Une prof de français vous aide pour la rédaction de la conclusion d’une dissertation. Pour plus de vidéos et d’exercices gratuits, RDV sur
[Musique] [Musique] dernière étape de la dissertation la conclusion donc la conclusion c'est très simple à faire tu ne dois pas y passer je dirais plus d'un quart d'heure alors comment est ce qu'on fait une conclusion toujours de la même manière on commence d'abord par récapituler tout ce qu'on vient de faire autrement dit tout le cheminement que tu viens de faire pendant sa dissertation tue-le récapitule tu récapitule les grandes parties voilà la première étape ensuite il s'agit de faire ce que l'on appelle une ouverture c'est je dirais difficile à faire pour un élève de première une ouverture donc tu peux choisir simplement de rester sur ce récapitulatif ou alors essayé de faire une ouverture alors soit sur un autre sujet de dissertation qui serait directement en lien avec ton sujet de dissertation que tu as traité soit en tenant un propos un peu plus générale donc par exemple tu pourrais simplement terminer tard dissertation par une phrase d'ouverture c'est d'ailleurs là certainement l'intérêt de la littérature nous présenter une nouvelle vision du monde qui nous touche et nous enrichir [Musique]
Observe, question, hypothesize, test. Scientists discuss the scientific method.
This video was produced by KET as a part of their high school equivalency test prep program. If you are interested in test prep materials for the #GED, #HiSET, or #TASC test, check out KET Fast Forward at or call 1-800-354-9067 for more information.
A lot of people don't realize that they do
science in everyday life just by seeing a problem and figuring out they're asking the
question "why is this happening?" and then testing it somehow and determining "okay this
is why the problem is occurring, this is what we can do to fix it." That's the scientific
method and everybody does it. The beauty of the scientific method is first of all we observe
the environment. And from those observations we come up with questions. And from those
questions we come up with possible answers to those questions, a hypothesis or hypotheses. And then we create tests to test those hypotheses to see if they are indeed correct or not. In
order to test a hypothesis, we collect data, analyze that data, and then come up with a
conclusion on whether or not our hypothesis was correct or was it close or was it incorrect.
Everyday we will have things that come up that don't work exactly right. We know how
we think it should work, but when we do our work we look at the results and we say, "that's
not the way it happened yesterday. What happened here?" And then we go back and we've made
extensive notes as to who did what, what time it was done, what procedure was followed,
and we also make notes if we notice anything that is not the same as it was the day before.
Paleontology, like any other science, has to follow strict rigorous methods to be truly
scientific. It is possible to speculate about things and have a lot of fun doing that but
if there is no scientific rigor in it, then its really not a very important avenue of
thought or exercise. What I mean by scientific rigor is that a strict hypothesis needs to
be formulated, data has to be acquired, and then you test your hypothesis against that
data. So that's what the scientific process is. This initial research of the problem, the
formulation of hypothesis, the testing of the hypothesis, and gathering concluding something
out of your work. People often think we go out and we try to find fossils to prove our
ideas and that's absolutely the wrong way to look at it. What we do is we set up a hypothesis
and we go out and find fossils that disprove our ideas. Hypotheses in science have to be
falsifiable. That means you set up a hypothesis that, if you find the right piece of data,
its going to knock your whole idea down and you have to start again from scratch. The
way science works, and paleontology as well, is you start with an idea, you test that idea
over and over again, and if you can't overturn it you have developed more confidence that
you're on the right track.
Science Fair projects beware! Mister C created this song to make learning about the scientific method easy and fun! It discusses the scientific method (scientific process) and reviews the question, hypothesis, research, data collection, data analysis, and conclusion.
Need more information for Mister C:
Mister C music:
Chemistry music video on the steps of the Scientific Method. All music and lyrics copyright 2005, Mark Rosengarten. All rights reserved.
The Scientific Method
It goes something like this
First comes the objective
And then the hypothesis!
Design you an experiment
To see if you were right.
And then collect your data
But dont stay up all night!
Analysis is next in line
See if your data fits
Into a graph that you design
That shows a relationship!
And then you reach conclusions
About the things that you have seen
You write it up and publish it
In a science magazine!
Others will try to duplicate
The things that you have done
And if they get the same results
Admiration you will have won!
And if youre very careful
And come up with something new
They might give you a Nobel Prize
Or name and element after you!
So the scientific method
Is a necessary tool
For the study of the universe
Can be extremely cool!
Before you can analyze an argument you need to be sure that you’ve clearly identified the conclusion and the premises. This video discusses some of the challenges associated with this task.
argument analysis would be a lot easier if people gave their arguments in standard form with the premises and conclusions flagged in an obvious way but people don't usually talk this way or write this way sometimes the conclusion of an argument is obvious but sometimes it's not sometimes the conclusion is buried or implicit and we have to reconstruct the argument based on what's given it's not always obvious how to do this this with tutorial we're going to look at some principles that will help us identify premises and conclusions and put natural language arguments in standard form this is a very important critical thinking skill in in general but it's also one that is required to answer many questions on the LSAT here's an argument abortion is wrong because all human life is sacred question which is the conclusion abortion is wrong or all human life is sacred most of us the answer is clear abortion is wrong is the conclusion and all human life is sacred is the premise how do we know this well two things are going on first we are consciously intentionally reading for the argument and when we do this we're asking ourselves what claim are we being asked to believe or accept what other claims are being offered as reasons to accept that claim second we recognize the logical significance of that word because because is what we call an indicator word a word that indicates the logical relationship of claims that come before or after it in this case it indicates that the claim following it is being offered as a reason to accept the claim before it so rewriting this argument instead of form it looks like this I'll even life is sacred therefore abortion is wrong at this point we could start talking about whether this is a good argument or not that's not really the point of this tutorial right now we're more concerned with identifying premises and conclusions and getting the logical structure of an argument right here are some key words or phrases that indicate a conclusion therefore so hence thus it follows that as a result consequently and of course there are others the argument on the right gives an example using so it's flu season and you work with kids so you should get a flu shot now key words like this make it much easier to identify conclusions but not all arguments have key words that flag in some arguments have no indicator words of any kind in these cases you have to rely on your ability to analyze context and read for the argument here is a more complex argument that illustrates this point we must reduce the amount of money we spent on space exploration right now the enemy is launching a massive military buildup and we need the additional money to purchase military equipment to match the anticipated increase in the enemy's strength notice that there are no indicator words that might help us flag the conclusion so which claim is the conclusion of this argument is it we must reduce the amount of money we spend on space exploration is it the enemy is launching a massive military buildup or is it we need the additional money to purchase military equipment to match the anticipated increase in the enemy's strength composite video now if you want a second to think about this okay the answer is one we must reduce the amount of money we spend on space exploration most people can see this just by looking at the argument for a few seconds from experience I know that some people have a much harder time seeing logical relationships like this if it's not obvious to you the way to work the problem is this for each claim asserted in the argument you have to ask yourself is this the main point at the arguer is trying to convey or is this a claim that's being offered as a reason to believe another claim if it's being offered as a reason to believe another claim then it's functioning as a premise if it's expressing the main point of the argument but the argument is trying to persuade you to accept then it's the conclusion now there are words and phrases that indicate premises – here are a few since if because from which it follows for these reasons and of course there were others as well here's an example on the right that uses since John will probably receive the next promotion since he's been here the longest since is used to indicate that John's being here the longest is reason for thinking that he'll probably receive the next promotion so let's summarize arguments in natural language usually aren't presented in standard forms so we need to know how to extract the logical structure from the language that's given to do this we look at each of the claims in the argument and we ask ourselves is this the main point of the arguer is trying to convey or is this being offered as reason to accept some other claim claim that expresses the main point is the conclusion the claims that are functioning as reasons to accept the main point are the premises finally premises and conclusions are often flagged by the presence of an indicator word and paying attention to indicated words can really help to simplify the task of reconstructing an argument
Do you remember learning in school the different steps to the Scientific Method? Do you know that real science doesn’t exactly go that way? Not only that, but most scientific methods don’t unwind in a linear way! This means that a scientist may have to jump around these “steps.” The real world Scientific Method is more like a flow chart than a set of instructions. This video is designed to layout the Scientific Method 2.0 – an updated version of the old school method. It’s more of an instructional video, while using a fun example experiment showcasing all the parts of the scientific method. It’s a gas!
Lombardi Labs is an ongoing and evolving collection of science videos that welcome viewers to various scientific investigations and explorations, all while having a laugh or two. These videos are produced and hosted by J. D. “Prof.” Lombardi, a 6th grade science teacher with a background in television and a passion for science!
no oh hello there welcome to lab rat labs hello there welcome to Lombardi labs I'm Professor Lombardi and welcome to June Astorga it is we good okay all right don't don't move welcome to Lombardi labs I'm Professor Lombardi and I welcome you to join us during various scientific investigations and explorations this time we're starting from the start the scientific method but this version 2.0 because it may be a little different from what you've learned in school all scientific investigations use a method of testing something and or solving a physical problem and we call this a did you hear that yes it sounded like a cut cut we call this the scientific method and it all starts with an observation and or problem look around you what makes you wonder do you have any questions this is where it all begins step 1 make an observation and/or notice a problem step 2 ask questions that are testable researcher there's a way to put your questions to the test if not you need to go back to step 1 but if so then you need to research whatever your topic is there are those who worked on it before you books and articles are best but if you go online make sure it's from a reputable source one way is Google Scholar which acts like a super filter shown only published peer-reviewed studies once you have enough research it's time for step 4 make a hypothesis hypothesis a prediction about the outcome of an experiment a good hypothesis is a well reasoned plan based on existing evidence now your hypothesis needs to be put to the test step 5 design and do the experiment this is the most exciting part as you act like a scientist putting things to the test make sure you work with an adult and be safe and whatever you do protect your eyes hands and anything else that needs protecting designing an experiment requires you to list out all your materials and methods you plan on using step 6 list your materials and methods like ingredients in a recipe all the materials and their quantities must be listed deciding how to do an experiment is called the method this method guides us into writing down all the steps needed to conduct an experiment this is called a procedure where the overall objective is to gather data during and/or after the experiment data is plural for datum data are recorded measurements statistics and or other bits of information once data are collected it must be analyzed and displayed graphically step 7 analyze and present your results this is where you look closely at your data and interpret its meaning what does it mean towards your original question then you want to find the best way to visually represent your data bar graph pie chart line graph all three analyzing and interpreting the status shouldn't help help you a rot oh okay who is farting we're recording here what what did you eat yesterday I you got a cut it I can't analyzing and interpreting this data should help you arrive to your discussion step 8 reach your discussion this is the most important part where you prove or disprove your hypothesis summarize your results and show any trends or patterns were there any limitations to your data any unexpected or unanswered questions related to your experiment your discussion is where you honestly write out all of this let us now look at an example experiment using the scientific method starting with an observation I can think of one observation during this video some foods can make us gassy we all know that beans make us gassy even school songs about it and this one with some research you will even find that dairy products like milk and cheese can also make us gassy and because of its carbon dioxide gas fizzy drinks like soda can also cause gas these observations can also be a stinky problem so so what testable questions can we ask which foods and drinks tend to make me flatulate more flageolet is the scientific verb for fart believe it or not this question is testable and because it is we can now make our hypothesis if I eat enough foods known to cause gas then my rate of flagellation will increase now it's time to plan and do the experiment but first we need to decide on a method followed by a procedure we should first find out how much we are normally flatulating to do this we need a control period control period a starting point used for comparisons decide when you'll have three days in a row where you can keep track of your gas make sure each day is a full 24 hours during this time do not eat beans dairy nor carbonated drinks a good datasheet where you add numerical value will help break out the different types of flatulence single pot equals one point multiple pop-under one second is two points and long pop more than one second equals three points the last column will be your total score for three days simply keep track of the number of times you pass gas flatulate pay attention to the type and record it in your data sheet at the end of the three days find the average by adding up all the points and dividing by three now it's time to test the effect of the three different food types over three days start each day with breakfast let's begin day one with carbonated drinks you will need at least 12 ounces per meal since soda has high levels of sugar and you need be drinking water anyway I recommend sparkling water for this experiment recorded in your datasheet the amount and kind of flatulence you produce give yourself 24 hours of normal diet between food trials to prevent overlap of high gas production so days later eat half to a full cup of beans it may be a lot but you're doing it for science record this data onto your data sheet accurately two days later make sure you have dairy at every meal at the end of the last 24 hours add up the number of points divided by three and compared to the average from the control period all of this is our data now analyze and present your results what does it all mean from this you write your discussion perhaps you will notice that carbonated drinks produce the least gas while dairy products caused the most but all three gassy foods certainly produced more gas than a three-day control period these steps are not always in this order and done at any point we like to jump a few steps back or forward so the scientific method could be more of a flowchart than a set of instructions who said science wasn't flexible experiments often lead to new questions it's okay if further research is needed to explain why some foods are gassy er than others for example carbonated drinks will cause some carbon dioxide to be trapped in our gut instead of burped out this will lead to but don't worry just because certain foods make us flatulate more doesn't mean it's bad for us for example beans are fantastic for our hearts and brains they're even considered a superfood new didn't burn this was just one example showcasing the scientific method there are thousands of other experiments you can do safely at home just remember it all starts with an observation and/or problem no sorry until next time
An explanation of the definitions of the terms Valid and Sound in Philosophy.
Information for this video gathered from The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy and more!
Information for this video gathered from The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy and more!
and we're back once again with 90 second philosophy looking at the basics of logic today we're going to be looking at the definitions of two very important terms for deductive arguments validity and soundness a valid argument is an argument where true premises guarantee a true conclusion you can never have a valid argument that has true premises and a false conclusion if the premises are true the conclusion must be true soundness is a valid argument that just adds the fact that the premises are true and therefore by the definition of valid the conclusion is true as well a sound argument is a valid argument with true premises let's look at some examples all men are mortal Socrates is a man therefore Socrates is mortal this is a valid argument because the premises guarantee the conclusion is true and to sound argument because in fact all men are mortal and Socrates is a man all cats can fly fluffy is a cat therefore fluffy can fly this is a valid argument because if all cats could fly and if fluffy were a cat fluffy could fly but sadly it's unsound because all cats cannot fly sorry fluffy finally all dogs are mammals all whales are mammals therefore all humans are mammals even though all the statements here are true the premises don't have anything to do with the conclusion dogs and whales can't give you information about humans so it is invalid and if it's invalid even if the premises are true it can't be sound so just to review valid true premises imply a true conclusion and sound is a valid argument with true premises see you next time with 90 second philosophy at Carnegie zorg stay skeptical everybody
“We Used the Scientific Method”
Swiggity Swag Science
Music “Kung Fu Fighting” by Carl Douglas
Be sure to “Like” and “Subscribe”!
I made this song to help my students to remember what the scientific method is. The visuals are not particularly “sciency”. It is for review and is mostly for fun.
He wanted proof
He used the scientific method
He observed a problem
And made hypothesis
Then did experimenting
And he drew conclusions from all the tests he did
He was very curious
About what everybody said
Will the heavy cannon ball
Make the fastest fall
Aristotle said it should
He tried to see if it would
He observed a problem
Then made hypothesis
Then did experimenting
And then he drew conclusions
The scientific method is a way to find the truth
Think of an interesting question
You don’t have to be a sleuth
To make a possible solution
An educated guess
That’s what we call it
It’s called hypothesis
He observed a problem
Then made hypothesis
Then did experimenting
And then he drew conclusions
When an experiment is done
Limit the variable to one
And you ought to use a table
To organize that data
If a conclusion is suspected
Analyze the facts collected
Then you can determine
if its accepted or rejected
Let’s observe a problem
Let’s make hypothesis
Let’s do experimenting
Yeah, Then We’ll draw conclusions
Use the scientific method (2x)
Fade out at 2:45
How do humans discern the nature of reality?
are you frustrated with your inability to accurately estimate the nature of reality do you have an interest in knowing what isn't true do you have the urge to sneer at people who accept ideas without question are you concerned about improving the well-being of future generations by minimizing the facets of their ignorance do you have an extremely high tolerance for shitty facial hair this channel might be for you hi I'm Pierce and this is science with Pierce the channel where no statement about reality can be definitively proven to be true and where your intuitions are I used to do fun demonstrations like this but that wasn't very methodical I decided to start fresh and to create a series of videos that examine the foundational aspects of things like science empiricism rationalism and skepticism so that I can move methodically into a discussion of the basic physical sciences and eventually into what interests me in the natural world now if you're interested in why I'm doing this I would just point you towards my video I did recently on existential nihilism what is science well I'm glad you asked science has had a series of meanings throughout human history and it comes from the Latin word ciencia which means knowledge now when I talk about science I'm talking about a method that we use as humans to help us discern the nature of reality and and we need that method because we are just not suited to determine truth in many cases it even suits us to ignore truth you know for example if I was fully aware and I was able to fully acknowledge the insignificance of my existence on a geological time scale I would just crawl into a hole and die but not only is my brain not suited to think about in scale but also I've got this subroutine going on in my brain that's interested in self-preservation and comfort seating so obviously my psychology is not suited to perfectly understand the truth and on top of that we are pattern-seeking primates some neuroscientists and evolutionary biologists have gone so far as to say that maybe consciousness merely arises as an emergent property of our higher-order pattern seeking brains if you don't believe me just go into a field with your friends lay down in the grass and look at the clouds you will all see different shapes maybe you'll see a lion maybe you'll see a sailboat doesn't matter what matters is that you will all see things and that's what's important that's why we need science to help us avoid the ceaseless trickery of our pattern seeking eight brains so how does one do science well well the first thing you do is need to make an observation so I can make an observation right now like I have a thinner than average mustache okay then what you do is you form a hypothesis so my hypothesis could be I have a thinner mustache than average so notice that my hypothesis is a statement about reality and further notice that my hypothesis is falsifiable and it is testable okay and that's what you do next so you make a prediction like if my mustache is thinner than average then the average number of follicles per square centimeter on my mustache should be lower than the number of follicles per square centimeter on the average humans mustache okay that's a prediction and in order to test that prediction you perform experiments now this is where some people get confused because I'm not trying to do this experiment in order to prove my hypothesis right I don't want the fact that I have a thinner that average mustache to be right and you should never want to try to prove your hypothesis to be true because nothing can be proven to be true in science and it's important to acknowledge that the only thing you can do with a scientific method is prove something to be false only when a hypothesis resists being disproven can we be somewhat confident about the probability of its truth there is always the lingering possibility that we are merely existing in a simulated reality here and none of this is real and I'm actually just dreaming about this entire thing and you don't exist why am I doing this so once we've established the number of hair follicles on my mustache relative to the average humans number of hair follicles then we can begin to create a general theory about the thickness of my mustache so then you go back and you repeat the process that is what science pays that is the method that we have devised as humans to overcome our biases and our pattern-seeking behavior let's summarize observation hypothesis prediction experimentation conclusion this is the scientific method and the reason why science is superior to other methods of inquiry is because it is infinitely adaptable on the face of new information that is why it is an extremely admirable and brave and intellectually honest thing to do to change one's mind in the face of new information in at least in scientific and academic contexts it is brave in human culture in general it's actually seen as some sort of mark of submission more people who will buy the lies that you spew out at them the more dominant you are as a human being in our society so when someone tells a lie or when someone refuses to admit their previous irrationality the number of people who will go along with their little charade and who will buy their is a direct representation of the dominance that they hold in that society so so if you want to avoid being mentally dominated if you want to avoid subjugation by tyrannical rationality propagated by people who seek to use you to their own ends then science could probably be the best thing that you could hope to espouse because a mind which has been molded by the precepts of scientific thinking and rationality and skepticism is a mind which is safeguarded against the possibility of manipulation at the hands of another so thanks for joining me on this foundational exposition of the scientific method again I'm your host Pierce this has been an episode of science with Pierce don't forget to Like comment and subscribe and I hope to see you very soon in some future videos where we will be building off of this foundation of the scientific method and working towards more complicated ideas and eventually towards our own idea of the nature of reality
#HeyScientistMel #Science #Atheism
I’m not a scientist but science is something that I’m deeply interested in. The reason being is that when I left the faith I wanted to know things that were true and not simply things that I assumed were true. My whole life had been one of acceptance for the things that I had been told to believe, so when I left I realized that I didn’t actually have any understanding of the world around me. Desperate for understanding I dove into science, what I found was a basis for understanding the world that rejected blind faith and instead depended upon the scientific method. Using observation, questioning, hypothesis, experimentation, and conclusions.
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I'm not a better brother I'm a peasant bugger son adamson better the better hello hellbound friends I'm not a scientist but science is something that I'm deeply interested in the reason being is that when I left the faith I wanted to know things that were true and not simply things that I assumed were true my whole life had been one of acceptance for the things that I had been told to believe so when I left I realized that I didn't actually have any understanding of the world around me desperate for understanding I dove into science what I found was a basis for understanding the world that rejected blind faith and instead depended upon the scientific method using observation questioning hypothesis experimentation and then finally conclusions this is why when someone brings to me something from pseudoscience I say go yourself whether you claim it as naturopathic science occult science or spirit science you're just claiming something as science that isn't in any way whatsoever scientific there are folks claiming that astrology is equal to astronomy alchemy is equal to chemistry homeopathy is equal to medicine and that creationism is equal to cosmology and evolution no you're crazy pseudo scientific is not equal to any form of modern science the closest you may have is alchemy which did use the scientific method to falsify its own assumptions and then move forward to actual science of chemistry if your pseudo science cannot stand up to the scientific method then stop promoting it as science no one has ever been cured through homeopathy yes the placebo effect does exist but it isn't a sign that your garbage works but that someone believed it was going to work and so they seemingly got better the placebo effect doesn't cure cancer it won't remove a brain tumor it won't give the lame the ability to walk or the blind the ability to see it works in the same way that a sunny day can make someone feel better not me because I hate the Sun but others do seem to feel better when exposed to the Sun astrology is no basis in the scientific method ask a person to give you a tarot card reading and then have them shuffle the deck and magically give you the exact same reading it won't happen it's just guesses added to cold and hot readings of the subject you're doing the reading for creationism is unsubstantiated claims that a big sky daddy existed for all eternity and then at some point in all that eternity decided to create a vast universe so that on one small blue and mostly harmless planet he could create a species of sentient and conscious apes that would need to worry more about their genitalia than they do about their fellow human beings especially those other sentient and conscious apes that happen to worship a different sky daddy that told them other rules and practices to follow abiogenesis and evolution are clear and concise science made predictions over 100 years ago that continue to be proven correct time and time again well we may not completely understand abiogenesis yet it's not as if we don't have clear evidence of how it might work experiments have been conducted in the past that replicated a young earth atmosphere and we were able to have amino acids form so we don't understand the complete process but we do understand the basic groundwork for how it could have occurred evolution on the other hand is very well understood and easy to grasp only creationists muddy the waters and try to make it something that's far too hard to understand for the layperson to grasp evolution is simply small changes in our genetic composition that over time will lead to changes in population and ultimately different species of animals that's basically it it's not something incomprehensible it's just simple changes that given enough time has led to the world in which we now live so then what exactly is the scientific method well not being a scientist I don't feel as if I could properly describe it to you so instead let me call it a scientist now what scientists do I know so hey yeah I thought I would hop over here and explain a little something on this scientific method because you know what a lot of people get this stuff confused often and so I thought I would break it down into little easy bite-size nibbles so I want to talk about is what is it why do scientists use it and why is it effective well it's a problem-solving process scientists used and it is an easy form to follow it's also repeatable and it always gives answers even if they're not the answers that we want so the steps of the scientific method are pretty easy we observe a thing that's happening in nature and the next thing we do is question why is this thing happening then we come up with a tentative answer and answer on trial called a hypothesis as to how or why a particular thing is happening then we experiment to determine if that's the answer we get our results we analyze these results and then we conclude on whether or not this is the thing that's causing this other thing to happen so we're looking at it is something called if-then statements if I do this then this thing will happen we're analyzing a cause and effect type of relationship this is our hypothesis our answer on trial our experiment is the actual trial to determine whether or not this particular hypothesis is the answer then we get our data in the form of results then we analyze this data and we conclude that's the end of the trial so it uses this if-then logic and so this hypothesis is a tentative answer in a will framed question we have our trial and error then we use deductive reasoning so it kind of flows from generalized to specific and a hypothesis in the scientific community gains credibility by surviving attempts to falsify it so let's talk a little bit more about this so I do want to kind of break down the difference between law hypothesis theory and fad what is the difference a laws of fact it's a cause and effect relationship between two elements that always happen the same way under certain conditions in some cases it happens differently in other conditions laws are widely seen as true but can have exceptions to the rule as we gain new evidence hypothesis is that if then statement that goes to be tested through experimentation if I let go of this ball on earth it will fall towards the ground you test that and find out that your hypothesis is true a fact that is our evidence our data our results the ball either drops or it doesn't if you wanted to test the speed of the ball you can do so with further experiments the speed you record is also a fact you might get unusual unusual results from an experiment they are still fast which means you need to figure out why these results happened this way could be human error it could be something wrong with your instrumentation or something else that's affecting your results theory that's an explanation that is broad and it generates new hypotheses and it's supported by a large body of evidence if it's supported by facts gravity is a theory it is an explanation as to why things hit the ground when we let go of them laws do not tell why something happens they just state that they do theories tell why something happens so that we completely understand theory let's address the facts gravity is a theory it explains why things hit the ground when they do Newton's laws discuss the math behind a singular fact regarding movement one fact at a time bodies in motion stay in motion unless acted on by an outside force this states the relationship between movement and something affecting it but it doesn't tell why this happens gravity explains why bodies in motion can change via a force it also discusses how mass and gravity are linked mini facts build up a theory not just one evolution is a theory based in many facts we know things change over time genetically and physically many different facts show that these things change over time but it doesn't state why evolution discusses why things change over time why do we see these physical changes in genetic changes natural selection an embodiment of evidence showing that environment population genetics mating mutation natural disasters these are all things that affect what changes and that's the difference between law hypotheses backed in theory so let's jump back over to the scientific method what is it well it's lots of different things its reinforces or debunked theories it reinforces or changes lives and it can reinforce or completely eliminate hypotheses so when I hear somebody say it's just a theory it belittles the massive amount of evidence that supports a particular theory it makes me say what and then scientists mellow dance a little bit so why do I the massive amount of evidence and facts that go into developing a theory explaining why is something we know happens these two belittled with just that small phrase it's just a theory if theories change it's only slightly and with added intricate details that have well-established knowledge from facts I once heard a science teacher of physics say gravity really should be a law this man had taught physics and chemistry for 20 years to high-school students and he showed me in one sentence he had no idea the difference between Theory law hypothesis and fact it is such a commonly misunderstood concept that I encountered this thought process in nearly every aspect of society I have experienced so the scientific method why does this method work it does science works but there's a reason why it works we go through this particular process in order to generate results but you know why do scientists here's the thing no matter what the results you know they are results that will either reinforce or eliminate your hypothesis it causes you to go back and reevaluate every aspect of your experiment to ensure that there was no human error you repeat what you did to see if you get the same results making certain there was no human error once you reinforce or eliminate a hypothesis you can move on to the next step either you test your hypothesis in another way to reinforce its credibility or you make a brand new one some scientists go out of the order of the scientific method as during early experimentation a hypothesis might be eliminated quickly during due to early results showing that it's problematic scientists can then go back to the drawing boards and reevaluate the experiment as well as the hypothesis using that if-then logic to determine if other answers are more reasonable and if there are other factors involved now the method works because it always will give you results that will either support or destroy this answer on trial then you come up with a new answer or you move to reinforce the one that is accurate other scientists can then repeat what you do to either support the bunk or even add to your hypothesis so this last little graphic that I'm gonna show you before I hop off of your channel here GI is this so this is how you can kind of use the scientific method and what goes on in the mind of a scientist you ask what is the question well you're observing something what's the what's the question you want to answer what do you think the answer is that's your hypothesis how do you find that answer that's your experiment and then you generate your particular experimental design did you get the answer right why are why not so you analyze your results you figure out if that's the answer if it's not the answer why didn't you get the answer you need it so what you do is you redo and if you did get the answer you needed you double check and try different experiment to reinforce it that's essentially what scientists do every single time they go through on a particular process so that has been this scientific method I hope you have a fantastic day GI and I hope that cleared up everything for you I'll see you later Thanks scientists know you did a far better job than I could have I hope you all enjoyed this video if you haven't yet hit the like button smash the subscribe button and share also if you haven't subscribed to scientists mail yet please go and do so she makes excellent videos that promote scientific knowledge she does it in a way that few people are capable of doing thanks for watching and remember ethics over exposure
The Scientific Method Song is a science song that teaches the seven steps of the scientific method. The Scientific Method Song teaches kids about Observation, Question, Hypothesis, Prediction, Experiment, Analyze Data, and Draw a Conclusion. This is a song for learning the steps of the Scientific Method.
Scientific Method Song Lyrics
First you make an observation of the world around
Take notes and record all the things that you found
Then you ask a simple question something that you want to learn Then you form a hypothesis to explain what you observed
Then you make a prediction about how it’s gonna go
Do a test with a control and variable
Then you analyze the data and draw a conclusion
Do the scientific method to avoid all confusion
Make an observation
Ask a question
Form a hypothesis
And make a prediction
Do a test or experimentation
Analyze data and draw a conclusion
Oh take notes and record all the things that you found that you ask us sample question something that you want a word what you observe have you make go to what control conclusion to the Jim asked a question for my hypothesis and make a prediction to a test or experimentation analyze data and draw conclusion observation ask a question for my hypothesis and make a prediction to a test or experimentation [Applause] observation of the world around take notes and record all the things that you found that you asked us sample questions something that you no word a new formal hypothesis to explain what you observe and you make up just when I can [Applause] a scientific method observation ask a question for my hypothesis and make a prediction to a test or experimentation in Alaska there try to closer like an observation ask a question make a prediction to a test or experimentation in observation ask a question for my hypothesis and make a prediction to a test or experimentation analyze data and tracking observation ask a question and make a prediction to attach or experimentation [Applause]
This remake of my former parody with the same name is about some basic steps in the scientific method for experimental study. It is to the tune of “Bend Me, Shape Me” written by Scott English and Larry Weiss. It was a recorded hit by “The American Breed”. I have always loved this song’s beat and melody and was happy to use this tune for the song about the steps in experimental investigation.
(In the song, I use the word “data” as a mass noun instead of a count noun so I am using a singular verb in the usage.).
Here are the words to the song:
An experimental study requires you to follow
steps in a process, get some basics right now!
You narrow down a problem, express it in question form.
Then the main variables, you identify!
The independent variable’s the one, you test or manipulate (echo).
The dependent variable’s the measure in response to what you change (echo).
Don’t forget all the constants, the things you must keep the same.
So you are just testing that one thing that YOU change!
Next you do research on both variables,
to make a prediction you need to be well informed.
You write a hypothesis, including both variables
The first clause starts with if, the second with then.
Gather your materials and think of the steps you will follow (echo).
Write down those procedures and start by making your data table (echo).
It must have labels and units, now you can experiment,
present your results in tables and graphs.
Look at the results and come to a conclusion,
Did the data support your hypothesis?
Back up your claim citing data that you gathered.
It either SUPPORTS or IT DOES NOT SUPPORT!
Point out where you had experimental errors that
could have affected, the outcomes you got.
Name some things you’d do a little differently
if you repeated this experiment!
Hey sounds like you’re off to a great START!
An experimental study requires you to follow
steps in a process, get some basics right now! You narrow down a problem, express it in question
form. Then the main variables, you identify! (short instrumental) The independent variable's the one, you test
or manipulate (echo). The dependent variable's the measure in response
to what you change (echo). Don't forget all the constants, the things
you must keep the same. So you are just testing that one thing that
YOU change! Next you do research on both variables,
to make a prediction you need to be well informed. You write a hypothesis, including both variables
The first clause starts with if, the second with then. (short instrumental) Gather your materials and think of the steps
you will follow (echo). Write down those procedures and start by making
your data table (echo). It must have labels and units, now you can experiment, present your results in tables and graphs. Look at your results and come to a conclusion,
Did the data support your hypothesis? Back up your claim citing data that you gathered. It either SUPPORTS or IT DOES NOT SUPPORT! Point out where you had experimental errors
that could have affected, the outcomes you got. Name some things you'd do a little differently
if you repeated this experiment! Hey sounds like you're off to a great START! YEAH!
Adeel explains development of The Scientific Method and its use in daily life. The Scientific Method is a method of procedure that has characterized natural science since the 17th century, consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses.
Follow and revise the simple method and tips in this video to achieve A* every time. Thanks for watching! Please subscribe and then keep revising: register for HUNDREDS of FREE videos covering English, Maths and Science for GCSE and A-Level revision at
hello everyone and welcome again to the English teacher today really important lesson we're going to look at how you can achieve an a star in any type of essay you would undertake during your time at GCSE now first things first let's go for the basics for really for any exam particularly for English there are three things you need to be able to do in order to achieve a star through these things you do absolutely fine firstly content you must know your poem you'll play your novel inside out you can own a method as well as anybody else if you don't know what your book is about there's no way you can write about it and achieve a star secondly which is just as important is the method you need to know exactly how you are going to go about achieving a style this means you need to look at your exams mark schemes you need to look past examples that revise the method and when you're in the exam you're proofing your work you can look at in so write have I done everything I need to to achieve a star and if you know you haven't you can correct it so therefore you know you're going to get good grade and finally it's a timing you in the exam only have a short amount of time with which to write your response you need to practice writing your full response in that time do those three things you'll be absolutely fine and get your a star okay traditionally what kinds of questions might you be asked well there are two main types there are character and there are thing so our character questions can look a bit like this how was the character they have Lenny Atticus mr. Birling Larry LaSalle from hero's presented second example there is the same thing or where is slightly differently always going to read the questions carefully to find exactly what we're doing secondly is the theme based questions how does the writer present anything of loneliness justice revenge love fear etc now I want to stop very quickly here and talk about difference between a star candidate for theme and letter C D or B candidate now a B you're below candidate we'll highlight where that theme appears in the novel so if we take the loneliness for instance loneliness appears in Curley's wife when she refers to talk to Lenny about being I'm awful lonely whereas an a-star candidate will look at the word itself no how is loneliness presented well choking the same section we can say loneliness it presented us by Steinbeck or something which is difficult to live with already you can hear now that when we go to analyze our quotes we sound more intellectual we sound as if we are a high-level students ok quick task for you before we go through what method I want you to follow let's see if you've been paying attention to your teachers since es7 what method should you use in order to accomplish a star so I'm looking mainly at your introduction your main paragraphs your conclusion pause this very briefly note it down and consider your answer before moving on okay so the methods here I recommend you do and again I've been someone has been teaching for a long time now and my students achieve very best results so planning wise you identify three to five answers to the question now you'll know within yourself if you're pressing your timings where you can write free main paragraphs four or five main paragraph in the time you can get a star for writing three you can get a star for writing five however you need to know what you can achieve in the time so that's partly down to you whether it's three to five secondly for each point you need to know at least two quotes which prove that you are correct finally when you're planning and for me this is key if you're going to go a star you need to know around the quotes quickly elements of explanation all in note form just get no marks and planning however once again an a-star student will have pre-prepared analysis for the quotes that are going to use so you know if that you are able to use a certain quote you should already have some of your analysis pre-prepared as part of your revision now you're not going to have to use all of your analysis that you have prepared however if you can use one or two bits of a-star preparation then you know straight away you're just pasting in a-star analysis all right now everyone uses slightly different methods but essentially it's the same thing here I'm going to be teaching you pe e P is the point it's the answer is your topic sentence which main paragraph e is your evidence it's your quotations or your reference from the text to prove to the marker you're correct finally C explanation explain how the whole quote shows that your point is correct do those three things you're probably on a D low C in the exam but we're not here for that we're here for those starts we need to do the following things additionally and this is where if you revise this method you'll be absolutely fine I mean you're not going to get all of these in a time you can get most of these in in every paragraph and overall you've covered everything you want for a star you focus on the importance of individual words so this word also helps to show us this we offer alternative interpretations you know so however or alternatively this quote also shows us we can link this to the whole text so how does this work in relation to the whole novel this foreshadow something does this remind us of something that occurred earlier in the text we look at his historical context or fusion different audiences so for instance in To Kill a Mockingbird it's set in the 1930s published in the 1960s and we are reading it today so how do people over time view the novel different and finally a star students will evaluate why is your included this why has this happened at this point why does the right to write by the characters because I'm not real in this way you do this three to five times proofread your work you're guaranteed an excellent marketing exam all right so let's go for is practice using this then here's a quick question how does leaves every character Atticus in To Kill a Mockingbird now this is my plan these are my points I've got seven here because what I'm going to do is I'm going to pick the five that I feel are the best points so for instance is no teachers a good one a vehicle for these view or similar justice they're all good ones so more the points that you need select the ones that you want let's move on to the evidence section now shall we so the point one presented as a teacher made two quotes here's one here's my second quote now put that to the sides I'm going to work on the first quote with you so what I now need to do is to prove explain how that quote proves that he'd a teacher well they are note form inform Scout the expression is incorrect therefore is explaining how to be respectful that's what teachers do they explain now we need to go for our additional analysis in order to move up the grade boundaries so individual work is common to be racist context and individual word here or suggests that Atticus once he's chilling to better than others this also shows Atticus to be ahead of his time as he sees the common view is wrong also the lexical choice or word choice we using terminology because we need to now because of the strengths and exams also shows that the reader that just because others think it's right doesn't mean that it is right talk about individualism they're being strong-minded alternatively not just showing scout it wrong it leads also highlighting this to the reader and there's our evaluation well as an alternative interpretation that's not all of the bullet points but like I said before over my entire essay I'm going to try and get all of them in every single opportunity let's go through the method itself so our introduction we create a focus opening which answers the question directly and we may list the points that we will cover that helps us to our structure of our essay let's have a look at what the instruction could look like for this once I finished my entire planning so Harper Lee's character Atticus is pivotal in conveying her message of equality Nords dudas leaps into character as a teacher fair and wise or these protagonist Atticus Finch is presented in many ways throughout the novel he's seen by the reader as a teacher fair wise very similar I'm answering a question directly I'm showing a marker and exactly what I'm talking about I'm not really wasting a lot of time my exam our main paragraphs now we've already gone through this but that's a reminder very quickly I'm looking to these three to five times and try and get as many of those bullet points if not all of them in as possible so point I stated above Atticus is presented as a teacher for our killed burr to kill a mockingbird notice all I'm doing is writing out my plan in full sentences that's so easy is once you've got good planning evidence you says to scout don't sing nigger Scout that's common clearly this shows Atticus teaching Scout not to use the word such as near as they're disrespectful and as Etica says common this shows us that as a parent Atticus has to teach his children about things it did not always learn in school have respect and how to behave in society lovely point evidence explanation there's my deal Oh see now let's try and move up towards a star here's all the additional analysis you can see the difference it makes this is why you're going to be an a-star candidate because you're putting every single effort that you can this also suggests there is more to life than what one can learn in school maybe there are more important things to also shows an element of Atticus variable trails for thinking as a lot of people a novel and in southern America at a time use the word nigger to refer to someone with black skin Atticus says this is wrong going against the majority at the time demonstrating Lee's message of equality and fairness they could use this to try to show us that the majority of people are not always right just indicate in Tom Robinson's Court case there's a majority of the jury all of them in fact say he is guilty this is not me now right in fact we know them to be wrong this would raise a message from Lee that you should always stand up for what you believe to be right or true so they are evaluating as we're going along however alternative viewpoint here it could also show some prejudice on the part of Atticus he says that's common he implies that common things are something negative you could also be referred to a particular type of person by using the word common which shows he is prejudiced against a type of individual as he implies that they're somewhat inferior that's an individual ideas and there's something different that makes you stand out from the rest another quote showing Atticus as a teacher is is a sin to kill a mockingbird this shows Atticus again teaching these children not to kill mockingbirds which are a metaphor used throughout the novel to show people who have done nothing wrong like boo radley so again we using our second code here to prove that we really know the novel use of the word sin so we're using the individual words and expanding to the whole text to prove a real expert confident knowledge of the text has religious connotations it's just that by doing this you're going against God and should therefore be sent to hell this is a powerful idea and a novel where society strongly believes in Christianity suggesting that the people who act against the Mockingbird on Robinson are sinful however this also shows prejudice in Atticus as before this he says she all the blue jays you won which raises the question why is it all right to kill blue jays and not mockingbirds again so we've got point evidence explanation alternative interpretations individual word analysis we've got to context here we've not really looked at structure at this point but like I said we can't do that we can't get every single bullet point every single time and we've got some individual ideas and those individual ideas are the ones that really separate you as a nice start and today let's look at a couple of examples after our conclusion we create a strong conclusion here which might evaluate the author's overall reasons for a negative decision and or suggests which element they felt was the most important so you can hear the conclusions are really valuated stage of your essay these two examples as the vehicle for these message for equality is important that readers view Atticus in a positive light because if they do not then we're unlikely to agree with the concepts of equality clearly the most important aspect of his character is that he is seen to be fair as this is Lee's moral to the tale example two as we've seen Atticus is a character but we as a reader will perceive to be positive role model but I mean the fictional society lives within but the readers themselves the most important aspect of Atticus is character so we're given revalue ating which is the most important part of him we see a sense of fairness due to the feather throughout all difficulties he comes across and trying to maintain this the characters firm belief in fairness leaves Arya to consider that for one man to struggle so great before it must make it important and there we go will proofread our work carefully we have to add a little starvin Alice to include that it's been as if you've missed out on then we do that but if we follow that method exactly we know the novel confidently enough you I guarantee you'll get very very high market exam if not a star so a couple of different examples as well so this is the character analysis of Lennie in Of Mice and Men you're more than welcome to pause this but to save time all I'm going to do is highlight the in bolded parts so George is like a father to him his beans to his ketchup it's Jesse Lennie is not complete without George the bulk of the two combined more importantly the learning needs George in order to be complete and therefore survive in this novel we've got a point got evidence we've analyzed our explanation looking at foreshadowing so there's our structure in here as well individual ideas all those elements of analysis have created this a star essay it's it pauses very quickly for look at that again here's a final example looking at theme this is the theme of justice in To Kill a Mockingbird and included introduction this time again point evidence explanation and all aspects of our explanation are covered in this paragraph including our individual ideas which are pre-prepared and now I'm going to use these before I step into the exam so I made a table romancin am represents black society who's crippled hand is a metaphor for the cripple manner in which black people had to live within sight at a time nice individual idea not many people amusing that makes you stand out makes you seem more intelligent therefore you deserve a more intelligent mark and secondly we've got alternative view although this could be Lee suggesting the black community is higher this is where they've to sit above the white sink in the courtroom making them appear holier and therefore more respectable to persuade the rear that black people are just as good as white people again pause that very quickly and have a look at that but it's just the method applied to a different text on all those examples that are going to achieving a star as long as I've got a good introduction to other at least main paragraphs good conclusion which we've covered and we proofread that work carefully so thank you very much so remember at the very basic its content method timing no those texts inside out and get those individual ideas in there if you can otherwise analyzing all those aspects of explanation will it help you achieve a star so thank you well done continue to work hard and you'll have great success in your exams
Follow my simple tips, practise and you will achieve grade 9 in the exam.
Use the link below to access the WJEC past papers:
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hello and welcome to the English teaches Welsh Board GCC English literature guide to how to create an a-star extracts response we can do a couple of things today we're going to firstly look at what the example wants us to do in order to achieve a star we're also going to see how we can do that firstly let's remind ourselves the two exam papers which use the extract response the first is unit 1 which prose and poetry so that's your mice and men an eater in me to kill a mockingbird I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings will chant a secret text the second section of that is that can have the comparison between two unseen poems the second paper is a literary heritage with drama and contemporary prose now this one is your history boys blood brothers view from a bridge a fellow inspector calls taste of honey and some of the pros would be heroes Pattie Clarke's ha ha ha about a boy Christmas Carol law the Flyers Silas Marner Pride and Prejudice good now let's look at a couple of things we need to think about before we go through this in some detail firstly I want to say well you know so I've got two tasks for you as you can see task number one what do you need do you think to do within an extract question in order to achieve 10 out of 10 which is a star secondly what I want you to think about is what methods should you use in order to accomplish this so it's a good idea now to pause this very briefly and to note down I'll consider whether you know the answer is already because at this stage if we're looking this around May time you should already know the answer okay so let's look at the Mart scheme itself so for both extract questions you're going to be marked against io1 which is assessment objective one which is your ability to basically write properly and use terminology and ao2 which is your ability to analyze language form and structure so to get out of ten marks we need to do the following things let's look at a o1 firstly so you need to make sure that you sound confident with your piece of work you should also start to be able to speculate or make judgments so in your extract you should be writing down things such as this could mean this this might mean this this could be why this happens later on a novel a star candidates are also going to be able to evaluate so why has the right to include this in this way does it set us up for the novel later on does it also make us consider the moral to this story and also at the highest level what we should be able to do if we are going to shoot this a star we need to have a good overview of the novel so we should be able to concentrate on minor detail single words and link that back to the whole text for a o2 so I bility to analyze language fullness structure we need to show appreciation of how writers use language to achieve specific effects so that's where you analyze individual words and say why this is such an interesting lexical choice for instance it's also explore and again evaluate how many is created through language structure and form so structure can include things like sentence structure word order paragraph lengths form for instance could be the narrative perspective could be the type of text it is is it a novel is it a play for instance again at the highest level needs to make assured analysis so you need to sound as if the analysis you're making isn't that humdrum everyday analysis that you know other candidates can make yours needs to be a little bit different a bit more intelligent but this is our method and again in the exam paper it gives you the timings of exactly how long you should spend the next sections and not try and trick you so we have 20 minutes is recommended to respond to any of the extract questions which means we have about five minutes planning time and reading and 15 minutes to respond now obviously that isn't a lot of time so my main advice to you is to practice you could look at the same extracts a number of times but you need to make sure you are able to write a response in that time and planet because the not planet will be a grievous error on your part and you should also be able to factor in some proofreading time let's have a look at this in a bit more detail shall we so I recommend and I'm a teacher that's been about teaching GCSE now for at least seven years achieving extremely high results in my classes so maybe you want to listen to what I have to say planning wise you to read through carefully underlining key words as you go along and I'll show you in a moment but I'd also like you to start to note down what that quote suggests make your point you might even if you have time you've practiced well enough you might even start out include little notes for analysis the right I'm going to come back to in a second but have a quick look at that if you wish to pause this and that just down you're more than welcome to so let's take a look at a question we're going to use before we go back to the writing stage so again there's information given to us but exampled you are advised to spend about 20 minutes on Part A which is our extract and about 40 minutes on Part B or C which is your two essay questions so sir extract question read the extract on the opposite page then answer the following looking closely at Curley's wife looking how close she speaks and behaves here was reveal about her character well let's have a look shall we so that's my annotated version we're going to come back to it in a second but here we are this is the extract that we will be faced with in the exam this this year what I'm waiting to do is have a quick look at this again I'll expect you to please pause this you may have your own copy of the text in front of you or you might want to print you can actually get an online copy of mice and men for free which you could use to copy and paste sections of and print out but please pause this and have a quick look okay now my advice you've got five minutes so you need to be practicing annotating this as you go along we're looking for about 10 to 12 points here so as you read through you should be underlining LMI aspects of this text which shows something about Korea's wife's character now yes we could go further more obvious points no she's flirtatious she's a girl other characters don't like her but we you can hear you sound like a seedy borderline candidate and a to a star candidate will be producing things such as this so as you can see obviously I would hand write this normally because that's what we need to do an exam if you look along the side you can see I've got my 12 points this is an extensive exhaustive list by all means there are many things that I've missed out on the you gonna also want to look at but remember we need to get something from the start and the last point needs to come from somewhere near the end and it's in note form now this is for you this isn't the answer you don't get marked for this so you need to make sure that what you have written down is quick and you can use it let's take a look along the side you can see point number one comes from the first sentence that's what we need to do CW Curley's wife blocks their lights therefore she's blocking their hope and it's her death as we know that is the end of their dream their light or their hope how much better does that sound secondly as we work our way down heavily made-up could suggest that she is defensive therefore it's Jess she's covering her true feelings which would then obviously link nicely to her confession to Lenny that she does feel isolated that she does feel lonely again I'm not gonna go through all of these a point number three a hair rolled like sausages well that's simile we need to start using that terminology if we can for AI star candles for IO one that similarly suggests that she is meat for the men that she's a character that can fulfill their carnal needs and they're definitely this idea that she is the the meat on the farm other men look at and judge and you can see we work our way through you should be doing the same underlying the key part along the side or underneath it what is that telling us so your point and if you can factor in this time if you practiced enough you can see that we start to get notes of analysis whether that be alternative views individual words or structure and eventually we go right near the end so this is where George says piece of jailbait worse than her and I'm suggested or once again so I've already kind of used this idea but once again it reinforces this point that she is dangerous but jailbait specifically and this is you can hear we sound better specifically leads to or suggest a criminal act which obviously suggests her murder okay then that should take us about five minutes if it does take a little bit longer maybe six seven and that's absolutely fine but I will always suggest that the planning is the most important part if you fail to plan you then lose track of where you are what you've got to and in particular I think if we're looking at a a star those notes are key so let's go back shall we and let's look at the writing sorry about that let's look at the writing so we can see now that we've got our points we've got our tentative things underlined what we need to do is create an introduction which identifies where this extract can be found which shows that we know the text but also we should evaluate why this extract is important you know why it's there what's the point of it and again that short IO – isn't it that sure evaluation what we need to do is not the same as a full essay you haven't got the same time to look at things in that same length of detail I know different teachers will tell you to explore this inside different way but this is one method that's definitely work with my classes over the years what you want is a quote comment method which is similar to some of the reading questions in a language paper that we'll cover in another video you need to make your point very clearly you need to use the quote to support that what you should also do is include elements of analysis and I would say for at least every other point if not all of them if you can some slight analysis that can be your language that could be alternative interpretations your structure you're also advised to make minor reference to the wider aspects of the novel so this therefore leads on to her murder which happens in a later section so we've looked at what the example wants us to do we looked at our methods and again I recommend you take some time planning that let's have a look at what an actual response to a style looks like so this is unfinished but it is half of what you need to do so this extract can be found part of the way through the second section of the novel this extract helps to foreshadow the threat the character has on the future happiness of George and Lennie so that's us establishing we know what we're talking about and why Steinbeck has done this so this is our quote comment structure that we need to follow firstly the rectangle of sunshine was cut off this immediately suggests that the character will block the only happiness and hope the characters have the violent nature of the work cut also foreshadows the manner in which it will happen which we know to be a painful end so there we go so there's our quote that's as brief explaining what this suggests about the character but you can also see our nurses gotten a bit further than that we're now starting to sound far more analytical we've gone from looking at the hole to the very specific with the word cut here unless if we continue doing that also the repetition of the word the color red or Rouge placed upon the character also suggests passion suggesting that she is an object of desire for the men alternatively we associate red with danger so once again stomach could be hinting heavily at the danger Curley's wife is under and or poses later in a novel so you get the idea so that's two of the points that we've taken from our planning I obviously need to try and make sure if I can in a time again this is practice we cover 10 to 12 points but listen to that analysis you know look over again it sounds clever it's different it's not just the obvious analysis that other candidates would come up with this is what's going to set you out from being just a B grade or a low way this what we need to do to get our high AOR a star we need to make sure that our analysis it's very hard to do in time but this means make sure that our analysis stands out that we sound far more intellectual however as we know we have mood and atmosphere extract questions as well now these is exactly the same method as we were for our character or language extracts however there are slight differences firstly in the planning stage rather than looking for characters we're looking to identify the mood or the atmosphere and what I and a star can legs will do is identify whether it changes or remains the same so you might end up writing things such as the mood becomes more intense at this point something like that would be good you also as we said need to say tight to the question as we do with our language and carrots a question let's make sure that we're tracking the mood really carefully we use the same method for the planning and then again here are some useful words and phrases you might want to use so the mood is calm depressing relaxing oppressive spooky melancholy which means sad there's just some of the phrases you could use they help make your work air one aspects of your work sound better but again what does it look like and here we are so this is a response to the January 11 extract mood and a Pacific question and this is from tequila Mockingbird but I always think that for the extract question doesn't matter what texts you've studied you should be able to achieve a star with whatever text so this extract can be found in Chapter six under novel jr. earlier section of part one this extract is significant as it helps to highlight the children's suspicion for the Boo Radley myth they have created but also shows that their lack of understanding can cause them trouble something they learn to deal with through the building's room and structure the less inviting back of the house immediately creates a threatening atmosphere as the children are well aware that they are not supposed to enter the Radley property it also helps to explain why later when you extract Nathan Radley fires a gun at the intruders the moon also shines eerily creating a ghostly spooky atmosphere which means the ghostly myth the children have created for the Radley home the moon is also traditionally associated with gothic creatures such as werewolves which helps to create the impression of a haunted house which only fuels the chart and children's fears and again there's our quote comment there's that a star piece of analysis and once more we are a star because we're going to end up using ten to twelve quotes and comments but the analysis is the key thing we're evaluating the points that we're making are more advanced than your humdrum student so thank you very much if you want to look at any of the past papers there's a link here for the Welsh Board sites but well done you're more than welcome to look it's again but always remember please it's content method timing if you know the texts if you revise the method you're supposed to use and you can undertake that method in the time you'll achieve a star so thank you very much well done you
Here is a song I created to help my 6th grade students study. I hope you enjoy.
Question the way
The world works again
That’s the Purpose
Hypothesis-you think will occur
Experiment, Materials, Procedures
I’m gonna do my…
I’m gonna do my…
Hypothesis is your guess
And then Experiment
And you’re done
Once you observe
Charts and Data
And this helps us find out
Were you right?
I’m gonna do my…
I’m gonna do my…
Hypothesis is your guess
And then experiment
And you’re done
I’m gonna do my…
I’m gonna do my…
Hypothesis is your guess
And then Experiment
And you’re done
Hypothesis is your guess
And then Experiment
Conclusion and your done
For students who are still struggling with the parts of the scientific method. What each piece is. Review this video for examples of each piece of the scientific method within a controlled experiment.
thank you for viewing today's lecture where we're going to cover some of the basic scientific method terminology this will cover some of the information that you've studied almost every year since you've been studying the scientific method we're just going to review it for those of you who are having trouble holding on to that information and for those of you who just want to refresher for this information the first piece of terminology that we're going to deal with is observation an observation is anything you use with the five senses so data you collect with the five senses at sight touch smell taste and hearing so if you say that something is a certain color like the grass is green the sky is blue that would be an observation there are also two types of observations you can make you can make qualitative observations and you can make quantitative observations a qualitative observation talks about the quality of something so it would be anything that does not include a number for it so it sounds like this it smells like this it tastes like this it looks like it's this color those pieces of information are qualitative observations quantitative observations deal with a quantity of something so if something is a quantitative observation it's going to include a number so observations are information you collect about something that include your five senses when we're doing and following going through the scientific method you're going to have a problem or a question that you're dealing with your problem or question is the one thing that you want to know more information about okay your major question you are not test this question specifically but you're going to eventually develop things that that start with that question so you're really going to start all your all your scientific investigations with a problem or a question that comes from some observations that you make for instance you may notice that there are lots of dead fish that have washed up on the shore of a lake and your question becomes why is it that all of these fish are dying and washing up on the shore so you start with your observations you then become to your question from your question you develop what's called a hypothesis a hypothesis is an educated guess as to what the answer to that question or a problem might be I believe that the fish are washing up on shore because there is now more pollution in that lake so that's my hypothesis one of the easiest ways to write a hypothesis is by what's called an if-then statement if I do this then this will happen okay or you can also write it as this is happening because of this situation so the fish are washing up on shore because there's more pollution in the water so a hypothesis deals with answering your problem or question based on your major information that you already know about the content a control group a control group if you're running an experiment is the one that you're gonna run that is just like nature so what is it that is that you're not changing anything related to nature in that would be your control group it's what you're going to compare every other experimental setup that you that you set up to so your control group is the one that's like nature and a lot of times will describe it just as a control and your experimental group are the ones that you change something to okay so if I were to run an experiment with the fish I might take a couple of setups of fish tanks put some fish in each one of them my control group would be the one that was just like nature so the one that had no chemicals added to it and then I may take an add a certain amount of chemicals to the first one maybe make you know ten milliliters of chemicals to the first one twenty milliliters of chemicals to the second one thirty milliliters of chemicals to the third one the ones with the added chemicals would be our experimental groups now we have two variables that we're testing we're always testing variables within our experiments the first one is called the independent variable one way to remember which one the independent variable is is when I as the scientist changing the independent variable is what I as the scientist of changing and it starts with the I so in my experimental setup with the fish I am changing the concentration of pollutants in the water now the dependent variable is what changes because I changed the independent variable and is also what I am measuring at the very end of my experiment so what I'm measuring at the end of this experiment is the number of fish that survive or die so the dependent variable would be the number of fish that survive or the number of fish that die depending on how I work my hypothesis in my independent variable what I changed is the chemicals or pollutants in the water once I run my experiment I'm going to collect data throughout my experiment I'm going to let those fish sit in that fish tank for maybe 30 days and over those 30 days I'm gonna make observations about the fish do they look healthy do they look like they're cause they're not healthy anymore do they look how many of them die each day do any of them die each day those are my that's my dear my result are my end pieces of information so I'm gonna take my dad and then I'm gonna take and see what it actually looks like so I would put it into a grasp for I would take and put it into a into some sort of a data table and actually take a look at what those results are so my end piece of my data are my results and then want to take a look at what does this actually mean maybe the 10% and none of the fish died maybe in the tar of the 10 milliliters of of chemicals none of the fish died in the 20 milliliters none of the fish died but in the 30 milliliters yes I had fish dying so what does that actually mean I want to take an analyze this data well it means that maybe fish can survive to a certain love in the water which would be a threshold and then I can once it goes over that threshold they're gonna start they're going to start dying so I need to figure out what do my results actually mean to my experiment my conclusion would then be related to my hypothesis was my hypothesis accepted with my hypothesis rejected and why if it's rejected what would I do to change my information were there any things that I might have done wrong was there any time that I maybe didn't collect the data like I should have was there any times where I was not looking at the information in maybe the right correct way because maybe I was rushing through my information so what problems might I have had throughout my experiment that would go with my conclusion now two pieces that I have outside here would be an inference an inference is where I take and say this is what happened but I didn't really see it happen so I'm using some information that I know some prior information to say this is what happened and I'll use an inference a lot of times to draw a conclusion and also in my analysis so I use prior information to try to develop what the actual conclusion to something was without actually making those observations an example I use in class all the time is if I am standing outside the classroom and I hear a crash inside the classroom I come into the classroom I see a window broken and I see a baseball rolling across the floor I can make the inference that somebody threw the baseball through the window and that's what caused it to break but I didn't actually see that happen so instead of an observation it's an inference finally one of the different types of experiments that we will run in science or ways we will collect data data is called a controlled experiment and that's what I've been describing here an experiment where I take and have a control group I have different experimental setups and when I go through all of those and look at the information I'm actually controlling everything there are other types of ways that we can collect data we can go out and do a field study and we actually go out into the field and collect data and make observations but we don't actually control any of that this here is our controlled experiment so a control experiment is one of the ways that we can collect data so hopefully these terminology pieces are have been able to help you out on better information on what the scientific method is and how to understand the different pieces and setups of the scientific method
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depending on your teacher or your textbook you'll see many different ways of breaking down the scientific method but no matter how many versions I've seen they all seem to share some way these five steps the first thing that whenever you're doing science is to ask a question next do some research third come up with a hypothesis fourth test it with a hypothesis it started with an experiment and then finally draw a conclusion now some people have this idea that in order to do science you have to have be wearing a lab coat and have a PhD that's not it at all at its heart to do science all you have to do is be curious and start asking questions about the world for example this could range anywhere from is important and deep as how do i cure cancer to as simple as what's the fastest way for me to get from San Jose to San Francisco now that I've asked a question it's time for me to find out what do people know or think they know and this is where some people wind up running into trouble because a scientist or somebody who's thinking like a scientist when they do their research they're always skeptical about what they're reading so if you read for example that somebody online has posted their cure for cancer which is to jump rope while singing jingle bells if you do that for ten minutes you're cured I demand a lot of evidence to back that up so let's go to the other question that I had which is which ways to get to San Francisco's fastest well if I do some research that'll help me narrow down my choices and perhaps there's three ways to get there highway 101 highway 280 and city streets now based on my research everybody sent seems to agree that driving city streets was take way too long some people argue 101 because it's shorter other people say 280 has less traffic so based on my research it's time for me to come up with a hypothesis and I'm going to go with the side the group of people who said that highway 101 shortest and I think shortest equals fastest so I will come up with my hypothesis that based on the shorter length of Highway 1 and 1 versus the longer length of highway 280 it will take me less time to drive from San Jose to San Francisco taking highway 101 now that is a scientific hypothesis because you'll notice something it can be proved wrong you have to be careful you can make a guess but if it can't be proved wrong then it's not a scientific hypothesis for example if somebody says I love you that may not be wrong but you can't test it you can't hook them up to a level meter and say I'm sorry you're only ten point seven on the love scale and and if you say wolf why did you kiss that other girl because I don't think I'm very good kisser and I want to practice give you better because I love you so that's not science all right now I've got my hypothesis it's time to design my experiment and what I'll do is I'll Drive highway 101 the number of times drive the 218 number times average my results and take a look at what they mean that's the last step and that's where you draw a conclusion now I'm always a little bit leery about saying draw a conclusion because one year I did that and the student turned into me a lab and he did a great job on the lab except instead of having a final paragraph where he went through his experiment and explain what the results meant and whether or not his hypothesis was right and he explained a few refinements to his experiment instead all there was was a stick figure like this and I showed it to mind said what's this and said I drew a conclusion I was right sooo in my experiment let's assume a my average travel time from San Jose de San Francisco via 101 was 55 minutes while highway 280 was 48 minutes on average my conclusion that I'm drawing is that I was wrong my hypothesis was incorrect instead highway 280 because of the less traffic was a faster route now I would also want to suggest some refinements I might suggest hey if I run this experiment at other times a day maybe off-peak hours as opposed to rush hour maybe I'll get different results as one final side note – this is the idea of what is a hypothesis versus a theory now we've just discovered or discussed what is a hypothesis now once a hypothesis has been tested you start kind of moving it on this spectrum towards becoming a theory over time a hypothesis will get stood over and over and sometimes refined like my refinement of perhaps it depends on the time of day but ultimately you'll start calling that hypothesis as a theory now a high theory like a hypothesis could have the possibility being proved wrong and sometimes they will be and scientists will just reject it for example the common theory used to be that the earth was in the center of the universe and the Sun went around the earth and there's a lot of evidence to base on it I mean you can see the Sun goes up and the sun goes down well it turned out that was wrong scientists did more experiments came up with a better explanation that the Sun is in the center of our solar system in the earth goes around that and that's still just a theory but I don't expect to see that one proved wrong any time soon
The Scientific Method Song Download is a science song that teaches the seven steps of the scientific method. The Scientific Method Song teaches kids about Observation, Question, Hypothesis, Prediction, Experiment, Analyze Data, and Draw a Conclusion. This is a song for learning the steps of the Scientific Method.
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hello everyone and welcome again to the English teacher Channel today what we're looking at doing is creating an a-star response for the poetry response question for the Welsh board exam paper okay let's remind ourselves of the exam we expect to find this on this will be in the prose and poetry this makes up 35% of the total literature grade to our paper the first section is your prose from different cultures and mice and men your Mockingbird etc that'll be with an extract and a choice of two essays and in Section B are two unseen poems that you'll be expected to write an analysis and comparison of okay before we start I've got two tasks for you because hopefully you should be revising this already task number one what do you need to do within a poetry comparison question in order to achieve perfect marks so essentially what do you have to cover to tick off all the things on the mark scheme and secondly what methods should you use to accomplish this if I support us very quickly note down how you think you should answer this and the things you should include okay well here's the mark scheme and it split into different assessment objectives so I our ones your ability to basically write properly news terminology io2 your ability to analyze language form of structure and io3 which is different to section a is your ability to compare now with an A or one you have to make sure we are able to speculate or fit sensitive judgments so this could mean this the writer has done this because need to be able to evaluate so why has the writer created this kind of character this relationship use this line also the highest level need to make sure that we can focus on very small detail and link it to the whole picture wise I've been done in that way there are two again we to make sure that we can analyze language structure so sentence structure plot structure use a paragraphs and form so what kind of poem would this be who is the speaker is it first second third and we need to be able to make sure we link all of those things to our handing of it firstly firstly we need to make sure that when we compare that their sustained they're not really obvious things they're both poems for instance you know it could be that you're comparing really small details such as a use of perspective or use of certain words and things like that and if you're able to do those kind of things and be confident in your voice you know they've both uses because or they may use this in a certain way however it's different because that's how you're going to achieve a star alright let's look at the method very quickly you're more than welcome to pause this but it is obviously key if we revise this method and we apply it you will achieve very top marks so remember the question always asked you to engage with your thoughts and feelings it's not other readers would think this you know it makes me feel this or when I read this I felt this and that's really important firstly introduction now we're really basic overview the two plans immediately begin to compare pile number one is about this plan number two is also about the subject however it seems to have this view and then we start to analyze this seems so difficult it's a bit like an extract question focus on plan number one first and perform the following steps go go from top to bottom and top for the poems is the title so analyze the title what do you think or feel the pine will be about looking at it why do you think that then we start to work our way through the poem so we begin to analyze by looking at something from the first stanza making sure we explore how it makes you think and feel and how or why the writer is made you think and feel that way so that's when you start to analyze the language the structure etc so you can see once you've made that formal feeling you need to show how the poet has made you feel that way so as that particular word is that language structure punctuation sentences stanza links repetition form and again the better your analysis the your mark will be once you've worked your way through prime number one all the way through to the last stanza you repeat the same process again for poem number two however what you need to do is as you are making your comments and analysis about prime number two is that similar to what you've seen in poem number one and why it's also important as you work your way through to set the mood and atmosphere extract question do your thoughts and feelings change and we do signpost that to the marker you know however this makes me feel this now because finally in your conclusion evaluate which one has the greater effect on you and explain why FileNet method revised that method as you would do any of the texts you're guaranteed to do well in the exam okay here's the question questions always pretty much exactly the same apart from the title across the top it tells you what the poems are about there's no to worry about the world I understand the poems are about because it tells you across the top in the first offering poems are schoolboy the chance speaker and then the poet referred to their views on education that's what it claims about know if they're worried about that in the second part the second among the school children also explores if you have education done so you know these are about we just have to look about what they know we have to look at the four some things that they create on you so let's look at how we can do this let's look at the planning stage so I've not talked about the planning stage yet here's our poem the school boy more than welcome to have a quick look through this I also recommend you might want to go back to this and you can download this packed poem from anywhere I'm by William Blake let's look at what we need to do to plan and again planning takes time you have an hour in the exam I recommend you spend about 15 maybe even 20 minutes playing the poetry you think you've given yourself half an hour to answer an essay question for your texts forty minutes for the poetry is plenty of time this is the planning so you can see I've started off with the title what does the title make me think and feel which seems to be something that obviously concentrates on a child at school doesn't necessarily give me any clues where it's about here you can serve started to work out the I'm scheme which hopefully you're aware of how to do and I've looked at the first stand out and I've said the voice or the boy loves the summer and nature now I've sort of gone into further detail here birds represent freedom also looked at the exclamation mark at the end of the stanza and it emphasizes the joy that they feel you know again this is note form because you are trying to write this as quickly as possible so obviously there's a feeling that there's immense joy about being free then I feel look at the but at the start of this stanza but this seems to be a clear contrast here there's a shift score seems to be crawls like a prison or sudden these birds this nature has been caged so it's a real juxtaposition so real opposite to stanza number two there stands another one story then we move through stands are free we continue with the traps the cage idea dreary shallow shows the voice Caesar is oppressive the lack of enjoyment slows the meter which reflects a slowness of the voices de suggestion at schools made a dreary but drooping you know these longer vowel sounds here make the day seem a longer more procrastinated it's a good word for you it stands for feels angry now to the voice now shifts and starts a question to the reader here how can that you know for an is imprisonment these rhetorical questions really make us consider you know the repetition of how seems to be almost criticizing us you get the idea we work our way through until right at the end and we're picking our individual words we're looking structural features but is always how the primers made me think and feel and this should take it like I said we'll move on to pond number two in a moment so you're looking for about ten minutes and that first one this is pile number two I've only shown you a stanza for you to spam here and you can see the planning is exactly the same but what I've done is I've looked at how I think and feel and then either instantly underneath so whether this is similar or different I put that in bold view today it's a very good idea to use different colors in the exam also some people may prefer to use charts to note down similarities or differences but again you can see that with the title among school children it makes me feel the speaker is with the children or part of them which is different to create Snyder experiencing their lives rather than just observing it as you seen from Blake's poem also if we moved to second line of the first stanza a kind old nun in a white hood replies to kind old nun for me makes me feel there's a pleasant tone a kind pleasant with the nun suggesting that God agrees with this and this is very different part number one which suggests a ton of sadness or engagement of being in school but it also suggests that being away from the nature which is God's creation suggested is against God whereas here and none being present suggests that God condones it and can you hear my sustained comparison going on there here's some more points of analysis for you as well for you to look at you're more than welcome to pause is to have a look at what you need to do but it's important you analyze in the same way but then you need to start noting down whether it's similar or different let's look at how this would start then so I'm just going to read the opening to analysis poem one so both poems the school boy and the mungus tall children deal with the subject of Education but whilst Blake's poem shows a very strong dislike to school suggesting guys against nature and God eats his work argues the opposite the education is the best way to prepare children for the future notice that I am integrating my quotations are very quickly said what they're about and immediately on comparing I'm showing the marker at any star level I can handle this with confidence which with a mouse game set Blake's title the school boy makes me think meet my thoughts and feelings at this point we'll obviously concentrate on a school child and their experience of school however it does instantly make it clear on the post views on education which is true rather than a meet exploring the school but ike uses the first-person perspective of a child to help the reader consider the child's view of life outside of school using phrases such as love and sweet company demonstrate the when the child is surrounded by nature the tone highlights to me the happiness the child feels I also believe the clever use I'm showing appreciation for the work is a little tip view to help you go star but the metaphor birds highlights the reader a sense of freedom and ability to explore I might look at more things from stanza one that's up to you I'm just showing you an example here of moving for it so stanza two however this immediately is contrasted structurally are placing into ideas next to each other by exploring the experience of school they instantly makes the reader or makes me feel the school is a prison which removes any of the positive nature positive nature creates in the mind of the child speaker so you can see I'm then going to look at my evidence start to explore that you get the idea it's my thoughts and feelings we'll work our way through part number one all the way through to the end trying to get some individuals from different ideas if we can now you can use alternative views but you know use some reference to yourself so I feel this however it also makes me feel this and it's a better way of exploring depth when we move on to pond number two we're obviously looking to compare and here very quickly there's some useful phrases you could use when you get on to this section so please pause it have a look at these now there's some just to give you an idea it's not exhaustive there you are okay start of our second poem just like Blake's work Yeats also focuses on school in his work but unlike Blake who initially appears to be just observing the child in his title yuuta style makes me feel that he is experiencing their lives from his adult perspective rather than pretending to be the voice of a child why could they're due to do their as well just only before so why is doing that I should be doing that in this piece kind old nun in a white hood is clever as it makes me feel a school is a pleasant place to be dudes lexical choice of kind the use of the nun in white makes me believe that religion agrees with the treatment Rijn in the school and the use of white makes intention the school seemed pure this obviously contrast is my comparison is obviously contrast greatly with the view of Blake who is not only clean negative towards the idea of school the use of religion as a way of proving that is wrong as it seems that Blake believes it to be within nature joy is to be of God eats however uses the nun to demonstrate that God must therefore support education if your she's there she's part of it so you can see I'm analyzing pile number two in the same way that part number one however and it's also now bolt on my comparison and needs to be sustained and detailed we work our way through as we did with part number one and finally our conclusion I say which Prime have the greater effect on me on why I feel that way so thank you very much guys you're more than welcome to look at this again here is a link to look at some of the past papers don't forget subject content method timing learn your texts learn your methods and do this in a time and planning is the key to everything here to achieving a start well done be working hard and hopefully you'll get your I star if you please things
What is the Scientific Method Video Tutorial – The scientific method is a classic Physics Chemistry and general science lesson – This is a great introduction to chemistry video. The scientific method is a way for us to ask scientific questions of the world we live in. The scientific method is also a process we use in our daily lives too.
hey guys today's lesson is going to be on the scientific method a wonderful way to begin the year in chemistry as a scientific method is a process scientists have used over the course of history to answer their questions and they're going to find out it's a way that we use every day to answer our own questions – so it should be familiar to us and the fact we've seen it already but also familiar to us though the probably I've seen it before in our previous Sciences if I was to define the scientific method I couldn't start out by saying it's a systematic process systematic meaning we have one step that follows another step that files in another step and it's a systematic process that scientists use to answer their questions and also to do research yeah you have to figure all this stuff that we know about anything in science so far has either been learned by someone asking a question or learned by someone actually stumbling upon something by accident and even when that happens we still have to go back and ask the questions of why this happened you know so it's a systematic process that's the key meaning your steps involved that we have used answer pretty much all of our questions early on what are some of these early scientific discoveries that scientists had to ask questions about you know we all know Isaac Newton the famous Apple was falling and he said Wow all things fall and the question was why do things fall I have observed the Apple fall I observe other things falling things don't fall upwards at all pharrell fall downwards so we have to answer these questions and that is something he actually answered some early explorers and they kind of said oh my gosh is both when they go over the horizon they're disappearing once again you're gonna notice that I started this off with the observe that the boats disappear so we see two things here observing the Apple observing the boats we're making observations or trying to answer or ask questions about these observations you know we ask this question does the Sun really orbit the Earth as the early you know people actually thought or does the Earth orbit the Sun you know and so we see these you know these thoughts going on it might not always be I observe this it also might just be asking a question – so the Sun may not orbit the earth and once you like lay that train of thought down you have to have a systematic process to test it out to see if it is true you know under daily observations you're gonna say man I'm tired man I'm thirsty and you're gonna go through these processes of why you know am I tired because it's allergy season and my tire just because I didn't get enough sleep am I tired because in with the football practice all day why am i Thursday is the medication that I'm taking wasn't that super salty pizza that ate you might even say hey I'm failing chemistry this is an observation why am i failing chemistry what is it in this class that I'm stumbling on you know just recently my check engine light came on in my car you know that's an observation I made and now my mechanic is gonna have to go through the scientific method to find out why the check engine light is on the steps that are involved in the systematic process are kind of key and there's steps that you and I make you know use when we actually say hey man the light bulb you know the light is not working you know what's my hypothesis you know what's the experiment I'm going to use these are the steps in the system that we're gonna use to answer our questions it all starts out with that observation I'm gonna observe something of scientific interest and like I just said man hey my computer is not working that's an observation you and I might make in our everyday life the lawn mower won't start my boyfriend a girlfriend won't talk to me I noticed that my sibling is mad you know these are observations that you and I make we're observing something in this case in our class it's of scientific interest so we're gonna focus kind of on our class here what is it of scientific interest that we're looking at when you follow in the system of thoughts an observation is then going to go into a hypothesis you're going to try to explain that observation okay so we observe something awesome now we're going to make an explanation for that observation you're going to follow it up with some experiments that would test out your hypothesis and then lastly you're going to make a or conclusion now here's the thing right here is the thing when we're doing this you might say I have an experiment to test you know and one of the things when impress upon you is you have to actually retest the hypothesis the experiment needs to be done a few times okay any time you make an experiment the first experiment might not be right and so you want to make sure you retest your experiment to make sure that the theory or conclusion you get ultimately you end up with this all right this is what's known as a theory so anything that we known as a theory like the Big Bang Theory inferior evolution etc anything with the name theory after it is what we say is a thoroughly tested okay many many tests that means many many experiments have been done to try to explain why we get these results okay so once again you start off with number one by making an observation awesome I observe something of scientific interest you know let me just take this my computer doesn't work you know example the computer doesn't work hypothesis okay maybe it's unplugged check is it plugged in unplug it we plug it in when you do that you're actually doing an experiment is it the plug hypothesis plugging it in is the experiment unplugging it and replug it several times you're testing your hypothesis when you find out that that experiment doesn't actually you know caused the problem in this case you then go back to make your hypothesis you're gonna do another hypothesis now maybe it's the RAM in the computer I don't know so you take out the RAM and we put new Ram you're doing another experiment and you would do that several times okay and lastly you would try something else okay what could it be maybe the monitor wasn't plugged in and that's a separate hypothesis now we go back and test that and then you find out huh it looks like the monitor was not plugged in so you take it and the computer starts again you know you take it out and you plug it back in again uh-huh you do it several times ultimately you and I would come to the conclusion in this case that the reason why the computer wasn't working was because the monitor was not plugged in well and that ends up as our Theory conclusion the difference though is that in science in our class and our field of study is that we usually say that it's a thoroughly tested explanation of why experiments good results but there's a little like you know disclaimer here is that any theory can't Ecklie be disproved or improved and that the theory isn't like the end of the line alright if it can be disproved or improved that gives us another reason to continue working on that so in this case once again scientific method is an observation we make a hypothesis we test the hypothesis with an experiment and ultimately we come to us known as a theory or conclusion ok guys let's check this out here which of these is an observation just a little test all right you know what I would recommend you would do right now is maybe press the pause button you can read these on your own and come back and say which one I said with observation was okay so maybe the bus was probably early today is that an observation where the bus didn't pick me up the bucks was actually early because my neighbor saw the bus come early tomorrow I will come to the bus stop early to see if the bus comes early so please take a second you know which of these is your observation the observation for us this one was number two you observed the bus didn't pick you up today that was your observation the rest of these you know might sound tempting but they're really not an observation that you made here let's check out the next one guys same way here which of these is the hypothesis is it that the bus was probably early today is it the bus didn't pick me up is it the bus was actually early because my neighbors so I'll come early and tomorrow I will come to the bus stop earlier to see the bus comes early which one of these would you say is a hypothesis remember hypothesis is going to be a proposed explanation for your observation so press pause check it out I'll come back with the answer in a second I'm gonna have to say the bus didn't pick me up was your observation so that can't be in there okay let's eliminate that one first here I'm gonna say the hypothesis the proposed reason the bus didn't pick me up was that the bus probably came early okay these other ones do not fall into the category of a hypothesis all right they're not a proposed explanation okay just read them carefully you should probably pick it out which ones are which well let's check this out here guys which one's the experiment well we know these two already is so I can't use these do so now we're down to till here which one is the experiment is it either the bus was actually early because my neighbors saw the must amuri or was tomorrow I'm gonna test my hypothesis by coming to the bus stop early to see the bus comes early and you remember the experiment the whole goal here is the test to test that proposed explanation now you propose the second ago that the bus was probably early so now you have to test that out one that actually tries a test that out is you coming to the bus stop early to see if the bus is actually going to meet you there early that's how you're gonna test it out and lastly here obviously I think we're down to the last choice here we've used this one we've used this one we this one what is the final theory what is the opposed explanation from my my experiment and gives results okay and the proposed theory for this okay once again your observation was the boss didn't pick me up what is our best theory or conclusion about this it's at the bus actually was early because my neighbor actually saw him early too so you probably went there and you did an experiment and you said yes the bus came in early and the choices that I have given you here though the bus was actually early because my neighbors saw come early that's going to yield some information for us it's gonna give us some valuable data that we can use in our scientific method so the whole goal of this is to try to pose an explanation for what your observation was given you okay in this case we're simply saying the bus came early could you refine this I bet you could I bet you'd come up with a better reason why that bus was early actually okay and maybe you had a flat tire or maybe that's just the the driver is driving slowly so you could probably improve this as well the goal of this lesson was to introduce you to the scientific method and all the steps involved I do want you to see that it was a systematic process that got us at this point it's something that scientists use and that we use in our everyday life thanks a lot for tuning in guys have a good day
UPDATE: We got a couple of things wrong when it comes to gravity (particularly that it has nothing to do with photons). Check out this video from TheGentlemanPhysicis ( in which our confusion is explained. We also did a whole video about gravitation in our series on the four fundamental forces of physics, which you can watch here:
Science is working tirelessly night and day to disprove its own theories about how the universe works (or at least, that’s what science thinks it’s doing). Hank tells us a quick history of how we came to create and adopt the scientific method and then gives us a vision of the future of science (hint: it involves a lot more computers and a lot less pipetting).
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science isn't like science is more of a process a process of learning about the universe and organizing that information so that we can build on it and just like most processes there's an accepted way of doing scientific investigations on everything from the movement of atoms to the mating habits of tree frogs this technique is called the scientific method and it's got its rules just like golf in the US postal system as much as we take the scientific method for granted the fact is that it took thousands of years for us to figure out how to actually practice the discipline of science and it served us pretty well a lot of what we know about the world has been discovered and tested and verified through the use of the scientific method or at least versions of the one that we use today but of course not all scientific knowledge has come to us through this method many revelations came about because of flashes of inspiration or just plain luck rather than by testing theories and labs what's more some experts say that the scientific method can only take us so far that we as a species have reached a level of understanding that requires new methods to help us get to the finer truths of how the universe works so I have news for you the scientific method is not perfect but it's the best thing we have for now the scientific method is all about coming up with a plausible explanation for an observed phenomenon and then shooting that possible explanation with the machine gun full of facts and questions until you either a destroy that seemingly plausible explanation or B decide that it's indestructible so science is working tirelessly night and day to disprove its own theories about how the world works or at least that's what science thinks it's doing what do you want to find out something about the natural world for example why your dog is always dragging his butt across the floor a scientist will advise you to go through a series of steps to find the answer step 1 ask a question why is my dog always dragging his butt across the carpet step 2 do some research checking out the pet health websites asking other people why they think their dogs wiped their anuses on the carpet step 3 propose a possible but testable explanation aka a hypothesis in this case maybe he has worms step 4 test this hypothesis with experiments until you've disproven it's like put his poop butt or a microscope and see if there's worms under there give him some deworming medicine and see if he stops soiling all the floors in your house that's called collecting data if he doesn't stop after you've dewormed him you can probably consider that hypothesis disproven so then you come up with another hypothesis and collect some more data on that each time you prove an idea wrong you come up with another hypothesis and test until that five you dog quits wiping its butt all over the carpet and then you can analyze the data you collected to draw a conclusion like he was just trying to express a blocked anal gland or he's just a bit of a perv or whatever your data suggests and there you go science accomplished you can go ahead and make your conclusions known to the scientific community now because you just did the scientific method all this sounds pretty reasonable because that's what we're used to but that doesn't mean that science was always done this way some people credit Aristotle with inventing the scientific method because he was the first to say hey truths about natural phenomena can't be discovered just by thinking really hard on your couch you have to go experiments like go out there and make some observations Aristotle basically came up with the prototype for the scientific method but by present-day standards he was sort of the terrible scientist we know that because almost all of the stuff he wrote about was wrong like that time said that females were anatomically just deformed men yeah but his idea that theories could only be proven through experimentation and observation called empiricism eventually took hold the problem was that empiricism was really most useful when lots of people were gathering data and sharing that information has meant that science could only grow as fast as information could spread and back in the days before the Google machine or the Pony Express or whatever information spread like snails on nyquil slowly is what I'm trying to say like we think of the Middle Ages as being a time when everybody just sat around getting the plague and watching the Roman Empire collapsed but in fact the dark ages of European science were actually the Golden Age of Arabic science Muslim scholars preserved the knowledge that had made its way from ancient Greece and built upon it while the Europeans were mostly on intellectual hiatus in fact if you want to call somebody the father of the scientific method the best candidate would probably be 10th century Arab scientist even L – I banal – did amazing work on light and optics a topic on which he wrote seven books he used math to prove that we see like that enters our eyes and not because light comes out of our eyes which was the prevailing theory of the day he also developed a method for his enquiries that was based on first gathering data through observation and measurement followed by formulating and testing hypotheses to explain what he observed basically he invented a stripped-down version of what we roll with today by the time Europeans were back in the game intellectually a few key figures in Europe took the mantle of empiricism and fueled the Scientific Revolution a period between the 16th and 18th centuries when finally the scientific method had been refined to a point where actual stuff could get figured out this was Sciences first real heyday Galileo studied astronomy and physics Robert Boyle argued that it didn't matter how you felt about a theory or how beautiful it sounded but only whether it could be backed up by experimentation Francis Bacon argued that science was only science if it was trying to prove itself wrong in Portuguese physician and philosopher Francisco Sanchez coined the term scientific method in 1581 to describe the process of gathering and judging data in an attempt to understand the world but arguably this centuries-long revolution peaked with Isaac Newton his laws of motion and gravitation totally changed the game obviously but in his famous book Principia he also laid out what basically became the official rules for scientific reason rolls like all things that create the same effects can be assumed to have the same basic causes and if you observe the same qualities in different bodies through experimentation you could assume that all bodies everywhere have those same qualities and last but not least theories based on observation should be considered accurate until they are refuted by other observations so the Scientific Revolution made the scientific method pretty much what we know today and as a result scientists gradually just started being scientists not Knights who happened to write books or monks who did genetics on the side they also began following specialized disciplines like chemistry or biology but here's the weird part even though great science was being done using the scientific method a lot of incredible discoveries were made without it take Marie Curie's insights into radioactivity Albert Einstein's theories of special and general relativity Nikola Tesla's AC induction motor Alan Turing in the computer and Richard Feynman's famous Fineman diagrams all these scientists made discoveries either as a result of putting together pieces that had been discovered by others or just because they saw the world a little differently than everybody else in other words those discoveries were made not through subjecting an idea to the method but by creativity in a certain amount of serendipity both concepts that would have made old-school empiricists kind of uncomfortable by the 20th century scientists were beginning to find that the scientific method wasn't really applicable to some of the problems that we were trying to solve by that time scientists weren't trying to figure out where babies came from like Aristotle was or what made apples fall from trees they were trying to refine our knowledge of the universe and those finer details can get tricky to hypothesize about an experiment on in 1962 American physicist and philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn suggested that there wasn't necessarily anything wrong with the method but that we were putting too much pressure on the method to do all of Sciences work hoon suggested there were different phases of science the first just being normal science which followed the scientific method and tested hypotheses with experimentation and everybody in a particular field had a shared understanding of their discipline within this framework scientists got to the bottom of what was already known with more and more precision and when something came up that seemed to go against how they understood the world they either put it aside or treated the anomaly like a little not picking at it with a scientific method observation hypothesis experiment the only problem was that these unresolved anomalies tended to pile up and become so conspicuous that some scientists began to question what they thought they knew take gravity for example Newton figured out how it worked the Apple is being pulled toward the earth while the earth is being pulled toward the Apple everybody used that framework for 200 years until the anomaly started piling up for instance based on how other planets interacted with each other and how light bent in space NewsView didn't seem to be true anywhere except here on earth so Einstein came along and suggested the existence of photons which pulled less massive objects toward more massive objects and even pulled stuff with no mass toward a massive object all ideas that Newton would have definitely objected to and low classical mechanics made way for quantum mechanics and physics has never been the same so Einstein theorized creative possible solutions where the scientific method had left us high and dry this is what kuhn called a paradigm shift or a complete change in the assumptions made about a certain area of science during one of these shifts scientists are willing to try anything entertain any crazy notion debate everything we took for granted to explain an anomaly in the end there's a change in how everybody sees the world and the old way of thinking is replaced with a new one then normal science takes over again observation hypothesis experiment the scientific methods equilibrium is restored since Kuhn though more changes have been made to how we do science I'm talking about computers here lots of them because at this point a robot can actually do science all by itself in 2009 scientists and whales built a robot that could successfully formulate a hypothesis design and run its own experiments analyze data and decide which experiments to run next of course the discoveries made by this computer were pretty modest revelations about the purpose of different yeast genes but the point is computers are the future of science I mean like take CERN's Large Hadron Collider that thing that's been turning out a gigabyte of data per second enough to fill up a DVD every five seconds that data's being sent to labs all over the world for analysis there just aren't enough human scientists on the planet to process all that information so computers were the ones actually following the scientific method human scientists would be freed up to do the cool stuff the collaboration the creative thinking the serendipitous observing the strategizing about what steps to take next at the very least they'd be doing a lot less pipetting and that would obviously change a lot about how we think about science it would affect everything from the skillset we look for in a scientist the way that science is taught in schools it would basically change the definition of science at least as far as humans are concerned and as dependable and comforting as the scientific method is to have around and as much as I love pipetting that's kind of exciting prospect thanks for watching this episode of scishow if you have any questions or comments or suggestions you can find us on Facebook or Twitter or of course down in the comments below and if you want to continue getting smarter with us here at scishow you can go to youtube.com/scishow and subscribe
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