Op. 73 (Emperor Concerto): II. Adagio (1:28:17)
14. Piano Sonata No. 8 in C minor, Op. 13 (Pathétique): II. Adagio (1:35:06)
15. Violin Concerto in D major, Op. 61 (1:40:16)

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Commerce and Culture, Lecture 1: The Economic Basis of Culture | Paul A. Cantor



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A ten-lecture course presented by Paul A. Cantor, Clifton Waller Barrett Professor of English at the University of Virginia, and a pioneer in literary criticism from an Austrian perspective. Having studied with Ludwig von Mises, he is working to counter the Marxist understanding of culture that dominates the humanities today. Recorded at the Ludwig von Mises Institute in Auburn, Alabama; July 24-28, 2006. Includes an introduction by Jeffrey A. Tucker.

Playlist for complete lecture series:

* * * * *

Paul A. Cantor (born 1945) is an American non-marxist literary critic inspired by the Austrian School of economic thought. Educated at Harvard (A.B., 1966, Ph.D., 1971), he has taught for many years at the University of Virginia, USA, where he is the Clifton Waller Barrett Professor of English.

He has written on a wide range of subjects, including Shakespeare, Romanticism, Austrian economics, contemporary popular culture, and relations between culture and commerce. His books include Shakespeare’s Rome (1974), Creature and Creator: Myth-Making and English Romanticism (1984), Shakespeare: Hamlet (1989), and Gilligan Unbound (2003).

Cantor was featured in a 2005 article published in Americana: The Journal of American Popular Culture 1900 to Present in which Cantor was described as “a preeminent scholar in the field of American popular culture studies. In a world of categories, labels, genres, Professor Cantor has proven himself to be remarkably resistant, publishing on Oscar Wilde one day, on Salman Rushdie another, on Samuel Beckett another, and then winning the Ludwig von Mises Prize for Scholarship in Austrian School Economics on yet another. His diverse research interests have manifested themselves once again with the publication of his latest book, Gilligan Unbound: Pop Culture in the Age of Globalization, in which he turns his academic eye to four popular American television shows: Gilligans Island, Star Trek, The Simpsons, and The X-Files.” (Source: Wikipedia)

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1 Hour With The Best Baroque Guitar Classical Music Ever – Focus Meditation Reading Concentration



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00:00:00 Bach – Prelude In D Minor BWV999
00:02:08 Weiss – Fantasie
00:05:39 Bach – Suite In E Major BWV1006a
00:08:51 Vivaldi – Concerto In D Major, RV93 Largo
00:14:34 Dowland – Fantasie
00:18:47 Bach – Cantata BWV 147, Jesus Bleibet Meine Freude
00:22:42 De Visee – Ouverture De La Grotte De Versailles
00:26:05 Handel – Suite From The Aylesford Pieces
00:35:37 Weiss – Presto
00:40:32 Praetorius – Suite In D Major From Terpischore
00:46:13 Narvaes – Variations Sur Guardame Las Vacas
00:49:15 Scarlatti – Sonata In D Major K. 490
00:56:04 Scarlatti – Sonata In A Minor K. 36
00:59:16 Handel – Xerxes, Largo
01:04:09 Bach – Prelude, Fugue and Allegro In E Major
01:06:40 Scarlatti – Sonata In D Minor K141
01:10:20 Sanz – Danses Populaires

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Commerce and Culture, Lecture 4: The Economics of Classical Music | Paul A. Cantor



Views:1691|Rating:0.00|View Time:1:38:54Minutes|Likes:|Dislikes:
A ten-lecture course presented by Paul A. Cantor, Clifton Waller Barrett Professor of English at the University of Virginia, and a pioneer in literary criticism from an Austrian perspective. Having studied with Ludwig von Mises, he is working to counter the Marxist understanding of culture that dominates the humanities today. Recorded at the Ludwig von Mises Institute in Auburn, Alabama; July 24-28, 2006. Includes an introduction by Jeffrey A. Tucker.

Playlist for complete lecture series:

* * * * *

Paul A. Cantor (born 1945) is an American non-marxist literary critic inspired by the Austrian School of economic thought. Educated at Harvard (A.B., 1966, Ph.D., 1971), he has taught for many years at the University of Virginia, USA, where he is the Clifton Waller Barrett Professor of English.

He has written on a wide range of subjects, including Shakespeare, Romanticism, Austrian economics, contemporary popular culture, and relations between culture and commerce. His books include Shakespeare’s Rome (1974), Creature and Creator: Myth-Making and English Romanticism (1984), Shakespeare: Hamlet (1989), and Gilligan Unbound (2003).

Cantor was featured in a 2005 article published in Americana: The Journal of American Popular Culture 1900 to Present in which Cantor was described as “a preeminent scholar in the field of American popular culture studies. In a world of categories, labels, genres, Professor Cantor has proven himself to be remarkably resistant, publishing on Oscar Wilde one day, on Salman Rushdie another, on Samuel Beckett another, and then winning the Ludwig von Mises Prize for Scholarship in Austrian School Economics on yet another. His diverse research interests have manifested themselves once again with the publication of his latest book, Gilligan Unbound: Pop Culture in the Age of Globalization, in which he turns his academic eye to four popular American television shows: Gilligans Island, Star Trek, The Simpsons, and The X-Files.” (Source: Wikipedia)

* * * * *

DISCLAIMER: This media presentation is owned by the Ludwig von Mises Institute and is protected under Creative Commons license (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0).

This YouTube channel is in no way endorsed by or affiliated with the Mises Institute, any of its scholars or staff members.

you you you I I really sent myself as possible pass here over the holders birth hangs around the holes in this is an hour ass but let's keep going and have a seat and cover easily can't cover it all all the perfect of music in many ways is going to please the things we saw the point in the history of painting the men's go run over front of others and power & Talent as Anakin saffron on music look for key and space to music isn't affecting both in my view below I know about mom blowing and throat singing all the way that's an exact quote but but the epic era book or emotion banknotes and glue x1's they're typically look at the conflict between patrons in the market and plan to support systems for classical music added me to the Incan panaji centers on I'm neurotic silver to add global detail from a questionable statistics and grass the time but still learn a lot from we neared and sold audio I wouldn't tell them Philip any rounds were looking at it from the editor speculate escape of music and learn the various facts that fluffy and trying to put together this day in that in any respect but we think it was a great traditional therapy in class would grow their exact same there is geographically as existence of European paintings the coastal areas we're talking about it this morning certain cities was now going particularly bennett of but also Rome and then enroll countries prices I can't work of the so-called 07 / 30 these display the classical representing all the way back at Facebook is going to be equal Paris and turned about the earliest music requires public 11th century rather reading and typing in France musica motor Donald a great segment Obama's and he's in Geneva fortunate Eric was one of eight pairs of ladies Eagle coca but for me they're going to start to get interesting 14th and 15th centuries turn it around a quarter of Burgundy and one in the area that's now slandered composed of us will defy and then the leaders programs composer is left and afraid and the whole school of chemical service bulletins on stoppage of dr. Bob Rae Andy stock then get the gentleman in a Bellini interest specifically an arm Bennett umbrella and a lot of gabrielli who scented in the great world san marco and dennis the world exactly where their music was performed and we have the acidic bite and then really the Baroque period starts with volume of the very first opera go out of motivating in venice and tagging local courts are like that bantwal so in a way through coincidence that you know this is the flemish renaissance in painting the added Renaissance and paintings we've got a Flemish Renaissance remove the event coming Renaissance one of the baroque will begin we will green and political events and the answers probably world that music and thinking Florida looked at the same time exactly the same places also judge specifically pointing right Dennis like this court burgundy mastered it in the first minguk's part of the bedrock burg a line and install the state but we will never in a bowl of music so you get infinite as an issue in Sierra need prices but also equal great commercial centers and represented support the rugged country that is support for good reason music requires money in some more different ways and pointing does because music requires performance and is true that these great composers can feel the music in there in the head we know that even when people was there you can completely to compose a good news that impacts on the great jesus never was just about any composers want it here is usually perform and that thing right there is two composers has a mind a higher or 4 100 people we get there symphony stage or when you get the Alfred Beijing becomes communion Spencer and you know by now how to have a proper stage that's the way we wanted them and bankrupt in Bavaria this person bowled over it so again although you'd like to say whether composer to sit down compose and use if you want that paper was pretty expensive before the 19th century and even at the city too and so there are ways in which just having a commercial society they played a leading supplier for music cockrell never thought that wintour of big about how printing rather the clipping industry facilitated the commune are many proposals society to staying with caulking abuse about an air-conditioned here without a certain state of development of vertical Society holds of it religion everyone'll understand it would have been impossible again it doesn't seem to be accidental that musics could have begun exploring things in the same places will come from Diaz and mainly in the great commercial centers of loganville and Elenna from Europe as let me carry out a bit further and space which is the nature of these areas that they involve extremely competitive environment because it was full must divert doing there they were area students decentralized hopeless because what we have cultures defined by eating dismal cities on individual aristocratic cork which means there were a lot of fun to culture what how Flanders but there was now building a pretty small an area but at this time we're talking about 14 15 15 seconds we had a lot of centers of Commerce and a lot of small course and fellow tenders and isn't to find lots of places of employment and you bind it a very competitive is results staying for Renaissance English and these days left on embedded and moving by the naked part by saying some nasty things about science anyone from France here oh yeah someone has to be in life why haven't even talking about sent to our friends mrs. kind of comment if I thought music at the timed exam around on that I do like one tiny thing as you like French music if didn't delvin on katie allen staff that has a wonderful discussion of how the Barbizon School or ending suchness broke up with monopoly of the fence belong culture but it'll win triumph servers good counter example of what I'm saying alternate the point i'd like to make now about both thinking and that these transformations are in a great advantage for the advance of culture and decentralisation is something that the market tends to produce and its deadly produces an opposition national cultures big state culture and France is all great example of a national big takeover of iron with wheelie the first nation states conversion even history nation states can occupy the globe and they protected themselves back of this week and he faced a big business for all eyes but in fact there's more things I responding to a modern nation state for France tag in the early 16th century and really common equal distance or the latest eight on the room is working instead of these metrics and new plans again there's a lot of different culture of painting music literature architecture and we've architecture but we see the paint the plan what we need to have a national culture and I'll even say it out of national national cultural politics or our policy of in fact when people call for natural cultural politics they nearly have Frank institutions in mind is like the specified within American culture they have in mind things like the French Academy and the French salon well what I'm talking about here is the fact that we're really is part chorus as a stranglehold over flan and overs co-current awaited those city ever had in any other country but without London and Great Britain displaces our government and edinboro over the century and even posted like Manchester have been alternate' type a culture of Great Britain maybe closest for France's a nation but as an interesting thought the word until the 19th century is no grilling there's no gold over again we think we hope if you look at a map and say there's always been a little no we need to be ancient Garibaldi the late nineteen center and the stage was very German 5054 1870 and then if you will find on the question rule so for most European cultural history italy divided into several political leaders and sometimes more likely sitting face like venison front here is enemy in system next I'll vista patterning exactly and even in some times daily laws I bucket of Bavaria but all these little states actually has a x marks of the local fees now what now Belgium and Holland and look the bird would I time split up into 20 different entities and book a backpack that wings areas with what they were naturally found those days were unbelievably with coke boys and all using liquor the parts of Europe that were nationalized I try it again I'm what finest put down rest of the stolen but up until the 19th century you know in the late 19th century and in question you really can't rat with frank casteel painting by the treatment and how small bandages compares what up big clients or he can't match against me even a frog for for a benefit to say music or literature is a different issue but but what I think is actually inspired conceded you comparison of a national cultural policy and cultural central danger when he came again in French history is the effect of Paris having imposed its will on the rest of cutting the most weight is a mystery is poppin off walls are first time to go to Paris and visit binder for this guy and isn't my name is regarded suppose that guy and there's a monument to the guy who told that guy Hana and so Republican at the markings or father never see it's complete loyalty never changes triane's apparently with all the country and whoever is no evil in charge of Paris the old fencing as ninja stencils asian of coke earlier so basically all the painting was in Paris all the musicians empower and yo nameless Frances the morrow of an involving cultural policy of the French support banking the National paddle aging and its competition and if you won the competition Dewar's central Rome or four years the Sun pointing and finally beautiful world I funny girl baby's umbilical edited and you know is great to learn that eyes the private is everything depended upon the face of the people in Paris and Talon disturbances out is felan culture in thinking of the 19th pending weather as we speak natural throws and I was you straight celebrate the garden from over the Clearwater the problem with all paintings look alike they all value these grand historical paintings and you know hokanson further effort on the part personal Barbizon School people i forbade many practice to break the stranglehold on the French side how did they do it to exchange the commercial while ways and organizing their own exhibitions are so active in the air the business nasals the Lowcountry the the durban area of a new holy you have this enormous cultural part in particular music and painting an event there is absolutely bonded giratina painting and losing potential because it's Dutch diversity because there isn't good Warren Court in Paris you know if it's roughly the same time there are 15 more principalities and other chords in the German territory and they're all competing for talents of being against each other and so actually I prior into the panel rock in the dangers of those poor young talent booking destruction has a wonderful chapter four why Hollywood rules of the world a plane have burned subsidies portable games we killed it it is they recommended before protectionism but suffered typing will be they took away their vitality anyway let me down but you see that pattern again again inside are in such music there's a lot of good scratch Baroque music I love mark a sponsor from the aim for example but it doesn t here is driven broken see it doesn't contain any broken engine and tar interest in fiber of musicals after dominated by one man movies who made musicals are among the 14 core and actually sequest the cleaners of other composers let's go up on a husband I'm most powerful Cooper wrong what's our parking from of movies music is good i do not want of the night of the closure but i think one means it doesn't an Air Derby for that one court everything he unblock triumph at Versailles were than even in Germany year who have so many different sources of patriots and commercial services before time and so I think it's very interesting lesson to see a French culture has only to Louisa for any message you know destroy the google course for that he spent free for all the tool or he passes welcome under field both poor between culture of anything in large tract of so many things about sensible to do the people played it though sleeping together to develop a whole culture provides on his book the room before the Sun team with gold hatred of music and painting and again I'm not 18 warable on time you have to go to move to see how great French art was in the sixteenth and seventeenth century if it was all a blur museum and they all do this there's political comment as a remaining brothers as a council go this place by faith there now this book with Adam published in German tangled up tank this I feel and if you're there are relatively uniform style I mean all the things that period are either of Royal quarters or guns but the painting dominated by the characters as one entrance and and the French as a lot of placement so it was very recently worse than I'll get it talks about it the thesis that we accept the breakdown of the holy roman empire which led to the cooperation of course in a German land that that's one of the reasons you look so strong and germinate you had all these different sources of countries and all these pendants to federal court and also you have your three sitting like number of sponsors which word attached to any kind of aristocratic or and they'd developed a kind of middle class on market believe critical something worth thinking about we are we put we go to government schools it puts us down aided by national governments we have thought of the national brands and it is retarded fast great exponents of a natural color but results around the world and talk about American culture Napa itself the the level of understanding culture and a promoting focus should not be natural and wasteful big cultures that are pursuing natural firms in to end up in centralized and build allow for enough competition and regurgitating a nominee is Clara painted and it could learn something from studying origin is bothering to see the companies that will vote the fishing natural and solutions for the most about their cultural again I'm not if I'm so the think of people with dr. I go first academy the front four arms and all these fabulous were national institutions they developed an app for you had with nudity respect on plant culture uncle monetizing effects and hard with the carbon effect on its progress and so this is all relative I'm not saying the sprint stand by post work but I am saying this would look like support the culture always admired by many people as a model actually we should question if you look at that has follicle book you know it was in national programs with so successful and median Italian German and Flemish focus could have been disastrous defense combination and no favorite a totinos friend Academy knows it but they occurred I've been putting an Outperform plan the only warrior culture we do not literature that's another store and then maybe not drama neither do they drink herbal gum because it a go by the second entry using census so I'm not constipation friends invite exactly I offer the cabbage angle okay let's come back to lose it and again this court that power makes the Pharaoh base that in fact when you look at the allergist of American five position they come precisely out of a kind of decentralized on that was world culture and as a result of wide variety composers dentists hands to compose and buy outfits and things and what we see was there in fact many forms of support for beautiful culture difficult all over the place of thinking and I'm not be the Arsenal skin that market support for me between global and faculty aprons with very important in the development of electric the first was one of the primary patrons and so there's a lot of sacred uba team is in fact you know the first 250 years but beautiful development related related basically everything informants happening so cute that's what calypsonians develop rules to develop the most do it arrow for her a couple hundred even though he serious music was being written for church services never underestimate the importance certain paper in existence oil wrestling an aristocratic imminent who's very important opera as a form began in some of these technical course like the one of the physique of bantorra opera is the most expensive for music to take it needs office building fingering fingers get a lot even then required scenery and so on so the beginnings of offer a very much surprised audience with a list of Education it but nevertheless I was thinking almost from the beginning you can start to see various forms of market support for visits then use the career of Johann Sebastian Bach as a means of illustrating the amazing diversity sources of income for composers because we coming to you string form of Morgan angela my talking about jsbach is the greatest composers of the ball and so amazing family or something they know there was generations of Bach composers three before johann Sebastian a zoo after him one of his grandchildren i think they impede your inbox was the last box composer and even if something roughing it out in from 50 and a box day back without 1600 and go on we prob Bob is the first one but it's amazing i have recorded the balloon you won t six different box for composers including three years on Sebastian from call for the manual 13 months Ron Cristobal it's quarter in boulder to attend the stupider than 80 bucks for more successful than a father of us commercial posters if you ever have broad expect the music either but payment will be due to the word boxes more or less than honest with addicted in central Germany rotate here people sick now let's go out and buy or sell the box and all the time that's what we ended up doing of slogging if they ever work someone bridge the ridiculous no harmful backbend and he forged a composer is outputted and walnut but but we ended up being supported in virtually every way that a a musician can be he was for example a performer he was probably the greatest organist of his voice we will have a recording of him unfortunately but he would renowned in his day as an organist sort of as well be a performance and it's not the mounted as any other than 13 organ concerts for money but some of these jobs were sent their desert organist he come out and mother probably he worked more for persons as clear than any other institution what would riot I cannot be for you in Leipzig and on or for third position as we will be Panther of the search of life state there was entitled he was gay all the music and he was responsible for all the games occur women's purses and that meant basic solution it from Prada illusion well we have over 200 to thailand by johann sebastian bach and all of our authentic pebble honored and let's suppose he had to organize the musicians playing the quiet rather than playing holi several incidents including violence lola and he just ran the musical life of persons at various points as long as it's a great example of first pay period and the constant distance and a couple screws madison going to use at the BOK gain control the crowd enrollment center now first physical producing and anime feel now to great music we produced because with box affiliations with various persons like over the one in my face whatever that will be finger we got a lot of work and a lot of pressure turning out in powder a frittata at the kabbalah didn't walk in heat cycles and music or near passages funding streams to never be 30 we me as coral movements to the cantata as anything was mixed with a move to the school from something else and some of the compilers and we now know about composers like going on whether he was responsible for passing them off you don't know there was no musical copyright to be centuries and very the concept of tigers and was very very and so people are Kendall for their little Souls and antibodies oh I fool yourself but these composers were on the great progress and everybody there is no greater pressure than work either fish that thing that the market was like a easy going by comparison and we know the Fox trying to get out of his first job when it was put in County we don't have got an injury evidence of me just see what was kind of a both screaming that he was happiest on the papers we were close I'm house-sitting his tongue moves were the same quarter distance where he had to run music wallpapers Batman she's got a nanny with showering and you want too much less cluster you didn't have to produce he did it again with love we will refer him you have to wear the living of your Lord and you know look at move on to other days to magnifique you know the way composed of space on the velveteen but of many Ninja colleges surmise that Bach was as musical happiest in the so-called cooking years and much of the musical looks better for Bob evidently is from those near and particular metal music with running roles in skincare Lee is really rolled example via unaccompanied violin music a lot of book now Stephens different here and we need to devise on the part you need to come but they feel that people dead it is both easy at the time I live happily need that position you look at the court of volume are before slumping there will take examples Brandenburg sincerity why are they called the Brandenburg is dead well if you don't eat again for the Margrave of Rothenberg desperate hope that he'd get the Margrave of Rothenberg is a patron now now though the East attorney wouldn't listen earlier they existed earlier form he rewrote them but he had prepared a beautiful addition of them is for with a gorgeously ingrained dedication for the margrave of brandenburg and he knew be penalized says fireman please modern age and hopefully the margrave of brandenburg better games nobody ever got a great culture was heated so steeply we always remember the dirt the vinings ocean county and he never gave us fighting for one but i continued his wife is the episode barks on culpable manual was court imposes forefront of deployment options and costs of the manual has been very talented composer and in some ways but they import is partly because canal allegro form goes out of what thinking bout the grind and people like most part and april cutting these words is very important to the development of the hi Pascal tired between hi samosa Brock is terrible mistake of saying as far as a kind beautiful day and the culmination of the world his son a B&N she was a beginning of the classical I mean it Mozart promote our own words are piano comparative cocooning that asada by law on Krypton box so it's amazing how important five sons world and 18 was very successful practice focuses in the present degrade now mr. Lighton get fit love is wonderful core and won't playing with you and it probably won't do comparative and shelters from companies or so we don't know it was paying some of the right there put is going on in but this tuesday pointing pop rope a lot of purposes and age team assimilation and painted it in ro the patient is present the grade he loves the food we write a lot of fruits bottoms that's what you can you get a lot of money from them we get the wizard costume in the core of the price and cake but it doesn't get easier i will go see you the box death of AP news then father prefers was bad as I wig Oh cousin got its all written backward you know writing the Baroque musical nobody offer us and you walk he invited his father to top them to me further degrade and Frederick was de force some pianos among the first panel book one time back at her fall piano we put his honors occasion I was welded thing that amount of data Frederick original theme himself pathological the Royal thing and gained of the broccoli said I heating or good improviser to me a free cartoon right now with the students the technique is something called a recent outing but it is being killed and spark and stupid what david by the sat down and he put it and then it's almost like a mansion but if it's okay you can sweetheart how has this party and bout actually I've got actually provides foot starting on a single keyboard we've got two little pokey sometimes I mean really hold is produced something called the dinner cooperated it was dedicated to friends with the grain and if one of the actors the blindest piece of music into games with the artist feels it consists of our photography college fit part with the college before moving Rios without a secret of food that's most thankful I believe the media panel with a huge plays gold that was upside down or get rear-ended and it's absolutely the pinnacle box because as a larger counterparts or as a 16-time the SU llamada is an entire little fun and is looking forward as I can focus yeah they think they're so great a little waybright analyzers fault as well anybody sources if the work is it one can clearly backward-looking all those for the lattice constants company and soul looking ominous hopeful sign into the classroom chill styling work and box tender subject know nothing back in the band not even think piano i think a nice case we've got a couple of floors inside I think that happens a dead end but again is significant to feed it we think the boss is a great vertical composer and designers compose mistaken used to be the great experiment of the search ever anything know what aristocrat cases was available in romford energy team to cover today at times now the other source of income burwood cere- we think that the people who further composer will speak anything there's the 18th century that purgers solve the problem of perfect musical location it's not that easy actually blue more complicated than studying letters in foreign and but once here's another case were backwards technological developments facilitated an autistic development once our presence is called the problem of how to mass-produce these people go painting and get started cause significant people and it answers amazon centers of it I broke into the 18th century that got to get composers writing music now for the print market and this entire new development are devoting example that is having broken forever local cities and Vivaldi don't recordings of all these oppa screams echo harmonica was before the great set of broken 34 loved by God he loves it so he took the opening number a and turn it into an organ concerto the things over screen number 11 by the novel spot-weld revolving in fact that you can't complete the phone box career when he suffered the bobble on Foxy's again much better much tighter as hard to believe that Bach had a learnable anybody but in see the part of the covers evolving sub music becomes more dramatic and more info images the body was one of the first successful people and getting is really proud of the game laughs today I'm essentially how we can ask there was a linkedin composure in the public in their hands and early deficit because these were very popular other proposes to buy them you see over meant but I sequences of new development that composes used to be restricted basically to the county Libyan and had a making money from the local code of the local church now you could actually tell your music another a great little box music was present in his lifetime he didn't have any best sellers made people like most cars were soon to do but a lot of these people are beautiful prisoners lifetime it's in pretty thought as anything no that's any other this way Hank galliston you know the plating English week the blocking the phil collier fig newton after that engine and he does seem on Tralee the very last till he was working on with his out of the few you know having prepared and a printing the hit me but evident has died before p be completed over the ages do now about visa closet restraint he spot board my shuttle guinea before dead alien but we use the Box Inc encounter will put the music now love it on one other way that composers earn money with her stinking as usual pieces I'm not I put lots of people but when tobin children that oh cool enough for Gaia's pocket again you had over 40 children with two different rides and cooler than it a major composers I think they're a couple more week old six seven children if you want to compose too soft for fiat I'm starting to take all of you is it like you are really one of the first things you learn to play an analysis of people from us we'll be out of modeling that work block the whole property lance and things like that and they were little for a second wife and for his elders ongoing team not even pieces that we hope to keep them music for a bit of a musical pedal I'll take what I say if you look at box career you you know there's no simple economic basis for and wheel covers all all the bases and sleep knowing how will fit in concentric suppose it works with a plan some interesting questions again comment again a lot of involved school looks like a stage and pushes and there were reasons why particularly when the Vernon Lyons in Central Europe in general you had a lot of sources of patron age he had so many penguins balance and a cause for paws and revelation that were proliferation of the Christmas and different shops all who thought the news it was important to roll in the photography person at the counter Dayton came him having clouds played on the world of so on till image on the wrong way of explaining the King needs to the jail spot identification of the companies that note at the battle only located extraordinary history of the bath time Olympic been argued the film can see aspects environment of the economic environment that would be social diversity of achievement ah and a little hint of the commercial elements that is important and you see the bat really was one of the least work on successful and water relief a merciless infested audit will be exactly do we need it so there that you know i'm not in the commercial basis of our King suited for us but if you look at some of the other composers they were much more commercially finder you gave examples of volume then revolving US public 1405 with opus one group selection in others words not happening or sex a violin and cello sonatas but half of them are separately standing and these will be marketed for what we would pay an amateur performance this is all the big hug food cultural factors in the world where we want to be a musically just pop in and see if anything from your iPod but only they're not a genetic disease arroyo and if you are using plays itself ah and so people who want to enjoy music have to learn how to play instruments and he got to get into the industry take the first piano is developed or in a protected by the 19th century buona visione was quite a little dream of buying a firm who founded the early 19th century Julian example and so you spoke district taco carbon fiber course and people right box are biting people of music by the 19th century all the great composers are making money by trying piano music Beethoven was going to piano canals be tricky to make money selling the speaking that and here you see the importance of a publisher based on a visit and around three savannah state violence and others though you had an operation to a publisher who like when you're busy editing and printing enough and the dish to be cool how exactly moving the spoon of can we fly with now and was already by the 19th century we have celebrity indulgence it's absolutely hilarious every nano firm wanted a famous pianist you know just to say a say value of Isis they would I thought by a Steinway piano or k yamaha piano a little over the place yamaha piano ah it'll be all good okay berger pianos if you go to do the past we the ones we he was prompting the problem when the deep corner is the animatic axes swingin pianos was thrown upside down down combined with organ or i also have death event so the drive musical pulau yield birth and you see all the others again week we brought you over this for the greatest ounce of gin 1953 Billups Milliband the piano and you can bet move with Satan mother fucka me because this exam Oh companies and so I think the world of classical music we still commercialized 25l denies resulted we didn't forget to build up involving are you will only see this pattern of one evening mr. people can play a home a fellow Explorer otic is present as an exotic and movies not too difficult to place either into other composers think about into essentially all the modes of commercially making money needs to conflate growth pretty cool water or broth Patrick panel as the British corn are live enormously successful for active at all times but overall he's already welcome man did you think he was going with organizing the Christian three again hoping we think is very modern couldn't face it the marathon attack mr. fall off by 18 central entrepreneurs are caught moving the mouse and opera or handles cases oratorios with faithful sailors often does that happen big cars and all the terms and so will you do with an ounce of serious of answers and then we put the pointed and a whole time and we got to use the form of you you have to do this you know sometimes hundreds of dollars that time and crazy thing to do well now ask when is clean will see you pretty much know if you prefer to conference will take place 87 things are wild and I took a while to regularize this but people i kindled full of the idea most are was being on it he would be as Bob will give piano confetti swings encounters you're able to come out before the concert and we aim is to get the money and figure out was worth even a conscience and some kind of automatic else that was peopled rugged money wasn't enough of it any August will disappear present your own is very commercializing subscription topics any developing so are you got a lot of success in that aspect if you look for the most riders an example to seduce me amadeus mozart to figure who's been romanticized in some ways amadeus the movie itself buggers and Ellie's been a stimulator to this alka type of the one we reach on the fridge yeast and you know the legend is he died poor and in a during the culvert grade that's after we run through it turned out he had a normal burial absolute small this is successful commercially there is Wi-Fi problem wasn't under income side because on the inside he will look token that if I found unfortunately tent a larger portion go to Vienna will got a wonderful house museum promote our most part had an apartment i hain't google cost four thousand year old a month while India its prime location right into some seasons a different look it's about eight or nine rooms it has a bigger who money to suspect actually beautiful probably after that would that have a vienna to block for the think even okay station quadruple Folger around an atrium is beautiful progress the most expensive whatever length is called the figural house because this is a very reduced is what I rented it in time was running as a cougar city wasn't living as comfortable attic somewhere you know we had Lulu because certain you have room for fathers at in the air while I rhythm very well and I mean at the festivities on this at least people to the 70 maybe our two towards making it was like making sometimes is worth a thousand something else six times as much as a governess bureaucratically build a beatin round identically to fold it in powers of whatever means either but but he was making a lot more money than a solid middle-class government offical were confident really bad so may compare it with provincial experiences both of those actors relatable so it in fact was a successful commercially are in part because you get with wonderful performer at the piano and rather incident and we're organizing concerts but he he's one of the people who made a lot of money selling is needed to the four occasions that are varicose consumption letter from his father and other subjects of release this little vocal when you have hosted brown for god sakes go out of your way a bit to compose something their own hands are failing but easy popular that's what publisher and singleton is most like to have that we caught it for two violins viola and cello you think you'd the meanest don't like the thing know that this sounds like it's probably is kind of thing it's confirming the little pieces do you where is right and flows naturally at is well rooted fundamental component in that way in the quarter and composing mostly comprehensible particular harmonics intensity and stones are difficult to say it on a burn burn maybe we're almost are pivoted from very good guys outside although I've been here to go over to the basement I'll father Congress on all town if I child imposition but the result of this the only good place you know some of the greatest food court at the religion they are capable of by NC central hall musicians I will business and so I responded me cold realize was done could be commercial and be very honest and that's true oh so much it was to be the most parkinson write music and having people can play until those Terrapin on his house filled with in a fool all reports the Technium certainly the one up to octo about Malkina and food pillados violin sonatas I use your office to buy music but you know amateurs completely yell not as well as they perform for me let's understand that we had this notion that lack of the music is written to be formed to folded after all I've is incredibly well trained perfect are up 51 things like English a little side also first took our part of your writings music so you could tell us beaten get the average household in Vienna where everybody had a piano and you know inform the court head out of your family mom dad and the cool kids you know there's a sprinkle of testing right there ah and I encloses very substantial amount of their economy people like items those are the papal composers the kind of music that could be played at home now just Apple Kendall thankfully case a province pork products and cool that is when piano sonatas especially on the phone line hammer toes here even the greatest an overcoat was conveying funny and really takes on the most radical district where you going to play the hammer to be accompanied they're great out inside article Bravo it always were cooking for the Ethical here in the net because you can't wait hold on and you're basically took over to further liability birthday nobody complains of pain and so what you say it is possible in one hour he's deficit form and maybe not taking so much about how it could have found but from both do you feel did you see and then basically cut off with your system get going back to the point we made about school I don't want to say that all these composers were thrilled with his commercial systems they most have exploited make money off it what we do things and putting them at the Royal Bank oh who is famous for cooking a little a string quartet or considered unplayable and going well into the 20th century which is it was linked or all of those in full effect it was first saw playin in public and do now as well wartune that he starts getting recording for the beethoven late string quartet for people can handle them work and even trying any policy so difficult front so y'all wasn't being late Beethoven that baby weight down our models with people online that the last four as well I'm and we go sleep or the best from the 12th over that he was 15 include here not think we have fun when it's almost our supplies for more but stuff is very difficult to play and it's very difficult to comprehend and we're used to them now it sublimes it but it sounded very weird for equal then I mean I would find a picture yes I like to play the packaging Sanada to be in your hands of whether the dozen years old already mind you but I could play I could get through this you know that was like a combination of my galaxy I'm going to open roza loser the Newmark's valley right in price I'm excited for people who all going to stay calm flowers will have oh it is so cool in the local cup holders kisses from the pony rides and stuff so I hope so didn't you see them the commercial sister we didn't always work in people in today's imposing like a tone being extended but whether it was our fingers because of your third grade they told precisely for this now it is air what happened inside the country music some of these balloons with the cult of waste a moment and the eye I want to say that this great in spite of being difficult but the coin is better than it has been that difficult weight because it is difficult I want to go back to the greatest teacher ever miracle both power and active line as composing that Lillian Carter and composing look incomprehensible artificial harmonics orgasms and songs and HIPAA total things such as the most articles that could write the most simple but that's people for fine again all i wanted proof all those people to buy locally down tomatoes in a late quartet I think they've been all good fun out of the origin of this firm word are here the only difficulty we found him to believe isn't good that's times they've had a bad effect yes I don't want to do put a little distance saying I don't write that losing clicking by the office phone call me five core pedagogy noted 131 48 but narrow little quartet a four bombs especially over 59 Runkle run so we shouldn't forget that a lot of a problem music fade into the day well I was sort of in with additional time and must of birthdays 103 modeled on those prophecies public answer he was an improviser rifle card maybe something we forget the great art or 18th century improvisation mention the bar for the end of the gloves people sort of improvised it didn't work you know where are these colonies broken arrow pathetic Judea team and some will give the thing that they they'll pull on a pony crab Panama and they just come up with a little Bach Mozart and Beethoven to the same way the big gold in the coral Fantasia of nano record those papers the closest we've all the opium on across that rough a problem sounds life as an improviser is after the spectacular and how their ability to do variations will see it in an out of date at the great team and most of paper themes and Salieri and transformed into a being of propagating the bars of Figaro so well Beethoven mainly was a performer just wrong no proper form they cultivated a market I was very important again we saw our painted some of the racket is just as a no project but mother the school year with marketing we see that the bar was closed from the number of composure to go then put it delicately they will not be different tomorrow Tara consideration being something think Holden local friends my competitions are bringing a good installment over 40 the reward I've 67 publishers and becomes even more we do not bargain with me all demand and they pay and there is as I was saying with pentane music became the seller's market into a Beethoven if the remote on if you were hiding the specific market updated that they could day mr. a little dutiful call from Copeland porches something Chopin's the perfect flower of the piano salon everyone's eating through the frail ethereal audit and he was and it was nocturnes a little sublime delicate down in together hidden and see instructions can this agent during the public religious KL the famous center in flight out if I all makes any difficulties go to funkier and time again to bow out for Franklin for 800 francs and colleagues before finding them guilty for 1500 but that's right thing to get focus on a 1303 informant who can say that and in verdi with his operatic player hopefully other things of anything writing about his love for England oh thank you a cup of you I did like the power of a backbone of this block with money refusing the more money or his office but off of the Bolsheviki humor comprise the 19th century so this is where he documented very well the leaders of composers in the funding class or work and we see it with the development of performing careers well it is included wins now the big money was in couture and we all just made the order the composer's infield even in any rock we did now the big the big money is in the safe code is unbelievable money they've taken all the road rosenfield 00 high bounce croquettas no opera composer that is operable to what an aquifer make this outfit or the pouring a hundred thousand dollars of authorities most Africa polities donors in a year and sort of those that can offer can write our are those interested fair documentaries the office cause the insincerity must war money than the composer's the end of the week more 411 nice performance then a composer could make in here the furthermost a real contact over the oriental people really paid the super eight aphorism extreme event so people although star Beethoven 20 years I prepare word I will be successful I don't think ever working with this world I either be before in public that he spoke Savannah market his career he worked for Chris esta Harvey what a great families we left on their entire and it was quite successful rope in creation a princess haha be right but instrument called the ballot on the kind of weird instrument was cracks on exactly having very the sort of file I've not implode up her vision wasn't true folks for the patient to begin buffoon halted and he eventually got fed up is working with the housing court and he will drop and the counter and Caiaphas re when Salman in London set up comfort the fog light kit fitting for London and highly metaphor for the back there call belongs Tiffany's or though and walking for the sound and Tiffany items a nice preview that is in pictorial and made impossible that we could hold on the Solomon 50 providing city this big group of the subject the commercial Martha London is what I made properly move on menace that is rated simply due to the last 12-18 but ability or not and people hundred for the learning center and I check the form of them and really the high point of the cool thing called instant things don't Stephanie cooking the plan and Omar Pelagius all these a mark Oscar from the war is going off a puny and weak up longer than houses no estar exist as a building working here surgeons at Oakland real man no meeting as well rascal tipping hydrophobic they saw that licenses odd have been on the market a little bit between oratoria be so Heidi Rosen seasons trucks are the lawyers start for Scott that again composer yeah then they was supposed to roll music and follow the yield object to this musical definitely where everyone a while they for commercial opportunity eight of them back got it protons to lose it I mean it's cool world leaders came to the body work I sort of didn't show the market board from publix effective yeah you can make some quick money it will affect being wrongfully signal will sound the sky and packaging the tent that'll be great deal and did you know what blonde with one of the actually personally my favorite composer false against opposes the Lord grounders usually move to anybody I know yeah Mandy goodness no cockroaches holding public a very top of the bank's glass of his game pinging off a hospital near reading destroyed evidently about 34 will immediately road even though probably very good bit of prep bystanders technologies with a problem please drumroll ok for various dances instead of just one only stuff above bitchy music and that we loved it to music ah appears the last move the violence is there also so even Brown you know didn't pass out every opportunity at the tomato box are as other than 90 some things that we get the full scoop of all performers Monifah Magnus there are typical fingers in eighteen centres for men will be picked Ronnie there was a film made about revealing the good illustration of the power and the relative came about from the infantry outfits again but fugly meeting on the violin and respond Afghan Oh will become really the first super thought I performance are least expecting look is extremely happy although ruthless biggest are widened by the universal app and related phenomenon and we twist on what robotic people painted bumper living through them felt that Angela's that all these groups are queda de Redvers our film by chemical natural cassava called Lisztomania the roger daltrey of the whole range bonds risky quite popular spirit that lead to the truth about running loop r & d way the thurston county pies around dude he's told with a work to get away and we did very philanthropic day and help grunts and bowing before needles to his later life and gave a lot of these moments for the third was a commercial binding edge of the symposiums doesn't propose that the terrible economy often supporting other proposal but we note in the 19th century listing we had answered booth dr. as we know it we sold about it begins of the 18th century and in first out gay music stripping it was deployed p14 make a korean music possible I think business man that is a terra has a very really fun way the ominous quote from Beethoven I why we feel really a problem right I do not understand any other monies and be in the bucket how did is powered google that makes knows they're mine from a bad businessman and reckless first and most likely going to the days of the euro you having trouble as a businessman dealing with the fact that people more often see the different countries we sang a chance work it out because i work for the concentration salsa and all for revealing with guilt european all the field tokens in our restaurants know some of it how much the guard ruble and then will we give it a little bit inside the you go but but i don't understand any other money to do stuff is have any talent google has no flavor businessman record there ought to be a biscuit get bit where the artist we've only hand in a dog work Lord receiver the ash borer as soon as our level to have a business plan and how can one understand good heavens that's what I really cold bubbly the bridge sad and ominous moment and in this course is something I regarded they're all to be honest it is busted up the drugs and autistic people insist there is a for the Odyssey where we hold in a doll work or seasons were still open a kind of do available door opening onto the people with your honor to know you and all those orders teeth glowing ask for see I mean that's the poly you think impetus behind artists they are troubled by the commercial aspects of their arms and they write to have someone else kaneland if I k let the government handler and I just like the music I want and then I hold it in and a devious chat convening suckage for you know the obvious problem is that is how Depot know how to spell Beethoven from puma whether this cooler zone from death or somebody advanced impose martial ever any good at all so this is the bunny fire roaring artists don't go into artificial businessman and so they are comfortable with it and this is why increasingly the nicest entry are together to call for various forms of government support of yours is even more I was quotation from little vogner the most ominous target of the 19th century watermelon in this opera composer ever but began and then the commercial world of opera decided he had to James offers in ways no one has done before and it would require more money than ever before fortunately was my experience executive of area who was willing to support of modern and laser beams confirmed 76 that thyroid Athena except they built rayon you see here the info so we artists you know the half asian exactly they wrong you know I'm thinking you know in bondage the operative inside with das rheingold and you know sorry weirdo you know Isaac's tune things when we talk for a bit gold that's going to be you know I want 20 vision of dollars worth of offal upon these things man you know that's why a particular to go expected and what they had for government customers if we want to have real gold we took indisputable and his daughter Riley went after he just started getting money from caleb is a second how can you speak to me of the future my man's careful operating from planted it was so worried that no one would ever forgive developers because they seemed unbelievable boolean potentially works at all that I only I with the help of fun in first grade I differently constituted I have sensitive merge I must have beauty for the wrong the world owes me what onion made a decision and again in miserable organ is convicted I can ask for further into our new little demand their book when I out for that bit of luxury which are they crave I will prepare for the world a thousand spider pig fat in my sweet man did you grab still a mammoth out to the wolf game I mean here's bhaga bhaga have to be dressed in silk at all times we could not compose he was not let them soak and putting on shows the folly still a my day for world owes me what I need now this is the code for the coming century here now we think probable distances for thought and August began over musicians began as over serving for the core routing bot working for spirits and humble divisions and all of it is mobilizing and working for relaxation for the happy news deserve attention plumbing the hood is the famous moment emblematic call tonight because it scared us there's no meaning artist until if daddy would bake / 10 some color imprint on box and paper bags from Staples and fans 25 and I'll don't bow to anyone and exert their food a great Authority banco you know people to feel bow reserved in facebook painful than can and the logical confident that i was by mistake the world owes me a living in whiskey or consequential go ahead for 20 eccentric so this very big dick we're using living it goes big sometimes we came over with cool rain and confronting the invoices economics of cultural production bases again we video market economy don't come over the credit but as chair of documents with reserves roughly fifty percent of the planet between 1750 and effective facebook pink reading from aristocratic a person so creepy for development of reason but it turns out that along with the court pain and commercial method alpha royal was aristocratic in many areas for quite middle class and others are the first students in germany had waited for that cold places I've hablar de frances developed alpha or role in the middle of the incidentally some of our total mana Greig proper Tom board involves lovely a little college environment where middle-class merchants got together finance building the opera house finance athenahealth rotted voted off of runs some ways and then I know disgusting but I think both paladin and fair are very good apparently people lose a total pain if anything to look like because no time you need to get home from music if always the coverage Pinkerton unfortunately but it was very wise for a particular event of the world particularly off the land food is example of the worldwide is called for great at least as king on the finish we were written to be spelling home people been driving strong at home they're big oil or companies and physicals are very painful that they are following our third into the place and I was meeting surprised if somebody wants to ask me to a clunkier in some of the songs and memorize them okay i just actually also looked at it but okay mark out somewhere they look like if I could help out the girls on the mostly food at song and everything you know he was diamond on performance at home baby the songs in self-control matter so I want less bulk of it the commercialization of music was crucial at this time and those are extremely wifehood publicly in the face after a basic better than Paris London but also whether i know the greater distance for a benign consent of the day for four hours of the quarter and so on and there was a lot of money to be losing that and one of the composers were able to drive a substantial pork more than you come from IFA i joined the web great aspect of that these for my pink Tobin's rebellion against at least again only publishing in equality clear proposal and the publishers wealth publishers were not super magnets often they perform the funeral of entrepreneurial middleman and they were able to lose composure box with a potential audience and you know stated round no i think there's a market for some familial dances or the state of days i think the market for some startling i know you really want to write that nine company but you know right discuss dancers will pay enough we can go off and like a new bracket congratulations to it but you to the point that people decomposes what is over right music that was popular the day and saleable it was squeezing the copper holy reason table and that's finance the fuse and now I know things are going on to write is incredibly profound or move down a lot and we implement so again I'm saying that this composers point advice with his commercialization of some new take on the system and have a good lead it off anyway bought a royal system how to turn out a cantata a week for search box and so lady Beethoven had a burnout the finest phones and fun pedestal masculine gay and dances but we're allowed them to have probably over all colors that will clear the box you know open to the great composer United said four games with Camilla truckers who are always negative and some cases they couldn't some good one for most about this okay where you realize the Mozart's Piano facilities are things I was an appetite well written for themselves performance now there's from the greatest galloping getting a terrific even broader to the gala kateri were written out for himself and they were unexplainable for a lot of laundry really wrong painters it's really are independent canoes and his plan writing some of the eighth best ever it requires oil train finger I mean all piano Ryan reference every every kyndra has to be interrogating working and because they just run second capitalism about artists now add the first bride Hannah and to do it and for around you great work we have will prepare for written for shoulders yet to impose be the public or former steeler are we darling so the commercial pressures often presume is exactly the time or form to music that we appreciate today so stop here yeah there it is just as bad if you want to go into details in his book I started and then it's a summer to cover but what I worldly is composed with earn money work at Maui thurs the local people eat on are propagated batter this could become a combination of Commerce and tension is again because in most cases the best pieces are right the scooter to the Crown Prince of wherever and cloud found crystals and we will see that in the amadeus as I asked us to Mozart Scalia that heat of earn a lot of money giving their kind of useful lessons package at Mizzou football effective it was always hoping to get the big only God who's worth suturing you know children from us some of the royal family little Hospital I will consider think Sultan imposes in delphos ten supposed income I think my food is very fun and be noticed the horse blackberry last and most frustrating way with journalism using the ounces of suffering the royal families with Imelda can't catch laughter those purple is ignoring this increasingly with all the people were very important to be thinking and even involved intention composers for many one gave welcome to persuade me from a short time they start in Whoville and under this remarkable book the guns I was failing with no front a column and his music appear to be second grade because ever performance panel commanding who's at the nation surprised they really so many girl market Beethoven a little right of any way most outspoken como selectively I'm living it out for a couple of years was according with of the talents and he wore encouragement and at the course food is fine in most other than hiding and Beethoven list in Gretchen's for freeing for most of his life it isn't I mean most of the group pianist of the late nineteenth of my attention well his people the people's Everest and so I mean it's a good real fix I did find a stressed that there is a commercial I think he's honest so we can raise from this over I realized an antic notion that they are concerned about mommy ah but look pretty even that but as I started to say about this moving on up to that time respected very stupid soap in with a loser component for motor on and from other composers that we could earn money speaking and of course by the 19th century you start to get musical conservatories and people getting and staying job as a professor of the compositional music performed by the nineteenth entrance will go to installing the dolphin I'll probably and pasta music which has pulled out in some neighboring I think about me when you know you are why would it change yo uncle Oliver and all they have access to and do these guys and I plated because of the board capital there's a continuity is always beautiful form interesting battle talk but as I was kind of afraid when it was following the great composer you know one of the days composable upon i'm flipping some of you haven't ridden always completely rigid in there and we're over acting with a 19-15 go by one of my heroes no longer apply the end of enjoyment movement and recordable difficulty we walk was cooking that I feel better going either way unfollow just hands have a lost battle for the earlier in the world and they probably scholars recording a boundary me or the granular yeah so more people have der dustpan in the past 15 years and human history and fertile another long day and beautiful early footnote to his queen I became you from the plane that the populists of all of them record visa to the latest failure have had rescued acoustical for policing inconceivable around 200 when I venture to say that many of the grenadines ecology the world but they were further them in stock in urgent care but the river heard it and now you know McArdle selecting an available readily available we perform integrated credit here ah that is exactly comfortable question is visibly this is I know that I know the bridge situation with regard to literary county life and that really means creeper of the late 18th century around by people 1761 there's no need to copyright in the 18th century I'm petrified wood and nearly probably isn't relevant for example that we started with the national music copyright you know the issue is copyrighted incredible complicated and as most of you sulphurous and the muscle set against it and of course the real problem talk about it is you can't talk about the abstract you really have to talk about how long i'm also the great the speed song how long will the copyright Ralph individual board and so on and I could I do think the arguments on both sides and I've not made up my mind on my mind on what the idea of state is popular having said that those percent a technology as simple name copyright awesome and we can argue about this all we want legally of the cat is out of the bag and once you have google youtube open things like that my book the larvae copyright for you rass bloody history is facing an institution of about 200 years he won't avoid incorporating the u.s. competative we are so serious that the founding fathers but you know why I look around me today at ipods been spamming like a copyright stupid canna and kind of surprised the current technological state of humanity it was a creature of the book of the printed world in copying route and took a long time even at detecting / to be established as applicable you know promotes of the newest traditional common law tradition publicly proud of the fact of having though it was in right religiously when when qualitative fabric for thursday the principles of what we think of as probably like common Laurel doesn't try to over you if you needed it so absolutely aight ty for those things that we think of as a panel so it's probably the same command fish because those that Facebook you have a rather good history and I think it's going to be very brief for now on I'll just go see how and con technology people from clinical reports and popular but don't ask me that I'm still get and have probable loop in today they eat around but I I just under I'm not a little scholar I really don't know enough about copyright law but I think kind thoughts along how can it provide usually good food and perfectly to lose the ability to digital world dividend think I pass so i will see you there to be Mokpo legal battles over this I hope not to be involved in don't say I can say a decent idea the book account of literary form our that has been very good stuff on on the history copyright and Marlo a rogue has a very difficult of all the time it's very good thing on an ostrich kids and I'm downloadable article no Robin all I want patent rights and then go a little off my books that it's out of play and I want is a boosted I don't people read my book then hands are free and yes I know Todd most alters actions don't have an interesting copied on we can realize it they're gonna make a chicken off their hockey wife and you know I would be Brad if people just sold my books off the internet or whatever so into all the different kata has much more complicated in people food and oh we are in lyric together poking you actually has a good discussion of blue / offers to board copyright various places in business and who oppose it rock music maybe close that authors have mixed interest on it will have it yeah I'm talkin two angles custody tenderize my horror I just want to get out there that's so much I want to pay for the money offer I'd respect people to give my spot so it's why I may also be completed by because nothing yeah it's very property by the steady pricing we wish to we both are paying on all crimes the corner of emotional core is the wonderful because she stole from all sorts of Italian world composing it really know when we broke down some dork or just see this stuff is taking over but it was your second I we poke our feet well that was meaningful providing local particular operas volumes of other operas strung together around and uninstalling dividend evening and on it was offering so honestly would break through and my and comment on that that's what led to catalyze illustration was almost compose about this so this is just really wanted me you know ah it's evolving have had a copyright in perpetuity willingly to curtain today because of course a knife with a revolving revival the fifties religious feeling almost music and you know is wrong no royalties for the surviving the holidays in New Jersey are and so you know uh if I was evolving I would prefer those situation that you know ended up being one of the great composers everybody knows now because we've ever had copyright and it would last all this time anyway so what is say we financial business and you sometimes intimate of entertainment our sins always good on the skull tonight in common oracle digging you think the whole incident i'll open in that and we both are we saw so far we feel some of the office Rosen for copyrights belong to be

Commerce and Culture, Lecture 6: The Economics of Modernism | Paul A. Cantor



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A ten-lecture course presented by Paul A. Cantor, Clifton Waller Barrett Professor of English at the University of Virginia, and a pioneer in literary criticism from an Austrian perspective. Having studied with Ludwig von Mises, he is working to counter the Marxist understanding of culture that dominates the humanities today. Recorded at the Ludwig von Mises Institute in Auburn, Alabama; July 24-28, 2006. Includes an introduction by Jeffrey A. Tucker.

Playlist for complete lecture series:

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Paul A. Cantor (born 1945) is an American non-marxist literary critic inspired by the Austrian School of economic thought. Educated at Harvard (A.B., 1966, Ph.D., 1971), he has taught for many years at the University of Virginia, USA, where he is the Clifton Waller Barrett Professor of English.

He has written on a wide range of subjects, including Shakespeare, Romanticism, Austrian economics, contemporary popular culture, and relations between culture and commerce. His books include Shakespeare’s Rome (1974), Creature and Creator: Myth-Making and English Romanticism (1984), Shakespeare: Hamlet (1989), and Gilligan Unbound (2003).

Cantor was featured in a 2005 article published in Americana: The Journal of American Popular Culture 1900 to Present in which Cantor was described as “a preeminent scholar in the field of American popular culture studies. In a world of categories, labels, genres, Professor Cantor has proven himself to be remarkably resistant, publishing on Oscar Wilde one day, on Salman Rushdie another, on Samuel Beckett another, and then winning the Ludwig von Mises Prize for Scholarship in Austrian School Economics on yet another. His diverse research interests have manifested themselves once again with the publication of his latest book, Gilligan Unbound: Pop Culture in the Age of Globalization, in which he turns his academic eye to four popular American television shows: Gilligans Island, Star Trek, The Simpsons, and The X-Files.” (Source: Wikipedia)

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DISCLAIMER: This media presentation is owned by the Ludwig von Mises Institute and is protected under Creative Commons license (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0).

This YouTube channel is in no way endorsed by or affiliated with the Mises Institute, any of its scholars or staff members.

you halfway through believer that slide down five to go I was needed to the phone accessory and my topic today will be the faculty modern Olympic rider is taken from an epigraph and all believe full words of money in the market losses over town right of the game boys in 1918 vol calls me we all millionaires I don't know that manifest she stood in front of that ladder to the modernism Oh to go back fine we still parable of the cave where I try to define the fundamental artistic transacted let's go back to those kings and a and imagine some progress of the maids and one day our cave an artist says for the goof well things are different now and you guys still go out and Silvanus and you're still bring you to me while I say the cave except the drawer on the due today don't expect it's going to look like the balance in fact it may not look like anything but don't about a sentence and that drawing our dude of the god of something to help you guys kill a mammoth I'm going to cover it with Manus one today I'm feeling question today but I still want the management I'm sorry but that's that's modernism for you or on both cool I'm going to ask you to rethink modernism today invited Bobby to discussing and this dating models controversial up there but maybe modernism is some he's thinking I want to it in light of the fundamental stuff at the merging I so we could really focus on this morning and all stood questions are always better off being shielded from the market or being sold through pressors and there's no simple answer to that and I look at the example with serialized novel in before in burden to show that there are pluses and minuses for multiplexer that indeed you can see the novel of themselves containing about commercial pressures we can identify women with their novels pain aesthetically words or because some of the commercial cultures sometimes it's long sometimes at the store the commercials on the other hand I've quoted out ways in the the curriculum system could in a daze improve their works with feedback system of seeing love lawyers likely big like a report here one obvious factor the commercial dates or nice incentive publishing thoughts people to produce almost at the lead of sometimes two of these leaders let's say sometimes then we rock because of that and maybe have less aesthetic value on the other hand we have more novels out of these people are in force for seven years to write universities and I think 13 years to write Finnegan's work the fact we have three novels from his whole career now maybe we should be thankful for that looking at living a pretty good way but you know the output of 19th century novelist is not greater than that is a most fun especially novices duffle the ones that we think I was August and yes individual novels they'd be more aesthetically perfect basically offer support i noticed but will be mean like fewer novels out of pickings in the firm for who had been more aesthetically perfect as a favor of fair writing a lot of novels and it's on the telly failing and lighting you were a better excitedly more perfect until you say well if anything for all you either side of the park but i do want to suggest to this some sort of basic way simply loosen static a commercial factor to third out novels make it was very difficult on the novels but in any way they've left us of the return of world literature now they're talk about Halla rhythm I want to think about it are in these terms that is specifically developed as an antic reversal movement that is I a lot of people have been rethinking it that way are blaming and it spoke institutions of modernism that I recommended you would call delay this booklet for money in the market so I I didn't develop a theory I'm just capitalizing on the work of others here again the way modernism presented itself that it said off on the liberal aesthetic poor and it happened to be incompatible commercial considerations but people like that are ring that lady and believe has suggested that in fact monitors instead of stone set out to define itself in opposition to commerce Verlaine equals egra pound at one point in some ways further learning the efforts of modernism Moulton written for penny worth printing only what has been written against the market and you can find a lot of this statement from our observer about music right down the line you can see the modernist explicitly defined themselves against the market by claiming that precisely if something is commercial in marks artistic merits and each something is not it must have to work too but that autism there are in fact what I'm argues modernism is this each sort of our anti commercial box that would mean when it has a nasty commercial violence and culture you're buying in towards a century a modern admit so how did that develop his really developed in reaction to the emergence of a mass market for culture for the first time ever in the world in 19th century the hit in England and in Europe that eventually the United States this is a tremendous point you the rise of ethical change and it understandably did 1472 enacted before 1800 what we think of culture was a necessity and a leaf phenomenon restrictive blood moving Wahlburgers defining both tasted in love and all the day itself crystallized that when we saw on both worse after we revolved around the tort expediently spilled over into some popular areas and artistic endeavors like the finger or operetta but basically when we now a couple signs look back at things before 1800 we are other to be looking at largely a phenomena centered around equipped with the product in some cases dirt centers and somewhat writing out for example of literature you happy to appear literacy literally the literacy rates were basically stole row and we talk about literature updation coming just talking about things that are being read by a poor Italian people both accessible illiteracy rates these 10 position and so on what populism being possible you might be thinking was the ball productive literature the spread of literacy or we can all this book shows that what you consider that focus ii he a portable considered bubbly uncle's it for profit attempt to spread the North a hanger first organizations wonderful philanthropist who would open up library for the poor and provide an aversion for free and one after another these projects film why didn't they without market-oriented he rented a wonderful free library and there was all this moral religious leaders confer you know we need to up with you and for working-class state away in droves who made the English working-class literate and gave them a habit of reading the catalyst booksellers industry because okay then what they wanted now in the course of the 19th century culturally for piled of that results ah because what installs is the plight of widespread popularity and making media habit was the favored gardens is attained to the case when you think about the logic isn't anyone uh know the 18th century new see and which things are revolves around the cone dr van der pol that has to be sophisticated brilliantly written told oh but they made by hundreds maybe thousands of people of the idea that you could take millions of people again the green pokes at they on man or post a fat foods that pleased to be of Americans weekly and was to practice you could difference read Dickens almost I want to something we're talking about tangent own sphere but it's not necessarily a pure debasement far from it and when you look at what was the basement of life presidency in nineteen separated from your partner Snowbird on average i knows books reversing so what so now that cultural customers lament the fact that the average college student doesn't mean that mean for pleasure but instead goes to a movie or lots of Providence inclusively realize the noise inspecting room the Dickens novel were falling upon for the same content that people are looked upon as reading watching television and going to movie I had to found it to go back and look at a book attacking reading in the 92nd solve the balloon but there was there were substantial working women campaigns and in early my consent deluded people will convince in a nerve advantage of the English people work to do that this was destroying working class that they were thinking what is having read a lot of i'm not talking about position for real though books written on this subject and possibly no more mr. a campaign of the same time objectives are raised aware he conceded that people said so for more like karate and other sex and violence and book late for the meeting but i always chop to see that it was a more abstract moving your oil is an argument well a lot of people now objective harbhajan flowers can super grounds of content of the program Berkman chases the 400 block of televisions he had walked into it if you thought as well you get addicted to it we're really surprised me was to think that all our little Vegas really novel with a nice aesthetic among a lot of products I'm Donald the head back of rugged fool when was promised content is something we need end the horrible habit of thyroid novels and he said it just all so now we boost in Italy for the rest installment of a novel to come out I didn't read it instantly and there's over the school work instead of one of the gonadal kind of hoping for their addictive I mean exactly the only thing about the the content but I just about the habit of you realize now every Sunday but it builds up every time a new medium comes along this popular and intellectual cultural mores I mean of get to it middle Alfredo a black screen sizes all these things now that we hold up on a purple and confess with his basement office they will regard as the base culture in their day and a ginger is a real class time not exactly precisely at meetings we spread to the middle and lower quality and we were finding getting very entertaining I have novels being hidden resented by the audience perspective he can walk again many of them were know that price Ravens have been forgotten on all the novels that we now keep in universities with masterpieces were in fact popular than a day this is the beans of popularity of course but I be the kind of cultural pattern in 19th century the Front's that the old ones are culturally will be the sprites one perfect way to steer is in a state of torture going into the 19th century hopefully regarding the highest form of literature and over to the office of monitor so that you would be posting the university bed not even for free but that is reposted with so poetry and only one with literary aspirations took mortality to be a great writer would want to go into posted the Philippines would be have those buildings may to hundreds do in the theme of the novel of where to go that are all grateful given written and he wanted a talent over and Dante mistake spear but welcome to gate novel to be ruined by that energy endearing terms of air hissing tonight expecting is in a way of the fifth in power from poets and efficient and most of the reaction at the time was a result of an older hopefully oriented going fearing the glue being is grilled on the world of a loser so that for example the first marketed criticism of popular culture comes from the words were wall before mark Wordsworth was a member of the Frankfurt School how do the thinking is ahead of time are in the practice for the second edition of the lyrical ballads that rivers rope was calling about 1800 word was offered these columns as an alternative to the bedpost of contemporary wieners it gives a poor perfect alignment if their people are more more force entities and their lives are becoming more more monotonous as a result that he said changing or that Chloe had a morbid something and they turn to speak German bomber and detective you know because in both the world has felled their senses and so they taste has been defaced ah and we're going back to the nuclear and the countryside in the roots and versatile poems are a cure for that any of the pure factors for arguments I mean active users doesn't qualities design when he talks about urban Athens talked about all the things that the Marcus complain about we modernized and all of his romantic poetry as a cure for that and alternative to this baby's the base form of mass popular literature speaking out keithley Germans melodrama and Southwick novels with a sensational softer their blood and gore perfect exactly it's only about more sentences in the carpet it's a lot better evening a directing than one language it weird or favor about four senses are working on and then off to the whole book to the driven phone to say are putting important procedure than our name but early if I think it really gives a sense of the contents for modernism inform us of a Marxist critique of commercial register are you older we didn't like what was happening ah the board agree power chip are going on and in the fear factor going into the 19th century poetry will still a best-selling 400 people like Walter stop in his sky tales like mommy in a later lesson school lured by ninjas oriental tales like the flower will try to buy to be sold staggering amounts of barking for poetry some of violence poems would sell ten thousand copies in a week Otis before for that now so ten thousand copies of all time I was distributing looking for the pylons phones are sold they were tales diff except liberating a woman from the Turkish harem who was spoken on the way they set out between blood and guts than strong are one of the great hospitals trolleys in their 1950s 1815 a thought multiplied proposals phenomenal in cover nautical mentally deficient super waiter now posted anonymously the data great reputation as a poet and didn't wanna ruin his reputation by being caught with running something so vulgar as an album so he covered his novels anonymous blank for many years was it and working the greatest kept secret and Britain or a history book is a sign of himself look down upon a variety the way to make money but he's novel for focused at four today we open up the whole possibility suddenly became clear there's a lot of money to be many novel rises people are picking came along filled and something more will get even possible so what you have is this familiar to span through the reading public from a kind we think that we would book for the lucky that they sold hundreds of copies maybe 5,000 copies the feelings are real astounded at how far can find examples Mary study for an 1815 agile score as a very successful novel it turns out there in the whole the 19th century is fall over seventy five hundred thousand i found that it sounded when I just that I Baba scopus is very good fair for the not happy Morgan if he had the movie life may be honest woman thing but still it is in some sense to Roberto League on a for when it apart from 30,000 copies 50,000 times a hundred thousand copies that's engaged to demographic shift in the industry and it is or Consequences a hundred thousand reasons are not going to have the same thing as 500 meters are they got dozen resurging that they have died based that's the cause of the old totally filled that you probable done parent eight and in what perspectives they know that I mean in fact that if I thought it's pretty remarkable good point and the perfect and they like them we still mired days as models affected but this is the multiple pressure generated nomination that but a certain kind of offer and all its not of people's senses new factor of the mass market and we talked about the wheel or there's no commercial crackers if you wanted that market over shouldn't we do how to do you have to write a sturdy way our rapidly whole thing but the poetry and was a royal respects our in college I think he was handed I think a 45,000 pounds stack as advanced for from a poster for one of his poems is that right millions of dollars proposal that's a good thing happen night it's not like updating 15 people our toll-free at its top as well write novels or is it but problem speaking you can watch the pain in public paved over 19 century assist from our posting based popular district with a novel based popular winter and conclude I the polls began to feel left in the dust in life they start to comment negatively against Palmer is being blade to Steven person from you and warden olmos park ticking for raising that folks consider by Birmingham that applies buying a book but was talking about an additive phenomena now and on Gor more volumes of poetry were being sold at the end of the 19th century than 1800 that work was to always be sold it will find all aspiring Robert last time this would Robert darken the pentastar him on your bibliography because he's from spettacolo life working at the French book brain is vergessen remarkable books took on the presence by Kofi vehicle the business of arriving whole study of the development of the ebook software of the first property industry confirmed dr. Juarez days everyone's public nuisance tree but he talks about the paradox of the situation of writers in the 19th century as the property to develop overhead writers had greater opportunities to court published and to make money but that at the same time Queen in this profession because firmly so much more money than others and you have a kind of revenue revising expectations as market open lock and there were more no opportunity to publish and more ways to make money for publication people in fact that more frustrated because more people wanted to go into the publishing industry into the writing industry and they know in fact do look better than consenting writings in finance law but we didn't work they do as well as difference and and daunting talked about the generator ending in the French intelligence people talking to the meeting spectators seasoned actors one of the causes of the French Revolution that precise to the expansion of capital believed possible that the great frustration it was never enough and he suddenly began to had the phenomena of the unemployed intelligentsia for people that have been lured into interrupting with promises of the Otherworld million bond for promises of a success and the market hadn't met it I was so motivated of earthy commercial sentiment in the 19th century has a lot to do with that moderate you understand that that was not the operas that doesn't deliver the booze but it often doesn't deliver I'm not good to sacrifice certain people and if the people of rules that means they're the most vocal people in this regard I lot of books I suggest was nondamaging trifles in America the balusters argument is wrong and throwing liquor too exciting specially I you have a lot of power blades mentality having developed in the intellectual world and the world is lighted time these common people were able to earn their living 19 staff during a new way that has never been possible in the world he stood the ville literary world expanded exponentially I didn't even talk about the phenomenon of magazines with a nine concentric in many ways magazines were better course of study income and name of these mogollons actually made this steady income writing book reviews which were disproportionately rewarded you could get one pen to the money for writing a novel for writing 104 length of hey blitz I'm just waiting it was kidding but that welcome what we're talking about and so a lot of people were able to score consult or Jerry would be example party book reviews and other little essays those are vastly expanded barking only made possible I sleep a paper of debtors with probation system for magazines the elimination of toxins on magazines which occurred around the middle of advising centers and so on well people can finally say about the 12 attention o poetry important boy was in the 18th century I need the number of practicing sports in the United States today me on down Lucy forever poet in the history of humanity it s before the earth no my university road has fallen it's department in and we remember me you still call it photo from the 19th century England and now we land up just in the academic world there are thousands of poets in Mountain Brook they what they complaining about it is not something absolute but something relative they're earning reviews but they're not earning as big a a as steven spielberg and tom foods all these people out in power again our feet pounds worth why are you questioning we aren't all millionaires I don't know that's always a problem in my presence we go across the wall but doesn't spread it around equally I don't think that's wrong but it does so a lot of people begin to resented me he was very really deceptiveness in the antique a personality but when we talk about the resentment of river otter he analyzes the process or India or this whole thing is the situation out of which modernism grows the ideal the market is falling not absolutely but relatively it's only because it's not supporting talk to Santa supporting other people and so you get art novelist are two novelistic alumni who sent a request basically there was any think they're not making as much money as anything ah now it turns out they're not willing to do what they exhibit weave is always half way right now above the movie popularly but they resent bad and so they started by the turn the disadvantages were abandoned for their necessity improver truth and you start to generate consume modernist ideology that is from 16 to the market type evidence that is not our principal good and only logical conclusion from that that is pumping all over the market that prove that it is good that is Mormon allowed in the first premises boobies but the conclusion from this is even more details but monitor that it does come to define focused on fleek on it Santa commercial character audits who belonging to another to not compete in the market who not want to compete in the markets tried to make a virtue out of that and that's what we developed this rid of the outsider artist or fur of ours the list of the misunderstood widgets I rather take one sometimes will define our pics of lip of the corner Santa Monica zhem and at the premiere of sadistic liferay entire new single most famous artistic premiere of the corn eccentric with a possible reason to be a higher authority and although hoping for weapons but I told you know the story that the Opera Ballet Company is tasing in the Rite of Spring perky music under the rock and roll is boom and round out the orchestra and the preview of this great national worth of the phone separate rite of spring in Berlin we have pained ever since for that night I'd like to pistol-whip that audience only they behave yourself better indistinct since then we have not been able to prove of the few years and novices work we have to sit there and suffer that matter what well beyond it serves up we want to be behave and non wrong things we mustn't ever recreate a family that night 4054 butter to move our and letting the soldier that opening night oriental do we now know right explains a great great piece of music and I love it oh I that becomes our Contra Costa this involve is in Fantasia is a wonderful performance by Michael sakowski will Philadelphia performance in fact is if we do at that per year we were not allowed to move it people do Belvin Perry yeah mom who was the lucky one two three one of the ten greatest disasters of exfoliant sin theta may I deeply admire and anyway on to record it for the Boston sniffing is a very performance but it was very hard for that period nice inaudible to the orchestra leading to very complex and we have enough rehearsal time the word played very well as you padding I imagine it was found and 501 / could I'd be pudding to hook that Orchestra and safe to give a performance of it I have include if that really wanted the problem exact probably worth the choreography the disc II waiting small graphics 20th century but he wasn't that great a choreographer and this was one of the first ballet as he progressed I the typical is great to answer but now without a pornographer be available only the first one for a granite maybe the first day between choreograph ah and so the don't seem pretty bad awkward into what someone we proved it it's probably the bozo film of it but there's a form of philosophy or no patience I'm going to pdx about trippy movie well where they recreated ah and it doesn't look very good our playing are they my friends uber successful as a capital for a very far the performers are battling to the same music but it's not anything bad girl rubber dick talk to Varrick advanced betting whether a rating records and I'm led a ride dick without it's easy to thanks to rock pretty simple would rather grab a 98 on American band and I did you still don't get it officers tonight fun but it's cool not easy to dance to I don't know if I on DVD i luckily thank you but if you have assuming this we created of what the ballet hip life is pretty horrible oh and they're nervous options are to receive a prophecy New York this was the postal blog left and they the great mass of the ballet room the goyim for soil and they had all the stuff for the counselors and I got the right friggin I said first pants they wanna thank you for that bite look like a Daniel Boone movie it looks like you know three American costume and I said wow this is just edition that you have someone someone pretty ugly little bit and then I found photographs i think we produce them perfectly and you look like dad talk to me out of it American restroom so a little after all that the costume is the first time I saw it I'll wait to say it I think I think evening there there's a 90 anybody about the gypsies life with Alan thinks of the riskiness book they're painted our faces longer than advert okay Liz and as you see I think they have a beat we created in that and you know it really was bad even though we can now stay registering as a great thing to do but probable that was a fan productive people who are more rifle Lapidus and who did it again isn't bad but in composing like that choreographers but for the idea that this was some great performance of writing free are only Philistines competitive we're always made emerging those were rejected it moreover now turns out that there are enemies of the olive I think people in the crowd the brew or no driver faces of the practical to create a standard promote the world but well there are many such stories which i think is the most famous one is the boats of features Norville reject a work of art living with reject water one because this particle is to free the artist from any audience practice and what I will get is cold and we told and why we're cold nobody's change disa back go during his life and nobody know we've actually brought the line dat nobody appreciates Picasso and at the castle epic struggle and struggle and abrasive do is a very wealthy man burned in this career or very carefully with appearance at the spellbook are told about approve that and I think we are only at the knees ingrained in us are so the world brings it was a mere honest work busy between doomed ah that modernist art of a struggle uh you know yessir the wasteland drill look mom competing to that bulb in the record I want to organize a six-month enough of it oh yeah it's almost laughable when you guys how quickly not understand came to dominate everyone on most artistic styles are cookin successfully establish themselves modernism with very well-organized rapid rate self-promotion both publicly and part of it is in Vinci house that weird with her dumb and we don't appreciate grade are so they got up and supply run it I don't work they better actually work now the third generation of ours for trade are you another great admirer of bottle things like castle modern composers like predicting my column is that did first generation and second generation so I'm sitting there desired again re yielded from public pressure on bounce was over the plugins who took the half century from a modern music and and modern paintings are now gone on learning and and Bologna I want to look at their some more detail on this modern reactant one of the forms in thought and hit a new beginning for me for us with repeated by fans and economic terms are both the living and learning targets for all the scorn for marketing and covers in modernism in fact we've developed a very recognizable marketing strategy which we called bit marketer ah that is in reaction to the math market are these moderates together with various cultural little man our dealers publicist actually evolved very tiny marketing strategies that made them money not at the wind of bestsellers and books but bathe in quite a bit of money I really ever play has discussed Washington listeners this was on again I recommend very high of the capture people's of modernism unfortunately our new movies was published illusionary when ate all that Egyptians are limited run of 1000 toppings are they using listings but not to be better and they can figure out our and so they pursue the opposite ravaging will suffice it our producing in a very luxurious play designed pride in addition and they actually targeted the book coughing balk Nick's not the book by market and when you've got a careful study of stillness again the list of lippy as this very car ranking group of Buddhism price for hours subscribe to the original publication they can show that people are already wounded sweden vs special world on the original subscribers but lady went down rule it down the price you name and any 21 we're booking your ass or other buying this thing think they don't in that a very expensive price range calculated across as much as a month landed apparent apartment that's not necessarily giveth and clear resort to go bond more than half for buyers with opioids and indeed this thing was going to grow up in price as a collective all going to be weakening was marketed as a little different correctable and prada gross is running the ancient world for me no ancient words and he want a certain number of copies will look more than wild days we could get it to fire and kind of the bond energy but well I don't know what a circulation in mystic celt an appetite that's called eBay is probable and people going back to living babe I have 1800 he was five the commercial market it is a small businessman and he suppose that the cover shoot open shelf on a goal little piggy back and he closed the price for four and you know that sounds crazy but yeah those things are the ad to get in the mail for limited hitting folkston for a collectible former spaces and his Camaro face who were fumble men I think this is a convenient a pathology that you take the book that anybody can buy 45 faults and put it on a lot of bindings and have an introduction by somebody and Peggy there's only five hundred thousand people and you can start a hundred bucks for both start before for figured out anyone who loves discos have to say 13 deviate a living and it's exactly the strategy pursued in jordan lake instead of waiting for town i mean they saw consumed they were firstly find it transferred to the book locket over already there in the art market modernist artist hunters were doing quite well orange of the 19 funny because they would tell me too weak collectible items and he could see nor any lofton the prices were going up and this was not lost on other modernist artists in the face the writers so it is monitored in terms of economic underpinnings to a large extent took the fall of this marketing and that's what i was they originate cooperative support of whole woman's of cultural feeble i truly everything that is done before and all these new things again what frustrates people it is doesn't support anything of the same mobile of support I mean take ill boys looks frustrated that he wasn't making much money by staying anyway did who knew how to approach the popular barking whoa but still someone's making good money and being modest ruined to pursue that but also as both eleni eleni shows are marvelous out Margaret will return to Tokyo there was a time to discover for papers papers again when people have pensions they realize what a problem they were and you can't statements are dipping saying Frank no we don't have to rely on a thurs anymore the market is liberator completely but the people who fell from old Byron market we didn't see what was wrong the patient's able so I was one of the market and so being wrong to get back to pay for it typically there was so much growth floating around in the phone battery that a new class of papers divorce are tons of growers the wealthy families from people who people cultivate erotic calm yourself de Vaca spend it on art and get the very thing 00 buck Stokes depicted as employees bank how support to Australia at a key point in this coming year and so ago I think we haven't Imogen starving struggling artists and you know through all the United apartment travels to Italy for vacations throwing sorry I mean really it's very much for the tiniest things about a new story promoted to make us all feel bad by the old more money why aren't they are visiting us now look at this site amazing the number of patrons who came forward in the 22nd peggy guggenheim is obviously one of the most agents and a senior a number of the Rockefellers supported are in very informed so in a certain way you can say de market stepped up and restored paper into the kind of upper middle class a form now there's a dark side to the sprint the patron that is worthless sputtering is sort of going out while I'm talking about in models and over pound is the focus of this federal pound it turned off to return the Patriot was real return to patrons angry referred the rent on Poland and he couldn't get one of my parents without retired the blue almost as well and his name of me for me as you may world round ended up in st. elizabeths hospital in washington washington DC area after world war two is it during world war two is the tokyo role of a Western thought he had named a broadcast on behalf of the mussolini in fact ism ah and what I didn't know what to build them after the war maybe the kind of a things during American poet and he can broadcast or a fox news who wore the peelings of American troops lay down their arms and support group luminess or take our no bar all failures quite a loose little bit executed or in the freighter and he hadn't been ever found the endowment red and the illusionary thing awful was suspending with cleansing and hidden do this the cochlea rose for example turns out they're the only one person among all students and people that were made healthier roses object but but for pound they think of the 15 that he was insane the dude if he wants to fit in Spain and so we know he was put in his office obvious one of my students father's with statement estate Elizabeth promised gotta move founded there was no more insane than the average American poet is in you know we continue to write poetry from singles this and then the last song co-written and total from there it is a very sad story ah but people who are elected to think the consequences of it when he was a dram are not for the world over loopy and thought that the could be patient is for all better a man like things did not have to depend upon the market to support him that's equal you know that distribute patient is formed it could be relieved of the professor pepper heart of the market and supported so they could write these in comprehensible pantone's which could never tell adequately in any market ah that is sort of people know that story oh and they first time come up with all emails Oh late wife found out from Susan what really doesn't over in the 1920s pounded or sucking up to Mussolini oh and we need of him as a patron and it's very controversial ordinary i will recommend reading of the statute book from infant or ill DJ ah and ensure device quite lemarchal way just discovered we find first that the first thing about crown is the pink boots through with blue logit and historical perspective so that you can't those who spells for break you just pull no Malatesta water those payments of Renaissance pirate regarded dork heartless doesn't belong to the Civil day for a thousand words and he conceived our pound celebrating this very NAT typically happy west on adaptive of it is canto and talking to me to connecting with Weberman and stars wonder whether loose early we will see answer whether equal groups of the court entrance what Malatesta did for the 15th century and could we believe be the new papers of arts that among other things to relieve town of a market pressures and given the kind of Jordan he needed to be the great art he wanted to be this is from a letter town starter right right with a woman he knew an American woman but I was connected with the mousseline circuit I'm against it will go down to Rome Georgia octo Rome doors open beer yeah that's Patrick what are we did in the doll room there is a famous broke back to the violent movie for the seawolf about in the world was a good woman for me in a sister city mr. sitting in Georgia it was hopefully we'll move pretty after 20 or two but its back to house all kind of a okay I mean there's a lot of integrations between Mussolini and Americans before the way our liberal weather is how will the reporter asked me to help in a pro two three me and broke a great fountain pop art project will do things the source for government support of Iran up on 7 little baby where he quite easy to make over language the intellectual center of Europe and that part either fun or 15 of the best fighters are these but I will not be festive the whole thing depends on this election an organization yes didn't I said first anyone selection save our own fatigue the bugle calls i can put the border to 15 years later times and we're epidemic and while the Renaissance again there's no she's going to detail on someone knows that there e or pergi inclusion type of the idea and to say if The Dictator wants a literary for a quarter planet because he caught a literary he was interested in the procedure of digits mundo Malatesta and getting the best artists of the time to really a small single dog endorses I wrote it down way the Tokyo includes literature and the arts for this program that are very different from being ready to take specific action whose only wearn to back up his word and produce a cultural revival reserve is it so I'll we would you have to avoid a super privileges that definite of academies for pedagogical fingers so lots of the altar old con space is very smooth dividuals day event and a vessel or a doctoral squad so it was rewarding very powerful figure in it neither this game we get together with solve the problem may contain to run on time you can make the odds run on time too and this one he was abide for the boothbay doesn't mess around with little things like we were all mad kissing's done what seems awesome I'm not here to mess up this is great now the last paragraph assessed either we had an opportunity 19.4 brothers and sprinkles I've had 13 years ago or even 10 years ago nobody batted he was a concerted retired officers a position on Monica it's too far from civilization and warm for a hundred years to civil peace in the first place and the cattle raid we will always safe and simple copy and then a year later the Africa range of Cardinal meeting between 10 and 120 120 for a little bit of Titan but I'll translated to find a physical bad it's a topic to be open by they're asking for meeting one simple question or even getting with modal to ask you for a long as you build a definitive answer and the question is the you are literally to be truly being center not inside the rear be right the intellectual and cultural center of north of it work in a fifteenth and sixteenth century and keep it so he can have my support for who for years was looking to get the support of ever bound oh no biggie I mean the pretentiousness of that it was about mending proportions are pretty good no I want it isn't an initiative it was not an isolated or all faiths example don't tell me countess praised in 1924 I mean it was the central figure in Anglo American modernism the taping of draws the patient of our very much closely connected again a lumen resistance a man whose absolute essential I won't think of El Gallo American modernism and that's what's more online and I can blow me if I could just get in kind of dictated by painted weekend and bring their life and again accounted for example but not all ice cream and it's a story that is increasingly being told that the the connectors Dupree monism and the european rights are quite extraordinary the missing that by and large modernism was left wing but look at him he was writing some very ugly pro fact esteem in the 1930s so much so people on the boiler it never did in the printed for this day are obviously observing their lots of TV remote thing as the pool will be Martin Haggadah some ways with kinky news of an awesome party we've talked a bit about that the mall but suddenly there were typical Italian few pointers the fascism in France all for the figures of identified the type of woman in the 1930s as a famous band or a couple years ago the Belgian American in constructive critic at Yale call the man discovered he was written go factious journalism very early years of war to attack involving so our seasonal food comes to us from modernity bought into the left and the right because both the rafter the right result of antique market anti commercial and a department and was very tempting the artist / make it be over neither of the European left of the European life that they told her they will further to the convert the world and above all we see this idea will speak again and talk about the coded i'm talking about the Soviet EU in our facility tomorrow that distract any of the protocol screen is then being to care about artists they think between the audit the central role in your comfort and Hitler Stalin Mussolini in the part of the political program work very carefully at the art and to encourage the arts and if you can get on the good side of one of decatur our it actually was very profitable for three years all the architecture they sponsored common various forms of me to thinking and loser is sponsored and configure noun want to get back before calculating a couple campers of schools with curly American populace effect on tackle ISM overly bright about summoning economic isn't like the gold standard but the the guillotine an extreme form but therefore fear form of this terrible translation of modernist that the market take the program that the market didn't specifically bagging them that it means other rivals luminaires and not then I still go for the nothing something wrong with the market and the enemies of the market must Envy our friends and some cases it turned out the fact that it is in other cases similarly Soviet counties are dictators of the political economic extremism of modernism has a group it was profound anything generated by the market system and again it what if these guys were doing after pretty well finance law these guys were not politics but they weren't making any where near as much as other people and that proved them the fundamental justice of the capo systems and the market are as a basis for Coco and so then the idea is becomes very possible of the notion that the the group of your power as an artist is precisely the unmarked I believe you are that that it will move successful stuff can't be good and you can offer the fact that you're unsuccessful as or of your evidence and increasing will be there forget the coast of difficulty and impossibility of communication you know on and roll across the board and thinking music and administer you just artist deliberately insulating them found from the market that they were no rolling papers it incomprehensible books so in both panting I bring you know if their book sale in the market they say all the audience's doesn't understand me I'm too profound to be understood and you know writing you did but no one wants to do it n fit Oh boobs are great i am to feelings doesn't understand me again uh oh my choice I've never been a big fan of pounds policy I obviously highly Elliot me and and so many ways our den we admire this generation of oddness the problems means won't do with divers the possible that all this only really it's difficult all those only build is rejected by tomorrow essentially have no plan is that whatsoever everybody can write be comprehensible music it can type in right do we have a co-payment anyone to writing in comprehensive opposed it's very difficult to tell proven topical pros from bad to top multiple pros I see them all the time in my grading a paper on both our bath towels of first generation of runners and open the floodgates and that for it starts to go bad and especially as modern art to define itself in bulleted carnes and insist on finds itself on what it does not do in opposition to some additional odd or commercial art I have a really hard time with abstract expressionism as a form of a place and I will ask people why I would like detained by Jackson power balloon between or rockmart roscoe and the fake one what forget it doesn't represent anything I'll again and again if the are the country is under this table evidence you can see that it would paint I was not a paid enough for that they yes and any other social like a foreign can sell the office work a representative thing at the same thing really know and i'll ask for modern music all right for example i actually what I was growing up there is a lot of this modernist ideology utilize silver breezer example oh and if employees or people or get payment you know I could so live members music go home and listen good spot but yeah i will just you know like okay i prefer first and fourth quarter and don't so much like a definite third although I builder but I like surprise or not I like a violent estero better this character para i am father according to the Opera moment and I really do know the guys music and I hope that I am polite in camps and listen but I please sit there and come along with roses and aren't over figure out our native Africa both the spooky background alone a fertile crescent I can I think on the scene from Moses and Aaron's are not equally great when I prosthodontics but I beyond sternberg I have no problems when we get to the even summer market feedback on bombay burn and down that our seats to follow what's going on again I don't people doubt boo and I have much profiles and I asked about heads done that is disgusting whatever any other go what's so good about this I would say to pull this out any building yeah why don't you do that it's something happen harmony yeah you know and the old tell me what a dozen tire but what it doesn't do and I'm supposed to write because it doesn't have ha me and all this that if the law has normal commercial art or me to get foggy pond and everyone has losers now again maybe I'm wrong on those tonight the people I respect to anyone like somebody's music I'll take off on fat believe you're after all that I start to learn things with minimalism son of philip glass i really like some of the contemporary composers like they're all from the Baltic auto plant from Estonia and data back from right here as i see i really love just occultist biological to talk about you tomorrow of the many respects models on summers and antibody but what area in what struck me about so much of his are is it only kinds of thing is with rebellion or not y'all can understand what fernbird is doing and can be the justification for the range of the parts from traditional phone battery still her i would love to stefan's on you know Fairfax or not they saw beautiful why would you live more that and why do you have to take me on to the second support kind of the various before fulfill you know I can see what's going on there and why are you do a second call to tell for doing both but beyond their it does give me a great deal of modern assaulting the difference and said to be different as we all find it a failure helpful to colors and unwillingness to confront the great mr. Paul card and genuine product competed with any just fighting the Alpha state as if somehow doing the outlet of the necessary room our own thing was possible and to run things that modernity developed with ideology of Angela Merkel ideology and sizes you know the artist from the market and agri government supporting our fan above all academic support they are such as a form of government support for the odds and here's where I'll say that I think a government supporting arts can be in fact when you now feel in the context of the bloggers are created whether artists are better off imported from commercial cutters or or subjected to commercial crackers in a wallaby behind on this board for the Arts specifically they are just needy to be fielded from commercial practice that's the rocket behind it specific it i'll keep like no commercial artist beautify for these grounds and you know the argument in favor of this into can't hurt and you get arguments about the economics of it but feel like saying is equal to good and for any coverage supported us in polycystic tested you can say this work was funded by the NEA and look how good it is and the thing the worst you could say it's okay a lot of bad are produced from this agency but I do some good and time copying evening like this way you describe the market that a lot of bad Copeland entering but there's something examples and so let's doesn't that and why would love this to court getting worse well my argument weird that growing support for the dog spends the signal to artists are says the Stig will that commercial out is bad and it a bubble stones a signal that thing's been audience is bad in a way sounds crazy but think about it how in growing that would do you know audiology about aesthetics now that's pleasing an audience is a bad thing I think it's a bad thing to come to the conclusion that please leave it always with a bad thing I think what's wrong with so much for Sigmund contemporary painting instamapper a new boy that it actively seek display the thorium and a ban to avoid having a clue who knows and the way we do that we get a coke in a university they appointed to a composing tradition and a recent deposit or painting pacific in a painting the problem now i know some people who are good composers were universities what's keeping those the people are good pleaded working here at the environments and so I'm sorting not contain sigasi is the new forum baths to going but I do think the gurus and effect of foundation support for the Arts a direct on a grant for audit and the whole apparatus the academic support for the Arts had cream in sterling in much modern and contemporary odd and will fool million dollars has been cut them off from any feedback are didn't go to any green gold are for the university hello there are all he polite carpets I think that's our area in the movie about Mozart worker that is quite non-committal artist there's nothing to do Ted for the market it was genuinely disciplining and energizing for and being forced to pull real people with the flat their own money the support what is really rather than having someone spend other people's money on you actually the pattern again and again and it's not what that are this problem just what I regard as bad art and ultimately closes what I regarded good art on a kingdom reckon the grant support our yes certainly there are good examples of our but I forgot a is quite amazing that all observers couldn't get a grant to finish roses an island he wrote to activity was understand in us by uncle when he moved the United States at its peak in order to make a living he spoke to the guggenheim foundation several other foundations that he threw down Arnold Schoenberg and you know I would work to know who booked at the grand thousand years instead of timber it just so I think the most in somehow is that the grant mechanism government funding foundation funding that will what somehow will bubble tea perfect brought they had standard markets arrival but some of these new ideas these other forms of funded thing we'll be right there record is no better than the market photographical is far worse and again it's not just but they support bad art but Simon can they appear for sale and support food art by I know I'm not supposed to know the difference and we'll have a spellbook embed our time or what I see it and I know what I hear it all and even the wrong phone records seem to forget the errors there's a store little throw into World War two the booties will determine not the committee error the name world war one offending their best and brightest the debt they you know it means but soon Rupert broke of all this great britain lost a whole generation of the august in world war one on base the poser I've got a bit about the time because state law but they claim they're forgetting to draw up a list of all the great young artists in Britain will not be sent into wall or two as the public to live and even recognize a single other than age in other words when the government had been charged with figuring out who the blade are for the dead center into the only miles well margin they had no idea this problem with the government committing and they were carving the office for the left and occasion goose the great also next generation on there my life that's all for their students would a lot of people who'd events would become as great on so I'm not at all convinced that that they will furnish to the market can make Dennis courses than the market does and in many ways of the whole apparatus of non-market funding for the Arts have actually spent in to this whole ideology that ought is good only difficult as you can see i teach time of this of the market for things by changes in our if you go through a commercial art galleries around the country talk about Santa Fe with that with our cars you are increasingly singing representational painting at was Sally and it looks a lot better to me than the aspect expressive painting beauty in your gallery around the country and in music where the supposedly the market excelled in supporting a specific purpose wonderful a vm promoted with music inaudible plan and it is not resist it's like postmodern easel visit piece of progress and are both the study of a wonderful paint on passion the remarkable music guys from Lithuania who they heard of it except the record lingual discovered in and is promoted in I think it's most beautiful music core visit witnessing firsthand afraid are also a Marcus Forston overcoming this saluti the runners at second phase of matter isn't all because it's going to artists they involved at the competition that ball fault at the market competition with their fellow artists they thought that any kind of competition with the great traditional office and wanted my tumbly blur effect nobody to dress barn anymore we just submit some kind of proposal I have movies of academics we movin as I've been on it easy see that our protectors can we glance to the students usually what are the students would run and fellow protesters also on it so it's part of a column is a noble center here's a gland for this person oh look you didn't want that time and its profound you know type of people on this may be the game of crowns or on the communities are warned to 50 more the soil parents wow so did I would usually do knickers especially about the first 50 years of the 20th century and the artists need am typing literature actually bars returns and more successful for me because there had still bit of publishing in the screen maybe her modern modern office he fits in my be successful author was a great visor and yet a best-seller very successful writer than without the owner make model writing screenplays and fontelle the positive I'm not saying that old monarch has been before are up on the market but I think you so far as it has been all right it's suffered for it that's all there are on Gallivan cases are where from indeed our has been produced I've had people say anything you know I i love the remaining two standard package it doesn't get any more pure difficult and unmarked and oriented to that I will confess to having a warm spot in my heart for tonight books as workbook oh I know seen understands about that I'm glad with peggy guggenheim supported him a certain poisonous life and meeting from market pressure freedom from having a baby affair with foods now Nathan's life at the door in front of a fire moves and so on and it looks great about it produced robic valves that it can support people on margin and support people anything but by and large this ideology that something is necessarily good things difficult enesco good isn't something I think actually a very dangerous fantasy employee sending our and very much in car colors by systems of support for the Arts and it's positively rule out eight as I said the my first lecture you can see obviously why he thought is crazy it will be good love it I think we all feel a bounded within local because why am I not a loser there that's why we have all these things stuff now marry me today all these those that try to offer for the average American is has to be moving air but also not for most of us and allowing the market for the pretty wealth is foreigner status and that will do even in culture because it don't leave room room for all these settle cases rather than this marketing special papers and so on at the same time I walking by and large I think works of art have more vitality if the artist is in a dialogue with an audience and for 12 year this time to read it the simply 20 separate are painting a new big loser instead of what will be very different a hundred years to now and many of the writers of analysis of the central will being forgotten and many writers and the solidus peripheral will be father the court unit is laughing okay as the pony century ended they had all these poles who's the great admirer of the 20th century oh we all know who won Toki when people only where were polled were called who's the greatest right of the title of the gradient full equality sentence it was the world already won hands down oh I mean best a moderate might be 50 lat oh that that pseudo new evil epic so far forty-two Mizugaki that to be what was held up and it is a great work in the 20th century and you can just see modern estate or week old it's all you see this this commercial right it that was so hoping that this regard by the barrel property today for I thought as you well know you hoping that is pulsed on the market always right unwanted to do is have a best battle and publicans were bluffing to get this in person I could be like 230 publishers and some before you've got a said normally the workbook for found within his fall I think it's a great work I mean it has its bearings I even somewhat hoping it other products a little tweaking time but for some benefits of a brilliant work on a vast scale in secret plugin the apology i christen think it's a very work I must only needed we look back to say after some of the models of now of what happened at the house as I was saying about the big d code earlier this is the more stinking I think it's a real tribute to popular belief that that's the book that more than any other the market hasn't been it is a surface of it it does be perfect buy something that would be popular that's certainly one of the students down seven to lead the biz hours pharmacol publishes over it people at 50 and in the past is very active just pull over tau R and yet it has a now saluted the movies at the merchandise the great nikka toward informants entrance I'll really rubbed it out and I think it's a game works not in certain ways that don't very often say i like better play clothes that I was hoping we have actively with your application set of birth news but that doesn't mean of coping doesn't hand hit versions and finally I would regard that as a great market to sort of a fourteenth-century one that in fact would only unpredictable and who is I hope people rusty imitated of voters worth noting that had impalpable and seconds there's something about it usually don't weigh very well written and he's written by trouble deep ineligible probably he's basing it on is able to work it up and it was quite remarkable and what I was finding fault is reversing post like academics were virtually the one to discover this work it's like the whole loaf of the world but understand how grim was ironically was written by an academic and as a deeply academic work and it is only one year in stock for the relevance of the effect of modernism an infant book that reflects academies of the 20th century and the first world war the Second World War and are a lot of interesting lasers be discussed of it in that sense it is no reason to the whole culture to make this thing and libertarians of the you consider it is about either the leading evil face and run through the tire and that sort of thing so states inside I it alleged an emblem for everything i'm tryna say Venus that didn't work that will avoid injury nor was broken to said holding improbable and those of any law of modernism except the argue that I think it is difficult it is my own way and you know I successful ordering my example that I actually have green destruct in markets than I do in academics best in some ways the market are the bench judge of it's very quality that perspectives are and I'm not know who looked after I'll conclude down and pay press against first yeah football I wasn't criticizing the relay for stories Jersey filing pro you know with the two of our good friends actually I was just pointing out that this modernist with an auntie market ideology actually pursued a well-known market strategy and that's fine but we will see he's Coulson same things those candies oh you got to go on the internet well everybody it's blurry and far more attentive oh no way all right I find all the time look I go on the internet to tower I get our speedy 14 hours or two holidays at work your problem you're in protective Canada go on the internet I mean honestly I mean I mattered a lot by feeding boys highs and lows for a dollar on board spin silver i don't i'll be waiting til mon frere cheaper okay where do I could have done this for 2 15 i sweating again and not the way I mean I still a couple down there I'm getting more futuristic but we're talking with 40 times more expensive than another ball yeah okay other you know I was requested who I think the anti-political type of model is incidental to it or necessary my incident no I was trying to make the radical ceaseless that modernism is not energy commercial because it heart is rebellious but rather than it was Belliard and fit that estar de Santa commercial now that's undoubtedly an over savings and as you know Mustafa reverse bones but it's worth the fitting that swine asking a loosely followers but people especially likely have argued is that in a weird way the anti commercial animist occurs and a generally for been dismissed that because they feel disappointed in the market and on sunset the state of the market they delivered will pass that are that they know was not going to succeed in the market and surrounded with an ideology that said that if it's auntie market and commercial it must be broad and that is an exaggeration and as I said I I was spent many ways the fair logic of modernism I mean burn burn wrote the way he did because he grew some conclusions from my body and formalities and the wrong record upon a living in but its first time and he was trying to figure out for rod it was their music to go from there and as a strong sense of panimalar in modernism and and what these article claims is we are following out the logic of this art in the market we will not take in our devoted thing what the music demands us to please the public falta stuff presentation of modernism and the last way it's been understood many years and I will blow up on an argument and in some ways so effective that was just so country to consider the alternative I that was good for and realized as he never was gonna be bochner variety my tinder leader add as many trombones and he could encounter polluted ever after bargain and so he came up with an explanation of the dark that would make a versatile additives incessant in it or make a virtue out of the wrong how are born I can suggest that in theory of preliminary ratios for example that it really boom talk about how one strategy of artist is wantons more that it is kate's with a tremendous amount of power and perseverance and for you Nate austerity of each review our fixes very little phrases that turn Berg right Alfonso boundary literally would both harmonically and terms of scale the girl media requires a large officer and even about here and hopper and there's a certain sense too much firmer and for the back so he says of our champion and harmony of a commonly out of my works entire and they still look sound sort of simple-minded by comparison so then I happen to take this other perspective on consuming yes ok our I think I find the working party in enjoy work back what's important sucker for Alan 45 minutes I'm doing cozy south ok I love a do as long the cloud conceivable our viewers will go to play and I love the Opera why didn't he white boy said I don't know who brought up my mother's violence external example and the lyrics please if I do romance music oh yeah but bad who's also as hard as the shot in the second day of school that they burn reading is the border server and carried out the lobby diseases they figured there was a lot of commercial effective 12 ounces because he made compromise in turn verse 12 sound system she wants always avoid harmony and all costs even if it formed approach that the 12-tone row will generate some hearty p but new riders were voided it all harmonic overs in the fair violence better for example that makes people he need to pop the wrong example and violent estero then we wouldn't allow that so it is funny that people will complain Oh Alvin bear that's the virtual to folk music on there and he's by far the most successful of the food of people we do my toes into the violence of aired over some yeah that's it more accessible by fam that in terms of my Spanish so no bear doesn't complicated case as I have to again I taken television but I do Facebook autism but I cannot find it really interesting that paint bit of a lot of the really hardcore the colossal pipes will say you know bird he stole them Oh Hollywood it well I mean I you know anything happy to get it nice ass off to be on there so I won't spend some little things alight on wall oh uh you know to me that part of the on the one hand is part of the cleanest of modern psychology that when I was supposed to believe that was feeding dog however it doesn't clear to me in any good news today he drew the fog holds it on wall and you feed it and it wasn't intentional and so some of the speed art is active a rebellion against why we're arms modernism and you know if it's just someone felony oh it's outsider art and it's rebellious and look they emptied a cursed word on the wall that's going on the mean that's the reduction at a certain of us moderate ideology but if you referring to the fact that many seeds today it can destroy stay represented by alternative off the painter I will tell the neighborhood from what the valentini magazine Oh what you now that you put it that way yeah I'll see what we talked about I got to notice that men sitting around the world while that there's a kind of grass root rebellion against the abstract art and while it is artists abilities and who people a little rug representational art that's what conservative they want to see something represented I get it again and English and stuff doesn't represent anything they find something but it does represent as hey I'm asking random post by the quality of summons are produced and around the world I'm just trying to think where I'm Will Smith in store a remarkable example of it and I kind of blacked out on Oh real I was Neil last fall this amazing euro are the girl from ipanema 40 years later a remarkably clever idea was soon as people either squares obviously they were sick to the merchandiser to the song and hope it represented as food grotesque either but very well drawn and I feel really good about that wow that's hard I've obviously had a medium as it's tough i was doing in a real musical what if it again one more question ok let's go like this we're all the time

3 Reasons to Study Latin (for Normal People, Not Language Geeks)



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Latin is a useless language – unless you’re learning it for the right reasons.

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and action latin it's the language of science medicine the legal profession reasons just feel kind of tired to me well the same reasons that everybody else uses yeah they are can i actually just take the camera with me look i could tell you that studying latin will set you up to learn the Romance languages or give you a base of knowledge for fine arts and literature I can tell you that you'll be able to read Latin on old buildings him state mottos or that reading Cicero and Virgil in the original is defiantly beautiful all those things are true but I'm not gonna tell them to you again you've already seen those in hundreds of YouTube videos and latin book introductions and homeschool magazine articles and chances are if you're not already a latin enthusiast you don't care the real reason to study laughter the reason number one is latin will make you better at language acquisition now why is language acquisition important well language acquisition is the skill of learning other skills let me repeat that language acquisition will give you the mental habits you can use to learn any other skill see different languages are different modes of thinking we've all heard of those words that can't be translated into English because the concept is too different from helping their speakers think words like Sombra mesa that's Spanish for the time after a meal when the food is gone but the conversation is still flowing or eat soir bak into it for the anxiety that comes with waiting for someone to show up checking the windows going outside checking your phone to see if they're here and Pisans opera Millay for the amount of time it takes to eat a banana thoughts themselves are formed differently in different languages then those words make you think differently about the things they described the act of learning a language or even a single foreign word is the act of learning to think in a new way now the same things going on when you learn real-world skills and not just skills that directly involve language like computer programming merriam-webster defines language as words their pronunciation and methods of combining them used and understood by a community well you're entering a community every time you learn a new profession learn a new hobby learn to understand the emotional needs of very young people learn to understand the emotional needs of big people who have a different personality type than you interact with historians or philosophers interact with the writers of cookbooks or gardening books or even writers of software each one of those skills requires you to pick up a new mode of thinking to think thoughts along new lines or in new colors and the skill of learning how to build new lines of thought is language acquisition but why Latin why not French or Spanish or JavaScript a lot of students say I don't want to study Latin because Latin is dead no I could be pedantic and say that Latin never died it evolved into modern languages or I could be insufferable and say but more to the point that would be like a medical student saying I don't want to study this cadaver this cadaver is dead or an auto mechanics student saying I don't want to study this internal combustion engine this internal combustion engine is turned off if you're studying language acquisition you want a stationary target and classical Latin hasn't moved in fifteen hundred years and you might be thinking learning new modes of thinking isn't that enticing can't you give me another reason well I could tell you that learning Latin will expand your English vocabulary and help you understand Shakespeare and influence culture and get paid more in the workplace I can tell you that the great minds of English literature have all studied Latin along with modern-day song writers authors CEOs star athletes and politicians but I won't certainly won't tell you that literacy in a foreign language is just a good thing in general again all those things may be true but if you don't speak Latin already then Flacco's known pockets what I will tell you is Latin will make you better at speaking English for a lot of students studying English grammar seems boring and pointless and that is not their fault see to speak English in everyday situations you don't use a conscious knowledge of English grammar even using concepts like tense and subject verb agreement since you were three your conscious mind is so far over them that in most of life you don't need to know their names to use them well so when you do study English grammar which is important for a creative writing essay writing professional writing it feels difficult and redundant because it's difficult to analyze something you can already use intuitively like teaching your kids to drive learning another language will give you perspective say from inside one language it's hard to conceive of words as carriers of meaning as 99 times out of 100 you're just using the word as the beep the word and the meeting becomes synonymous you're unavoidably blind to the limitations and the strengths of your native meaning carrying system your language until you test drive a new one but once you have access to more than one language you have the objectivity to think about how the words are doing their job could they be doing it better suddenly you're able to think about how thoughts are expressed in language in the abstract okay but why Latin what is it about Latin that teaches English grammar better than any other language well English is a hybrid language or a Germanic language with a hybrid vocabulary different people describe it different ways to oversimplify history a little the Celts got invaded by the Romans and the got kicked out by the Saxons and angles then the anglo-saxons got taken over by the French who were speaking their own evolved form of Latin and all the curfuffle English ends up with two halves Germanic words which basically express concrete everyday realities house man woman kind and swine and Latinate words multi syllables that express abstract realities masculinity femininity virtue Republic Liberty basically the Germanic half is the salt of the earth farmer and the Latin that half is his upscale wife who I guess he carried off as the Romans were retreating to go with the metaphor Kaiser sea fever at a dream de Reyes each half has completely different route words pronunciation rules and spelling rules no students learn the Germanic half of English when they study phonics but take a look at democracy Democratic and Democrat why do we emphasize different syllables in each of those words there's nothing in phonics that prepares you for that well that's because those words are Latin 8 and phonics only teaches you the Germanic half of English so what's the system for learning the Latin eight side of English studying Latin and that Latin eight side is so important if you know a Germanic word like father then you also know words like fatherly and fatherhood but if you know a Latin word like Potter then you also know patriarchy patriarchal patriarchy paternal patrimony Patriot expatriate CompactRIO to patronize and patronizing if you know the Germanic word death then you also know the words dead dead and deadly deathly but if you know the Latin word Morse than you know mortal and more more the moribund mortician more very postmortem rigor mortis mortify and mortgage you know because you'll be paying until you die now I won't bother to tell you that being a better English speaker is going to improve your SAT scores and your college papers it will but those aren't good enough reasons if those are your reasons for studying Latin forget about it the real reason to study laughs the only risk is it's going to make you smarter and wiser learning a language paying attention to the details looking for patterns memorizing vocabulary they're all wax on wax off disciplines that develop your brain learning any foreign language is like solving a puzzle but with Latin it's Sudoku you're making conjectures based on easily identifiable patterns in Latin it's not uncommon for one word to be untranslatable without reference to every other word in the sentence Latin trains you to conceptualize one thing in the context of many things and to see the connections between all of them that's a mental habit that's gonna have far-reaching applications as you study politics economics engineering music astronomy home repair crying kids or anything else in life not only that but by the time you're translating actual literature you're gonna be taking the literal translation V what does the text say and running that through the grammatical big picture and the cultural backdrop to arrive at the real translation what does the text mean studying Latin is going to grow you in big picture and small picture thinking and give you the next era T to move back and forth between both now as we saw in reason number two Latin is the most structured of languages Roman words follow rank-and-file like Roman soldiers and what people don't realize the Latin naysayers and the students when the studying gets difficult is that Latin or any subject is not just about information but also formation it forms your mind into an image of itself you've heard the maxim you are oh you eat well in the same way your mind becomes like what you spend your time thinking about and that formative aspect of any subject is as important or more important than the information it imparts the study of literature teaches compassion for the human condition the study of history teaches objectivity and perspectives and the study of Latin teaches logic order discipline structure precision suffice it to say Latin is an almost totally consistent system making it less like a language itself and more like an exercise for learning the skill of learning and all that adds up to this that knowing another language allows you to express thoughts in your own language you never could have come up with and Latin because it's structured and predictable because it's the other half of English and because it's not evolving any more works those benefits into your brain better than any other language except for greater Hebrew but you'd have to learn to know alphabet okay I think actually got them all and that's it hey everyone thanks so much for watching if you found this video either beneficial or good be sure to subscribe for more classical homeschool content and if you're considering homeschooling yourself check out our free summer conference for homeschooling parents or our community-based homeschooling program for families we are classical conversations god bless you and happy homeschooling dude what if everything is language and language is everything

'Steampunk & Victorian Era' Orchestral Music Compilation | 2-Hour Epic Mix



Views:1360965|Rating:4.93|View Time:2:2:1Minutes|Likes:31230|Dislikes:432
A compilation of the best orchestral music for the Steampunk and Victorian era Imagination!

*RE-UPLOADED

Tracklist:
0:00 Karl Jenkins – Palladio
3:47 James Newton Howard – The Submarine (Atlantis: The Lost Empire Soundtrack)
7:08 Driftmoon – Starfall
11:49 Richard Wagner – Ride of the Valkyries
16:34 Schubert – Symphony No. 8 (Unfinished): I. Allegro moderato
28:07 James Newton Howard – 12 Years Later (Treasure Planet Soundtrack)
30:52 Howard Shore – The Thief (Hugo Soundtrack)
35:00 Beethoven – Symphony No. 7: II. Allegretto
43:05 Tom Tykwer – Cloud Atlas Piano Suite (performed by Mark Fowler)
48:55 Verdi – Nabucco: Overture
56:48 James Newton Howard – To the Spaceport (Treasure Planet Soundtrack)
58:44 Karl Jenkins – Adiemus Variations IV
1:02:20 Hans Zimmer – Time (Inception Soundtrack)
1:06:57 Anton Bruckner – Symphony No. 4 (The Romantic): I
1:22:11 James Newton Howard – Atlantis Is Waiting (Atlantis: The Lost Empire Soundtrack)
1:24:53 Dvorak – Symphony No. 9 (New World): II. Largo
1:37:34 James Newton Howard – The Secret Swim (Atlantis: The Lost Empire Soundtrack)
1:40:20 Howard Shore – The Chase (Hugo Soundtrack)
1:43:10 Richard Wagner – Lohengrin: Prelude to Act 3
1:46:46 James Newton Howard – The Crystal Chamber (Atlantis: The Lost Empire Soundtrack)
1:50:31 Dvorak – Symphony No. 9 (New World): IV. Allegro

✖ Image:

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W. Brian Arthur's lectures – Day 1, 28 Mar '18



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Prof W. Brian Arthur
External professor at Santa Fe Institute, United States

my name is John Fassbender I'm the director of peril Emma's who organised these lectures to which I welcome you it's the first of four lectures by Brian Arthur and I in many ways I think they're historical because they talk about Brian will talk about the history of several important developments in the past the complexity science Santa Fe and and Silicon Valley and I forget one but the the talk about that but it's not only that he talks about that history he is one of the people the key people that made that history and he is also a superb storyteller which you'll find out in the course of the coming four days I know Brian since I think 2005 I'm not quite sure I'd never know precisely but it that was when we were setting up the Institute parademons in Europe and I got a telephone call from Brian Arthur about whom I had read in the book by by Mitchell Waldrop who said I'm Brian Arthur I'd like to be involved in this foundation of this institute perilous so a few days later he came to the founding session and prior to the founding session we had a dinner and I needed somebody to give a talk a dinner talk just to somehow give the idea what Santa Fe Institute was for the spirit of Santa Fe was and then John Holland who was also part of that meeting said you should ask Brian because he can go tell good story so ten minutes before dinner I asked Brian to to give a talk and he looked a little bit strange time to ask he said but then he said yes then he started to talk I asked him for to speak for ten minutes he spoke for 45 minutes it was a fantastic talk it set the spirit for the phone for the founding meeting the next day and it's I think it played a key role in in getting institute polymers going in Europe and subsequently para Lemus in NTU because there's a direct line between Institute polymers in Europe and part of him is here so it's a great pleasure that Bryan has agreed to give these four lectures but before I give the word to him I'd like to ask Steve Lansing to introduce him in a better way than I do hi well I I'm the director of the complexity Institute here and you're in for a treat I mean I'm about to embarrass Bryan at least say I think I will cuz I'm gonna actually tell this story I've it's been my great fortune to spend a lot of time in Institute's for Advanced Study all over the place right in Princeton and Stanford and Durham and Amsterdam etc etc so um so and Vienna so I've run into some interesting people in those places Brian as you're about to learn in these four lectures he's accomplished four bodies of work any one of which would be a major contribution to to thought in though you know in our in our era any one of them they are extraordinary and as as as John says he's also a great storyteller so this is gonna be fun and it's really I think it's wonderful that we will have this event because each of those is treated as a discrete subject he's famous for four different things and different communities of people know about them I don't think anybody but if the only actually tracing the ideas that go through those things is something that maybe we begin here as we look at the threads that connect these four bodies at work so you'll hear from him in a moment what those four topics are I think let me just tell you a little bit about his background so you get some notion of how it is possible for one man to do all these things so Brian here's here's Brian's pedigree he got his first degree a Bachelor of Science and Engineering at Queen's Belfast where he was at the top of the class he got a master's degree at the University of Michigan mathematics followed that up with another master's degree at Lancaster in the United Kingdom in operations research then he took another PhD a PhD at the University of California Berkeley in operations research and a PhD in economics but he couldn't have two PhDs from from Berkeley so that one turned into a postdoc he is the first winner of the Lagrangian computer science it's like the Turing prize but it's the first prize in computer science in 2008 so he's and he's taught economics now wait am i guess economics is the one subject he hasn't taught yet he's one of the most his perennially mentioned as a candidate for a nobel prize in economics what he actually taught at Stanford was demography so it's an entry you can see this is gonna be an interesting story he'll start today by talking about what the Harvard Business School here won one of the perhaps the most cited paper in the Harvard Business Review was an article that he wrote 24 years ago on increasing the turns and the new world of business and I won't say anything more I'll say one thing about it this is basically foundational for a Silicon Valley as you will soon hear he wrote it in with and and having written this paper as he was editing it can I tell that story he uh he asked a friend of his to help kind of look it over so that guy was Cormac McCarthy and you may know that name because he has a Pulitzer for his novels he also has an Academy Award for his films he's a very famous writer so Carmack had a look at this thing and between them Brian and Cormac polished it up and here it is it's the foundation for you know things like Google and UHN it's an extraordinarily influential paper so we're gonna start today the four topics we'll begin with let me get this right now increasing returns economics widely considered to be the most important economic theory in technology so lead off with that ok followed by the origins of the Santa Fe Institute where he was the director of the first research program at the Santa Fe Institute launched the Santa thing at the research program in the Santa Fe Institute so that's the beginnings of complexity science and well here's something about Santa Fe Institute 3rd lecture will be about non-equilibrium economics also known as complexity economics that's what he won the prize for that turns economics is a field that's based on equilibrium theory Brian has been developing a theory that is not based on stable equilibria you'll hear about that ok it's an extraordinary work and then finally amazingly technology is leading theorists probably the leading theorists on the evolution of technology on how technology evolves so those are the four topics we'll hear about them I think more or less in that order but we'll also be hearing about and thinking about the ways in which you know what connects and what could possibly connect all those ideas in a work of one guy so Brian so pleased to be here well I'm delighted to be here and I will try to live up to what yawns I hope what Steve said just sitting there drew minds me about my father who was a great raconteur and storyteller very very witty and I remember him being boxed into a corner somebody said that at a gathering bill that was my father Oh Bill's very funny says something funny bill I feel like this position of tell a good story Brian anyway I'm delighted to be here I'm delighted you're all here and I must say I'm deeply flattered that young sets us up and flattered to see so many people I I know and respect here fair number of faces I recognize I'd be giving four lectures the the first is and two of them sound quite arcane I hope they won't be because they actually matter in the economy I'm talking about increasing returns which is basically to do with positive feedbacks in the economy then talking about complexity and how I could caught up in it and we might we'll have a word from a couple of other leading theorists and complexity in this lecture tomorrow on Monday I will talk about a new very general way of looking at the economy that we got going in Santa Fe and then on the evolution of technology and this last one's project I've been working on with Stefan who's here in the audience Stefan Turner who's in charge of the complexity hub in Vienna so it's a it's a varied menu and I'm thrilled to be here as I said and mm-hmm let me just pitch in one of the things I want to do as I go is talk about not just what I did or what other people working with me did I want to talk about the atmosphere of these various different disciplines at the time a lot of this work ranges from the early 1970s on through to today and there these this work was done in an atmosphere its radically different from the sort of one that's beginning to take over these days I want to also hear their point out things that I wish I had known roughly when I was your age I knew nothing about science or nothing about how the whole thing works nothing about how wonderful it could be nothing about how catty it could be and nothing about all the obstacles you will run into an ax career I knew basically nothing I came from a family and a background where nobody had been at university and the only people you might know who had ever been at a university would be the family doctor and they weren't talking they were sort of poking at you so I didn't know anybody who'd been at a university that wasn't unusual where I grew up which was Northern Ireland Belfast there the number of people went to university or the proportion was 4% one out of 25 or so and I was very proud to go to University and it took me five months to discover I was an undergraduate we didn't use that expression we thought we were students I'm the student at the University but in there was some pronouncement or rather talking about being undergraduates and I thought oh my god is that right I'd heard the expression later a bit later I decided people teaching me we're doctors so on so doctors somebody doctors somebody else I thought that would be nice I looked up the rules it said you needed at least 20 years of experience you need to be extremely distinguished you needed to belong to the Royal Society you need to decide the other I was looking up Diaz C's which are a very high form of honorary doctorates I wasn't looking at pH DS I didn't even know what a PhD was so please take it that I was starting with a totally blank slate and in a state of ignorance and not unusual in Europe at that time also so I want to talk about the ups and downs for me the bottom line is that I have had a wonderful time fantastic time doing research and I feel extraordinarily lucky to have sort of parachuted into this lifetime and being able to do research it's I could get up in the morning go to some Jones College and Santa Fe and think about things and then write them down and your sleuthing all the time and you go oh my god you know that can that be true everybody you're probably all of you share some of that Steve was just saying that there's two species of hominin if I got that right that have been discovered by people at NTU in the last short while by sleuthing and you could hear the excitement in his voice so this is the atmosphere I come from on the other hand so that's the Good Fairy the day I was born the Good Fairy says oh you're going to have a job during research this would be wonderful and the bad fairy shows up the bad fairy says but you're going to have a career in academia and he won't believe the hassles you're going to get into and you won't believe the positive things in academia for me it's been what we call in the UK snakes and ladders you go up one ladder and then you're down near the bottom I can you go up another one Americans call that chutes and ladders they don't like snakes and that's been all been cleaned up so what I do want to expound on here and there is what I wish to God I had known when I was 24 years old or thirty years old I found out the hard way and it wasn't some of it was wonderful a lot of it was difficult as you'll hear also I began to think well these are different topics is there any theme to what I'm saying and it reminded me that about seven or eight years ago I had I was 60 and 60 plus anyway and I thought you know something I've been in engineering mathematics I've been in population studies or demography I economic theory I've been in technology I've been in complexity all those different subjects and I thought what's wrong with me am I just flitting around from one blossom to another surely that means I'm in dilettante and many of you might have had the same experience or might in the future and I encourage you to keep changing fields if you're in academia or in research as often as you feel like but I got quite a spawn and I thought well I've wasted a lot of my time just sort of as English you should say banging on about different topics without posing much every ten years or every seven or eight years I changed my field and then I began to realise there was a common theme this as much to my relief common theme was that I have always been looking at systems that were changing about evolutionary things that were unfolding in my fascination as time and things that unfold over time so if you're wondering what is he talking about this time and why is it so different from the previous one that's the common thread and I started to wonder for these talks could I say there's a common theme is there anything that really is their message that I've had and I really do believe there's a message the message is this we and I'm talking about the 20th century but carries over into this century we have tended to view the world as highly orderly highly machine like all you need to do is fiddle and twist the dials the an was trained this way to I'm sure I can see many of you were but there's something inside me screaming you know well the world isn't orderly it's not a machine it is really an organic thing that's changing and one layer falls on top of another and it's one thing after another surely we can do better than seeing that so this is the theme that's gonna run throughout these talks the world isn't perfectly orderly it's certainly not a machine it's not very predictable and history matters like crazy all that could ruled out in the 20th century in fact it was ruled out in the high enlightenment in the 1700s why because everybody was stunned and dazzled by Isaac Newton and rightly so the all these planetary orbits where you could predict things down to fractions of an inch Halley's Comet would return you could predict all sorts of things I'll tell you a personal story here very quickly and added a bit of insight and this is very personal to me I don't admit to this very much but for but thirty years I've studied Taoism or Tao and I was invited up about three years ago to Beijing by Taoist master and he held dinner and my honor and I was very flattered and he had got about sixteen Daoists around the table all Chinese not much English was spoken but there was a translator and so these were think Hogwarts if you want whatever you know a strange bunch of animals but they're all Daoists and all Chinese I shouldn't say that I should [Laughter] and would I give a short introduction so for about five minutes I trained as an engineer mathematician born in Ireland and then I thought I'd connect with the audience and I said you know I was born in Ireland but I think when I came into this lifetime I was heading for China but somehow the wrong button got pushed and I the re-entry wasn't very good and I landed at the opposite end of Eurasia which was Ireland and got born there by mistake and I everybody giggled and smiled and I thought that's it I connected and about half an hour later after a number of drinks he was just tug on my sleeve and it was the master she sure foo I don't know Sifu in Cantonese the master grabs my sleeve he says don't say you were born in Ireland by accident no accident I said what do you mean you know for me it was a bit of a joke I said what do you mean it's very very serious about it said you weren't born in the West by accident you came here to teach people Tao but Westerners can't understand Tao so what did you do you came into the West and you taught them Dow parading as science he says they get science they don't get Dow he's so I said but science isn't Dow he says yes it is he says complexity science is pure Dow so I was flattered I thought if that's what I'm here for to show the world is organic and changing and everything's swirling and one things leading to another which is very much the spirit of Taoism I thought I'm all for that I just didn't know who that was teaching that and as complexity and many of us are I won't M so there is a theme and that is that the world is basically organic and always changing and it's not necessarily an equilibrium it's certainly not optimal I want to start these talks quite arbitrarily I thought where could I start I could start last year but I want to start quite arbitrarily in 1969 where I was about 24 if you're trying to calculate all this and so start in 1969 and I'm in a helicopter and literally in a helicopter and it's just landing in in California and Berkeley that's how I arrived in Berkeley I'd been working for McKinsey and company as a management consultant in Dusseldorf in Germany I had plenty of money and when I got to San Francisco Liz to be a little helicopter service was terribly expensive cost $12 I forked out the $12 to get to Berkeley by helicopter landed very grandly what I didn't know and wasn't prepared for what awaited me in Berkeley give you some ideas here talk about mind-blowing experience my son is here so I can't say too much about all of this but it wouldn't surprise him he grew up in California and I had spent two years in the u.s. already at the University of Michigan I didn't know John Holland was there Kenneth Boulding was there and I think Steve Lansing may still have been there in 1967 and back to Ireland back to Belfast the British army moved in to occupy Northern Ireland in August 1969 we had choppers all over the place we had armored vehicles we had tanks down the streets we had tear gas we had the whole thing I don't want to say I blame them Ireland or Northern Ireland was an uproar I was so relieved when I got on the plane landed in San Francisco took the helicopter over to Berkley and what did I find in Berkeley armored vehicles tear gas choppers all over the place uniformed soldiers on the ground is the National Guard Ronald Reagan who eventually signed my PhD certificate was governor and he had sent the Blue Meanies at the Alameda County Sheriff's Department and the National Guard to quell all the uprising in Berkeley it was a different cause but the atmosphere was exactly the same just before I got to Berkeley one student had been shot in the people's parkinson and so this was for real I wound up in International House there are two things in Berkeley that sort of didn't quite jive and one of them was that along with all the occupation by the army and by the National Guard and whatnot was where hippies people with flowers and their hair people had come out to Haight Ashbury for the most part they weren't students but there is a whole hippie culture I'd be going down Bancroft Avenue and I remember a guys are staggering up to me and very long hair mustache is down to here which eventually I adopted as well foo Manchu mustache and it comes up to me so hey hey man can you tell me where the free clinic is and of course we all knew oh just go down there turn right and then three boxes or whatever it was when they when the authorities tried to break up the free clinic this we knew this was serious the other thing and this is really where I want to take off from was that there was an atmosphere in Berkeley like the rest of the United States where if you did science you saw the world is very mathematical literally mathematical the world was highly ordered the world everything was sort of structured I was in operations research Berkeley was a staggeringly brilliant place to be it had stellar people because it's been collecting them from the 1920s on the chancellor of Berkeley Robert Gordon's sprawl in the 1920s decide do you want to hire a couple of physicists Berkeley wasn't no so he calls up friends he said somebody at Yale or something he says who are the best young postdoc physicists in the country and the guy says but I can tell you two pretty good ones there's one called Ernest Lawrence and there's another one that Yale his friend called Robert Oppenheimer so Berkeley makes them an offer they can't refuse and they come out by car bumping along across the US and whenever it was nineteen twenty something and start a really good Department of Physics I mean really good to part in the physics that eventually leads to Los Alamos and the consequences there off Berkeley was amazing I do remember meeting the artsy name and of Neyman Pearson lemma firm I don't know if any of your statisticians it was by de t but they had a collection of people not to speak of Nobel Prizes that a collection of people where you're kind of interacting all the time not with the top people in California but with the top people in the world not all of them and the main thing I got out of Berkeley well among many other things by the way I said to people that I got a real education in Berkeley oh and the academic side was also pretty good the but what I really got out of Berkeley was this feeling I just met whoever it was you know with a Nobel Prize and I and the guy looked normal I mean this looked like a standard human being well I'm a standard human being you know maybe I can do something and previously in Belfast er Lancaster or Michigan I hadn't quite had that feeling so I was very very much taken with this idea but Berkeley was extremely mathematical and they believed very much in order in predictability of everything I was in operations research which is a mathematical subject of how to optimize systems well once you understood the equations that ran those systems you could tweak the equations maybe continuously over time and thereby optimize the whole thing that's not particularly easy I find it quite rigorous and quite difficult my fourth year there I showed up in my advisers office his name was Stewart Dreyfus and he was proud that by that stage he he was on Nixon's Richard Nixon's enemies list because he'd been at the RAND Corporation and he was brother of Hubert Dreyfus who had been arrested for growing pot and was the chairman of the philosophy department and so you get the atmosphere in Berkeley super academic but super sort of you know who you're sure I go into dreyfuses office he says you've been here four years he said we're cutting your funding off at the end of this academic year that's a nine months time I'll give you a mathematical problem he was a mathematician he says you can solve this problem you have HD okay I said you know so it's like a doctor writing prescription says here's the problem gives me the problem the problem was how to control things where the controls are very time delayed and how to do that rigorously and mathematically so officially that's called the optimal control problem with linear dynamics the equations were unfolding over time a quadratic criterion with Gaussian noise and time delays think of it this way you have a satellite out near Jupiter you want to control it over time make sure it's pointing in the right direction but it's about let's say it's eight minutes away or 20 minutes away whatever it would be in the solar system you do something like that it doesn't get your signal for 10 or 20 minutes and then it responds lose oops overdid it there it's like trying to adjust the shower tap when there's time delay in the pipes some people had solved this problem Russians mainly optimal control theory which this was a part was very much a Russian subject and been heavily influenced and introduced by Russian mathematician called you have pontryagin I was later to meet pontryagin who turned out to be a rather small man and who's blind he was a blind topologist and his mother led him around explaining who was there and what was but either in spite of being blind or because of being blind he had fantastic spatial insight and had pretty much pioneered optimal control theory in the Soviet Union it spilled over into the United States RAND Corporation all these people who did optimal everything and landed on my shoulders in 1992 I was given this problem a few people solved a few special cases but the overall problem as a mathematical one was open meaning nobody had solved it the other part by the way if the problem is that the signals you're getting us to where your system is maybe a satellite we're out a day to its signals oh I'm over here but that was 10 minutes ago so you're trying to figure out where it's going where it is everything's delayed how do you optimize that by the way the person who's behind that's called root of Kalman and I once met him too I went up to Kenneth Pharaoh's office in Stanford where I was working with much later 20 years later arrows there he's got a smile on his face O'Brian he says this is really Kalman I said oh wow one of my heroes Kalman the math Kalman Lee the engineer cover notes of me no I'm Kalman the mathematician so anyway this is what I was working on and I couldn't solve the problem I read this I read that the problem was given me in October by Christmas I'd lost about 20 pounds I'd love 10 kilos or so I was looking gaunt my mother came out she was worried about my health I turned serve greenish yellow color and this was in California I couldn't solve the problem but I stuck to it so Easter came I still hadn't solved the problem and I couldn't solve it and finally I got my courage up and went to my advisers office and I said I can't solve this problem you know would you kindly write something I'll turn the crank and he's this sure he says don't be upset by the way he had beads long hair no no no no don't be upset he said you can't solve it but don't forget nobody else has been able to solve it I sizer I took some heart but I was really really upset and ashamed and I give it up and I started I wrote a dissertation or at least wrote down solve some other problems where I knew what the method ought to be and this was pretty safe about three months later in June 1973 I was sitting in the main library in Berkeley and I was I don't know what was I reading something or writing down something but I'd long given up that problem and suddenly I got this flash like you've got mail I thought what I've you've got the answer to something and I said oh all right what does that mean well you have to take certain matrix and then you have to partition the matrix so it gives you little matrices on inside the big matrix and then you invert the partition matrix and that's it you have the solution what's the problem because you know you've got an answer here's the answer I said okay but what's the question oh and this is all sort of poem coming into my mind you know I'm just sitting there it wasn't voices nobody was saying you have it was really well oh you've got an answer oh all right answers a but partition matrices getting inverted but what's what's what's the problem problems the linear quadratic control theory control problem with time continuous time delays and I thought oh so took me another five to ten seconds to figure out put the whole thing together the problem the solution I remember walking out of the main library feeling very satisfied oh I could see how to do it now for two more months they did nothing on it I don't know why and I think this very typical research I didn't do anything I didn't try to verify it I just knew that this was correct and I happened to be visiting my girlfriend in Washington DC mother of someone here and I was visiting her in Washington DC and I got on a plane I was working in Honolulu this is the advantage of California you can so I was working in Honolulu I could on the plane I took out a yellow pad it was a 10-hour flight from DC to Honolulu and I started to write down the problem and when I got off the plane I had my dissertation written it took ten hours I'm not saying that's the way it works all the time but this was the first wake-up call I wasn't sure I could do research at all I hadn't done anything I had given up the problem but nevertheless something inside was working and I think that this is generally true for many people are probably for all of you that things rummage around inside you and then you know then when you have the key ideas oh oh oh this is simple and I'm always struck by the simplicity of ideas if if they're correct and how obvious they are I want to turn to economics and spend some time talking about this was also unburied in Berkeley from Germany and I had been working for McKinsey in Germany and seeing how the German economy was laid out we would take private planes go down the Rhine and my friend on the team and say you know shaolin's 51% of that the deutsche bank owns 46% of that and I was getting aerial view of the whole German economy I came to Berkeley wondering how economies work and I encountered my adviser his name was David gale people he was a mathematician gale looks at my letter ISA so you're getting interested in the economy Gale by the way was famous mathematician people talked about man years and gale minutes Gale had written a paper at Rand with Lloyd Shapley called the marriage problem it was an algorithm for matching it's used now in college entrances all over the Gaels Shapley algorithm Gale died before he could get a Nobel for that but Lloyd sharply his co-author picked up the Nobel for that one so I go into Gail's office quite austere looking mathematician he says you're interested in the economy what have been reading I said Samuelson great says says Gale sounds wonderful book Samuel Paul Samuelson they all fall terrible of economics had written this fabulous book on the economy very arcane very mathematical showing how the economy could be viewed in the 1940s this was his dissertation he got a Nobel for this – you're gonna hear a lot of these people who were awarded the week's Bank Memorial Prize and memory of Alfred Nobel Samuelsson had written as treaters showing how the economics could be not imperfectly mathematize but completely and utterly mathematize and so Galle says great Greece has Samuelson's foundations wonderful book and then I said nothing and then he stared at me and the penny dropped he says you do mean the foundations don't you no I said I mean the elementary textbook I'd been reading Samuelson It was as if I don't know I'd read the comic book version so I was off to a very bad start in economics economics at Berkeley when this is by way of background was very much an endeavor similarly to operations research if you knew the equations if you knew everything the whole economy could be made mathematical one of my professors gerard debreu yet another Nobel Prize winner believed as a mathematician and if you just knew the axioms of the economy you could deduce everything about an economy that turned out not to be true thank God and but to Bro was greatly honored for this in fact David Galen said if I didn't go to dubrow's lectures no no no so in Berkeley the economy was regarded as an equation system one of my professors comes in I was studying economic development Ireland was sort of a third world country at the time maybe a bit like Singapore in those days developing but not very well off so I studied economic development and economic development I'll give you a hint of this at Berkeley and one of my professors I won't mention his name another distinguished economist comes in and he says he writes on the blackboard and those as bigs capital's squiggle e he says let capital squiggly be the set of all economies then let capital squiggle D of capital squiggly been said of all developing economies and I'm sitting there I had been in places like Turkey I I come from Ireland I'm thinking what so I walked out of that class later I became a development economist I taught in Kuwait I taught in Syria I went Bangladesh and Nepal in India etc etc but I can assure you they don't work as mathematical entities very well so how do they work so Berkeley was very much into mathematize everything and making sure everything was optimal one of the key things I started to look at was the whole idea of diminishing returns and this was just stuff I was wondering at and the lecturers in Berkeley economics was presented to me as a set of theorems and even years afterwards I thought of economics as a bunch of theorems I think if you've been luckier maybe Stefan has you you could could have seen it more and more narrative terms than that but theorem etc and then there was usually no proof and then the next theorem and I believe this stuff you know anyway so the economy was regarded very very mathematically and there's a standard view of economics and let me just go through a very quick bit of economic history rarely or the history of thought in economics there's superb economist from Adam Smith and even before that on up until about 1870 and they regarded the economy narratively they regarded it as quite organic was populated by human beings if you read Adam Smith or if you read later Jay s mill or Marx who turned out to be a super economist you will see human beings human beings and machines and what they're doing and what their institutions are from about 1870 onwards mathematics enters economics in particular algebra and equations and what else enters economics is general equilibrium theory borrowed from physics in the 1880s and 1890s by Leo Walker whose French worked in Switzerland trained as an engineer and knew quite a bit of physics they mathematize parts of economics and the history of the whole 20th century is the history of those parts of the economy viewed mathematically Samuelson was a landmark in this with his foundations the book I hadn't read and kind of arrow and a few others arrow had been trained as a mathematician and Kenneth arrow came in and along with Deborah mathematize and perfected the mathematics of general equilibrium theory in the 1950s and I was entering this about 20 years later and that's where the field said it was a mathematical field to make the mathematics work you had to assume in the economy an awful lot of negative feedback think of where the economy can be is like conflicts Bowl and the state of the economy's ball bearing rolling around this cornflakes bowl what you're able to show on general equilibrium theory if you wheel up enough conditions is that with all this concavity of the cornflakes ball the ball will there's only one place the ball can finish up and that's at the bottom of the cornflakes bowl and and that's optimal and it's unique if you wheel up enough axioms and conditions and then what if the conflicts poles traveling in a car the ball bearing gets bumped around but in a sort of homeostasis where the ball bearings always returning to this bottom the cornflakes bowl I don't exaggerate I don't and I don't want to make fun of this general equilibrium theory is elegant it's beautiful whether that's reality I would say well stay tuned if that's reality but I at the time I was a bit bothered that this was a bit too nice in particular that showed the economy as long as there is enough diminishing returns or negative feedback to be predictable you know it's going to end up at the bottom of the conflicts ball history didn't matter ends up the bottom of the conflicts bow no matter where ball bearing had been before it was efficient or optimal or Pareto optimal or whatever you want that's the bottom of the conflicts Bowl and and all of this was super orderly but in the 1800's economists had started to worry what if they were increasing returns and these were just little worries it was kind of like a sunny day and the cloud of pr2 appears on the horizon it's okay but tiny little clouds so here's one economists started to think about develop economic development and what about Italy well it's really developed economically and if you went back to 1400 or so you'd say well places like Naples and south of Italy places south of Florence even Rome very important and some places like Venice or Milan are also important but you couldn't quite say what would happen by the 19th century northern Italy was heavily industrialised south of Italy was not and people were starting to think well what wasn't about northern Italy turned out nothing was that special they started to argue the rail mechanism people began to realize was that if you start a cluster of industries and Turin it attracts more industry then it attracts skilled workers from the other part of Italy that gets bled free of capital and that's bled free of skills and suddenly you get one part of the country highly developed and another not you can see this all over Europe by the way but if history had been different maybe the south of Italy area around Naples could have been staggeringly well-off and northern workers go down to the south by the way it said that people who have come from countries victorious in war think of England or think of America up until the Vietnam War tend to favor that the inevitability and optimality of history that's where it had to be why because Britain is superior why cos were English well as people who come from nations that were defeated in war Ireland etc they well diamond could have been different if history had gone the other way Scotland's another one so economists by the 1800s in early nineteen hundred's were starting to wonder what about increasing returns they realized there could be multiple solutions to the economy economies economists call that equilibrium multiple equilibrium so here's Alfred Marshall the great English economist genuinely superb economist in 1891 Cambridge and he's musing all of this is enough appendix H to his principles of economics he says ok start n firms off all the same they're all identical and they all have diminishing costs meaning the more they produce the cheaper it gets that's increasing returns if you the more you produce the more advantage you have because producing was getting cheaper and cheaper and cheaper appendix H it's not in the main text this is what will happen he says the market will likely go to which F this is literally the quote to whichever firm first gets off to a good start so your cornflakes bowl now is upside down and think of it as a bowling alley you can pull the ball down the middle it's an infinitely long bowling alley but the balls gonna fall off sooner or later bumping along maybe ghusl wind will fall into this side gutter or that one you don't know which so Marshall says which ever firm first gets off to a good start and then he realizes but that could be any one of them in principle maybe everything wasn't perfectly balanced but still was sufficient luck the firm that first gets off to a good start takes the market this is well before Google by the way our Facebook and then he gives up and then fast forward to my hero you also have shrimp at our the patron saint I hope of the complexity hub in Vienna I don't know if he was an early member but anyway Schumpeter who's writing a history of economic thought doesn't like multiple equilibria you know well the outcome could be this however it could be that or it could be this and he remarks that multiple equilibria or may exist he says but we can't really allow them because they would produce in his words a chaos that is not under analytical control economists didn't know what to do if you allow positive feedbacks could go this way small deviations go amplified this locks and could go that way what are you going to do could so there might be multiple so in fact it's very easy here's a question if a standard like typewriter keyboard the arrangement of letters on the keyboard were sufficiently prevalent that's you'd have to learn that standard well hang on have you learned that standard the the typewriters of everybody knows the standards prevalent typewriter is going to be produced in that's standard typewriter teachers will know that standard well how many such keyboards would there be if you count the number of letters on a keyboard I think I've done this it could be anyway I remember counting up all the roses about fifty four well so in principle we could have fifty four factorial keyboards just Auraria rearranging that's a lot of equity Bria and I have I have a lot of funds well there could be this outcome but you could have that outcome but luckily there's never many are you joking you know think of all the ways that English could have all the different words all the different borrowings etc so I was getting interested in this but again like this earlier problem I was telling you in control theory my thesis I couldn't solve it I don't know what to do economists were beginning to recognize that realistically there wasn't just one solution or one equilibrium like economists think of all these forces as being balanced so nobody's any incentive to deviate that's an equilibrium economists were saying all these forces could balance here or they could equally balance there and this was becoming embarrassing well I didn't know what to do about it and I began to notice as I was reading economic development studying that this was recurring and I asked my professor Israel what if they're not diminishing or turns on on the March all of their increasing well then yes let's go on to the next theorem and as will assume diminishing returns so it's like as there can only be one outcome for a ball and a cornflakes bowl if you assume the cornflakes Bell is shaped like a cornflakes poor whatever it isn't ball could end up many different places I don't know what to do about this and then I started to read a lot of biology in 1979 I was working in think-tank in Vienna called Yassa the International Institute for applied systems analysis and I managed to get myself seconded to the east-west Center in Honolulu I back to Hawaii and I picked up a book in California along the way by Horace Freeland Judson was called the eighth day of creation big thick book it's the history of molecular biology and particularly it talks about Jacques Monod and mano and his friend Jacob false while Jacob and Jack Ma the people who figured out gene expression and the whole timing of that more mano had written a monograph called in English chance and necessity pointing out that some small things pushed you this way or that way and then they would log in I'm going Oh God theoretical biologists know all about this amazing Wow but they weren't telling me or anyone else how to solve this problem of multiple equilibria then I started to read some nonlinear theoretical physics probably nothing with that word challenge some of you it is by Herman Hakan when I was at Yassa and he was talking about the physics of lasers you get something called mode locking and lasers it could lock into this mode or that mode or another mode I can see you know plenty about this and what difference does that make well they had the mathematics of dealing with this and then somebody told me about a professor in Brussels called Ilya Prigogine and gave me one of his papers to read Prigogine was not held in high regard these days but provision had the right ideas I read this in June 1969 I read this essay about prigogine where he says Oh systems can lock into this pattern or that pattern another I began to realize that you could start an island this is one of my thought experiment examples I'd been in Kauai and in Hawaii one of the islands when the first traffic light was installed and so that led to this following thought experiment what if there were no cars in that island and Milton Friedman is in charge of the island that may not mean much to you a great libertarian economist Milton Friedman's the governor of the island and he says you are free to choose as a driver which side you'll drive on and there's no bias as all the steering wheels are in the middle so you come back six months later what you see you see tons of wreckage but you also see in that island all the cars have lined up on the left and reproduce something in a different Island Milton Friedman's wife is running she was also similar and cars have all lined up on the right nobody forced this it's just that if you're if more people are driving on the left by chance early on then you're gonna have to go along with that if more people drive on the right you're gonna get killed if you keep driving on the left so people are free to choose but they start to line up so I read prigogine I read Jack mono and I had this thought experiment and I suddenly realized I had a way to deal with increasing returns problems or positive feedbacks my idea was to slow the whole thing down and look at it step by step and rather than think we can get this equilibrium we can get that equilibrium and it's indeterminate which side of the road emerges why not look at the whole thing step by step as a random process that's normally near so I did that so I thought well if it's a random process a nonlinear I can apply stochastic process theory if you're not familiar with that just think of that as the equivalent in dynamics of probability theory so what I decided to do is I would model all the small events in one of these problems one person starts a typewriter another one somewhere else starts a different keyboard typewriter another one starts something else and then people start event by event to adopt those typewriters and under small random events if you allow some probability different types of people showing up somebody talking to someone on an aircraft someone having different tastes maybe the government putting its hand on the scales you might get different small events and all I had to do and this was all I had to do first to learn enough nonlinear probability theory and not in other words nonlinear stochastic process theory I could nail this whole thing I couldn't see how to do that I didn't know enough probability theory I shared an office with what we then called a Soviet colleague Yuri or Molly F they're a wonderful man and I asked emolia if I said what do you know about nonlinear stochastic processes I said I've got this problem could we put it in that form Brian not possible so nothing happens I started to study like crazy non-linear if you want to crack anything first comes the idea then comes the technique in fact it was there Molly have taught me that Brian great composer first comes theme of symphony after orchestration so you have to write for 35 different instruments etc etc but the theme according to is the error Mallya theory of science first comes the the theme my theme was Oh small events stochastic process nonlinear but how do I get that to work ask our Molly of their most not possible I think a year went by or maybe several months sitting at my desk thermo lives at the other desk I can still see this in the Schloss at yasser Ryan you still interested in problem with multiple equilibria I said yes I am Yuri Ryan maybe we can solve this because board writes down theory he was from the score a hard school of probability theory I even met the great scorer hard Monday in Ukraine they knew how to do probability theory so her MOLLE of pointed out the key mechanisms even the key textbook luckily it was Russian but it was translated into English I learned the whole thing and we cracked it before that I had written a paper at Yassa with the title of competing technologies so these would be several different technologies like typewriter keyboards competing technologies increasing returns and lock-in by small historical events and I hadn't used any fancy probability theory just random walk theory which is probabilistic and that was 1983 I brought the paper ID as a Yassa working paper and I sent it to the American Economic Review I wrote this paper and I sort of beheld it afterwards I don't know where the paper had come from but I wrote the thing it was single authored I thought this is neat it was showing that under diminishing returns everything would be balanced and there'd be a single equilibria under increasing returns which I could twiddle with the parameter you'd bounce around in the middle but if you went off like in the bowling alley if you went off to the side game over one technology would lock in but you didn't know in advance which one it would be so I'm very proud of the paper I sent to the American Economic Review and I thought this is a slam dunk I've solved a big problem in economics the increasing returns problem came back terribly sorry we can't find any technical faults in your reasoning however this is not economics I I sent it to the quarterly review court q je quarterly Journal of economics Harvard terribly sorry it looks to be rigorously done and proper and but we don't recognize this as an economic problem or indeed as economic theory I sent it to the economic journal similar review I sent it back to the aar because the editor had changed and I thought he didn't like it I'll send to the new editor comes back six years went by still no publication I wrote the paper in 1983 and finally by that time the paper was getting zombies that circulation if you know what that expression is it's it just means the paper had gone underground all the key theorists knew about it many of them including Quintero liked it and the paper was sort of getting this damn it type of reception dammit why isn't this in a journal dammit why do we have to keep citing a working paper so I sent it back to the economic journal in England with a couple of dammit letters no dammit why isn't this thing published so by popular acclaim they published it in 1989 only six years after it had been written well it's okay I'm they I want to go we did start a bit later so so the paper finally got published but along the way I give a talk on the paper at Harvard and somebody there I won't say who jumped up and said this what you're saying is it's a failed experiment but it can't really exist I said why not well with perfect insurance more that's what perfect this market was perfect that market you've got a single equilibrium that would be perfectly efficient well I thought well you know if there were perfect ferries around and if pigs were truly able to fly maybe the world would be wonderful six months later I gave exactly the same talk in Moscow at semi the central economic mathematical Institute in Moscow and I said therefore you can lock in to one of many solutions with small events determining which you log into and they need the where you wind up may not be the best possible outcome we all speak English by increasing returns my ancestors didn't I bet your ancestors didn't either but we all speak English of small events in history actually in Europe had been slightly different if you want to make bets and the 1500s you might have said we'll all end up speaking Latin as a common language 1700 spools end up speaking French eighteen hundreds a lot of the center of Europe spoke German all right we'll speak German and then finally this language from some tiny insignificant island which I can say being Irish tiny insignificant Island takes over all the entire world and story's not over yet it might be Mandarin in 104 indeed in 50 years time but so small events can bring you into something like that but who's to saying this is optimal or any other outcomes optimal well anyway the my paper kept getting turned down not because people were mean although I'm willing to that could be a hypothesis but I think it kept getting turned down because Western journals particular American ones I was basically saying if you leave a free capitalist market to itself you might not end up in the best possible way took the same story to Russia and hand shoots up in the audience at the end bloody mere me calif who had a order of lenin pain very very nice one professor this cannot happen in soviet union only in capitalist countries so I said well right why not because we have superior socialist planning and we always end up with correct solution I rushed back to Stanford put a PhD student under the problem right away he wiped a lot it's not true even with a lot of look ahead there's no way you can say with any technology or anything we're gonna get it right because you don't know how that technology will improve over time or whether it's got a lot of possibility anyway so super obstacles old way and then a colleague of mine before I could get my paper into the economic journal Paul David who was chair of the Economics Department produced his own version of the same story he'd been thinking along those lines himself but suddenly that created a sensation he wrote it in English prose and arguing history was important it was a rather lovely paper he wrote but that took the wind totally out of my sails and I think it led to a whole idea that by Tom my paper came out I had taken somebody else's paul davids ideas and mathematize them so this was not an easy time I did have backers though Kenneth arrow was solidly behind me martin shubik these are superb economists and quite a few others were saying this stuff needs to be published it should be published and it's important I want to just say where the tide turned it'll take me another five minutes or so yeah I got the paper published in 1989 in the economics journal if I look at citations for that paper five in the first year maybe thirteen three years later so the paper went unnoticed but it's picking up in citations it's just gone over 10,000 citations and it's getting about two citations per day I say that with great Glee ha ha ha but in the strength of that paper I was asked or got to publish a version in Scientific American and on the strength of that the idea which still wasn't accepted in 1990 and economics fully Wow God accepted in the Silicon Valley and I was asked to give a talk at Sun Microsystems on positive feedbacks increasing returns what we now called network effects and so I went down to Sun I thought there'd be 30 engineers there with pocket protectors and you know rather uptight guys a couple of decades earlier they might have its slide rules maybe 30 people maybe 40 when I could down there there was something like 800 and they'd read the Scientific American article and among them was a guy called Eric Schmidt who wound up running Google and several other luminaries bill joy his role in the audience I charge a very small amount of money for this and later Eric Schmidt took me out to lunch I said I said what do you want to talk to me about Eric he was before Google des oh well I just wanted to let you know we launched Java based on your ideas and we're what we want to know what we can do for you in return I should have said options and stupidly I didn't I said look Sun Microsystems has SPARC machines give me the high highest computer high-end so they did I got a spark too I don't know if this means anything to didn't mean anything to me I couldn't program the damn fear and eventually I just gave it to the Santa Fe Institute as tax deduction and and there were nerds SFI who could program this thing I couldn't and similarly I was anyway there were a lot of Andy Grove wanted to meet me Intel wanted me to give 10 lectures to their top people etc I suddenly became a hero in Silicon Valley because what I was basically saying under increasing returns if you can maneuver our engineer an advantage early on you will build up a user base if you've built up a user base you can lock in the whole market and so the result is Google or Facebook Google's competing as a search engine early on with Alta Vista and with Netscape there's another one as well there's yes and Facebook's competing with MySpace etc you know you can see how nerdy I am I don't really even remember these but if you can get enough advantage early on you got a user base so we've got a user base if enough people are using Facebook I remember asking my son quite a long time ago 15 years ago or something I said myspace is gonna take over and he said no no I said well what do you think he says no no it's gonna be Facebook I said why he said because that's what all my friends are using so these are unstable markets the more people use Facebook the more you won't need to use Facebook similarly with filler the larger companies there's increasing returns I had been told time after time in these reviewers and by colleagues at Stanford this increasing returns work is interesting but it's kind of like black holes in 1930s we don't think it really exists well as typewriter keyboards or languages okay but these are all trivial examples they don't matter these are curiosa they're trivialities I was walking down the street I remember from a car park to teach the very first summer school at in Santa Fe Institute in 1988 and it occurred to me that as I walking down oh I thought oh my god all of high tech all we don't use the word high these days all of tech our high tech this 1988 runs according to increasing returns oh my god I wrote that in a Harvard Business Review article the one that Steve mentioned 1996 the one that was edited by and rewritten by Cormac McCarthy so I tell I'm sure you know Cormac honor yeah he was my office mate and we spent four days rewriting that article what Steve didn't tell you was I was boasting about this at the Santa fans Joe that this famous author had rewritten my piece or shown me how to rewrite it and the word go through to the Harvard Business Review people my editor calls me she says I I heard your pieces got edited and rewritten I said yep by Cormac McCarthy I said yeah what did he do to it I said well now starts with two young guys in Texas on horses who discover increasing returns so anyway let me finish up here and the idea not only became popular in Silicon Valley but there was a tech frenzy in 1999 everybody in their uncle was doing startups and they were doing these they were and they were arguing in front of venture capitalists well we know that if get enough user base you're gonna come out on top and dominate the whole market we don't look very impressive but we're gonna go after user base so just give us 50 million dollars and we grab all the user base we can and we will dominate the market we're gonna be the next Microsoft or you wouldn't have sent Facebook quite then we'll be the next whatever like Google the problem is they might have 19 other rivals who'll be saying the same thing and 19 people or 19 firms are gonna lose one is gonna come out on top how's MySpace doing have you been on that recently what about Alta Vista have you looked at that recently yet cetera but that was all forgotten there was a frenzy and in the press I started get blamed that I had fanned the flames with all these increasing returns hopes I wrote a little piece saying if you're an increasing returns market the chance is already going to lose but you might not lose and so I started to talk about what I called the halls of production diminishing returns economy and the casino of Technology I imagined an each technology game that was starting up like search engines would be a table you go up to the croupier at the table and you sit at the table is that I'm going to play this game of search engines whatever the year was 1995 or something on the croupier has always frenched the capiases oh you're very welcome to join us and you say okay does cost anything to ante up the croupiers as obvious you can ante up that will be four billion dollars please so you ante up and say what are the rules of this game we do not know we do not know what the game will be okay okay well I'm still in I think I'm pretty smart what is who's going to show up and play and the creepiest is we do not know and do you think would be government regulations the crew be is's sir do you still want to play this game but that's as I call that the casino of technology and my god that was Silicon Valley right there and so everybody now talks about network effects and lock-in I went to a McKinsey I don't know teaching session actually an Amsterdam and the teaching session guy was teaching Network effects and lock-in I walked into the back of the audience systems but when I first knew young and I walked in the back of the audience and this guy was really good he explained it better than I could and but my name was never mentioned at the very end I thought I'm going to take advantage of this I walked up and I said thanks very much I said your colleagues said I could sit at the back he says oh not at all who are you I said I'm Brian Arthur he turned white so the last thing I want to say is that yeah things have come out this is now in textbooks is now taken for granted but the moral I want to draw from this particular session just to finish it is to say that what sort of economy are we looking at here if you believe there's lots of positive feedbacks as well as negative feedbacks it's an economy that's not necessarily optimal we we could have locked into inferior technologies and indeed we did it's an economy where small historical events no Queen Anne in England liked T before that people in England drank coffee this might have been around 1805 you know and thou great Anna whom 3bet realms were bad off sometimes Council take and sometimes tey she drank Chinese tea England locks into tea somebody more fashionable by the 1960's drinks coffee now we all drink coffee mr. starbuck or whoever it was that in the vent at that anyway we're in an economy that I would say is like anybody's life you do something you lock in their historical circumstances you take a job in Singapore you might take up and marry somebody whatever it is your life is historically dependent if you're you might say it's known our ghatak a few like that expression there's no single path non-air god or air goddess and but you're locked in too many pathways and they're always branching and one thing leads to another so this is already quite far away from the berkeley scenario I was describing you earlier where there's one big cornflakes bowl and the economy is always uniquely in one place and there it doesn't matter how you got there history doesn't count and that's perfectly efficient we are not in an efficient system there's no way that my life is sufficient it's one circumstance after another I met somebody a professor of minors I said this was in 1969 I said I've I've applied for twelve jobs for the summer can't get it can't get it accepted in any of them was during the Vietnam War I said I don't have clearance to work at Rand I'm not an American etc he said well let me call Dave Hertz in McKinsey and company do you speak any languages I said I can speak some German and and some French that was good enough McKenzie interviewed me in New York in German for six hours and my life was different after that that's probably a good place to quit thanks for your patience young and thank you thank you Brian the we started a little late so we finished a little late and we finished a little later again but that's okay we still have about 20 minutes or 25 minutes for questions and discussions with Brian who would raise his fingers for us just go ahead thank you very much for the for the talk yeah I especially enjoyed going through a history lesson of all the things that happened before me and in the context to how the ideas emerge I'm just thinking that governments around the world trying to create Silicon Valley's of their own in their own country given the path dependent yeah argument that you made are they bound to fail given that the fields already structured sure yeah if I had one if I relied on answering three letters I would say yes I'll give you a lengthier answer and if governments are trying to set up their own Silicon Valley homegrown is that bound to fail the answer is a little bit more complicated I was writing you'll hear in the fourth talk I'm giving about technology but I made a very detailed study of Silicon Valley in fact I've been in Stanford since 1982 so I've seen close to 40 years worth of Silicon Valley Silicon Valley didn't start in the 1950s or 40s as I was told hewlett-packard it started in 1907 with a firm called Pacific Telegraph and that firm started promising to do wireless Telegraph for u.s. naval ships offshore and the first venture capitalist in that firm was Stanford University Stanford gave quite a bit of money Fred Terman was connected with them in due course Shockley who invented this semi conductor at Bell Labs had been a summer intern there etc the guy who invented triode vacuum tubes lee deforest came out to help and eventually a continuous wave amplifier did come out I'm not sure it was from this particular firm the point is that it took about 50 or 60 years of organic growth to get Silicon Valley why is Silicon Valley where it is in fact I used to get caught up in this question emotionally why isn't it Stanford why isn't it it Berkeley I mean Berkeley was a top dog long before Stanford the answer is that it could have been almost anywhere it could have been possibly in Oregon but what fed Silicon Valley Stanford University was open to their guys to their alums setting up firms Fred Terman was the Provost of Stanford he gave lab space to his pupils who names like Hewlett and Packard grad students these were the Sergey Brin's of the day they set up companies hewlett-packard and other companies and the whole thing and this is what I want to stress Silicon Valley grew organically so if you think in terms of you can read journal articles you can read engineering magazines and you can set up a Silicon Valley I went to Finland to see if that was possible I've sent there by the world bank not easy what is organic about it so think it's more like getting a rock garden to work or a little like ecology and IKEA logical park and part of Africa you can water it if it's a rock garden or you can weed out things you can see what's taking but the the thing about Silicon Valley's it's about people the expertise resides in their head if you could get all those people and transport them wherever maybe to Singapore in the 1950s and precisely those people and people similarly trend you might be able to plant as Silicon Valley here I don't know but I think it's all about people and in the end high tech is not science high tech is what I call deep craft it's knowing what to do it's knowing what not to do for the last 20 years I've been with Xerox PARC that's where I work in the system sciences lab there if you don't know something you could down the corridors I need to do some edging 3 microns because I'm laying down a circle circuit and do you know anyone who does oh you have Fred down the corridor knows about that you go to Fred and say here's what I'm planning to do and Fred says I don't ever work why we tried that 10 years ago let me tell you what dolls work so this is the whole craft thing and that's very much Silicon Valley very hard to plant that and Silicon Valley's full of spin-offs I don't know if it's like a mangrove swamp or something like that but Shockley's basic transistor team didn't get along with Shockley so they walked out very famously and they started Fairchild Semiconductor and people left that and started Intel and people left that so these are all little pods growing the whole things organic and the main message I want to give you in this talk and the third one is that the economy isn't a machine you can't easily start it up it's organic you can transplant stuff you et cetera I don't know the nearest thing I've seen to Silicon Valley's in China Gendron it's a fantastic place I don't quite know if they've got it but there's the energies there and it may take off and there are other hopes Singapore is by no means elementary and the Singapore's got really to top universities I've forgotten the name of the other one but it's pretty good and it has top engineering and that's really how you grow these things you get people who knows stuff but the stuff may not even be in textbooks you know ask yourself if you if you want to understand how you get a Silicon Valley where did rock and roll come from where where did jobs come from where did certain type of poetry come from it's the same process very hard to do top-down in fact I if Steve doesn't mind if I tell a story I'm sitting in the president's office and NTU about six years ago and someone says in fact it was su Guan Ying the president of and he only says all right we're gonna start this complexity Institute where do the ISIS but where are we going to get the ideas and the projects from so I sort of hand wavey oh I said all that will come bottom-up you know from people like you postdocs predock's smart people even maybe professors so all of this is going to come bottom-up dead silence in the room and because bottom-up and I hope you don't take it as critical but it's not exactly a Confucian concept Lee delicately say so there's silence and then finally grinding breaks through the silent sisters yes he said bottom-up we can arrange that another okay next question or comment thank you I actually wanted to come back to a question you actually asked herself at the very beginning of the talk I think you said and I paraphrase what I wish I knew when I was 24 thirty years old I don't think if I'm not if I'm right I don't think you addressed that touch back on that okay hmm I planted this guy in the audience I was watching last night Lord of the Rings where Frodo starts off and says I'm going to take the ring into Mordor that's what I learned I learned that you can you think that all of this is gonna be easy it's gonna be simple but you know there's big spiders and stuff along the way I I thought that if you one key thing I've learned and I'm sure if you're a bit older you know this automatically in science I didn't I thought if you had a very good idea bells would ring and you'd be carried in in people's shoulders and so on no the main thing I learned is that there's pacing to science and at first if an idea is sufficiently different it's regarded as you know it's okay but you know this isn't fill in the blank this isn't obstetrics this is not what linguistics and I've seen so many examples of that I remember Greenstein at Stanford and formulated a very different way of doing linguistics the ancestry of languages and I hope I got his name right and for decades he was an outcast it turns out that he was very much on target so unfamiliarity and lack of say you know the question I thought I'd solved and I think I did solve was how do you deal with increasing returns problems well you may you make them into stochastic processes you said small events are gonna sway the outcome then you can well define them but when I said that journals nobody heard of the increasing returns problem so I'd solved a problem that nobody had written down and I'm not saying and I'll give you other examples as we go along I wish I had known that now I do and if you're wondering where you can really learn about doing science and about careers I would say read and read and read biographies it was after all of this I had hair that was color of yours for this story I went gray trying to get this thing published I think that I just wish I had studied more biographies early on and the enemy is not people's stupidity it's not at all it's it's a it's unfamiliarity saying well this isn't really a problem I mean what you're trying to do here and occasionally people would say I get what you're trying to do but I don't like that direction you're trying to take economics in Stefan Stefan and you I am NOT a scientist or an economist so this might be a naive question but I was wondering if things are not or systems are not as predictable as we think they are and I can see like this I think it's very beautiful to see the world in an organic way and thing small things affecting each other contingently but predicting or being able to predict things in a deterministic Newtonian world have been able to allow us to base or to create models through which we can understand the world so if we look at the world in a in this kind of organic way then how do we then create models off of that so how how is that possible yeah these are all excellent questions my answer to that would be the world isn't organic doesn't mean it's chaotic it doesn't mean you can't predict anything the world is and I find this comforting world is partially predictable we can predict the orbits of planets very well if you're very good at psychology you may be able to predict other people how they're going to react we can predict an awful lot but the predictions are not perfect there was definitely view in the 1700s like around 1750 that the world was ordered and if we knew the mechanisms well enough we could predict everything now we're finding out that if there are nonlinear systems earthquake systems for example this triggers is triggers that might trigger this or might not then the world isn't totally predictable so I'm more comfortable saying that things are reasonably well ordered things are some some aspects of things are predictable and some aren't and I think that for me that gives more of a world that I like history matters you know Steve Jobs hadn't talked to somebody called Wozniak and they hadn't tried to do something I'll give you this example Jobs and Wozniak visited where I work Xerox PARC one day there were two managers decided whether they'd allow the visit one of them was a male and said yeah they can come and visit there no they they're just a couple of kids who were hobbyists the other one was smarter the woman and she said they're gonna come in and we let them romp around Park they're gonna steal our technology but they let them in and they saw the I think was the Alta parks computer and Jobs and Wozniak went back and we reverse engineered that and produced something they called the Macintosh and that was a knockoff of park anyway the point is that these are tiny events and Apple is now I haven't checked recently but I think it's the largest company in the world and if they hadn't had that knockoff it would be different so I like I like that it's not totally predictable it's biology working differently in some or is it is it also working along the same lines of increasing returns I think that there let me put it this way I think I bet you you could answer that better than I can because there are people in this audience know a lot more biology but there I probably think of a good answer for you in two days time what I would say at the moment is that any field you take it could be some field in physics or in in epidemiology or something generally those systems have a mixture of increasing returns or positive feedbacks and mixture of negative feedbacks in the case of biology just tech species there are many cases in which species once they get established they're very hard to invade vaguely species of carp that were in I don't know if it's car but introduced into what is it Lake Tanganyika it's my own ignorance here but you introduce one species of fish it's wiped out all the others so you see a lot of this in biology and there's something biology called competitive exclusion if you have enough of one species it'll wipe out anything that's similar to it I don't know to what degree that holds up empirically but I would say this that's the mixture of positive and negative feedbacks is all through biology genetic regulatory networks etc but particularly in competitions among species in fact I got these ideas from biology it was Jack Mono saying if you have positive feedbacks hole patterns could get locked in that the molecular level once you have a replication mechanism which goes way way back in time in biology maybe four billion years or more there's no other mechanisms gonna find it easy to get a a toe in so we're full of these historical accidents that lock in that creates the structure for them the next set of things to happen I thank so much for this my question actually builds on the lady in France writes about decision making so if there are 54 factorial possible you know permutations of a given outcome how do you make decisions let's say if you're in government and you know you need to make some kind of policy that will affect a lot of people how do you go about doing that in a way that's I don't know a better I don't know a better word than practical no that's a terrible word that's consonant with what you just heard I do how do you make decisions at the governmental level of two or three observations one is that if you know that these systems can lock in that some standard may lock in you can gently nudge the system you know if it's teetering on the boundary and you say oh it could go this way for example there's you can get into a cycle of positive feedback with name-calling between America and Russia at the moment well possibly you can nudge the system in in a ways into a better cycle of solutions also I I've come away I was sort of taught that economies and these decisions economies could be looked on as gigantic like electrical power systems or something you know these big dials and levers and behind some glass wall all of this stuff is happening but in the Singapore government you can pull this lever that after and you'll hear more in the third talk but after thinking of it that way I yeah to some degree you can maybe control the roads shift system and traffic maybe that way Singapore does a very good job of that it seems or a reasonably good one but I tend to think that economies are more like I'm trying to think of the word there they're more like nature reserves you can put fences here you can bring in new species you can replant here you can wall off things you can encourage this or discourage that bit like rock gardens and you can sort of organically replant and fence off but it's very imperfect and I think the and also if you were to say to me well this is all you know I just heard from this talk that the capitalist system doesn't lead to the best of all possible worlds review leave it to itself all kinds of things happen and we lock into large you know large companies Facebook's one where the last couple of weeks we haven't been that pleased with the outcome I would say the kind of to first order capitalist systems do deliver but you can't say they're perfect and America doesn't at least twenty years ago during the Cold War 20-30 years ago it did not like that thought we are superior we are the best and the amusing thing was that the Soviet system thought the same I think planned planned capitalism a la China is doing very well hands-off capitalism which is more in the West not perfectly hands-off is doing pretty well too so the economy does tend to reasonably good solutions but get away from thinking this is perfect and governments can intervene here and intervene there but if you follow this sort of reason you need good timing where is something just teetering on the edge because it might be too late it's too late now for Singapore to say we don't want to use English as a common language but it could have said that maybe fifty years ago I don't know could have said well we're going to use heavily go Chinese and let English gradually die I don't know the timing counts for a lot any other questions if not then I think we should thank Brian once again thank you thank you very much Brian once again no thank you and join us for coffee

Four Seasons ~ Vivaldi



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Antonio Vivaldi – Four Seasons
Budapest Strings
Bela Banfalvi, Conductor

You can get the exact album I have here on Amazon: (affiliate).

Here are the times for the specific movements:
Spring 0:00
Summer 10:31
Autumn 20:59
Winter 32:48

I hope you love this recording! It is my favorite one I’ve heard yet. Happy Listening!

AnAmericanComposer

Why You Should Read Philosophy: Truth, Knowledge, and Meaning | Philip Kitcher



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Philosophy provides a new way of looking at the world and exploring ideas that otherwise might be too heavy, or too big, to comprehend. It’s a lot better than the alternative—which is willful ignorance and throwing your hands up in the air and saying “I guess it’s all part of a masterplan!”. And while this incongruity between the philosophically minded and the more deity-inclined can create some major cultural hiccups, there’s at least some semblance of both sides searching for the same thing. Philosophy, Kitcher argues, may not ever give us the ultimate solutions to all the big questions in life. But it does put us in the driver’s seat and give us control.

Philip Kitcher is the co-author of The Seasons Alter: How to Save Our Planet in Six Acts.

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Transcript: That’s a really wonderful question. What is philosophy and why do we need it?

Of course many people think we don’t need it anymore. And I can sympathize with that reaction when they look at the inward-turning character if much contemporary philosophy, especially written in English.

But I think philosophy is immensely important. I think the search for the large ideas about truth, knowledge, beauty, justice that is in the classical philosophical tradition—not only in the West but also in the East—is a terribly important thing.

That said I think it was misguided.

I am, at the end of the day, a pragmatist, and I don’t think we’re ever going to find the big theories of truth, justice, et cetera that the classical philosophers have sought. But I think what they’ve given us are all sorts of wonderful tools for thinking about the deepest and largest human questions.

Those questions are how should we try to live and how should we try to live together. And the questions are connected with one another. Now I want to suggest that rather than trying to give some definitive theory that will answer those questions what we should do is try to think about our current state and the problems that arise for human beings living well, living happily, living valuable and meaningful lives.

How, at a particular moment in time—our moment in time—are they limited? And how could we get beyond those limits?

And philosophers aren’t in the business in my view of trying to sort of add some sort of knowledge to the knowledge that is given by physicists and art critics and linguists and anthropologists, et cetera, et cetera, et cetera.

Philosophers are in the business of trying to fit all of that together so that we have a picture of where people stand at a particular moment in time and how lives are problematic so that we can be in a position to diagnose ways in which we might go forward.

I said this is a thoroughly pragmatist approach and it is because it’s not about perfection. It’s a matter of improvement. And philosophers I think are in the business of trying to give us that general picture of ourselves and our place in the world and the kinds of lives that we live that will enable us to take the next steps in improving things for ourselves. And that means that philosophy is a synthetic discipline primarily. It’s something that draws from lots and lots of different areas and draws from life as it exists at a particular moment in time. So every age will always need its philosophers and in the past we’ve had great synthesizers. We think if people like Plato and Aristotle in the ancient West. We think of people like Kant and Hegel in the more recent West. We think of people like Confucius and Mencius and so on. These are all attempts it seems to me to find a big synthesis, and that’s what philosophy is all about and that’s what it needs, and that’s what philosophers I think should be trying to accomplish.

Acoustic GUITAR MUSIC Relaxing Background Classical Instrumental for Studying Study Songs slow soft



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Acoustic GUITAR MUSIC Relaxing Background Classical Instrumental for Studying Study Songs Playlist slow soft THANKS for your support! DOWNLOAD NOW …

CLASSICAL MUSIC for Studying #1 STUDY MUSIC Playlist Calming Soothing Calm Classic Piano Study



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CLASSICAL MUSIC for Studying #1 STUDY MUSIC Playlist Calming Soothing Calm Classic Piano Study relax • “MUSIC ONLY” Version …

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The transformative power of classical music | Benjamin Zander



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Benjamin Zander has two infectious passions: classical music, and helping us all realize our untapped love for it — and by extension, our untapped love for all new possibilities, new experiences, new connections.

TEDTalks is a daily video podcast of the best talks and performances from the TED Conference, where the world’s leading thinkers and doers give the talk of their lives in 18 minutes. TED stands for Technology, Entertainment, Design, and TEDTalks cover these topics as well as science, business, development and the arts. Closed captions and translated subtitles in a variety of languages are now available on TED.com, at

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Translator: Fanie Pretorius
Reviewer: Christo Crafford Van julle ken waarskynlik die storie
van die twee verkoopsmanne wat in die 1900's Afrika besoek het. Hulle's gestuur om te kyk
of daar geleentheid is om skoene te verkoop. Hulle stuur toe telegramme
terug na Manchester toe. Die een skryf: "Situasie hopeloos. Stop.
Hulle dra nie skoene nie." Die ander een skryf: "Uitstekende geleentheid.
Hulle't nog nie skoene hier nie." (Gelag) Daar's ’n soortgelyke situasie
in die wêreld van klassieke musiek, want party mense dink dat
klassieke musiek besig is om uit te sterf. En dan is daar van ons wat dink dis
nog net die begin van veel groter dinge. Eerder as om statistiek
en tendense aan te haal en julle te vertel van al die
orkeste wat ontbind, en die platemaatskappye wat sluit, het ek gedink ons kan vanaand
’n eksperiment doen. Dis nie regtig ’n eksperiment nie,
want ek weet wat die uitkoms is. (Gelag) Maar dis iets soos ’n eksperiment. Nou, voor ons — (Gelag) — voor ons begin,
moet ek twee dinge doen. Die een is dat ek julle wil herinner
hoe ’n sewejarige kind klink wanneer hy klavier speel. Miskien het julle so ’n kind by die huis. Hy klink omtrent so. (Musiek) Ek sien sommige van julle
herken hierdie kind. As hy ’n jaar lank oefen
en les neem, is hy nou agt en dan klink hy so. (Musiek) Dan oefen hy nog ’n jaar
en neem les — nou's hy nege. (Musiek) Dan oefen hy nog ’n jaar
en neem les — nou's hy tien. (Musiek) Op daardie stadium gooi
hulle gewoonlik tou op. (Gelag) (Applous) Maar as jy nog een jaar gewag het,
sou jy dit gehoor het: (Musiek) Wat gebeur het, is nie
wat julle dalk dink nie, dat hy skielik passievol
en betrokke geraak het, ’n nuwe onderwyser gekry het,
puberteit bereik het, of wat ook al. Wat in werklikheid gebeur het,
is dat die klemtone verminder is. Julle sien, die eerste keer het hy
elke noot beklemtoon. (Musiek) En die tweede, met die
klem op elke tweede noot. (Musiek) Julle kan dit sien deur na my kop te kyk. (Gelag) Die negejarige plaas die
klem op elke vierde noot. (Musiek) En die tienjarige op elke agt note. (Musiek) En die 11-jarige, een
klem op die hele frase. (Musiek) Ek weet nie hoe ons
hier beland het nie. (Gelag) Ek't nie gesê ek gaan my skouer
oor beweeg, my lyf beweeg nie. Nee, die musiek het my omgestoot, dis hoekom ek dit een-boud-spel noem. (Musiek) Dit kan ook die ander boud wees. (Musiek) ’n Man het een keer
na ’n aanbieding gekyk waar ek met ’n jong pianis gewerk het. Hy was die president
van ’n maatskappy in Ohio. Ek't met die jong pianis gewerk en gesê: "Die moeilikheid met jou is,
jy's ’n twee-boud-speler. Jy moet ’n een-boud-speler wees." Toe verskuif ek sy lyf so terwyl hy speel. En skielik het die musiek
lewe gekry — opgestyg. Die gehoor het na hul asems gesnak
toe hulle die verskil hoor. Toe kry ek ’n brief van dié man. Hy skryf: "Ek was so geroer. Ek't teruggegaan en my hele firma omskep in ’n een-boud-maatskappy." (Gelag) Die ander ding wat ek wou doen,
is om julle oor julleself te vertel. Daar is 1600 mense hier. Ek skat dat 45 van julle waarskynlik ’n absolute passie vir
klassieke musiek het. Julle is mal oor klassieke musiek.
Jul radio's is altyd op klassiek ingestel. Julle't CD's in julle motors en
julle woon simfoniekonserte by. Julle kinders speel instrumente. Julle kan nie jul lewens indink
sonder klassieke musiek nie. Dis die eerste groep;
’n redelike klein een. Dan's daar ’n groter groep. Dis mense wat niks teen
klassieke musiek het nie. (Gelag) Jy kom tuis na ’n lang dag en jy kry ’n glasie wyn
en gaan sit gemaklik. ’n Bietjie Vivaldi in die agtergrond
doen geen skade nie. Dis die tweede groep. Nou die derde groep. Dis mense wat nooit
klassieke musiek luister nie. Dis eenvoudig nie deel van jou lewe nie. Jy tel dit dalk nes sekondêre rook
by die lughawe op, maar — (Gelag) — en miskien ’n mars uit Aïda wanneer jy die saal instap. Maar andersins nooit nie. Dis waarskynlik die
grootste groep. En dan is daar ’n baie klein groepie. Dis mense wat dink dat hulle toondoof is. ’n Verbasende aantal mense dink hulle is. Ek hoor dikwels: "My man is toondoof." (Gelag) Die waarheid: Jy kan nie
toondoof wees nie. Niemand is nie. As jy toondoof was, sou jy
nie die ratte kon verwissel in jou motor met ’n handrat nie. Jy sou nie die verskil kon hoor tussen iemand van Texas en iemand van Rome nie. En die telefoon. Die telefoon. As jou ma op die elendige telefoon bel en sê: "Hallo," dan weet jy wie dit is
én in watter bui sy is. Jy het ’n wonderlike oor.
Almal het ’n wonderlike oor. So niemand is toondoof nie. Maar ek sê julle wat. Dit help nie ek gaan voort met die ding, met so ’n groot gaping
tussen dié wat verstaan, en wat passievol en lief
vir klassieke musiek is, en diegene wat glad geen
aanklank daarmee het nie. Die toondoof mense is nie meer hier nie. Maar selfs tussen daai drie kategorieë is die gaping te groot. Ek gaan dus nie voortgaan
totdat elkeen in hierdie vertrek, op die onderste vloer en in Aspen,
en almal wat hierna kyk, geleer het om klassieke musiek
lief te hê en te verstaan nie. So dis wat ons gaan doen. Julle sien dat ek nie
die geringste twyfel het dat dit gaan werk nie,
as julle na my gesig kyk, nè? Dis een van die eienskappe van
’n leier: Hy het geen twyfel aan die mense wat hy lei se vermoë om dit te bereik waaroor hy droom nie. Dink net, as Martin Luther King
gesê het: "Ek het ’n droom. Maar ek's nie seker
of hulle kans sien nie." (Gelag) Goed. Ek gaan ’n stuk van Chopin gebruik. Dis ’n pragtige prelude van Chopin. Van julle sal dit ken. (Musiek) Weet julle wat dink ek het
waarskynlik nou gebeur? Toe ek begin het, het julle gedink:
"Dit klink so pragtig." (Musiek) "Ek dink nie ons moet vir
die volgende somervakansie na dieselfde plek toe gaan nie." (Gelag) Dis snaaks, nè? Dis snaaks hoe sulke dinge
in ons gedagtes insluip. (Applous) As die stuk lank is
en jy't ’n lang dag gehad, mag jy selfs insluimer. Dan pomp jou metgesel jou in die ribbes en sê: "Word wakker! Dis kultuur!"
En dan voel jy nog slegter. (Gelag) Maar het dit al ooit by jou opgekom
dat die rede waarom jy vaak word met klassieke musiek nie
jou skuld is nie, maar ons s'n? Het iemand gedink,
terwyl ek gespeel het: "Waarom gebruik hy soveel klemtone?" As ek dit met my kop gedoen het,
sou julle beslis so gedink het. (Musiek) En vir die res van julle lewens
sal julle altyd bewus wees van die klemtone wanneer
julle na klassieke musiek luister. Kom ons kyk wat regtig hier aangaan. Ons het ’n B. Dis ’n B. Die volgende noot is ’n C. En die C se taak is om
die B treurig te maak. En dit werk, of hoe? (Gelag) Komponiste weet dit. As hulle treurige musiek wil hê,
speel hulle net dié twee note. (Musiek) Maar basies is dit net ’n B,
met vier treuriges. (Gelag) Nou gaan dit af na A. Nou na G. En dan na F. So ons het B, A, G, F. En as ons B, A, G, F het, wat verwag ons volgende? (Musiek) O, dit was seker toeval. Kom ons probeer weer. (Musiek) (Gehoor sing) O, die TED-koor. (Gelag) En julle let op dat niemand
toondoof is nie, ne? Niemand nie. Julle weet, elke dorpie in Bangladesh en elke gehuggie in Sjina — almal weet: da, da, da, da — da. Almal weet om ’n E daar te verwag. Chopin wou nie daar by
die E uitgekom het nie, want wat sou gebeur het? Dit sou verby wees, soos Hamlet, nè? Eerste bedryf, derde toneel: hy vind uit dat sy oom
sy pa vermoor het. Hy hou aan om sy oom te nader
en hom amper dood te maak. Dan tree hy terug, nader hom weer
en maak hom amper dood. En die kritici daar in die agterste ry, hulle moet ’n opinie hê,
so hulle sê: "Hamlet sloer." Of hulle sê: "Hamlet het
’n Oedipus-kompleks." Nee, anders sou die opvoering
verby gewees het, simpel! (Gelag) Dis waarom Shakespeare
al daai goed in het — Ophelia wat mal word,
die storie in die storie, en Yorick se kopbeen, en die grafgrawers. Dis om uit te stel — tot die vyfde bedryf,
dan kan hy hom doodmaak. Dieselfde geld vir Chopin. Hy wil net-net E bereik, en hy sê: "Oeps, ek moet liewer
terug gaan en dit weer doen." Dan doen hy dit weer. Nou raak hy opgewonde. (Musiek) Dis opgewondenheid,
moenie bekommer nie. Nou kom hy by F-kruis uit
en uiteindelik gaan hy af tot by E, maar dis die verkeerde sleutel — want die sleutel waarna
hy soek is dié een en in plaas daarvan doen hy … Nou, ons noem dit misleidende intonasie, want dit mislei ons. Ek sê altyd vir my studente:
"By misleidende intonasie, lig julle wenkbroue, dan weet almal." (Gelag) (Applous) Goed. Hy kom by E uit, maar
dis die verkeerde sleutel. Hy probeer E weer. Daai sleutel werk nie. Nou probeer hy die E weer.
Die sleutel werk nie. Nou probeer hy E weer,
en dit werk nie. En dan, uiteindelik … Daar is ’n man in die
voorste ry wat so "Hmf" sug. (Gelag) Dis dieselfde ding wat hy doen
wanneer hy na ’n lang dag by die huis kom, sy motor afskakel en sê: "A, ek is tuis." Want ons weet almal wanneer ons tuis voel. Dis dus 'n stuk wat van
weggaan af weer tuiskom. Ek gaan dit regdeur speel
en julle gaan volg. B, C, B, C, B, C, B — af na A, af na G, af na F. Amper tot by E, maar dan
sou die opvoering verby wees. Terug op B toe,
raak baie opgewonde. Na F-kruis toe. E toe. Dis die verkeerde akkoord. En uiteindelik na E, en dis tuis. En wat julle gaan sien, is een-boud-spel. (Gelag) Want vir my, om die B en die E te verbind, moet ek ophou dink aan elke
enkele noot op hierdie roete en begin dink aan die
lang, lang lyn van B tot E. Julle weet, ons was pas in Suid-Afrika,
en jy kan nie Suid-Afrika toe gaan sonder om aan Mandela wat 27 jaar lank
in die tronk was te dink nie. Waaraan het hy gedink? Middagete? Nee, hy't gedink aan
die visie vir Suid-Afrika en ’n visie vir die mensdom. Dit gaan oor visie.
Dit gaan oor die lang lyn. Soos die voël wat oor die veld vlieg en geen aandag gee aan
die heinings daar onder nie, nè? Nou gaan julle die lyn
al die pad volg, van B tot E. Ek't een finale versoek
voor ek die stuk regdeur speel. Dink aan iemand wat jy baie liefhet, wat nie meer daar is nie? ’n Geliefde ouma, ’n beminde — iemand in jou lewe wat
jy met jou hele hart liefhet, maar die persoon is nie meer by jou nie. Dink aan daai persoon en volg terselftertyd die lyn al die pad van B na E, en jy sal alles hoor wat
Chopin te sê gehad het. (Musiek) (Applous) Julle wonder dalk nou — (Applous) Julle wonder dalk hoekom ek saam klap. Ek't dit by ’n skool in Boston gedoen met omtrent 70 graad sewes — 12-jariges. Ek't presies dieselfde met hulle gedoen, en die hele ding verduidelik. En aan die einde het hulle
soos besetenes geklap. Ek't geklap. Hulle't geklap. Tot ek gevra het: "Waarom klap ek?" En een van die kleintjies sê:
"Want ons het geluister." (Gelag) Dink daaraan. 1600 mense, besige mense, wat by allerhande dinge betrokke is, aan't luister, verstaan en geraak word deur ’n stuk van Chopin. Dit is merkwaardig. Is ek seker dat elkeen dit gevolg en verstaan het en daardeur geraak is? Natuurlik nie. Maar ek vertel julle wat
met my in Ierland gebeur het, tydens hulle moeilikhede, 10 jaar gelede. Ek't met 'n klompie Katolieke en
Protestantse kinders gewerk oor konflikoplossing. Toe doen ek dit met hulle — ’n gewaagde ding, want
hulle was straatkinders. En een van hulle kom die
volgende oggend na my toe en hy sê: "Jy weet, ek het nog nooit na
klassieke musiek geluister nie, maar toe jy daai 'shopping' stuk speel …" (Gelag) Hy sê: "My broer is laas jaar geskiet
en ek't nie oor hom gehuil nie. Maar gisteraand toe jy daai stuk speel, was hy die een waaraan ek gedink het. En ek't gevoel hoe trane
oor my gesig stroom. En dit het regtig goed gevoel
om oor my broer te huil." Op daardie oomblik het ek besluit dat klassieke musiek aan almal behoort. Almal. Nou, hoe sou julle loop — my professie, die musiekprofessie
sien dit nie so nie. Hulle sê 3% van die bevolking
hou van klassieke musiek. As ons dit maar net kon opstoot na 4%
sou ons probleme opgelos wees. (Gelag) Hoe sou jy loop? Hoe sou jy praat? Hoe sou jy wees as jy gedink het
3% hou van klassieke musiek? As ons dit maar net kon opstoot na 4%. Hoe sou jy loop of praat? Hoe sou jy wees as jy gedink het
almal is lief is vir klassieke musiek — hulle't dit nog net nie ontdek nie. Sien, dis totaal verskillende wêrelde. Ek't ’n wonderlike ervaring gehad — ek was 45 jaar oud. Ek dirigeer toe al 20 jaar lank, en skielik het ek iets besef. Die dirigent van ’n orkes
maak nie ’n geluid nie. My foto verskyn voor op die CD — (Gelag) Maar die dirigent maak nie ’n geluid nie. Vir hom om mag te hê, is hy afhanklik van sy vermoë
om ander mense te bemagtig. En dit het alles vir my verander. Dit was ’n totale lewensomkeer. Mense in my orkes het gesê: "Ben, wat het gebeur?."
Dis wat gebeur het: Ek't besef dat my taak is
om moontlikheid in andere te wek. Natuurlik wou ek weet
of ek dit doen. En weet julle hoe mens dit bepaal? Jy kyk na hulle oë. As hulle oë blink,
dan weet jy dat jy daarin slaag. Jy kan ’n dorpie van lig voorsien
met hierdie man se oë. (Gelag) So as die oë blink,
weet jy dat jy slaag. As die oë nie blink nie,
moet jy ’n vraag vra. En die vraag is: Wie is ek besig om te wees, dat my spelers se oë nie blink nie? Ons kan dit met ons kinders ook doen. Wie is ek besig om te wees, dat my kinders se oë nie blink nie? Dis ’n totaal ander wêreld. Nou, ons moet amper hierdie magiese,
op-die-berg week beëindig, en ons gaan terug na die wêreld. En ek sê dis gepas dat ons die vraag vra: Wie is ons besig om te wees wanneer
ons teruggaan na die wêreld toe? En weet julle,
ek't ’n definisie van sukses. Dis baie eenvoudig. Dit gaan nie oor rykdom, roem of mag nie. Dit gaan oor hoeveel
blink oë ek om my het. En nou het ek een laaste gedagte, en dis dat dit regtig
’n verskil maak wat ons sê — die woorde wat uit ons mond kom. Ek't dit geleer van ’n vrou
wat Auschwitz oorleef het, een van die min oorlewendes. Sy is Auschwitz toe op 15. En … haar broer was agt, en hulle ouers was verlore. En sy't vir my gesê: "Ons was in die trein op pad Auschwitz toe en ek't afgekyk en gesien dat
my boetie se skoene weg was. Toe sê ek: "Hoekom is jy so simpel,
kan jy nie jou goed bymekaar hou nie, om hemelsnaam!" Soos ’n ouer suster dalk
met haar jonger broer sou praat. Ongelukkig was dit die laaste ding
wat sy ooit vir hom gesê het, want sy't hom nooit weer gesien nie. Hy't nie oorleef nie. Toe sy uit Auschwitz kom,
het sy ’n eed geneem. Sy't my vertel. Sy't gesê: "Ek't uit Auschwitz
die lewe ingeloop en ek't myself iets belowe. Die belofte was: "Ek sal nooit iets sê wat nie
aanvaarbaar as my laaste woorde is nie." Kan ons dit doen? Nee. Ons sal misluk en ander ook. Maar dis ’n ideaal om na te streef. Dankie. (Applous) Blink oë! Blink oë! (Applous) Dankie, dankie. (Applous)

Beethoven Classical Music for Studying, Concentration, Relaxation | Study Music Piano Instrumental



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1 Hour of some of the best classical music for studying and concentration by Ludwig van Beethoven. It is the perfect relaxing instrumental music for studying and better learning to focus and it is also great piano, violin and clarinet music to study to concentrate, writing or working in office. Use this classical music for relaxation and reading or as study music for exams and study time.

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Music and song:
“Trio in E Flat Major, Op. 38 – III. Tempo di Minuetto – Beethoven” by Paul Pitman (musopen.org) Public Domain Mark 1.0

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ID Number: 153260503