Thomas P. Ofcansky and LaVerle Berry (eds), Ethopia, A Country Study (1991):
Paul B. Henze, Glasnost About Building Socialism in Ethiopia: Analysis of a Critical Soviet Article (1990):
when most Westerners think of Ethiopia no doubt their mind goes to images like this and the memory of Bob Geldof raising money in the mid-1980s for Live Aid well is not often mentioned is that from 1974 to 1991 Ethiopia was under a brutal communist dictatorship explicitly Marxist Leninist in ideology and methods called the derg although the derd would have several leaders in its early years by 1977 this man mingott sue Halle Miriam Jim Lee just called mingott sue had outmaneuvered his rivals and consolidated his power in this video I'm going to have a look at his economic policies and their effects during this period with the assistance of the Soviet Union the Derg overthrew the old Emperor Haile Selassie in 1974 Selassie had ruled the country since 1916 and became internationally famous after occupation by Mussolini's fascist Italy in 1935 Ethiopia also known as Abyssinia had had contact with Europe going back centuries to the ancient world it is a resource rich country with fertile soil and good rainfall by the 19th century coffee had emerged as an important cash crop for the country Ethiopia also historically traded wheat corn millet gold ivory musk and wild animal skins it's a long raised cattle and sheep also however it was never a great trading nation because of local hostility to commerce the people tended to despise merchants and traders and looked instead to priests and warriors as their leaders this was quite deep-rooted to the extent that even after world war ii most of ethiopia was still a barter economy because only a tiny fraction of the population actually used money wage labor was limited economic units were largely self-sufficient foreign trade was manageable and the market for manufactured goods was extremely small this had other knock-on effects for example it was very hard for Selassie's government to collect taxes and they had to rely on customs excise and sales to generate revenue as late as the 1970s import tariffs accounted for over a third of government revenues and two-fifths of all taxes in the 1950s Selassie had wanted to transition from a subsistence agricultural economy in which most people raised their own livestock to a more agro industrial one between 1957 and 1973 he launched three consecutive five-year plans to try to achieve this although they did not fully modernize the economy they were a moderate success achieving an average of 4.4 percent annual GDP per capita growth from 1960 to 1970 manufacturing growth doubled from 1.9 percent in 1960 to 4.4 percent in 1973 and the growth rate for the wholesale retail trade and transportation and communication sectors increased from 9.3 percent to 15.6 percent regionally this economic performance was better than Sudan which had an annual growth rate of 1.9 percent but not as good as Kenya's 6 percent GDP growth or Uganda's 5.6 percent growth by the early 70s the economy had started to diversify a little bit but four-fifths of the country's population were still subsistence farmers who lived in poverty because they used most of their media production to pay taxes rents debt payments and bribes and during this whole period Ethiopia ran a trade deficit that is it imported more than it exported this be fine for a developed cash rich country like the UK but generally speaking developing countries grow through exporting more than they import so when the Communists took over the Derg inherited a mostly agricultural peasant economy with a very small urban industrial population over 80% of the population was still peasant farmers in fact most of ICI Opia was practically a feudal economy our stock rats and the church owned most of the land hasn't farmers paid them exorbitant rents there was practically no business enterprise beyond this to speak of for at least four-fifths of the population so when they took power in January of 1975 the Derg immediately nationalized or took partial control of over a hundred companies including banks and other financial institutions and insurance companies then in march 1975 they nationalized all rural land and granted the peasants possessing rights to parcels of land around ten hectares each these land reform measures are often called villages ation and they were a vast resettlement program by 1989 more than 13 million people were said to have been village eyes the 1975 land reform Proclamation stated that the government shall have the responsibility to settle peasants or to establish cottage industries to accommodate those who as a result of distribution of land remain with little or no land essentially this policy was very similar to the Soviet Union's collectivization of farms desperate peasants who were scattered around rural areas were rounded up and forced into villages which some at the time compared to Hitler's concentration camps farmers were often moved during the planting and harvesting seasons there were predictably disastrous results which I discussed soon in December 1975 they issued proclamation 76 which put a 500,000 birth that's just under 20,000 1975 u.s. dollars price ceiling on private investment and aged Ethiopians to invest in enterprises larger than cottage industries they introduced rural land use fee and tax on income from agricultural activities to replace the old feudal tax system they delegated collection of these taxes to peasant associations but right until the very end of the regime practical problems with actually collecting taxes from these rural areas persisted they also put a 2% tax on exports and 19% tariffs on all imports luxury goods and certain other consumer goods were subject to high sales taxes in a bid to curb inflation they also instituted price controls used the newly nationalized Bank officially to overvalued the birth and froze wages of government staff on more than 600 a month that's around 21 US dollars so that was a freeze for basically most of the government staff later in 1987 Mingus too would establish a new constitution that would retro actively legalize all of these changes with the decree article 2 in the Constitution which declared that the state shall guide the economic and social activities of the country through a central plan so what were the effects of all of this well from 1974 to 78 they were mostly engaged in a civil war and growth plummeted to naught point four percent the ka ba or Ethiopian Red Terror modelled on the Soviet terror the Derg were not just Leninists they frequently quoted Stalin as well ravage the country until 1977 during this time they killed anywhere between 30,000 and 750,000 people then there was the matter of the Ogaden war with Somalia which took place between 1977 and 1978 during this time prices experienced a 16 point 5 percent annual increase and the national deficit widened because a lot of money was being spent on military supplies from 1978 to 1980 GDP grew as an average annual rate of 5.7% benefiting from good weather agricultural production increased as an average annual rate of 3.6% and manufacturing increased at an average annual rate of eight point nine percent as many close plants particularly in Eritrea reopened the current account deficit and overall fiscal deficit remained below 5% of GDP during this period but all of this relatively rosy stuff between 78 and 80 and largely be explained as returning to something resembling normality after a period of revolution civil unrest and violent conflict however as soon as we adjust for peacetime the next fiscal year 1980 to 1981 shows a decline in GDP growth in fact GDP growth declined every year from 1980 to 1985 apart from 82 to 83 and then the economy stagnated between 1985 and 1990 the unemployment rate increased from 11.5 percent annually from 1979 to 1988 it is estimated that of the rural population around 50 percent of the workforce were unpaid family workers real wages dropped for example the starting salary of a science graduate in 1975 was six hundred birth by 1984 they received only 239 birth in 1975 the maximum salary for a civil servant was 1440 / in 1984 this had dropped to 573 birth the average real money wages of an industrial worker in 1986 was sixty five point six percent of the 1975 rate as these real wages decreased consumer prices rose the real price index shows a 27 percent increase from 1980 to 1987 with food prices increasing 27% household items 38 percent and transportation 17 percent when wages for of prices rise that is called a decrease in the standard of living agricultural production dropped 2.1 percent a year from 1980 to 1987 while the population grew by 2.4 percent a year it is not hard to see from just these two numbers why there was a famine which killed over a million people from 1984 to 1986 state farms accounted for 43 percent of government expenditure on agriculture but accounted for only 6 percent of agricultural output in 1987 the peasant farmers were still responsible for over 90 percent of output in fact so catastrophic with these results that on the 5th of March 1990 in a speech to the Workers Party of Ethiopia Central Committee sensationally renounced communism he admitted that the Marxist Leninist economic plan from 1974 to 1990 Italy failed announced a new strategy and which planning would be decentralized Ethiopia was to embrace the free market and pursue a mixed economy in which the private and public sectors would pay complementary roles this was partly because the Soviet Union had withdrawn support for the Derg and the following year Mingus too would be overthrown fleeing to Zimbabwe where Robert Mugabe granted him political asylum as an official guest it's possible he killed over 2 million people during his brutal regime not including those who died of famine and as far as I know he's still living there in Zimbabwe now so what about those land reforms 5.5 percent of the peasants died of starvation or disease 14 percent simply fled no while if the Opia did experience a severe drought in 1984 it strikes me that wide-scale famine which killed over a million people and affected about 8 million more were as much to do with these brutal reforms as they were to do with the weather the same thing happened in the Ukraine in the 1930s in China in the late 1950s where over 30 million people died of famine in North Korea in the late 1990s and in Zimbabwe in the 2000s which of them was real socialism and I ask you of all the terrible policies I've been reviewing in this series so far it seems to me that the lethal combination of land reform with price controls on food consistently has the most devastating results as they say those who don't learn from history are destined to repeat it now get out and a very special thanks to Sir Percy Blakeney the Crimson Satya the ambivalent onion Andy Swing sin' Bailey in Aurora David vishesh a Christopher Shirley home natural rights binary surfer holy spatula horny toad Jones Kosta Michael Tighe time stealer Toyotomi Annie tragic vision William Angus blackberries and Deadwood Dara
Views:94923|Rating:4.90|View Time:10:59Minutes|Likes:5755|Dislikes:120 Ethiopian philosopher Zera Yacob came up with philosophy that prefigured Enlightenment thinkers Hume, Descartes, Locke, Kant, and the US Founding Fathers! Once lost to history, now his ideas about God and ethics can be celebrated and learned!
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I'm really excited about today's episode because not only is this a first for philosophy to band me it's also I think a first for Anglophone YouTube we're going to be learning about a philosopher called Zira yaqoub who came up with a lot of the ideas that we attribute to the European enlightenment way before anybody else so let's get cracking part 1 Maha Tata as we go through this bear in mind that yaqoub wrote his main work for her Tata in 1667 although the events and the ideas it describes he actually developed earlier than that in about 1630 you coab was born in the kingdom of Aksum which was located in what is now called the federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia the hatate is not only a work of philosophy it's also a work of autobiography yaqoub describes how he had to flee acts oom when he got in trouble for publicly questioning certain ideas and went and lived in a cave on his own for two years where he came up with his philosophy the hatate is explicitly faith oriented yaqoub says he's not really fully a Christian although people often took him for one but he is definitely religious and one of the only things he took with him into his cave was a copy of the Psalms of David he writes in my heart I did not believe in anything except in God who created all and conserves all he talks a lot about prayer a lot of his work is about the philosophy of religion yaqoub says that heaven must exist because we were created to seek happiness but are almost never totally satisfied in this life therefore we must have been created for a perfect life to come he also says that an afterlife must exist because in this life people don't always get what they deserve there must be a Hereafter in which moral matters are settled he talks about the problem of evil and reasons that God allows there to be evil and temptation so that we can become worthy and develop morally but he also talks about the need for skepticism and rational inquiry rather than just believing whatever people or local traditions tell you otherwise you'll believe all kinds of nonsense like astrology and magic that were made up by people who wanted in power out of them he mentions that the Europeans colonizing Africa were using their religion to cloak their theft as an example of how it's important to think critically about what people tell you he observes that everybody says their religion is the correct one and that all others are wrong and that every religion has miracle stories that supposedly back it up which might be why he was religious with some of the ideas he had to hand but not really explicitly Christian since he's a believer in God and in his view God created nature and humanity yaqoub tries to derive his ethics from what it seems God created us to naturally want to do for instance he says God created sex and therefore it can't be wrong to do it monastic celibacy goes against our nature and since Enya cobras view our nature comes from God nobody has to be celibate ditto menstruation which the law of Moses says is impure but which yaqoub says is part of God's design from the same premises he also argues that polygamy must be bad since there are roughly equal numbers of men and women so he says God must have created us to arrange ourselves in pairs but he also says that men and women should be equal in marriage and that slavery is bad which is a somewhat refreshing point of view when we compare him to some of his European enlightenment counterparts as we'll be seeing shortly all men are equal in the presence of God and all are intelligent since they are his creatures he did not assign one people for life another for death one for mercy another for judgment our reason teaches us that this sort of discrimination cannot exist in the sight of God who is perfect in all his works part to first-past-the-post right off the bat if you've read any of the European enlightenment philosophers you can see that you cope beat a lot of them to the punch that whole bit about miracles and how every religion has miracle stories that supposedly prove it's true but they can't all be true so we need to critically examine miracle stories that prefigures David Humes essay on miracles which is still the go-to text on the philosophy of miracles in British philosophy education certainly but which Hume would entreat for another hundred years the idea that God and the afterlife is essential to how we think about morale is normally attributed to a manual count who wouldn't write it down until 1781 there are also a lot of parallels here that des cartes meditations which if you've studied philosophy in high school you've probably read like Descartes famously did you coab shuts himself away and passes through a period of doubt to try and establish certain knowledge there's also something very like Descartes trademark argument for the existence of God the idea is that God implanted in humans certain ideas that we could only have had if God exists so the fact that we have them means that it must de cartes meditations were written in 1647 the hatate wasn't written until 1667 but the whole going to the cave thing and having the ideas was 1630 so if we're feeling charitable and assuming yaqoub wasn't projecting back any ideas he actually had later maybe he beat Descartes to the trademark argument as well or at the very least came up with it independently it's also very interesting that yaqoub explicitly argues against slavery the quote all men are created equal is normally attributed either to the United States Declaration of Independence or to the philosopher john locke whose work greatly inspired it but locke wouldn't write his most famous works until about 1689 and the Declaration of Independence wasn't penned until 1776 it's also worth bearing in mind that neither Locke nor it must be said the writers of the Declaration of Independence really meant all when they said all they both made exceptions for slaves and believed in racial hierarchy in fact quite a lot of European enlightenment philosophers did Kant mill Hume lock locks work in particular lent itself very easily and at times explicitly to justifying enslavement and the theft of land and resources that built Europe and America into what they are today but he's yaqoub ahead of the pack running out and saying actually that slavery is bad and racial hierarchy is nonsense which all right admittedly is quite a low bar to have to clear but one that not all or even many enlightenment philosophers actually managed to get over it's somewhat understandable that yuko would reach this perspective given that racism was something he stood to lose out from unlike his white European counterparts who stood to gain an enormous amount from racism and indeed did gain and most amount from it materially anyway lock in particular got rich off slavery though of course morally speaking they were impoverished how come you Cove isn't credited for having so many of these ideas before anybody else well part of it is probably the particular story of who went where who translated what and brought back what editions with them when they came back to Europe part of that story no that has to do with the fact that he didn't write it down for about 30 years and then didn't have access to the kind of printing and distributing services that European philosophers coming later would have had it's difficult to get a copy of his works in English even today in fact I'd like to say a special thank you to historian dagger beyond rude who gave me my copy that I used to write this episode but that particular story supervenes on the bigger picture and part of that bigger picture no doubt includes racism and the fact that philosophy curricula historically and often even today are predominantly white which means that the contributions of philosophers of color get misattributed and erased I wasn't taught your cove at university I had to go looking for him which is a shame and which is why it's all the more cool that we can learn about him today there are people today who are invested materially and politically in this idea of the Enlightenment being a mainly European almost exclusively white thing and that's just not true Europe could not be what it is today without the contributions and the labor of people of color and people who never even saw Europe at all and that's just as true for the soffit Li as it is materially part three analysis and criticism the idea of distancing oneself from a society or a set of ideas in order to critically examine them and not just accept what were given at face value is a very enlightenment move and this is the move that Yuko is making here in fact he literally made that move he literally went away from society and lived in a cave but he makes a number of other assumptions and moves that might be familiar as well like the later Enlightenment scholars yaqoub has a habit of attributing particular ways of thinking that he happens to be familiar with to supposedly neutral reason for instance he says that reason tells us worship God your Creator and love all men as yourself which he presents as a neutral thing that every rational person could understand but which leans heavily on or at least is packaged in the form of a Christian worldview not everybody's reason does tell them to do that evidently since there are perfectly reasonable people who do not worship God he vindicates much of the gospel and almost all of the Ten Commandments so he's relying on the neutrality of what he calls rational which is in fact not really neutral this is a trap that we've identified before if you've seen my series are you rational in a similar vein he seems to assume that God creates only one type of person with one type of nature there's not much of an eye for diversity here for instance he thinks that the natural state of romantic partnerships is one man and one woman whereas nowadays we know that some people aren't into that and that's fine not only fine but undeniably natural part of the natural variation of the species he also says that people have intelligence and rationality and sexual desire by our god-given nature so it can't be bad to use those things but he also says that many people are by nature lazy and sluggish and credulous they just believe the first thing they're told without critically examining it and that that's bad so it seems like he's saying there are some parts of our god-given nature that are higher and better than others and it's not really clear how he's composing that high rocky and obviously it goes without saying that if you don't believe in God a lot of these arguments aren't gonna fly all that said though yaqoub concludes quite open-ended ly with an appeal to the reader I entreat any wise and inquisitive man who may come after I am dead to add his thoughts to mine behold I have begun an inquiry such as has not been attempted for patreon.com slash philosophy tube is what allows me to pay my rent and make the show please take a minute to sign up and give whatever you can alternatively PayPal dot me slash philosophy tube is where generous folks can make one-time donations
Views:46402|Rating:4.66|View Time:16:58Minutes|Likes:1298|Dislikes:96 Ethiopia is an ancient African nation known for its religion, culture, and independence. This week, we start a new series ‘A Brief History’ and tell a brief history of Ethiopia.
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Ethiopia is known for being the source of delicious coffee and a state in Africa that resisted colonization for an awe-inspiring amount of time it's a Christian country that rejected both sides of the Great Schism and developed into its own very unique religion they are a royal family claimed a bloodline back to King Solomon so sit back and enjoy this brief history of Ethiopia hi I'm Tristan Johnson this is step back history be sure to click the subscribe button as well as the bail notification to never miss a new step back video or livestream Ethiopia is a country located here in a region called the Horn of Africa it's very tropical and since that's 93 Ethiopia has been landlocked we'll get into why a bit later but first let's go back maybe as far back as we've ever gone on step back to the first Ethiopians there have been people in Ethiopia going so ridiculously far back that we weren't even humans the oldest fossil of a hominid in Ethiopia is a specimen of an Australopithecus afarensis that archaeologists estimate to be between two point nine and 3.4 million years old the language groups in the region split off from their linguistic roots about eight to ten thousand years ago the first sign of farming for cereal grains with plows shows up around five thousand years ago probably coming south from Sudan around the seventh century ce e we see the first kingdom in Ethiopia called dumped they made their fortunes by trading in objects like gold and so on as well as many people's and things that would be less than thrilled to talk about country exporting today this includes ivory tortoise shells rhinoceros horns and slaves their primary customers were the traders from the south and Arabian Peninsula which would be modern-day Yemen this kingdom declined in 300 BCE replaced with city-states these city-states then unified under the power of the state of auxin again Ethiopia thrives because of its location as a central point of trade between Sudan with the Nile River to the north sub-saharan Africa to the south and the Arabian Peninsula via the sea ox oome owed a lot of its culture to influence from the Arabian Peninsula they spoke a language called gaze and wrote in a modified south arabian alphabet it also seems their spiritual world featured a blend of arabian and local gods this suggests a very close cultural exchange across the Red Sea so much so that scholars used to believe that Arabian immigrants peopled in northern Ethiopia in this period but more scholars today's beaut this nevertheless this exchange is cemented by one of the most important legends in Ethiopian history they believed that King Solomon like King Solomon from the Bible married the Queen of Sheba and produced the Emperor Menelik the first who would be the progenitor of the Ethiopian royal dynasty they even still claimed to have the Ark of the Covenant by the 5th century CE iakh soon was the dominant power in red sea trade we find lots of coins in this period minted with faces of oxen white Emperor's we even see references to their port towns in greco-roman texts and it's via trade and contact with Greeks and Romans that scholars believe Christianity came to Ethiopia around the 5th century CE II monks came to Ethiopia to preach and eventually founded the Ethiopian Church like the Coptic Christians when deciding between allegiance with Rome and the early Catholics or Constantinople and the early Orthodox Christians these the opions chose none of the above they broke with both churches and did not resume relations with them until the mid 20th century awk soon grew to such an extent that it had several suzer and kingdoms under its thumb even across the Red Sea in southern Arabia they extended their power and even sent Ethiopian troops as far as Yemen to ensure it this would end when Christianity began to disappear in South and Arabia due to a persian invasion and an Arab attack shortly after that the rise of Islam in Arabia sealed a deal this actually had the effect of cutting off Ethiopia from Mediterranean trade which meant their contact with Europe and the Middle East was shut off oxen began to decay without Mediterranean trade it responded by focusing on land-based conquests pushing south into fertile land there with them also came the Ethiopian church a minor Lord was able to overturn the oxen white dynasty called the Sagwa dynasty they initially got flack for not being the descendants of King Solomon but made up for it by building several beautiful churches out of rock faces that being said they never had complete control over Ethiopia people always pointed out that they didn't have that King Solomon charm this boiled over went in 1270 a different nobler belt this noble did some jiggery-pokery and was able to claim heritage to King Solomon which made many factions prefer his reign he had to publish his long-form genealogy but eventually his legitimacy was secured The Legend of men elect the first the Solomon dynasty Semitic culture and their language would become the basis for Ethiopian national unity it was also around this time that the Ethiopians found themselves in constant conflict with the spread of Islam on the edges of the Ethiopian Empire Islam was spreading and converted a lot of people by the 13th century various new Sultan neighbors unified at this time Ethiopia was fighting on all sides and trying to hang on to the land that they could conquer they even decided to put tariffs on goods going to the newly unified Muslim region which resulted in pushback this resulted in a colossal war when those unified Muslim territories fell to the Sultans of Adal and their leader ahmed IBN ibrahim al-ghazi he declared holy war on the Ethiopians and invaded it looked like the Ethiopians would lose – until in 1541 the portuguese showed up to give them muskets it quickly turned the tide of the war but there was a catch after the mast apostasy to islam they now had to deal with Catholic missionaries Jesuits came over with the Portuguese on a mission to bring the Ethiopians into the Catholic Church more religious turmoil occurred over theological debates an Ethiopian Emperor needed to abdicate but Catholicism was resisted with reasonable success this turmoil eventually led to a period of fetal anarchy where the authority of the Emperor was fragile they call this the age of princes and it would last until 1855 this was a pretty rough time for the average Ethiopian think the time when the Shogun's of Japan fought each other for power the age of princes ended when Casas one of those rulers managed to unify Ethiopia again crowning himself and / 12 rose the second this would be the foundation of the modern country of Ethiopia he attempted during his reign to enact many social reforms and consolidate his power this both overtaxed the citizens of the country and angered the nobles so another rebellion picked up he also tried to reach out to Queen Victoria to destroy the Islamic religion the British ignored this and in anger 12 dose a second imprisoned the British envoy this led to a British Invasion not the fun kind and to avoid capture the Emperor committed suicide it was around this time that Europeans were beginning to take an extreme interest in conquering Africa oppressing its people and ransacking its resources the next two successors to 12 rows had to fight Egyptians and resist attempts from Italy to get a foothold in the region this includes an attempt by Italy to turn Ethiopia into a protectorate just by writing it into their translation of an agreement between the two countries the Victorian age Italians believe that with their superior European blood or whatever weird race science they bought into would let them defeat Ethiopia without trying very hard the Italians were decimated when they attempt to do so in 1896 this was also in Ethiopia quickly modernized getting communication networks railroads and systems of schools and hospitals and this brings us to 1916 and the beginning of the most influential Emperor of Ethiopia the one that you've likely heard of and I've spoken about on this channel ages ago Haile Selassie the first his birth name was Rastafari and began work as a regent for his female family member who held the Crown's o dito he engineered Ethiopia's entrance into the League of Nations believing heavily in the idea of collective security he abolished slavery and hired some key advisors to modernize the government bureaucracy by the time so Dido named him King in 1928 Ethiopia was booming from the exportation of coffee this success came at a terrible cost however Benito Mussolini the fascist leader of Italy took Ethiopia's growing power as a sign he needed to invade them before they could be a real challenge when the Italians invaded Haile Selassie believe that the collective security of the League of Nations would come to his aid when that League of Nations decided not to help out Ethiopia had to fight alone in a seven-month war against the Italians their superior airpower and use of poison gas gave the Italians the upper hand and Haile Selassie had to go into exile the Italians occupied Ethiopia from 1936 to 1941 during that time Ethiopian resistance fighters struggled against their Italian occupiers in 1940 Italy entered into the second world war proper and with that the British declared Haile Selassie the first their full Ally with the help of the British Holly Selassie was able to mobilize an Ethiopian military in Sudan and quickly defeated the Italians they retook the capital at the Sababa in five months and re-established the Ethiopian government throughout the 50s he used support from the United States and the global community to reform government to become much more democratic but still a monarchy however his reluctance to give up power led to inefficiencies and slow modernization holly's laissez began to become less popular Ethiopians started to feel that their only way forward would be to dump the monarchy in 1960 there was an attempted coup but he didn't take the hit when Somalia got independence that same year Somali nationalists began to fight the government with support from Moscow so in true proxy war fashion the Ethiopians got some help from the United States the situation would just get worse Eritrea n–'s began to rebel bringing in a variety of minority groups of their cause a student movement in the 60s grew in popularity and became more radical as the decade progressed they consider Haile Selassie an agent of US imperialism which isn't an entirely inaccurate statement by the 70s the Ethiopian army was maxed out fighting rebels all around the country in 1974 several junior military officers mutant need combined this conflict drought and the subsequent famine in 1974 Senna Theo Pia into crisis mode the military mutineers turned into a military resistance and overthrew Haile Selassie who was very old and senile in member this new provisional military government was full of power struggles infighting and overwhelming tension Ethiopia went through three leaders between September and December of 1974 it eventually resolved with a takeover by a military leader named Teferi Bonte who declared on December 20th 1974 that Ethiopia was going to be socialist the proxy war reversed the USSR now supported Ethiopia and the u.s. was now best friends with Somalia while nationalist rebellions didn't die down especially in Eritrea there was now internal fighting between military groups this campaign would continue until 1978 killing our exiling thousands of Ethiopians as many as a hundred thousand died with thousands more tortured and imprisoned the surviving leader of this power struggle was a military leader named menges – Haile Mariam from 1977 in 1991 the new socialist government of Ethiopia tried to reorganize the country under a USSR model this was complete with famines created by brutal land reforms implementing a command economy and the forced movement of some 600,000 farmers all this time Ethiopia fought various rebel groups in a guerilla war in 1991 these rebel groups managed to Forsman getsu to stop his soviet ization of ethiopia not long after the rebels who had eventually organized and unified were able to advance on Addis Ababa forcing Mengistu to fleet a Zimbabwe so the early 90s was another period of significant government changes this new rebel government decided to lean on the strength of Ethiopia being their national heterogeneity they wanted to embrace the immense diversity of Ethiopia instead of one group trying to rule over all the others this fos runs all the way through the Ethiopian government even today in their constitution is the notion that Ethiopia is a nation of Nations where any are free to go as a desire Eritrea jumped on that right away legally separating in May of 1993 then more troubles were to come the government began to love censoring information and elections started to become more and more questioned they also took the poison pill of entering into the World Bank's structural adjustment program it's a program of loans to help countries develop but comes with a lot of strings attached its left some countries like Ecuador with all of their natural resources owned by overseas companies and what little is left over unevenly distributed because of structural reforms they had to make it leaves very little for the social services that make up the bedrock of a functioning country the program devalued Ethiopia's currency reduced government interference in the markets cut civil services and made it easier for international corporations to siphon money out of the country in 1994 it adopted its third constitution in 40 years in a 1995 created the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia we know today it sticks out from previous Ethiopian constitutions by being focused on ethnic autonomy and devolution or giving lots of power to local governments it had its first multi-party election in 1995 but was boycotted by a lot of people who opposed the harassment arrest and censorship the government was committing in 1998 a dispute over some land between Ethiopia and Eritrea resulted in a brief conflict they signed a ceasefire in 2000 and the UN entered to settle the dispute they decided to give the land over to Eritrea angering Ethiopia and in 2008 the UN pulled out not resolving the issue and finally we come to the present the two thousands are a time of relative stability considering but the accusations of government censorship and interfering in elections is still commonplace the 2005 election led to massive protests as most opposition parties declared it fraudulent in 2010 they had another election that was considered better but still had some funny business going on and the story seemed quite similar in 2015 Ethiopia sounds like a land plagued with problems and it certainly has more than sher but the Ethiopian people are a marvel Ethiopia is one of the most diverse countries on earth and has a beautiful array of music clothing mythology and religion it's quite amazing ok new thing alert I somewhat recently opened a new step back slack server so if you want to come and chat with other history fans and yours truly go to the link in the dooblydoo and join please do it this video was made possible by these wonderful people as well as the rest of my patrons over at patreon I'd especially like to thank Don and Carrie Johnson as well as Co bind money for their generosity the theme song is by twelve-tone and come back next time for more step back
Views:611403|Rating:4.72|View Time:9:15Minutes|Likes:12936|Dislikes:777 3000 years Ethiopia’s history explained in less than 10 minutes
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Ethiopia, history of Ethiopia, history of Axum, history of Aksum, Ethiopian history, Solomonic dynasty, Haile Selassie, D’mt, kingdom of D’mt, documentary, Ethiopia documentary, history documentary 2018, Abyssinia, Abyssinian Italian, Ethiopian kings, African kings, African history, African empires, African history documentary, all ethiopian kingdoms, Zagwe dynasty, Zemene Mesafint, age of princes, Ethiopian history summarized, african kings, kings africa
Ethiopia home to more than 100 million people the original home of the coffee bean seat of the African Union and a nation whose roots stretch back into ancient times Ethiopia has been heavily settled going far back into prehistory damit is the earliest known kingdom in this region and was a contemporary of ancient Egypt and Nubia to the north on the opposite side of the red sea facing Dom it was a kingdom of Saba in modern-day Yemen these kingdoms appear to have had close ties and some even theorize that they may have formed a single Kingdom according to Theo peein tradition this was the home of the legendary queen of sheba she converted to the faith of Solomon of Israel and bore his child who returned to Ethiopia to rule as king beginning a long line of Ethiopian kings who claimed direct descent from King Solomon the Ethiopian church today maintains the Ark of the Covenant was brought to this ancient kingdom during this period and is being kept safely there under guard for more than two and a half thousand years for unknown reasons dama gradually eroded into several city-states and successor kingdoms around 400 BC one of these Aksum would evolve into the first well-documented great power to rise in Ethiopia and was able to unite the northern Ethiopian highlands beginning around the first century BC where they established bases on the Ethiopian plateau and from there expanded by the 1st century AD they became a major player on the commercial route between the Roman Empire and ancient India a notable Persian religious figure and scholar of the time regarded Aksum as one of the four great powers of his day alongside Persia Rome in China to facilitate this booming trade the Aksumite Kings minted large amounts of gold currency that became widely used and have been found throughout the Mediterranean to India around 325 AD the King XANA converted to Christianity making it the state religion and was also the first state to ever use the image of the cross on its coins Azana campaigned against the kingdom of cush to the north as far as the borders of the Roman of Egypt and is believed to have been the reason for that thousand year old kingdoms collapse included in his many titles where King of Kings King of Sabah king of Sal hen and king of him yar which are all in modern-day Yemen indicating that he either controlled or annexed these kingdoms or perhaps they were merely tributaries the kingdom of Aksum would reach its Apogee during the reign of King Kaleb who invaded the Arabian Peninsula in 520 with a vast army against the Jewish King Youssef of him yar who had been persecuting the kingdom's Christian population five years after installing a native Christian Viceroy one of his own Aksumite generals killed the Viceroy and declared himself king of hem yar this general turned King Abraha of him yar is mentioned in the Quran for his failed invasion of Mecca in the year 570 the rise of the Arab Empire would signal the decline and eventual demise of both of these kingdoms Aksum was completely cut off from any contact with the Christian Roman Empire and the vast revenues generated from Roman trade the kingdom of Aksum had a slow decline and began to contract back into the highlands the kingdom of alodia formed on its northern border and converted to Coptic Christianity and spoke a nubian dialect in contrast Askim semitic dialect in script use since the days of dhamma in the 9th century BC according to Ethiopian tradition around the Year 1000 a female pagan warlord overthrew the kingdom of Aksum laying waste to the land burning ancient churches to the ground and hunting down all members of the royal family of Aksum the last of her dynasty which ruled over a much diminished Kingdom was overthrown by Mara Tecla hymanot in 1137 establishing the segueway dynasty although some scholars believe this dynasty was established earlier the most famous ruler of Zeigler dynasty was Gabriel Lalibela who constructed 11 churches carved straight from a single piece of stone and attempted to construct a New Jerusalem as his new capital in response to the capture of the old Jerusalem by the Muslims in 1187 despite the pious 'no Subs egg way and one thing working against them in the eyes of many of their subjects they did not claim direct descent from the biblical King Solomon and around the Year 1270 they were overthrown by a dynasty that did claim Solomonic descent this Solomonic line of kings ruled Ethiopia for more than 700 years with a brief interruption during the 14-year Abyssinian Adal war in which the adal sultanate was able to NX Ethiopian Abyssinia with Ottoman help only to be beaten back to their original borders by the Ethiopians with Portuguese assistance the age of princes was a period in Ethiopian history from 1769 to 1855 when the country was de facto divided within itself into several regions with no effective central authority it was a period which the Emperor's from the Solomonic dynasty were reduced to little more than figureheads combined to the capital city of Gondar and local warlords fought each other for supremacy this came to an end with the reign of T woodrose ii who reestablished his dynasty's authority over the nation however this respite was short-lived and he would commit suicide instead of being taken prisoner by a British expedition the British would sack the Ethiopian capital and carry the Solomonic dynasty's crowns and treasure they had accumulated over the centuries back to Britain Ethiopia's troubles were not over and in 1874 the Ottoman backed Ismail Pasha of Egypt invaded Ethiopia with a goal of creating an empire that would include the entire length of the Nile River his sizeable army included a large number of recruited American and European officers the Ethiopians had been working hard on organizing and modernizing their military since their experience against the British and were able to utterly defeat the Egyptians in two decisive battles the Ethiopian Emperor Johannes would die in battle against a Sudanese raiding force 13 years after defeating the Egyptians his successor metalic ii would expand the ethiopian empire and defeat a full-scale italian invasion the technologically superior italians were decisively defeated in a bloody war that they expected to be a casual affair forty years later masterminded by the and journalist turned dictator Benito Mussolini Italians invaded again this time sending their overwhelming force of approximately half a million men 600 aircraft in a under tanks despite this the war was still a long and bloody affair Italians gained little from the annexation and committed widespread atrocities against the Ethiopian population which they never fully managed to control Ethiopian Emperor Hayley c-elysée returned to Ethiopia from exile in England to help rally the resistance the British began their own invasion in January 1941 with the help of Ethiopian freedom fighters the last of the organized Italian resistance in Italian East Africa surrendered in 1941 ending the Italian rule the Solomonic monarchy was fully restored after the war in the decades that followed Haile Selassie would begin to slowly implement democratic reforms in the nation however many blamed his grasp on power for the slow pace of modernization during the Cold War Solis he received the backing from the United States and when widespread drought and famine hit the nation in 1974 the age of monarch was overthrown by a social interaction in the military they viewed c-elysée as an agent of the corrupt capitalist West and United with Eritrea forming a larger chaotic state that was plagued by infighting and disastrously planned and implemented socialist policies eventually men just to halema Ram brought an end to the more than decade-long power struggle and attempted the creation of a state following the Soviet model famines and genocide included in 1991 as rebels closed in on the capital of Addis Ababa he fled and was granted asylum in Zimbabwe as an official guest of Zimbabwe and President Robert Mugabe where he still resides today at the age of 80 despite calls for his extradition this was followed by a transitional government in Ethiopia was drafted a new constitution allowing any of the nation's ethnic regions to secede if they ever wanted to Eritrea did so right away and the remainder is the modern nation-state of Ethiopia this has been Epimetheus huge thanks to all my awesome patrons over on patreon who helped me with his channels expenses and my fantastic subscriber if you're new to this channel don't forget to sub hit the bell icon to get notifications every time I make a new video and smash that like button one more interesting bonus factory if he made it to the end of the video the Rasta fire religion originating in Jamaica in the 1930s regards Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie as the second coming of Christ and the embodiment of Jah on earth
Views:3118|Rating:4.46|View Time:13:14Minutes|Likes:90|Dislikes:11 I am hoping to find primary sources archaeological evidence and references by later historians to piece together what is true about elements of African history excluded from the mainstream narrative. I have been challenged by subscribers and I certainly accept the challenge. In this video I hope to get input via the comments on some different places I can go to get good information.
In reference to this video –
hello fellow searchers of truth first Christianity in a post-christian country lately I have begun researching kind of a new area that I want to share with you and it's based on comments and feedback that I'm getting in sections of several videos and it's you know some of it is critical you know like oh you're showing only white people in these pictures about the ancient biblical world and that's not accurate some of them are very respectable saying hey you need to look into this more you know and others are you know we know that bhi has a tendency to be a little more aggressive in their rhetoric but when you look past that you know I have to ask myself as a historian a theologian and researcher have I done my due diligence on this subject and I had to face the harsh reality that I really hadn't so lately I've been doing a lot of study into this idea of I believe the subject itself is called afro centrosome and let me give you a little bit of background like in science you have the scientific method right in history we use what's called the evidentiary method which is a combination of primary sources written from antiquity archaeological discoveries and what later historians had to say about earlier periods of time let me tell you the research I've done so far it runs the gambit just like all of us just like all denominations of any ethnicity we have these kernels of truth that we wrap in all this other artificial scaffolding that is just for lack of a better term nonsense and in Afrocentricity run a spectrum on one side you have a gentleman named tarik Nasheed and with all due respect to him he's been very successful financially but what what I'm lacking when I listen to him is him saying hey here are the sources go look at these sources yourself he makes very outlandish claims about pretty much everything he's totally in his subjective mind rewritten his but with no evidence and when I watch his videos I find myself asking mr. mr. machine where does this come from you know what you're saying where can I go and read about this a gentleman named Kevin Adams I believe did a documentary on the Nubian Pharaohs right the Nubians were definitely dark africans sudanese ethiopian melanin level and he claimed that their civilization lasted for 5000 years so that's something to go on right because he showed archaeological evidence of this Nubian kingdom that was something I could go on a gentleman named Acala who actually gets around to some pretty big universities in Europe gave a lecture at Oxford or Cambridge it didn't say in the video but he provided primary sources where he went back to the books and volumes compiled by editors of the writings of ancient Egypt through Greece were the people ruling in Egypt at that time were described by the way they looked and they were definitely African in description that's something I can go on I can check those primary sources using the evidentiary method dr. Ivan van Sertoma it's a little older the videos look like they're from the 80s and 90s but here we have a university professor in academia talking about hey there were a lot more African rulers during these times than history has led on and it made sense to me you know I don't believe this idea of Eurocentrism is you know purposeful you take somebody like me who just makes a video there's an assumption of bad intent on my part to purposely go hahahaha everybody's pictures are going to be white and we're gonna do away with this idea that you know these people were black but what those people fail to recognize especially people under the age of 40 like me and many of the commenters we came to the same schools you did right so we read the same textbooks you did so we were exposed to the same Eurocentrism that you we participate in the same beast money system that you do so if there's this idea of modern oppression I don't agree that it exists on terms of race between white and black I think it's more of like poor and regular people versus elites and I think they fail to recognize that a another documentary I watched was called from nothing by Jabari that had a lot of good information information where I could go and check primary sources from what he was talking about and that's what I need I can't go by mr. Nasheed's subjective out of thin air or higher criticism of these things that give me nothing to go on historically it's impossible to verify those truth claims we have to have you didn't believe me I'm no friend of academia but you've got to have something to go on to substantiate and say ok I can see where this is true I can see where this argument is valid forgive me I can't quite read my handwriting here there was one documentary called the Egyptian the original Egyptians were black and that one wasn't important because again it was another university level professor but what he did points to one of the big flaws in the Afrocentric movement he differentiates the Egyptians original black Egyptians from the Semitic people both in pigment and in migration patterns well it can't be both ways were the original higher melanin africans Egyptian or were they Hebrews now I will say this there's a theory out there that says the Hebrews were the Hyksos which was a tribe of Africans and there was this constant battle dichotomy back and forth between northern Egyptian rulers which by that time had become lighter skinned at least in those dynasties and the Hyksos assuming they were Hebrews right but then you come to the point where you say okay well the Hebrews were from Joseph right mache Moses was from Egypt so there's a lot of unanswered questions with no proven ons what where are the primary sources right I have read the volumes of the Church Fathers give me one example where they say hey there's this grand conspiracy going on what why if this grand conspiracy happened are we only finding out about it 2,000 years later when we have 30 volumes from the Church Fathers we have the Liebherr Pontifical is a very old writing from the Catholic Church that openly admits there were 11 popes from africa we have other extra biblical writings all through the Middle Ages and nobody points to this you know this idea that none of them were black you know so it's a very modern euro centrist idea now finally the last thing I'm going to say there's always seems to be the assumption of bad intent on the part of the content creator first of all going back to the point that I was indoctrinated in the same schools as any of my black friends were how would I know otherwise but you've instead kind of made all whites de scapegoats to say well it's your fault it's your fault that this is happening and that this history has been lost but you know you fail to recognize it in the 1450s during the Italian Renaissance it was the northern Italian papal states that were overwhelmingly white and sent from their families to the papacy for generations we're talking Borja della Rovere a de Medici sports up these families that kind of traded the papal seat they were the ones who paid for and commissioned the Christian art that we still look at today so of course they're gonna pay them in their own likenesses you've got to go further south toward the Mediterranean coast Sicily southern Egypt king frederick ii the holy roman emperor he was well known for his ethnic inclusivity he had Muslims in his court he had Africans in his court and during the time of the Crusades there became a more open exchange of information and trade between North Africa the Levant and southern Europe so there's all these things that kind of get ignored in this dialogue so anyway I have answered the call to study this because my ultimate searches for truth I don't want to continue to present anything that's inaccurate and I feel like it's a fair criticism a lot of videos I have do kind of paint everybody is you know white Old Testament early biblical characters and that's probably not accurate for all of them but it's certainly accurate for some the idea that everybody was African that late in history no no no even if you go to the Olmec civilization where you see signs of you know African influence you also see Polynesian influence and features so it's it's possible that you have melting pot ideas there this idea that Africans were really Native Americans well no we know they were red skinned people with features from Asia that's not to say Africans didn't come across the Atlantic and that there was some interbreeding which we would expect in cultural exchanges what it looks like even in Egypt is that there were all these kind of four main races you had really dark-skinned caramel skin red skin and white skin and you see that repeat around the cultures of the world I think that's more accurate so here's where it makes sense Africans have been a little bit whitewashed out of history they're saying no this isn't right and then the remedy runs the extreme just like we're human beings and we do that with every subject you have the real conservative view that says okay maybe the Egyptians were maybe the Hebrew where they both can't be maybe the Olmecs were part African and then you have the other end of the spectrum Mozart was black Beethoven was black Shakespeare what they were all black it's all a big conspiracy and all a big lie but that makes the biggest mistake we can possibly make which is to assume bad intent on the part of the content creator I would like to challenge everybody do this yourself go to google and type in images of biblical character Judah how many pages do you have to scroll through to find one that has darker skin Abraham how many pages do you have to scroll through to find one that has darker skin so this goes much bigger than one individual making a video you know and I'm gonna tell you like when I make my videos it's it's it's not in the forefront of my mind but one thing I have learned through having another recent video go viral and getting a lot of comments about it is that I admit I probably should be more sensitive to that and I'm gonna do better in the future but in the meantime for those who have criticized with those types of criticisms give me some primary sources that I can go read myself not stuff from 1960 from some guy who has a theory based on a science that doesn't exist and he calls himself a doctor but it's all give me something from ancient antiquity that I can read that says you know here's how these people looked Herodotus right he clearly said these people had this thick woolen hair and darker skin like bronze you know okay well yeah all right Herodotus saw Africans dark Africans they're right now in closing I'll say I'm well aware of the Ethiopians and Aksum and their claim to the Levitical priesthood which they probably do have a good claim to that priesthood for those interested read Graham Hancock's book on the Ark of the Covenant and the Ethiopians in Axum anyway love you all look forward to talking to you on the next video thank you so much
Views:13286|Rating:4.71|View Time:3:22:9Minutes|Likes:228|Dislikes:14 Classic lectures from the esteemed historian Dr. Runoko Rashidi
Dr. Runoko Rashidi (born 1954) is a writer and public lecturer based in Los Angeles. His academic focus is on “the Black foundations of world civilizations”. Many of his claims are disputed, however, as evidenced by various anthropological and DNA studies. He has coordinated educational group tours to India, Aboriginal Australia, the Fiji Islands and Southeast Asia, as well as to Egypt and Brazil.Runoko is the author of Introduction to the Study of African Classical Civilizations (published by Karnak House in London in 1993), the editor, along with Dr. Ivan Van Sertima of Rutgers University, of the African Presence in Early Asia, considered “the most comprehensive volume on the subject yet produced” (published by Transaction Press, and now in its third edition), and a major pamphlet titled the Global African Community: The African Presence in Asia, Australia and the South Pacific (published by the Institute of Independent Education in 1994). In 1995, he completed editing Unchained African Voices, a collection of poetry and prose by Death Row inmates at California’s San Quentin maximum-security prison. Runoko Rashidi is a prolific writer and essayist. As an essayist and contributing writer, Runoko’s articles have appeared in more than seventy-five publications.
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let's begin formally then and for me that means acknowledging the creator of us all of all things and also acknowledging my elders and that's quite a few folk I'm 51 I think there are a few people who are a little older than 51 and so for those who are to have your permission to begin all right formerly a shame when we say I say that just means and so it is that's an affirmation and I'm finding to that in various parts of the African world they do the same things but they have different terminology for it for example if I were to greet you in the Egyptian context we we might say hotep which just means peace but I just left East Africa and if you say hotep over there most people wonder what you're talking about they would say Jambo okay and Ghana it'll be something different but all of that I suppose is a part of the cultural unity of African people now I started something like this on the bus the other day but I wasn't able to look at you which is probably a good thing because I think most of y'all were asleep anyway if you weren't sleep at the beginning you were sleep at the end I'm told I'm a very good cure for insomnia I should try to you know package that and I could make a lot of money and then we could all have these trips for free so let me summarize some of those things and also include some of the stuff that I didn't get a chance to tell you about I'm not gonna keep you too long maybe about 45 minutes or so and then we can have some discussion I would imagine you all want to do some things before we pull out of here and talk about some of the scholars who have been doing this kind of work and also another important aspect and this is the conversion of Moors in into Christians and also the dispersal of Moors into other parts of Europe I think that's a very important chapter before we get started let me just show you two photographs and these are the principal books I'm gonna be referring to I think sister Helen always asking me about this right here and I think some of you all have probably seen this photograph have you seen this before yeah this is the book itself is called the story of the Moors in Spain bystanding Lane Poole who was a European an Englishman and I think the book was published in the 1880s I think specifically 18 eighty six I can look here on the copyright this is a reprint and one of the good things about utilizing European sources is that if you're an African like I am like we are and you use and you're talking about this kind of stuff people will say it's just feel-good history are you Africans are just vindication esteem aching up stuff that really didn't happen so sometimes I go out of my way to use European references because many of them who are honest enough to tell the truth as they saw it about African history or the African presence in world history and you cannot say that they were afro centrist or they had an African bias some people I think are able to transcend race at least to some extent and so therefore those European scholars who are able to do that I give them great praise for example you have a guy in a frenchman named count balding he was made us as a man named Volney who has made a count by napoleon who went to egypt i think ten years of for the Napoleonic invasion or expedition of Egypt he went in 1788 Volney did and he described the Sphinx and he said that in ancient times they lived the great people of black people black people are people with black skin with frizzy hair a woolly hair who erected ancient Egyptian civilization 1788 and then you also have an Englishman named Gerald Massey these are just two to stand out you know Matti wrote a series of books the most important of the first one is called a book of the beginnings in 1881 and then in 1884 another big these big fat books two volume books this one is called natural Genesis but the crowning glory was in the twentieth century I think 1903 or 1907 and this is a book called ancient Egypt the light of the world it's been reprinted many times like this has been reprinted this is I think a 1985 reprint my black classic press in Baltimore and the forward is by one of my teachers a man named John G Jackson who's an Chester now but in this book ancient Egypt the light of the world which I think black plastic press also reprinted he says Massey says this is an expression that comes out of it Africa the birthplace in Egypt the mouthpiece in other words Africa was where it first began but it was in Egypt a particular part of Africa that it was refined and polished and presented to the rest of the world and even before massey and after Volney in 1836 you have the publication of another large book on anak ellipsis and an ellipsis is written by another Englishman named Godfrey Higgins and Higgins was a retired colonel in the English army who served in India in the late 18th century and he wrote this huge book he says it took him 20 years to write the book I don't know how long it took him to research the book but 20 years to write the book and he said at the end of the book I found something black whenever I approached the origins of nations and religions and so it's good to be able to use people like that to corroborate the work that African people themselves are doing and I started talking the other day yes it's called an ellipsis and let me spell it I think it's a 10a see al YP s is then it has a long long long subtitle to antic ellipsis the authors got V dr. Higgins now we've heard a lot of different names for example sisters and brothers we've heard the name Phoenicians quite a lot haven't we now who are the Phoenicians first of all that's not what the people call themselves we should be aware of that of that a lot of we're aware of the fact that a lot of times the names we used are not for people are not the names that the people themselves used ancient Americans didn't call themselves Indians they didn't call themselves that that name we know comes comes as a result I must be a little nervous y'all are making me nervous comes as a result of Christopher o Colombo I also known as Columbus Christopher Cologne who got lost going to what he hoped would be India and he tried to bamboozle the Spanish monarchs and claimed that it was India in fact he even had his sailors sign a document that said we had landed in India and subsequently the people haven't called Indians the Phoenicians are like that too the word Phoenicians comes from the Greeks and it wasn't a nation it was a chain of coastal cities on in southern Syria and on the west coast of Lebanon and I was very fortunate over the last year to go to both Syria and Lebanon and visit many of those Phoenician cities you have a big one called byblos it's magnificent it's right on the ocean and byblos is particularly important because that's where we get the word bible at least that's an argument that is derived from byblos and i met some of the friendliest people in the world and that part of the country one night I was looking for internet cafe and I was lost coming from my hotel to the internet cafe I knew that if I didn't touch a keyboard that night I wasn't going to be able to function I had to find this internet cafe and so I'm wandering through this neighborhood and people are looking at me funny and finally I asked somebody do you know what an internet cafe was and they thought I was looking for something to eat so they directed me to a restaurant and somebody heard me and they said oh you want a cyber cafe and I said yeah they said well it's over there so I started to walk in that direction and somebody ran out after me and took me by the arm and would not let me go and walk me that four or five blocks to the place so I got there right across the street from the internet cafe I saw it I was about to go he said no no no you come with me and he made sure that he walked me to the door I used the internet cafe and then they wouldn't charge me anything just very nice hospitality this was in byblos you also have another one in ancient times very powerful Phoenician city and that one is called Sidon but probably the most important one is called tire Tyr II and the Phoenicians are important the word Phoenicians apparently is derived it's based on the work on the color purple the Phoenicians were associated with with the color purple like a color of royalty maybe that's where the Romans got that from at any rate tyre is a big city and the reason the Phoenicians are important is because of two things first they are great sailors they are the greatest sailors in ancient times and so they sailed all from they sail from Syria and Lebanon and they landed all over North West Africa in southern Europe and Spain in France but they went all the way to Cornwall in England this is three thousand years ago and some people even say that they are responsible for the megalithic monument on the Salus very plain in England called Stonehenge which I'm sure you've heard of people say that the Phoenicians did that but they also landed all over northwest Africa so they are great sailors they establish these colonies are great traders but they are also credited with having introduced the alphabet so Phoenicians go down in history for those two achievements so all over this area in Spain and North Africa you will have Phoenician colonies or Phoenician settlements for example the biggest one is called carcass K H AR T – H ad das and the Romans call that Carthage the word card Hadas means the new town and it was established by colonists from Tyre and 814 BC they landed and they integrated with the black people in northern Africa in Tunisia and Algeria and they established a city-state that is in power for hundreds and hundreds of years and of course the greatest of cars and families is called the barsa or Barca family VAR CA and it was one of the bosses the father of Hannibal who founded the Spanish city of Barcelona so this is very important and Hannibal himself has African blood I was going to show you a picture of what we believe to be Hannibal from time's and Hannibal is one of the greatest military geniuses of all time a very bold man who when he was 13 years old swore undying hatred to the Roman Empire because the Romans were trying to wipe the Carthaginians out you have Carthage in Africa and then you have room in southern Europe so you have this conflict first with the Greeks then with the Romans to see who was going to exercise supremacy and the Carthaginians were to turn I mean the Romans were determined to destroy the Carthaginians so when Hanna was 13 he declares undying hatred to the Roman Empire and when he's 21 years old he is elected democratically the commander-in-chief of the Carthaginian army this 21 year old kid young man and he says the best way to defeat the Romans is to go to Rome don't wait for them to come here let's go get him and that establishes his fame hmm so he takes an army an African army Carthaginian and all kind of African mercenaries including the people call the Moors into Europe into Spain and they crossed the Alps and he has a large contingent of African war elephants most of those elephants were lost crossing the Ouse but he went all the way to the gates of Rome and he destroyed one Roman army after the other and the Romans were terrified they thought the inn was coming but the Romans war the Carthaginians down and then you have a Roman general with the interesting name Scipio africanus some people even think that Africa is named after this Roman Scipio africanus but that's not the case africanus means conqueror of africa so the name of africa is already in the place in he has a strategy similar to Hannibal he says we will never defeat the Carthaginians if we fight a defensive battle let's go to Africa so they lead the Roman army into Africa and then they do something else that we should be very familiar with they divide and conquer they separated the African contingent for example there's a group of Africans in the Carthaginian army called the new midians it's probably from the word Numidian that we derive the word nomad and they divide them up and so they no longer fight alongside the Carthaginians anyway Carthage is ultimately defeated in three wars and they're called the Punic Wars and then the last one the Romans said we're going to get rid of the Carthaginians once and for all and they burn Karthus tooth I've been to Carthage they burn Carthage to the ground they say Carthage burn for forty days and forty nights before the fires went out and then the Romans took plows and bullocks and so salt into the ground so nothing no crops would ever grow there again and finally I think it's around 55 BC that one of the greatest of the Roman somebody we've all heard of Julius Caesar goes to Carthage he's on his way to give battle somewhere because the Romans were always killing somebody they go to give battle somewhere and Caesar has a dream a nightmare and the night in the nightmare he's told Carthage must be rebuilt and so Carthage is rebuilt but it's built as a Roman city so if you go to Carthage today in Tunisia you only see a little bit of the original African city most of the rest is Roman now the Romans themselves yes yes and the bark of family I don't know if it's pronounced Barca or barsa these are some tough Africans and they are called the Lions brood the Lions brood these are some tough people I would have liked to have met them okay Ali would have felt right at home among the barsa family okay now the Romans these civilizations are not monolithic in terms of ethnic in terms of the ethnicity and by the second century you begin to have non Romans or non Italians who assume very important positions even before then but particularly in the 1st and 2nd centuries ad non Romans are traditionally non Romans begin to be very important for example you have two Spanish emperors one named Hadrian and another named Tracy and tration apparently was a very liberal man in fact trations a leading military commander was an African who was a moor and he was picked as Trajan successor but when Trajan died you know other people stepped in and prevented this African from taking his place this is well documented in a book called Rome in Africa it's an excellent book Rome in Africa by a woman named Susan Raven it's the super book the best book on the subject I think has ever been written it's still in print I think it was reprinted about 1995 you can get it it's cost you about $30 paperback if you can get it in attitude library you won't be you won't regret it Raven like the bird Ravn thus quoth the raven nevermore now I'm in a good mood I love what I do does it come out the passion that I have for it it's like God has given us all something and this is what I got I may not be worth a damn and anything else but that's his story and I'm not too bad okay alright so I think a legend in my own mind right now the Romans and the African presence among the Romans so after the Spanish emperors it's the Africans part and the most prominent African Emperor and I'm doing all just deliberately because all this we're gonna be impacted upon if we haven't been already over the days to come you have a brother named septimus severus but I had this nice black painting us at Tamia Severus as far as I know the only one in existence that has now disappeared it was in a museum in East Germany and then the wall came down and the unification took place and the painting cannot be found anymore but I am very fortunate not to have a black and white or just a black white but a color reproduction of this painting and it has this African dark brown skin man would happy to be nappy hair good hair right and he's with his wife yeah because I'm looking at it from my perspective why isn't this good hair a little our guy and why isn't this skin why do we allow other people to define our reality for us dr. Wade Nobles a brilliant psychologist in San Francisco likes to say that the essence of power is the ability to define someone's reality and make them live according to that definition as though it is a definition of their own choosing and that's what white people have done to us they have defined our reality for us so for example I'm troubled when I look at the media and I see the standards the beauty for african-american women being projected as Beyonce and Mariah Carey nothing wrong with Mariah Carey and Beyonce well should that be the sole standard of beauty for African people and if it is what are the implications of that what does that mean does that mean as a man I'm gonna go for the most light-skinned sister I can find with the most European features I can find I love black fro from snow to crow and bright tonight but not everybody looks like those two women all right Beyonce September Isis spelled STP TI mi us and you can remember that if you think of the month of September and he is born on April 11th 146 ad in a place called Leptis Magna Libya and now Libya is opening up to tourism and I hope that uh I know you told me the brothers leading a tour there I hope to be able to go there later this year next he's born in 146 he's born of a very prominent family he becomes a senator he becomes a general and in 193 I don't know the exact date but in 193 ad he becomes emperor of Rome all right and I don't know if he's the first African Emperor but he's the most prominent and he's in power from 193 – to 11 I think that's 18 years and he's the last Roman Emperor to die in bed for a hundred years after that every Roman Emperor for 100 years is assassinated murdered by the praetorian guard poisoned by his wife or somebody okay so that's his distinction and he is a great builder if you go to Rome you will see in the imperial forum I'm the toughest building there it's an arch of such a triumphal arch of septimius severus and he dies in England in 211 he is leading a military campaign in northern England a city called York last night I watched a part of this movie Braveheart for about the 300th time I think I was born in Scotland in another lifetime I'm into the bagpipe is my favorite instrument yeah you see why I spend a lot of time by myself right now Septimus Severus goes and the reason I mentioned Braveheart is because they have a big battle in York in northern England York is like between England and Scotland so septimius severus went up there leading a Roman military campaign and that's what he died but before he died he fathered two sons who succeeded him what his name geta GE ta who was murdered by his brother tomorrow famous brother Caracalla and that's not the actual name but that's what he is known as Caracalla CA ra CA ll a and the images of Caracalla do not I've never seen a colour painting of him but I've seen a lot of statues of him and he always had naughty hair like really nappy hair but he would have had a hard time getting a pic through there right and he is always described as ugly and apparently he was very cool but he is a successor of his daddy who was born in Africa his mother is from Syria his mother's name is Julia domina deal em na and the reason I put emphasis on Caracalla is because when we go back to Morocco on the way to Casablanca we're gonna stop in a Roman city called voluminous and in voluminous you have an arch not as impressive as the one septimius severus had erected in rome but an arch of Caracalla because one of the things that Caracalla dear to see gave roman citizenship to many people in the provinces and this was a big thing with Roman citizenship you could climb to very high positions and so the people of voluminous was so happy because of that that they erected an arch in honor of Caracalla and I'll show it to you when we get there you have after and then you have the last representative of the what's called the severest Severn dynasty his name is alexander severus now i know there's some discussion i don't know if has been confirmed about a possible desert club trip to italy next year and if it happens rome has to be the center of that and then the national museum you have a whole room that's just devoted to the severn dynasty and i went in this room not knowing what was in there in fact i was in the museum about three four years ago and i walked past it and in the quarter of my eyes look like some african over there and i went in the room and sure enough I saw all these African statues and the most African one of all is a man named alexander severus who is the grandson of septimius and he dies he's assassinated in 235 ad and he's the last representative of this African dynasty you have African saints you have an african saint named Tertullian Tertullian contribution is that he made latin the official language of the church of the catholic church you have another saint named st. Cyprian who was beheaded and made a martyr and st. Cyprian had such courage and such dignity that before he died he gave the man who was going to cut his head off 25 gold pieces and basically said you're just doing your job don't worry about it if somebody comes to kill me I ain't gonna give him no money but that's the waste Cyprien was and this is like 250 a brilliant intellectual and then you have the baddest of them all named Saint Agustin who was Bishop of a place called hippo in a what is now Algeria these are all Africans you have African Pope's you have a pope named Victor the first who was responsible for Easter being celebrated on Sunday every year up to that point it was a floating holiday Victor Victor the first st. Victor the first African Pope you have another one named Milton who's considered the most intellectual of the Pope's of his time and then you have the third African Pope that I'm aware of his name is Galatia s– so these are three GTL assi us so these are three African Pope's at one time this is a historical fact that nobody can refute in fact the books written about this is a book called for example septimus severus the african emperor of rome by man named anthony birdie bir le why all the information is right there so white man writes this big fat book and he calls it the african emperor of rome so the information is there at one time you have an African Emperor septimius severus you have an african pope victor the first and you have the leading theologian in the Roman world Tertullian all at the same time now imagine that that's inconceivable today you have an African Emperor an african pope and the leading intellectual in the Roman world there are all Africans it was Rome who produced the African Terence I fard the man who said I am a man and therefore nothing human is alien to me that sounds like African humanity to me that sounds like something a brother would say that I am a human being and therefore nothing human is really foreign to me and then as I pointed out by the second century AD you have one-third of all the members mr. Africa so that's rum so we've covered Phoenicia we've covered rum briefly Africans in the Arab world before we get to the Moors you have a book then we reference in this book and this is the most important book on the subject that has ever been written certainly in English this book is called the Golden Age of the war and it's written by my principal teacher a man named Ivan Van Sertoma been stirred EMA is from Guyana in South America and I met Ivan for the first time in 1981 and I started working with him in 1982 and he produced about 12 volumes like this african presence in europe african presence in ancient America the great African thinkers blacks and science which everybody should have and this one right here and I was able to work with Ivan on all of these books in fact my chapter in here is the first chapter in the book and it's the longest chapter in the book and Ivan thinks it's the best chapter in the book okay I ain't gonna say anything but that's what Ivan said right and we make mention in this book of a man named Alger he's Al – j8h Ozzie and algae he's don't worry Gary you got it I like your enthusiasm restrain yourself Alger he's writes a book called the book of the glory of the blacks over the whites some people translated the book of the superiority of the blacks over the whites this is written in the ninth century after he's is a black man that's not his actual name the name outer he's means big eyes a Bolton parents brother have really big eyes that was very prominent so he had this nickname apparently the Arabs were good for giving black folk nicknames for example the greatest musician in the world at that time they called the Black Bird and this brother was remarkable he introduced innovations in clothing told people they should change their clothes from time to time is credited with toothpaste and deodorant and he was the greatest musician of his day he was so good that when he came to a city to perform the mayor and all the leading dignitaries of the city will come out and stand on the side of the road to greet him when he came into the city Tufts African so you have Alger he's and after he was born in southern Iraq a place called Basra bas RA in the 9th century and he's considered one of the greatest scholars of his day he wrote 40 books or something like that on all kinds of subjects and he lived to be about 90 years old and he died according to the story he had a huge library and this reminds me of myself in some ways and it was the earthquake and all the books fell over on the brothers bed and unfortunately he was in the bed when they fell and he died by his own books that what a way to go that style like if you got to go you got to go I wouldn't mind going like that people go remember you like that they might talk about your thousand years later I hope they talk about us a thousand years from now and what would they say if they do what will future generations say about you and me will they say there was some Africans who did everything they could to make the world a better place but will they say there was some trifling be about nothing Negroes who never did anything and there was and when they died we had a big party not to mourn their loss but to say we glad they're gone what will they say what will our statement in life be this is very profound when I go to the universities I asked the students there what are you here for what is your mission in life what is your statement in life well jeez and the people I'm talking about has such a mission in life that we talk about them as though they're with us in the room now how did he's perceived that racism was creeping into the Arab world that just discrimination or hostility towards African people was becoming more pronounced and he said well let me address that and so he wrote about different things for example he wrote about a man named and tar or antara the lion I was gonna show you a picture of him that I photographed in Syria black in the medina in Damascus very rare photograph he mentioned antara antara is considered like a national hero among Arabs particularly the Bedouins the desert dwelling Arabs and nomads and he's considered the father of chivalry a dashing knight a champion of women a champion of the oppressed and I think he has a book that he wrote about his wife love poems called abla aa black I think it's a PLA so after he's wrote about him and he wrote about the lineage of the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him he said that Muhammad's grandfather was a Sharif of Mecca and he fathered ten sons or in Jesus words ten Lords and if you really really want this book it's been translated by a Moroccan interestingly enough about twenty years ago and I was tight with the man who paid for the translation and he gave me a copy of the translation of this book there's more than a thousand years old and if you're really interested I'll see that you get a copy of it okay now he wrote about the Sharif of Mecca I think his name is Al Motta liebe probably how I apologize if I mess up his name who had ten sons at ten Lords each one was blacks tonight and magnificent one of them is our dollar the father the Prophet in the early days of Islam Mohammed his devices sent his closest companions to Ethiopia he's told if you look to Ethiopia sisters and brothers there you will find a land of righteousness ruled by a king under whom no man is persecuted it is a land well God will give you rest from all of your afflictions and earliest Muslims went there and when they came back to Mecca Muhammad was so impressed by the way they were treated in Ethiopia in Africa that he said that he who brings an Ethiopian man or an Ethiopian woman into his house brings the blessings of God there some people think that's why Ethan was never massively invaded by the Arabs it's because Mohammed was so impressed by how the Muslims were received there you see to leave them alone no jihad there you have been law who we talked about the other day Bilal is the first one as in the first caller to prayer of the faithful he had a deep booming voice he is so important he's referred to as a third of the faith of Islam I wanted to show you his tomb hopefully tonight and a mosque named in the master after him story goes Muhammad Oba law this pious man is devout man this man of great faith for law last night I dreamed I went to paradise and I found that you have been there before me black Imams black Muftis at Mecca and Medina the first Muslim to farlan battle is an African these things we should not forget because when we see history as projected to us this monolithic if you watch the movies which determines most of our consciousness about history we are left out for the most part you see the movies Kingdom of Heaven The Last Samurai I can show you images black samurai but Tom Cruise didn't hang out with them in the movies I say show the movie King Arthur I'm gonna tell you in a minute about black people at the King Arthur's Court the knights of the round table so these things are left out and then you have so my point there is even if you talk about an Arab incursion into Spain and Portugal you're still talking about black people as a part of that movement now finally the Moors themselves the word more is derived from the word mari or Mars this is a Greek word Greek and Latin ma u RI and the other variation is Mars like almost like Maurice ma you are us it means scorched and this was the term sisters and brothers that was applied to the people of North West Africa North West Africa on the other side of Egypt and then the Arabs were beginning to move now the first time we hear about the Moors they're fighting with the Carthaginians they're fighting in Hannibal's army and then with the Carthaginians have finally defeated they fight alongside the Romans we have evidence we show in this book for example and you should try to get this book it has Wayne Chandler's work in there it's a lot of Africans it's an anthology has a lot of good stuff we reproduce in here a Roman military diploma apparently at a certain point if you fought in the Roman army and you survived and you live for you a foreign army for 25 years you were a veteran you could retire with honour and many parts of the Roman Empire and it says as some of these Moors were not they sit back to where they came from because they were well-trained the Romans did not want to see an insurrection so they would be sent to other parts of the Roman Empire some of these Africans were sent to places like Croatia Bosnia Serbia Romania and apparently some of their descendants still live in these places 1,500 years later it's quite a remarkable story we are remarkable people and we have the greatest story that's barely been told and we're trying to tell that story and then you have Moors who fight who are identified as Berbers and who fight the Arabs when they invade Africa at the end of the seventh century and most the greatest leader is a woman named Alka he know who is called a princess or prophetess and she's a black woman who leaves the marsh or Berber defense against a know that she's eventually defeated she tells her son's to go over to the Arab side because it's obvious they are going to win and these people become a part of the movement that goes from North Africa into Spain the first movement is in 710 it's led by Manning tarif ta RAF tarifa is named after him and tarrif leads 400 Moors or Berbers beat these nights and so in 711 another group is led by men and Tariq who was an African governor and his commander-in-chief is a man named Musa who was an Arab I don't know if he's black or white I don't know may not even be important in this context but they lead 10 to 20 thousand mostly Berber or more soldiers and a few Arabs into Spain and they fight and defeat a Visigothic army led by a man named Roderick in 711 you out there with me most of y'all anyway now let me read this this brief quote I think this is good stuff and this is a paragraph from the book in 711 with a Berber of Moorish Expeditionary Force and a small number of Arab translators and propagandists some say 300 jury crossed the Straits and disembarking a rocky promontory from which this day has born his name Gibraltar ich or Tariq's mountain which we call Gibraltar in August 711 he won a decisive victory over the Visigoths army it was during the conflict that Roderick the last Visigoths King was killed on the eve of the battle tarik is a list who have arouses troops with the following words and I quote my brethren or my brothers the enemy is before you the sea is behind you where would you run to follow your general and I'm resolved either to lose my life or to trample on the prostrate king of the Romans and they wiped the Visigoths out the Africans won that battle and Roderick himself was killed and apparently soon Moussa joined to Rican Spain right after that and they helped subdue most of the Iberian Peninsula and then the Moors begin to come over in fact it says in the aftermath of these brilliant struggles Berbers our Moors by the thousands flooded into the Iberian Peninsula so eager were they took come that some of them are said to have floated over on tree trunks they couldn't wait to get here tarik himself at the conclusion of his illustrious military career retired to the distant East where inform to spread the teachings of Islam this is in direct contradiction to what is happening today now you have Africans who are leaving Senegal leaving Mali can't wait to get over here but there was a time when Africans did not come to Europe as poppers and they didn't come just as tourists they came and reintroduced civilization back into Europe we should never lose sight of this about a year ago not even quite a year there was a case of a number of Senegalese who were killed in Morocco trying to climb a fence to come to Europe and the Moroccan army shot them down like dogs and they later apologized for it it didn't help those that got killed though and a white woman in Europe I don't know she was Spanish or what wrote a newspaper article about these poor pitiful Africans or leaving Africa because Africa is so messed up to come to Europe to search for a better life and Thabo Mbeki the president of South Africa wrote a long letter which I have a copy of magnificent letter where he says it wasn't always like that never forget that there was a time when Africans were masters and not slaves so 711 and then these Africans come in and they help really establish a magnificent civilization they are welcomed by many people for example the Jews who had been persecuted by the Visigoths and you have seen some evidence of what those Africans did you have magnificent cities that are developed and the Europeans retreat into the northernmost parts of Spain and Portugal and then they finally begin to push back and this is called the Reconquista or the reconquest you have different dynasties you have the Almohad dynasty you have the almoravid dynasties and these Moors are described as blackness is in English literature black is pitch black as a crow black as a raven black as ink nothing white about them but their teeth Shakespeare used the word more and Negro as synonyms for Shakespeare there was no difference between a Negro and a moor in fact we begin the chapter in the book with this according to the Oxford English Dictionary the Moors as early as the Middle Ages and as late as the 17th century quote this is from the Oxford English Dictionary more commonly supposed to be black or very swarthy and his the word more is often used for negro now this is the white man and you know the European knows everything now you got to do is quote him and you know you never go wrong that's a joke so anyway you have these movements and then in 1492 the Moors are finally defeated baura bill who may have been black I'm not sure surrenders the keys to the Alhambra to Ferdinand and Isabella I think the exact date is January 6 I think that's it certainly January 1492 and it's downhill after that mother rebuked him she said you we began to weep when he surrendered the city and she said you weep like a woman for a city you failed to defend like a man now when your mother talks about you like that you have reached a low point in your life your mother is supposed to be there for you under all circumstances so when your mother does that it's bad news well more spread all over Europe and I'm gonna finish with this I'm gonna do two more quick comments and I'm gonna finish what happened to these Moors some of them converted to Christianity or they became or are certain people became identified with the Moors for example you have a man named st. Maurice and I have a fantastic image of st. Maurice and I hope to show you tonight the word Maurice is derived from Latin and means like amor the black st. Maurice is regarded as the greatest patron saint of the Holy Roman Empire he is this is a black man as African as you will ever see look like he comes from the Congo or Nigeria or ganda where I just left and he is the patron saint of the Roman Empire for 300 years you particularly find him in Germany in Lithuania in the Baltic States but you also have Black Knights Christian converse like Sir Mauryan Morgan is the is an epic story in Dutch and French and later in English of a black man who converts to Christianity and becomes a knight at King Arthur's round table he when we find him he's looking for his father apparently his father was a had come from Europe and gone to Palestine gone to Jerusalem during the Crusades and he met his mother and got her pregnant and then left and so Mauryan grew up without a father so when he became old enough he began to look for his daddy he wanted some explanations and the biggest explanation was why would you leave my mother he was going to defend his mother's honor and so much of the story is about Mauryan looking for his dead that sounds like it for me a story done there and in the process he has all these wonderful adventures he hangs out with Galahad with Wayne would Lancelot and it's all the installations right here in the book I have a copy of the translation from the Dutch into English and Maureen is described as a magnificent night in fact one of the nights at the round table fell in love with Mauryan but we won't go into that story all right so you have Morgan who's described as blackest tonight black is ain't black is the crow nothing white about him but his teeth now why are these stories not told in school books how come they're not in the Philadelphia schools in the Brooklyn schools in the Detroit schools you know the answer designed to keep African people with a sense we didn't do anything and a lot of our behavior is a reflection of the fact that our history has been so distorted and so many of us emulate other people's behavior that's why I got upset yesterday in the Cathedral with all this emphasis on Columbus Isabella for they are not heroes for us they may be heroes for other Europeans not for us George Washington can never be a hero of mine because George Washington owned more than a hundred Africans how can Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin and Madison and Roja can they be our heroes these are slave owners we have to be able to define for ourselves what we're going to do now for the course of the next 45 minutes or an hour is just to visually illustrate the lecture that I gave this morning through the hard work of Gary and Hasan and Bob and Ali and a few other folks we were able to get a slide projector and a screen not a simple thing it may seem very simple but much of this technology is for many circles obsolete so these are not the easiest machines to get we hope that you will find it worthwhile we want you to get everything you paid for on this trip and more and I think so far that has been the case now I think Gary gave us the expression earlier that has been off repeated the old cliche that seeing is believing I think that was it the other one is a picture is worth a thousand words I mentioned earlier that is common perception of for African people African Americans African descending to use that this is where history begins this is the door of no return this is where the Africans were taken before they were put on the floating coffins that we sometimes call slave ships before this actual before they were taken out of this that the humanizing process had already begun to take place Africans were captured in the interior of Africa chain shackled and March to coastal dungeons and from what people in Ghana have told me I've been fortunate enough to go to Ghana twice I'll be back there again in about a month is that most of the Africans who died as a result of enslavement died in Africa from the time they were captured and traumatized and marched to those dungeons and the dungeons themselves as we all know we're horrible experiences how many of you have been in West Africa okay a good portion well you've been in many of these places you've seen the women's dungeon which really angers me to think about it how the women were separated and systematically raped I went into women's dungeon and Cape Coast I couldn't even go in Elmina but I went in Cape Coast and I saw that and that's what I remember the most and these dark putrid rooms where our ancestors were kept chained together like animals that's the way they were treated branded with hot irons and then when there were enough of them to make a voyage profitable they would be taken out the door of no return and they'd become commodities and merchandise and property less than human I'm always struck to by the fact that in all of these that I've been so I think I've been the for three or four including WIDA in Benin there's always a church right in the middle of the dungeon these Africans didn't want to go they went kicking and screaming and in many cases we are told that they put dirt in their mouths to take Africa with them we were taken from Africa but we took Africa with us and we say you we're not African because we're born in Africa we say we're African because Africa is born in us whether we like it or not so we might as well get comfortable with it because we're not it's not gonna go away and those Africans were taken to Trinidad and Jamaica and Virginia and Haiti and the Dominican Republic and Brazil and even Canada in some cases all throughout the Western Hemisphere but our history doesn't start there and it doesn't start here this is in Suriname in South America this is actually reproduced in a museum in Curacao in the Caribbean and the idea was to create examples to create fear to prevent rebellion to prevent insurrection sometimes they would take a strong African man and then make all the other Africans bear witness and maybe take a knife tie him up and cut him from his throat to his groin tearing out his heart his liver his intestines chopping them into little pieces and making the other enslaved Africans eat a piece remember I used the word enslaved as opposed to slaves slaves didn't come from Africa Africans were taken from Africa and enslaved and it's not just a matter of semantics or linguistics it makes a profound difference in terms of how we perceive ourselves and how the world perceives us and then you have a process at least in South America this again is insured now I'm a Dutch colony of America I think most of us wouldn't think of South America and African people we think of Brazil for the most part of Portuguese country but there are tens of millions of Africans in Venezuela and Bolivia in Peru in Colombia in Ecuador in Paraguay and Uruguay and even Argentina do you know was in the slums of Argentina that African people invented them now famous dance called the tango so Africans are taken to all of these places but this is in Suriname and this is a process called a Singh or arsing AR si ng I guess it's just the way the Dutch would have spelled it and the idea was to humiliate and to instill fear and so they would take a woman and tie her up humility her a stripper in front of all these African people and then fill her body with gunpowder and blow her up in front of nursing mothers in many cases this is our legacy – not all of our history is about building those pyramids on the Giza Plateau and these are things that you say never forget I say always remember so that it does not happen again but again our history doesn't begin there our history begins more like this right here this is an image of an African goddess in Europe this is 30,000 years old it's 4 inches high it's made of soapstone I've actually seen the piece personally this is in the Natural History Museum in Vienna Austria Vienna is a very interesting place lots of museums in fact in one day in Vienna 2 years ago I visited 8 museums I walked as a matter of fact in most of these place you would have been proud ok this is regarded as the oldest human figurine in Europe and we can compare that with the hair and the hips to these African women in southern Africa right now these are the Nama I hope that doesn't embarrass you but I was with a groups of Africans just like this in South Africa and Namibia about a month ago remember now I've now been in 11 countries in the last six weeks I've been in the United States obviously in southern Africa and East Africa and Central Africa North West Africa now Spain and also France and I'm in the middle of a 16 country tour that will be completed God willing in the first week of September and it was Africans like these that represent the first human beings on the planet had wandered into Europe so even when we're talking about the Moors let us not forget that there are migrations and movements of African people that precede the Moors into Europe by thirty thousand years the first people in Europe are African people African people are the Aboriginal people on the planet humanity begins in Africa let us not forget that and civilization begins in Africa and then that is spread all over the world it doesn't start with enslavement it doesn't start with colonization and then there's another movement too that we have not really talked about I say that history is the movements of people and if you want to understand how and why African people are scattered in the far corners of the earth you have to understand these migrations first humanity is born in Africa these Africans are the first people obviously to domesticate fire to build a house to wear a shoes to chart the stars in the heavens to practice religion spirituality to play music to count to bury the dead on and on and on I think I mentioned to you the other day that I actually went to a place in Swaziland in southern Africa about a month ago called the Lions cat cavern the Lions cavern and this is where the first mining in the world took place 40 few thousand years ago African people call Sun si n you may call them Bushmen or actually mining for iron ore and the cosmetic called hematite now then you have the role of African people in classical civilizations all over the world then you have the enslavement period and Africans are taken into Asia into you know because there's the Indian Ocean slave trade – just like you have a transatlantic and then Africans are also taken out of North Africa into Western Asia but you have a fourth migration that in many ways is more tragic than even the first three at least this enslavement part and these are Africans in the last 3040 years who are leaving Africa going to other parts of the world in search of what they perceive is a better way of life I've been very blessed to travel probably more than most people ever will and I go to a lot of places that a lot of African people don't even think about going I've been in the last year in places like Bangkok and Istanbul and Athens and Damascus and Perth and Melbourne in lots of places and I always find my new qualities of African people in Madrid and Granada in Sevilla etc these are Africans who have left Africa because of the impoverishment of African people that's a great tragedy Africa is the wealthiest continent in the world Peter Tosh our brother from Jamaica used to say Africa is the richest place with the Porsche race Oh my own mind what a disgrace Africans go into synagogue from Senegal and Mali they go through Morocco if they can and they try to come here in Malta in France and that's something that we haven't talked about because if you look around parts of Spain you will find small groups of Senegalese here in particular who are more or less like refugees poppers and so that's something that perhaps can be discussed at another time now these are Canaanites and Phoenicians are a coastal branch a coastal branch of the Canaanites remember Canaan land is in the coastal periphery of Lebanon Lebanon is in Southwest Asia what a lot of people call the Middle East and what some of my Hebrew Israelites friends like to call Northeast Africa and this is a depiction of a cannon eyed king and queen with an Egyptian with an African doctor this is about three thousand years old I do not recall the origins of this photo this is not one that I took myself one of my best friends of all time at a research associate named James E Brunson who is now at the University of Chicago dr. Brunson gave me this picture more than 20 years ago but this is from Canaan these are people to Kim to the Phoenicians who we've talked about many times and you see the black doctor if it was dark it would be it would look better but you see the black doctor right there who looks like a motel you all know in hotel the father of Medicine but do you know a motel was also inscribed he was a writer and he was so renowned as a writer that later generations of Egyptian writers before they would write something they was fill a little bit of ink on the ground they would have a libation ceremony in honor of M Hotel 2,000 years after this brother died and it would ask themselves the question could it be another like M Hotel now that's a legacy time has not diminished the glory of the deeds of these ancient Africans they had a sense of mission and purpose in life that is admirable and again you see the man on the throne and his wife and companion behind him because after all what good is a king without a queen this is Hannibal Barca or barsa BARC eh at least that's who we believe this is this comes from a book called the image of the act I think it's believed it's the image of the African in Western art this is a three-volume book published by middle foundation in Pittsburg in Houston in the 1970s these folks had a lot of money they were philanthropists and they had philanthropist and they had a strong interest in African art so they put together these big expensive art books with all these African images and unfortunately at that time I really was a starving scholar I was a student at UCLA and I couldn't afford those books but what I would do is go and Xerox them and this is the best I came up with this is the point depicting the African general Hannibal Barca you can even see the African elephant down below and this is approximately 2200 years old these are Jews since we talked about Canaan land the Jews are always associated with that area this is from the British Museum in London and there's about six of these and they're all about the size of the image that you see on the screen these are Jews or Judeans from a place called like quiche this is in the 8th century BC these are Jewish prisoners of war captured by the people called the Assyrians now the Egyptians and the Ethiopians or Kushites went to eat to Jerusalem to help rescue these people and it could have been an ethnic relationship another friend of mine a brother named Karl Franklin who was a film director has been trying to secure some money to do a film starring Will Smith called the last pharaoh that talks about the movement of Africans from the Nile Valley to go to Jerusalem to save these people and there's a very good book written about it called the rescue of Jerusalem you can go and find that document this is Ishmael Ishmael is a traditional ancestor the Arabs this is a depiction of Ishmael from near Modena Ishmael is the son of Ibrahim or Abraham he has a black mother named Hagar an Egyptian woman and this is a very important piece again he is considered a traditional ancestor of the Arabs now we've heard a lot in the last 24 hours or so little longer than that about the Syrians and we saw the mural from at the alhambra that supposedly was of Syrian origin or people from Syria but this is a black man in Syria – what I'm trying to do is just show you that Africans permeated all of these parts of the world that had a direct relationship on Moores painting this is a Syrian nobleman and this is a small Busta's about this big I saw it for the first time in the Natural History Museum in Los Angeles about 20 years ago but I mentioned to you I went to Syria where did I go was it in November yeah I think was November last year and I actually saw the artifact in the museum it's just stuck down in the corner in a glass case and I knew it was in there and I was determined like Sherlock Holmes with a magnifying glass not to leave that museum until I found it and I was very fortunate a black man in Syria 2,000 years ago not a slave now and we're gonna talk about slavery a little more in a moment this is Antar or antara the lion considered a dashing knight a poet an epic figure and this is taken in the medina in Damascus Syria as well I've been very blessed I count my blessings every day and the thing that gives me the most pleasure is to go to these parts of the world quite often by myself without having done a whole lot of advance planning and do some research and find these pieces these are very rare photographs and this is the tomb of belong you know II dress on the first day he dress he dressed took us to the hassan ii mosque right and casablanca and he talked about the minuet this magnificent building with the minaret where the MU as a new ago and called the faithful to prayer or the first caller to prayer the first one who hasn't is a black man from Ethiopia named below and again bi Lal Bilal and he is a close companion to the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him and I was able to find his tomb and this is it he's buried right there and not only does he have a tomb in Damascus but you have this mosque with a different kind of minaret and the muezzin correct me if I'm wrong brother caught will climb up there and call the faithful to prayer you may have heard that in Morocco with some that's a very beautiful sound anyway all these are from Syria and this supposedly is a south arabian temple guard now this was given to me this photograph by a buddy of mine named Wayne Chandler who you may know and Wayne has a chapter in this wonderful book the Golden Age of the moor but Wayne is not an art historian he calls himself an anthro photojournalist and sometimes I have to go back and verify what Wayne said because sometimes don't tell him this well you can tell him he'll laugh he's a good nature he kind of plays a little loose with some of the facts and I'm trying not to do that now when I sign and I were here in April at the Alhambra we went in a bookstore which you pass by when you went in a circular building and there's a book I paid I think 50 euros for and it has this exact painting and actually he's referred to as a nubian temple guard and this is a painting done by a fellow named Ludovic Deutsch Ludwik Dortch in the 1890s but this is a magnificent piece is it not beautiful piece of art what I'm showing you is not only elements of African history but beautiful art that we should be able to appreciate it on his own merit the a temple guard yeah it's just a a painting it's not an actual portrait it's not a historical piece but when I think of the Moors in antiquity this is the image that I think of right here the certainly fits the description he's got a look like a pistol he's got a dagger I don't know what that is he's holding his ham but it looks like he could hit you in the head with it and I know the ladies like this picture usually when I show this especially if it's dark I hate people say ooh and unfortunately it comes from the women most of the time now what about Africans in the Arab world today this for example who looks a bit like ouch of alton maddox in new york city other people say he looks more like Bernie Mac some people had suggested he looks like me if I were to wrap that around my head I'm not sure but there's no okay merely take your word for it we'll stick with Bernie Mac and I'll share in our Maddox and from Saudi Arabia and these photographs are taken from a book by another brother who I became good friends with a man named Tariq al Monsour a big-time attorney in the United States and African American who works for OPEC at least he did at the time and I got this one from his book – a beautiful piece and I love black-and-white photography and when it's not mine I give credit to the source this was the Minister of Finance in Saudi Arabia in 1954 the same year I was born very nice piece and when you think of this you might even think of Prince Bandar you remember Prince Bandar I used to see him on TV I think he was a Saudi ambassador to the UN or to the United States for 30 years this is uh he was the crown prince of Kuwait's and then he became for a very short time the Emir of Kuwait this is a member of the Al Sabah family in Kuwait now I've done presentations and Kuwaitis have come and some of the Kuwaiti who came to my presentation look like this and they say a great many people in Kuwait look like that I'm kind of what a go to Kuwait but I'm told there's really nothing to do there but I think if I just saw these folk that would be worth the trip now I don't know if they consider themselves black I don't know if they consider himself African we had a lot of discussions about that in Morocco but I know if he had lived in Montgomery Alabama prior to 1955 and he had relied on public transportation it would have been very clear who he was we have to put these things in the context from Iraq an African Iraqi police officer I would say that in Iraq today you have an African population of about 10% and many of them live in the southern portions of Iraq near a place called Basra I remember I talked about Alger he's this morning he was born in Basra bas ra now Africans have been in Iraq for a very long time since Iraq is topical let me spend a moment with that you have a civilization in ancient Iraq called the Sumerian civilization s um er ia n Sumerians who are called the black-headed people then you know I have argued in my own books that have been published that there was an African elite that covered the Sumerians but you also have Africans taken to this part of the world as enslaved people over a thousand years ago and they engaged in three massive insurrections the largest of which was from a 68 to 883 is called the revolt of the blacks or the revolt of the zine C a and J and the signs you can find that name today in Zanzibar the root and these Africans were treated very brutally and they engaged in these massive insurrections and some of them were never defeated and I think that this brother is the descendant of those Africans who were taken there from East Africa and inflate and they're still there you have Africans in Iran you have Africans in Pakistan you have Africans and all the Gulf countries the RAC is not in Africa Egypt is in Africa even though people will claim that the ancient Egyptians were not African people but it's still in Africa so I think that a more pleasant alternative is to say that the cradle of civilization is somehow out of Africa even though the evidence does not really support that but that's a very very good point you make people say that civilization began in the Fertile Crescent well it's not my civilization we'll talk about some with four component parts classical civilization one urbanization people live in cities towns and villages that's called urbanization you know longer essentially nomadic they settle down number two and it doesn't happen they're going this doesn't have to be in this particular order people have agricultural science they're able to farm they can feed themselves and therefore they can sustain large populations number three you have writing systems or scripts in the now valley we call it the middle nature that means the sacred speech or divine speech or the common term is hieroglyphs or hieroglyphics in the Tigris Euphrates River Valley is called cuneiform in the industry valley is called the Harappan script south of egypt is called the marrow it excrete because again egypt should not be looked at as an isolated entity we should talk more properly about now valley civilization of which egypt was probably the most refined part now civilizations themselves tend to develop along the banks of rivers because rivers by their very nature facilitate civilization because with rivers you have transportation because you can get up on them you can sail up and down on the river you have irrigation and because you have transportation and people are able to move around you have communication and so the earliest civilizations develop along the banks of rivers and the most important one is now valley civilization so here's an african iraqi police officer he is not in detroit andrew you don't have to worry he ain't in philly he ain't in brooklyn hearing in the bronx but he could be now you will see people in the course of this presentation that look like a lot of folk you know you may have done that already from palestine i understand we got some folks who say they went to Howard University this woman went to Howard University she was a law student she's an African Palestinian I moderated a group I moderate three II groups one is called travel with Renault Co which I invite you to give me your email address anybody can be in it it's free and you find out what I'm doing where I'm going we promoted some of the desert Club trips and then II grew another one called building African libraries one of the things I'm trying to do is build an African library in Accra Ghana election in Accra for the second time in 2004 and a little kid came up in the lecture in a conference this little boy and he actually raised his hand I said yes he said can you come and teach in my school and I said well I have to talk to your parents now after that I went to Benin Togo and I said well look if your parents can make the arrangement I'd be happy to come and Andy's give a lecture at your school and I did and it was very primitive in this in that sense no air conditioning not too much anything and I fell in love with these kids he's very precocious very disciplined quiet accident all kind of questions and then the schoolmaster came and I said no what can I do to make a difference here so he took me around the campus he took me into the library they had a few copies of Dick and Jane ran up the hill and they didn't look like this I assure you and he says I said what do you need so we need a library and so I pledge to work with some other people to put books in that library now two years later we've collected about fourteen hundred books textbooks encyclopedias Chancellor Williams name Akbar you wanted to come do for you name it the problem is sending it over there we've accumulated about two thousand dollars but shipping stuff to Africa as you know is no joke and so if you want to be a part of that you can but the other group is called the Global African presence and we had an African Palestinian in that group that's fascinating to me when I go to Morocco and see these African people and when you all leave I'm going into the South Marrakech I'm excited about that when I go into Tunisia see African people they're excited about that when you go to Egypt today you go deep in the South and Nubia African population centers it would appear that all over North Africa I would imagine this the same in Libya in Algeria the Africans seemed to be pushed in the south and that's the discussion that we can have at some point anyway this is an african palestinian law student formerly at howard university she got kicked out and israeli says that she the israeli said that she was involved in terrorist activities and in jordan what would get to jordan in a minute preempted story not very clear we can blame Bob for that this is an African woman in Yemen another place I was planning to go just before 9/11 I was when just before 9-1-1 took place I had gone to Vietnam and Burma in northern Thailand and I see any black folk over there I spent a lot of time by myself and it was much hotter than it is here so a lot of times I would go out in the morning see the temples and then I'd be by myself in my hotel room for the better part of the day taking notes and I remember one afternoon writing down all the places that I was going to go over the next two or three years and on the list was Yemen and Pakistan in particular and so when the World Trade Center bombing went down that took him in and Pakistan off the table anyway this is an image of a young African woman in Yemen Yemen is important because this is probably part of the domain of the famous queen of sheba now I assume you recognized a very handsome but rather short man in this image right here this is about two years ago year and a half ago yes take a picture hi son thank you very much in Jordan and this brother's name is Raja Juma now when I go to these places I tell the travel agent to took I they said what are you doing here sir what would you like to do cuz they want to make you happy it's business I want to meet some Africans and in Jordan I struck paydirt I had a guy sir one of my best friends is an African I said well I like to meet your best friend and so this is Raja Juma who was the assistant food and beverage director at the moving pick hotel at the Dead Sea resort in northern Jordan and we spent a half of an afternoon together he treated me like royalty treating me like I son does nothing was do good for me and he says I've never faced racism outside of Jordan now I always read that in these parts of the world African people really had it tough but when I talk to them they tell me something very different I talked to black folk in Tunisia and Morocco and Jordan everybody's the same here the black people tell me that the white folks tell me that but in the West we have a very different impression so I listened to Roger all day he said his grandfather was born in South Africa and his father was born in Palestine and he was born in Jordan and he you know occupies a very high position he told me about all the people he had met he told me : Powell had come there at this resort and he said Colin Powell was really cool and he said other person was really really cool was Bill Clinton he said Bill Clinton gave him $1,000 tip your tax tax dollars okay that made him really cool II when it showed me all of these pictures and gave me his card and said we were going to connect he says we're nope alive only face races in one place I said where he says in Miami he said he went to the United States twice and since Miami is the only place he's ever been called a nigger in Miami not Jordan Jordan I saw Africans all over the place and I had a wonderful time and that's why I'm taking a group there hopefully in November I mean October now this is a black Bedouin child in Jordan also and I don't know if he would think of himself as black or not this is how I met him I'm in a place called Petra considered one of the wonders of the world and I Petra is a huge place now I had a walk from my hotel you thought yesterday was an ordeal I walked from my hotel to the interest that took about an hour and a half right there straight walk flat and you go to this Gorge and then you enter into this area called Petra an ancient cemetery mausoleum combined and on it is huge and everybody kept saying excuse me sir what you need to see is the monastery I said where's that this is over there on that hill so I walked about another three or four miles still in pretty good shape no I don't look like it but I was humping and I got there and people didn't he want to ride a camel I said no you want to ride a donkey you want to ride a mule no I can handle it so I get up there and I said well how many steps is to the monster he said about a thousand I said that ain't too bad I walked about 10 steps I said well maybe and so I saw this black kid and I like to recycle black dollars as you know and he said sir or something gotta fit I'll take you up there so we agreed on a price I think ten Jordanian dinars and I rolled on this little white donkey which is about this high it was one of the worst decisions I've ever made in my life the donkey swinging to and fro we walked we got to the edge of the cliff and I was praying you know you'd be surprised how religious you can get under certain circumstances and I would look over and then I would lean back this way and I wanted to get off the donkey but I was afraid if I got off just the movement was gonna cause me to go over to that cliff somebody said that I look just like his father that kid was mad he said no and I don't think it was a personal thing I think his idea that his father would be a black man like me was something that he was not prepared to contemplate maybe I miss reading it but we have a tendency to do that we are products of our environment are we not and it's very difficult to divorce ourselves from the environment that we grew up in an America is such a racist polarized society that we bring those attitudes with us all over the world and sometimes it doesn't necessarily correspond anyway I got to the monastery and it was uh it was worth it but I walked back down but when I got to the bottom I would have taken a camel a mule a cockroach if there's it it'll give me I mean my legs were like rubber I couldn't make it anyway that's Jordan I shouldn't tell you that because I want some of y'all to go on the trip Petra now here's an interesting piece right here we talk about Africans we talk about slavery this is a photograph a painting that I saw for the first time in the National Gallery in Edinburgh Scotland of all places I always wanted to go to Scotland I was telling you about Braveheart this morning and Rob Roy I'd be identified with Mel Gibson on the horse and all the stuff painting on his face I said oh I must have been there in a previous lifetime so I went there about two years ago and I had a great I'm Edinboro is a really nice city lots of South Africans there interestingly enough and I saw this piece this is a slave auction in Cairo one caption says it was is this in the 13th century another one since it's much later than that now let what do you have here you see white women being sold into slavery you see a white man buying the slaves in an African who was the auctioneer now that's a very different perspective on history what am I trying to say here that slavery when we think of it we should not just think of African people all people have been enslaved at one time or another the word slave is rooted in the word slaw not Africa this is an interesting one I got that I finally found the photograph itself because they wouldn't let me take a picture in museum I couldn't bribe the Scots like I could the Egyptian oh they didn't you know I pulled out a five and they said sir there's no photography allowed they put the camera off if you want to keep it I said alright but I found it in a book in Istanbul I think was Istanbul somewhere in Turkey and this is from the toe copy palace in Istanbul I'm showing you images now of the African presence in the Muslim world or Islamic world what is it accurate to say Islamic world of Muslim world Islamic world this is in the Ottoman Empire in Turkey there's the Ottoman Sultan and you can see those black figures on top there this is one of the Chiefs of the black eunuchs and the Ottoman Empire they would castrate young boys black and white and it is said that 80% of these boys would die as a result they would bleed to death and then for whatever reason they would be segregated and the black eunuchs became much more popular than the white eunuchs and the chief of the black eunuchs became the fourth most powerful person in the Ottoman Empire he's the only person that had access to the Sultan 24/7 and it is said when they retired they lived the golden existence in Cairo so these are all African Muslims during the same time as more Spain in African Muslim in India acd Lord and that's a specialty of mine I'm supposed to be I've been called at least the world's leading authority on the African presidents in Asia I have three books on this subject now actually four including one that's just come out in French called a hundred thousand year history of the African presence in Asia my first point language book and this is one of the photos that we use in the book not like CD it's Bill sidd is CDs these people remember Africa and they say we would go back if they could I've done interviews with them are seen interviews and they have a clear consciousness of their African identity and by the way Pakistan they're called XI DS in India that cause CDs and in Sri Sri Lanka they're called CAF ears but it's the same group and they represent Africans who were enslaved converted to Islam and won their freedom the head of the CDs was known as the Admiral of the Indian Ocean during mogul times the moguls are kind of the cousins of the Mongols and they received an annual stipend a three hundred thousand rupees every year so they were well treated and they were warriors and they would guard the ships of Muslim pilgrims going from India to Mecca and Medinah because otherwise pirates would molest those ships and even Battuta who is from Morocco from Tangier by the way where we'll be going tomorrow said he went to India he's a great traveler in the 14th century and he said in his own works if one CD was on the ship and word got out no pirate will come near that ship and their communities can still be found scattered over India right now in Pakistan as well Mansa Musa Sultan of the mighty Mali Empire in medieval Africa and African Muslim at the same time as more Spain he went on the Hajj to Mecca and he apparently distributed so much gold that the worth of gold was devalued for a long time this is Miley Miley we know about from the fable city of Timbuktu a black woman in Mali today African Muslim an African woman in each year today an African Muslim before we get to the Moors let me just show you one more quick chapter from ancient Rome we talked about room this is an African in ancient Rome this is my own photograph this is in the antiquities museum in Berlin this is supposed to be in there but it's not this is the best image I've seen so far of septimus severus the powerful african emperor of rome there he is the brown skinned black man there born in leftist madness libya april 11th I think 146 AD there's a Syrian wife Julia domina and they're his two sons Caracalla and geta cara kept gets his face has been wiped out and his brother Kurokawa is responsible for that well they had these divisions within the family only one person was going to be the Emperor and Caracalla wasn't putting it up for a vote so simple mathematics you know 1 minus 2 equals 1 I guess that's the way it works I never was good in math I was good in history this is the arch of septimius severus in the imperial forum in rome the most splendid structure in the imperial forum and when you go to voluminous you will see a smaller arch after his son Caracalla well you will see right here and the arch was commemorated to Caracalla because he gave roman citizenship to the people in that part of morocco you look at the curly hair you can see the African imprint is there his father may not have had the best choice in women but the African imprint is there I know his father is born in Africa and his father is always described as an African he's described as black in Roman literature then so I suppose the hair that you see here on the face and the beard is a part of that African character that looks like a brother to me but I'll let you be the judge this is one of the African Pope's this is st. mil Theotis he's the second saying victor is the first Milty artist is a second one this is taken from the works of a esteemed African ancestor named dr. Edward sculpey from Dominica this is an African from imperial room and this is this is in my book by the way it's another plug for my book which is not too late to buy that photograph is in there now this is a very interesting piece right here I was I spoke at a big conference in were not such a big conference the small conference that was supposed to be big in Berlin in October and I said okay I'll go I was in Paris anyway and I wanted to go back to Berlin because Berlin has magnificent museums and I'm a museum fanatic first thing I usually do when I go anywhere is go to the museum and so this is from a place called Naples this is an archeological museum in Naples in southern Italy and I've seen it in books before but they had a special exhibit this artifact was on loan at a place called the Pergamon Museum in Berlin that's Hercules this is like 2,000 years old this is Hercules and this is from a villa or via I don't know which it is in Naples and this survived and it's in the museum exactly and we talked about the pillars of columns of Hercules the other day which is another term that Gibraltar and the other rock we talked about were represented anyway this is called Hercules in search of his son so I seen it in books but I actually saw the painting right in front of me and it's huge so anyway there's a lot of strange things going on here if you look close this a lot of strange things but all I wanted to know was Hercules was a brother okay and the ladies like this too but we don't want to draw on Hercules but but I know y'all are looking and you ain't said it you I know what you cuz I know I black people things now I found it I found another photo of you to see it one more time by the video I know you're gonna buy the CD now you can watch it late at night you can borrow Helens laptop and put it in there no I solved this in a book when I was leaving Leonardo da Vinci Airport in January this year coming back from Lebanon I had to fly back to Paris and I got a really cheap ticket I had to in order to get to Lebanon I had to fly to Milano and then Rome and then Beirut and coming back the same way even the people didn't air lies the things sir ticket I was trying to save some money most of this a lot of this I financed on my own so I'm in the room and Airport Leonardo da Vinci Airport killing time waiting for my flight and I was thumbing to a book and I saw that but the book was in German and I wanted an English version so I could get more information about the painting so somebody said well it may be a copy over here maybe a copy over there I got a plane to catch but I'm running all over the airport with this little cart and all my luggage on there I'm surprised the police didn't stop me rushing through the air / sweat and stuff looking for this book and I never found the book but just before I gave up I found this postcard this is st. Peter now you explain it I'm not saying st. Peter was black but I'm saying there's a postcard up there with st. Peter alright let's leave room this is the African goddess I set and I mentioned that the African name is more important in the Greek name the Greek name is Isis the name I sent means the throne and I like that the idea of a woman being associated with the throne is very symbolic to me and there's her son the Greek name is Horace the African name is Jeru it's where we get the word hero from and she is the wife and this is the son of this man his African name is isar the Greek name is Osiris and this is a very ancient creation story that involves an immaculate conception resurrected Savior or when you go to Egypt you see this of course a lot of you all have been here so I don't have to go into detail I just wanted to show this because we spent all time in the cathedral yesterday I shall quasi would spend about three hours just on this right here dealing with the similar of the crown of the crook in the flail all the symbology and it's worth it every second Australia is a brilliant scholar okay now let's just quickly show you these black Madonna's this one is from Russia this one is from Switzerland now we are told that these this is the one I showed you all in the Paris last year remember the black version of Paris people were saved but we're no call they really don't look black but what did black people look like look around the room go to a place like Ethiopia better yet go to Brooklyn and see what black people look like better yet come in this room so there's a range and then people would say it's not really black but what happened was the people who worship these used a lot of incense and candles and over the centuries the dirt and the soot got on it and made it look black other people say yeah except the eyes and the clothes right other people say well it's not and this is what I was told in Moscow that it's not sir it's not black I'm gonna show you the one I showed in a minute he said what happened was if people painted it use bad paint and it turned black I'd like to know what that paint what that son has to do with that frizzy hair on the infant Jesus head now it may be blonde but it's frizzy that ain't no paint if you paint something in this bad paint if you're a good painter you repaint it wouldn't you and if you worship something if it was really important you clean it off but we must confess that sometimes blackness is ethnic and sometimes a symbolic and sometimes it's both she's holding in her hand the national symbol of France and just a magnificent piece I enjoyed that shrine very much this is from most rot north of Barcelona this isn't the most African one they've got they got some others they've taken off display this is the more modern looking one and when you get real close to something about this big and it's way at the top of this church that pilgrims come from northern Spain to come and pray especially women who want to have children who have difficulty conceiving and you can read the prayers they write there are people who left their crutches and canes and braces who could walk after they went to this place when you get really close if you look at the it's wood it's painted black you can look at the feet in the hands and it's brown because people have kissed the feet and kissed the hands and now it's not black anymore these are considered miracle workers and the miracle working power is derived from their blackness here's somebody you know there's the Madonna and there's the last Pope and I would imagine if we went to Poland we'd see his favorite Madonna she's just a chill book and of course I understand there's some of these in the Vatican but this is the same church in Spain I want to show at least one from Spain this one is in France this is a photograph I took myself some original photograph in the Kremlin in Moscow this is the one while I was told it was bad paint print from white to black over the years and Jesus got an afro because of that paint hey it's a remarkable thing now here's an interesting story this one I took in a place called Ephesus in Turkey in front of Mary's house I went to Turkey I met these black women I was so excited but on my itinerary which I kept changing they said Mary's house Mary says I said I don't want to go to Mary's house and so the travel agent said don't worry I'll change the itinerary and I'll give you a new copy and the next day I'd get a new copy and Mary's house is on there I said what I said I didn't want to go this is not free is it they said no I'll change it the next day new itinerary Mary's house so don't worry about it dr. Roshini we're not going one morning once anyone we pull up in front of this place ask the tour guide what is this Mary's house do we need I don't speak Turkish and so I said all right so these people believe that Mary was taken here after the crucifixion by John and John is supposedly buried right up there I saw its grave that's what they say and so you have all these people lined up to get in Mary's house I figured why I'm here now and I asked the guide should I take my camera and one expert I think three or four exposures left this is where you might as well you can always get some film we go in there and this little nun is in front of Mary's house she doesn't even look at me as I walk in there she just by the door I didn't want to be in there anyway because I didn't believe the story I was a skeptic but I said I'm here so I go in there the big science there's no photography allowed you familiar with those signs by now and it also said no stalking in Mary's house because there's so many people there I was ready to go and all at once I saw this black madonna and so I whispered to my god he says wait a minute I'll ask him I said don't do that but he went anyway and I said well I might as well follow him she might say something interesting so she admonished and he said didn't you don't you see the sign no talking about so he says well my employer pointing to me once okay he wants to how old it is she says well very indignant still has not looked at me she says if you want to speak for a moment or two we can go outside so the nerd left I followed her and my god and we're outside and she says it's black because the black represents power that was pretty good and so I said let's go and then she kept talking and she says in the hands in this position meaning this and hands in this position means that still hasn't even looked at me I don't exist you may have had that experience before and so she goes on and on and I said you know like the monkey can talk I'm the boss here I said I've seen a few of these she looks to me for the first one she's really I said yeah I said I've seen him in Russia I've seen in Costa Rica I've seen him in French I've seen him in Spanish just really yeah and I said now where exactly is this from she says well it came from Ethiopia or Egypt about five hundred years ago but before that it was in a place called the play and friend I said you know I wanted to see that statue for 20 years my first wife was actually a scholar in her own right and did a whole paper of scholarly paper on that black madonna and there it was in Mary's house a place I didn't want to go so I started talking about it I said you know the Second Crusade was lunch food this place and Joan of Arc's mother used to pray in front of this moved on and by this time this nun is really excited so she says wait just a minute what's up here hopefully she ain't going to get the police she'll wait just a minute so she ran inside and brought the statue outside pulled it off the altar I said can I photograph it she said yeah I said can I touch it she says yeah I started to actually could I have it but I knew that was going too far and then she did something else and by this time all kind of people are around there are Germans or Italians is French this banished this Greek sister and I look at me and stops my ego which you know I have a little bit of started to get the best of me I had an election and the wife started lecturing on the black one and all these people are around me so she put the Madonna down right in front of me and went back in Mary's house now you know what I was thinking about I'm wondering how this would look on my dresser and in San Antonio but I also thought the army would be after me and there it is that's the true story this is the last one from that face and then the Moors and we're finished I'm already over time but I couldn't help tell those stories you may remember this finished church in shark that's Saint John up there the stained glass windows in Paris reminder of dessert club last year finally the Moors this is on the cover of the book the Golden Age of the moor this is a more soldier in I think the 20th century black man as this is a turret would you say turret that's what that is all right drew armed to the gills this is the famous painting that we saw again and I've heard some people say that they have this in their house yeah you like that huh all right let's leave it at that now here's a good one and then we have the historic one now I want you to look at this one carefully and compared this to what you saw on the ceiling yesterday these are Moorish nobleman in a book called the chest book of King of so the wise Spanish king black men playing chess in Spain more Spain with a white servant and a black servant now check that out put that in your pipe and smoke it debate I don't think so there it is 800 years old from Spain I think it's African and I think it's African because the Queen is the most important piece that's what I think African women historically have occupied very high positions now if you play chess you know it's the King you're supposed to go after but the king is the old and slow you don't get around to good anymore the queen is the real power on the board I'm gonna sort a person if I'm playing chess and I lose my queen I just knock all the pieces over say let's start again okay so I think yeah but I can't say that with any degree of confidence but it may be all right okay interesting but these are Amir's these are noblemen all right let me finish up cuz it's getting late I know you guys want to eat this is Gibraltar Tariq's mountain I got this from a National Geographic you'll see it again when we go back to tarifa tomorrow well this identified in this book as the Rock of Gibraltar don't spoil it Gary okay now you're doing good so far I like you okay let's keep it that way all right yeah ham Brooke that's the O hammer at night you saw it from the cave and you can see the snow in the mountains a very nice piece there's the rampart the fortress I climbed up there the first time I don't think I don't know if they let people go up there anymore we just didn't go did you yeah yeah but after that long haul yesterday I don't know if we were talking about going up there and then you remember this I don't know why I didn't bring an image of the mesquita but anyway this is from Sevilla this is a place we won't go and this is magnificent – this is the largest city in the southern part of Spain and this is this monument originally a minaret right that's converted into a church a tower anyway this is the most impressive monument in that city sevilla and southern spain and then you have these images right here this is the flag of sardinia and these are mores heads if i were to show you the flag of Corsica it would just be one Moors head like that now those look like black folk I know that's a rhetorical question this is an interesting one that I found in Prague in the Czech Republic and these this is a moor in Chains now many of those Moors were scattered to other parts of Europe for example you have the story of Swart Piet Swart Piet or black Peter is the story of a Moorish orphan boy who was adopted by Sinterklaas and trained to stuff the Christmas stockings in other words what happened to those more some of them went back to Africa but others were scattered in various parts of Europe like this one for example this is called the moor of Peter the Great this is the great-grandfather of Alexander sir gave his Pushkin the father of Russian literature who was adopted as a child by the Czar of Russia and he gave him his name petrova chor son of Peter he's born in Cameroon and he was sent to France for an education and he took another name he took the name Hannibal and he adopted as his emblem and African War elephant this is 300 years ago in Russia now that's serious consciousness and his great-grandson never forgot about his African ancestor I've done a lot of study on Pushkin of all the black folk in the history of Russia Pushkin is my man people have done PhD dissertations on one hour of Pushkin's life Pushkin was so important that when he died many Russians stopped their clocks because they wanted to remember the exact time they heard Pushkin died a remarkable person he is the Shakespeare of Russia and this is my favorite image of Pushkin right here fuck he's called the Father Russian literature because he wrote in Russian when most Russian intellectuals are writing in French and he was a man of the people this is in a Pushkin's house in st. Petersburg well I would not go anymore because racism is so rampant in Russia right now a black person could be assaulted just walking down the street in Africa non-asian it happens all the time and Putin will not speak out against that now this is Pushkin as an adult he died as a result of wounds inflicted on a duel in a duel in 1837 defending his wife's honor or lack of honor he's a great poet and he wrote prose to his my favorite poem by Pushkin it is called I loved you once and it begins I loved you once and my heart will not be still and he talks about a love affair he had but you know as adults and just because he fall in love and it doesn't work out it doesn't mean you cease to love that person and Pushkin was writing a letter to this woman saying I loved you once and the love is still there but don't worry I'm not gonna bother you with it but it's something I wanted you to know it's an immortal poem the problem with Pushkin is it doesn't translate very well into English anyway and one more thing about Pushkin just a light-skinned African my perspective in his office in his study you find these two statues he died he was born in May in the end of May 1799 I went to Russia to speak at the University of Moscow on the occasion of his 200th anniversary it was a big thing hundreds of thousands of Russians turned out and I gave a good one now here of course I would have said that if it was the worst speech that ever I ever gave but knew I was good now I found in his studies two of these images black men bareheaded breaking the chains of slavery he was an abolitionist and he's very concerned about slavery in the Americas Pushkin was a remarkable person look at this one this one is called st. Maurice the name maurice means like a moor these are moors who converted or or identified not as muslims but as christians he is patron saint of the roman empire for 300 years this is in a museum not in front of in a museum but in front of a cathedral in Magdeburg in eastern Germany about an hour train ride east of Berlin I wanted to go there the last time I was in Germany people said don't go if you do go with somebody and whatever you do don't be out at night by yourself on the streets because the skinheads and neo-nazis are very vicious you hear about people being beaten to death but look at what I would have seen I remember doing this a presentation showing this slide in San Antonio where I live for about 3 months out of the year a few years ago and I had a visa for children I didn't get paid a cent but it was I knew it was the right thing to do and these were kids right off the street very you know aggressive and antsy and so I said ok I know how to work with you guys I'm gonna let you help me operate the projector and so I got the blackest darkest kid in there to help me do the most work his name was Danny and Danny had the most energy okay if he was a teacher you all would have sent him to special ed and Danny was doing fine until I showed this slide and Danny jumped straight out of his seat like he had been shot and said he looks like an ape hey like a monkey and the sad part about it was he looked just like Danny you see what I'm talking about how our image of our own physical beauty has been deformed and maimed you understand what I'm saying this is a black night in France a more this is Sur Mauryan I didn't make this up now finally I thought that these were Moors but I found out they were Crusaders from Ethiopia who fought with the Arabs at the defense of Jerusalem and I think 1184 this is the mural you may have seen and you may remember seeing in the pantheon in Paris and this is a good photo you remember this is Benjamin Banneker who's supposedly designed Washington DC who's described as a more this is another one of the images that we saw like yesterday one of the three wise men you look like two of them are black to me but one for sure come to pay homage to the Christ child with frankincense gold and myrrh this is just another image from early Europe this one is from England some of those Moors went to England and and you can find all of that in the book golden age of the moor this is an African I don't know if he's a more but it's just an African in early Europe this is a Swedish court Secretary's name is a top bod and he was court secretary or he lived from 1760 to 1814 in Sweden now what's the brother doing in Sweden from 1760 to 1814 playing chess with a jheri curl no less and he must have a remarkable story to tell what if he could talk this is John Blanc regarded as the greatest trumpet player in the world this is in 1513 right after the fall of Granada and he is the personal trumpet player of King Henry I think the eleventh and he won music awards at the Westminster Music Festival in 16th century that wins Marcellus Miles Davis Satchmo of his day and these are just in with how history can be falsified in the popular imagination you don't have to watch the Discovery Channel The History Channel Learning Channel to get misinformation but it's projected in the popular imagination of course we all know this is who our market or the great sphinx & khafre's pyramid here and then you can compare this to the Luxor Hotel in Las Vegas music you see how the consciousness is tempered with this kind of thing and this is another interesting one this is a star called Sirius B and this is taken for the answer to most book blacks in science this is that's a photograph on the top which was done I think 1970 and then you see the drawing of Sirius B done by the people called the Dogon in Mali they have a 700 year history of Sirius B you can't see it with the naked eye it is a companion star of Sirius Sirius it's so bright it blocks us out but these Africans can tell you knowing about his orbital patterns they can tell you what it's made out of they say it's a white dwarf a star that is employ it's upon itself Western astronomers only noticed it in the 1890s they photographed it for the first time in 1970 yet these so-called African primitives in this Muslim country have known about it for 700 years so Western science called this phenomenon the serious mystery and they can't figure out how these Africans might know something that Europeans do not one of the scholars who did work Carter G Woodson very handsome excellent photograph Carter Woodson again wrote a book on the African presence in the Iberian Peninsula or edited a book I think in the 1920s or 30s this is the one I told you about this is new I love this this is Malcolm X as a young minister in the Nation of Islam shaking hands with the esteemed historian Joel Augustus Rogers from Jamaica one of the reasons I decided I was going to visit 65 countries and I'm now up to 68 it's because one of my teachers told me Joe Lee Rogers went to 60 and so I believe that each generation should build on the ones who come before and that's why I have faith in a dessert club because we're building a whole generation of people who are going to build on our successes and foundations and Rogers I think is one of the greatest historians we've ever produced and finally this one right here she's not a Muslim she's not a more she's a little girl from the Gambia and she's looking at each and every one of you seeing what y'all gonna do now you got the information it's not enough just to feel good you must do something with it because the eyes of the world are upon you thank you very much and again give Gary around edited with Ivan Brennaman is considered the most comprehensive work on the subject he has many other books including introduction to the study of African classical civilizations the Global African community the African president in Asia Australia and South Pacific he just completed an African tour I'm sorry an African Center tour of India and he's currently planning a tour of Aboriginal Australia I believe this would be in a year 2000 and he invites others who are interested in participating in this to speak with him I had a chance to speak with our brother rinoa Rashidi and I and you'll find as I found he's very enlightened visual a very warm individual easy to talk to he shares the same love of Africa that many of us have he will be at professor bill Macki juniors and Mackey's three on Thursday August 12th 1999 to 7:00 p.m. that's 850 st. Mark's Avenue we need to know that this brother loved Africa he's lectured at eight in eight different countries in the last 10 months he's traced the people the presence of Africans globally I want you to know that when the lecture is over you can purchase his videotapes and oil tanks in the back so that can you further ado let's beat the drums let's welcome our educator our philosopher our love of Africa let's welcome brother an OCO rashidi honored me [Applause] [Applause] thank you very much and hotel brothers and sisters good evening let me begin by acknowledging all of our great African ancestors who struggled and fought and lived and died and strove for us to be here tonight and acknowledging all of our elders in the room tonight and requesting your permission to speak and begin the program do I have your permission Asante sana I'm very very very pleased to be here tonight at you am under your barrier DMC Center on behalf of the United African movement I think that this is the fourth time I've had a chance to speak at AU a.m. function I think the first time was at the I think the Masonic Hall in Brooklyn from exiling temple and then over on 125th Street I think it was the Victoria Theatre and now twice the second time it'll bury a Dempsey there you know there are certain places that you speak and you feel like you know it's an honor to be there and you a.m. is one of those places I think the reason that I feel privileged to participate in the UAM program is because of the tradition that UAM has from me um has a kind of a fighting tradition a fighting spirit is the home of brother alton maddox and over the years brother alton has become I can everybody hear me over the years and more and more I've been here the last three weeks as a matter of fact I saw brother Jamal Gauri who is my good friend and brother from Los Angeles and an excellent election last week dr. Jose pimienta Bey very enlightening but I really enjoyed more and more listen – brother Alton he's very inspiring and he's very uplifting he's funny to listen to he's funny when you hear him talking about white folks he all with crackers he always just the nail on the head and I feel that is the slide presentation I don't have to worry about anything else I'm always very well taken care of okay I want to thank sister Elizabeth for her introduction and all of her hard work give her a round of applause although she's not here tonight let me acknowledge sister viola Mattox okay I talked about brother Alton but what good is a king without a queen right and I felt so happy last week when our brother asked all the African men to get up and applaud African women okay I think I tried to get up before anybody else and tried to clap longer and louder than anybody else so I'm very very pleased to be here this evening now I'm gonna dedicate this presentation to my parents I've never done that before my father both my parents are still living my father will be 86 years old in October and I guess that he is more on my mind than usual because I'm status stated yesterday he was diagnosed with colon cancer my father has never seen me lecture before he's never seen me on television he's never heard me on the radio he's never read one of my books he's never browsed through one of my articles he's never seen anything I've done on the Internet all the trips I've taken and I've had a chance to take I think 20 international lecture tours now he's never one time called me and said hey I heard she went to Egypt I heard you were in India tell me about it in fact I have to say as a kind of a confession that for most of my life my father has considered me to be more or less a complete failure because I love African people right that's my father I love him anyway okay many times we I have to say that you know that's the key thing you must love African people and that is not always easy because African people will test that love okay now my mother on the other hand is turned 81 years old in June and she thinks and she tends to think like many mothers too that the Sun kind of rises and falls right around date right so there's she's kind of balanced my father out and I'm grateful to both of them now I have been very blessed I have a birthday coming up Monday I'm going to celebrate my 45th birthday I'm very happy about that [Applause] but I'm pleased more than anything because it has been one of the best years I've ever had and I guess the reason for that is I've had a chance to travel and lecture extensively in the last 10 months alone I've had a chance to lecture and travel to Canada I was able to speak at the ask a key stern regional conference hosted by brothers and sisters in Toronto Canada sister luttrell at Thornton and Betty Robinson put that together and that was very well and then in November and December of 1998 I had a chance to spend 19 days with Aboriginal Australians was over there with black folks in fact when sister Karen asked me yeah and I'm gonna take a tour next year it'll be next July the tourist called looking at Aboriginal Australia through African eyes and it will include a tour of Aboriginal Australia with a stopover in New Zealand on the way back to deal with the Maori people now when Aboriginal Australia would have stopped over in New Zealand on the way back to deal with the Maori people right now when sister Karen asked me to do this pre asked me to speak the difficulty I had was what would be the subject matter and I thought about Australia in fact I'm hoping to be able to come back to you a.m. sometime within the next six to eight months I hope and do a presentation on black folk in Australia because they are the deepest most profound most spiritual people I've ever encountered anywhere in the world now just a note on them because I have a little more time than usual I was hoping brother Austin would be here to speak but I guess he cannot be here tonight so it gives me a little bit more time just to introduce the subject black people in Australia who call themselves black fellows and who are commonly referred to as Aborigines and that's interesting because that's a name they don't like they consider that something of a offensive term they refer to themselves as black fellas and they get black fellas mm-hmm and depending on the part of the country they're in they might also call themselves curry or gory or Murray's or bidding people or Noongar they say that they have been there for 120,000 years many of them feel as though they have been there from the very beginning of time itself and all over the country I went by myself I was invited to speak at a conference in Queensland but I didn't want to go there just to speak at a conference I wanted to see much of the country and thank you very much probably by the way brothers and sisters for the donations you don't realise some of us how important that is to this work okay because I went over there I paid for that trip mostly myself and it's not always easy so I had a chance to go there and one thing that I can do I pride myself on doing I can ask some questions to the point that many people are really annoyed ask questions because I have an insatiable appetite for learning I want to know everything and ancient Egypt our ancestors used to say ignorance is evil over here a lot of us say ignorance is bliss ignorance is happiness ignorance is joy because with knowledge comes responsibility and a lot of us are not willing to assume that responsibility I will ask some questions and I ask brothers and sisters everything virtually that I could think of and they were all too happy to respond because most of them have not had contact with African people from the United States they see us on TV but that's about the extent of it and many African people from the United States go to Australia when I was over there Snoop Doggy dog came Janet Jackson came our boys two men was performing over there but rarely a lot of athletes African athletes come over there but rarely do you have people who come and interact with the local African or black populations so I tried to make up for all of that everything now to be an Aboriginal there are four criteria first you must have what is called a skin name then which again is of itself is a lecture I never did figure out what a skin name was you must see yourself as Aboriginal you must be identified and accepted by the community and Aboriginal and you must have what is called a creation story or a dream time story I'm sure some of you may have heard of the concept of dreaming or the dream time it's a whole nother way of looking at reality a whole nother way of looking at the world Dreamtime stories are kind of creation stories how the world came to be how you came to be how the earth was formed they referred to the earth as mother and they see themselves as the custodians of the land one sister tried to explain to me what a dream time story was and she had a painting a dream time painting and I was in a place called Sydney the largest city in Australia and Sydney has a black community if you just bear with me call Redfern Redfern is the black or african community of Sydney Redfern is the only place I know of in Australia if not the world certainly in Australia where it's legal to shoot up heroin and everyday when I was there I would see somebody drive up in a station wagon full of alcoholic prep pads and syringes all you have to do is bring your heroin and children see this naturally this is in the black community police drive up and down the street they don't bother anybody you can see junkies heroin addicts with needles in the arm walking up and down the street and people come from all over Australia to partake in that this is the African community is frightening to see the poverty and the disease the domestic abuse that African people themselves are involved in because of the end oppression the substance abuse virtually every black person I saw over the age of 24 the terrible from cigarette smoking and alcohol abuse because the oppression is so great they heard that an act so called african-american because I only would like to use that expression I'm an African and I'm so proud to be in African right when you add – American I tend to be rather insulted when you do that sometimes I use that expression for familiarity sake they heard that a african-american professor was visiting and so people in Redfern began to gather and I was in a room on a Sunday morning must have been 15 or 20 people everybody was talking at the same time and I'm trying to listen to everybody my head is like on a swivel I'm turning around trying to hear everybody so one sister brought a dream time story and she tried to explain it and I had no idea what she was talking about and I guess she could see the look of puzzlement on my face and finally she said brother is simple let me explain it to you like this she said we believed that we were in the Garden of Eden with Adam and Eve and that Adam and Eve got kicked out and we didn't and these black people lived in peace and harmony for most of that 120,000 years and then the white man came he came and when he comes wherever he goes he brings death and destruction murder and rape with him they follow in his wake and I would love for somebody to tell me one exception to that I am a historian and I think I'm a very good one I have not been able to find an exception to that rule now on in January I think January 26 1788 four shiploads a British mostly convicts the scum of the earth convicts and with them came a few soldiers administrators and missionaries and they did a number on our people now at that time they may have been as many as 3 million black people in Australia but then a period of 50 years that population had reduced to 40,000 people I'm working on a book on Aboriginal Australia now and you know I can only read the material and limited portions I have to put the books down you almost have to immunize yourself emotionally to what happened today and Australia black people the black fellows make up exactly 1.6 percent of the total population they have been totally dispossessed of the land they're less than 2 percent of the total population but black men make up 70% of the prison population now get to that from 1000 million don't it from 1.6 percent of the total population to 70% of the prison population black women 50% of the prison population I went to Aboriginal communities happy to go there in many cases in Australia where unemployment figures range from 90 to 100 percent until 1967 brothers and sisters black people in Australia were not considered human beings they were considered flora and fauna until 32 years ago some of them showed me dog tags that they used to have to wear he used to have to get permission from a white man called a protector ironically enough to go from one side of the street to the other side of the street the average life expectancy brothers and sisters of a black man in Australia is 45 years so I hope to be able to come back and talk about Aboriginal Australia our relationship with the brothers and sisters there and show you some of the images that I've got some of the best photographs I have are from Australia and then in March I did a lecture for black people in Bangkok Thailand I never been in Thailand before and then within two days from there I was able to go and lecture in Hawaii and in Hawaii I was able to lecture to indigenous Pacific Islanders some of whom are blacker than anybody in the room today in March and April I was able to earth some of whom are blacker than anybody in the room today in March and April I was able to lead a tour ancestors have been good to me I have been blessed to India for the third time it was my first tour and my third trip to India and there I saw in the state of Orissa which is in the East I had never been there before I saw the blackest human beings I've ever seen and what was open these are called tribal people stand tall and moon dust and they were so black that sometimes when I use my camera the flash would just reflect off of them that's our black they were but what was so and they opened they welcomed us with open arms but what was so special about it to me was that the blacker they were the hardest sense of self-esteem I thought one brother who was he was blacker than all the rest of them this is everybody's dark but this brother stood out and I saw him and I guess everybody in the group he has 16 people we saw him and he saw us I saw him and he saw me and he just started smiling and I started smiling and I felt that I could read his mind and then he could read my mind and I was saying damn that brother is black and I know he must be saying I'm black and don't I look good now that was so unique because you know most of us have been taught the very opposite of that that the blacker you are the uglier you are and don't you know what perpetuates a lot of that is these music videos television and these images are picked up by African people all over the world they got brothers in Senegal sagging no black folks in Ghana arguing about who is the lightest this is in Africa and then in May and June I was able to go to Russia now you may ask yourself the question nope oh you were doing pretty good so far but what would you go to Russia for because they're African people over there – and there's one brother in particular named Alexander sir gave it's Pushkin and I would spend a lot of time talking about Pushkin Pushkin is considered the father of Russian literature is called the Russian Adam the Russian spring the Russian morning the Russian counterparts of Shakespeare the father of all things Russian and he has African blood running through his veins not only that but he was proud of it a glory din his African ancestry Shama spent a lot of time talking about that tonight and I had a chance this was a program organized by I believe mega Evers College and the African American Studies department at Chicago State University and I just got back from India I would I been traveling I was on a roll I felt like the ancestors had a mission and we should all feel like we have a mission in life I even heard I recently got a excellent I think quote from the Reverend dr. Martin Luther King who said at the height of I believe at the height of the Montgomery bus boycott in 1955 check this out speaking of a mission he said let future generations say that to live a great people a black people who injected new meaning into the veins of civilization that's deep to me that's profound so I was over there the chip cost about $1500 I said oh I can't afford that it's worth it because I felt connected with Alexander sir gave its Pushkin and I'm gonna spend a lot of time talking about that but not only that I said not only do I want to go over there but I want to give a presentation there was a sin this is the 200th anniversary of Alexander sir gave it's Pushkin he would have been 200 about a month ago and not only did I want to go over there but I figured since I'm going I might as well give a speech and they asked me to speak on the image of Africa in Russia during the time of Pushkin I said that's all right that sounds cool I wasn't getting paid for it but sometimes it's an honor to give a presentation I felt like I was exalting our ancestors and I pray every time I give a presentation that let the ancestors be with me let them speak through me and allow me to exalt them above all others and whenever I get an opportunity to do that I jump on it but after the second day of the priests of the symposium was only two days the whole trip was only nine days and believe me that's long enough to be in Russia because there's too many crackers over there believe me they everywhere right roving fans of racist skinheads roam the streets brother muta peruca well you may or may not be familiar with had a poem called it's not good to stay in a white man's country too long and I was over there long I was ready to roll to get out of there I said you know after all the presentations that I have heard I came to the conclusion that these people many of whom were well-meaning believe that Pushkin was the only African in the history of Russia or Europe itself for that matter to make a significant contribution and I wanted to correct that and the other thing that I wanted to deal with was the fact of Pushkin's own genealogy now his great-great-grandfather or his great-grandfather on his mother's side was an African Prince a brother named Abram who eventually his name was I think they called an anglicized they started calling him Abraham he was taken from Eritrea about 1695 and he was taken to Russian at that time it was popular to have Africans in the royal circles or the court among the nobility so this brother was very precocious he was very bright and he attracted the attention of the Czar of Russia the Emperor of Russia Tsar Peter the first sometimes people call him Peter the great white folks do it anyway and this man was so enamored of this little brother that he adopted him as his godson sent him to Paris to study and he studied engineering he became the finest engineer in Russia and a Major General in the Russian army now this according to many people was the advent of the African presence in Europe so number one I wanted to say that there were many African people in Europe who distinguished himself and the first people in Europe were Africans and that number to our history did not begin as a slave or servant of other people that is very important that we deal with there are three major phases of the African presence in world history and dr. Clarke used to say that African history is merely the missing pages in world history our global people we are everywhere we've been everywhere there are maybe a billion of us around the world and once we realize that there are so many of us in so many places with a common history that's half the battle right there I don't you know white folks are definitely afraid of that and that's my mission it's to go all over the world and get the information and bring it back so we can share it so I said look I'm not going to do a presentation on the image of Africa and Russia during the time of Pushkin I want to do a presentation on the African presence in Europe and that is what I want to share with you tonight now the last trip that I have taken internationally last month I had an opportunity to spend three weeks lecturing and traveling and researching among African people in Trinidad I had never been in the Caribbean before and it was yeah until I can unless you consider Brooklyn the Caribbean but I had never been in the Caribbean before and so I had an opportunity to lecture in four places actually three cities I lectured in I think point Fortin or Cape Fortin a place called San Fernando and Port of Spain big crowds people are hungry for information and then from there and I'm gonna talk about a lot of this in detail tomorrow night at brother Mackey's so I hope you will come out I won't be showing any slides so I'll have a chance to give a very good overview and then we can have time for plenty of discussion and then the major reason that I had taken the chip in the first place is I was invited to speak at a conference called the international reunion of the African family in Latin America and this took place in a place called San Jose de barlavento in Venezuela I had never heard of San Jose de Bolivar in so I couldn't find it a map I couldn't find it in a big thick book on Venezuela it's not even listed this is a district barlavento in the state of Miranda and this is east of Caracas and this is a place where Maroons run away Africans who refused to accept enslavement came and established themselves and I started to say earlier that there are three major phases in the presence of African people around the world and need to be looked at and I emphasize them all the time and my presentation tonight all the time and my presentation tonight will highlight that in Europe number one that humanity began in Africa that we brothers and sisters as you know are the original people on this planet those were the good old days when we were the only people on this planet and that from Africa we people the rest of the world we're the first people on the planet African people in Europe in Asia and the Western Hemisphere and Austria islands of the Pacific we came first number to the road and African people have played in the development of classical civilizations all over the world it's one thing to say that you were first there's something different to say to be able to point out to what you did and we have done virtually everything and the third phase is the enslavement phase slaves didn't come from Africa African people were captured in Africa and enslaved and dispersed involuntarily around the world now the problem is most of us when we begin our analysis of history we begin with the third phase we forget about African people as the original people on the planet a lot of times not the people in here we forget about or or refused to acknowledge the role that African people played in the development of civilization and concentrate on enslavement but even there if we're gonna look at enslavement it's important that we look at slave resistance those African people who struggled in face of overwhelming to maintain their basic human dignity who fought and resisted all day and all night to maintain their basic human dignity you cannot say enough about those brothers and sisters their blood runs through our veins today now in barlavento this conference lasted for a week it was organized by a group called the organization of Africans in the Americas which is based in DC week-long conference there were African people from virtually every country in the Western Hemisphere from South America the only country that was not represented was Chile you have brothers and sisters from Bolivia Uruguay Paraguay Argentina Suriname Guyana Guyana Brazil Ecuador Colombia Venezuela places I had never heard of before one brother brother looks like he could have been a football player dark African Husky brother from Ecuador got up at the end of one presentation broke down and cried like a baby and said thank you for making me feel proud to be black for the first time in my life it's a 40 year old man all right for the first time in his life most of them were not even aware that Africans lived in these very in the country next door to them from Central America there were delegations from Honduras Nicaragua Mexico strong contingent of black folks from Mexico Costa Rica Panama the only countries that were not represented in Central America were Guatemala and El Salvador there were brothers and sisters from Canada the head of the Nation of Islam and the Dominican Republic was there black people from all over the Caribbean we lit it up for a week they were drummers they were dancers there were performers every night they had different cuisines from African people in a very in one part the Western Hemisphere another every night some brothers flew from South Africa from Senegal from Ethiopia and I had a chance to do three major presentations I did three keynote presentations and I assure you I did you proud I was at my best and then capping that off I was invited to go to Guyana the only english-speaking country in South America to speak for Emancipation Day Emancipation Day is catching on in the Caribbean I think Ghana too and Guyana and I told the brothers and sisters there are members of the Guyanese community in Los Angeles who invited me to speak to go down there and I said well look i'm convinced venezuela anyway Venezuela and Guyana border each other maybe I should go before emancipation then we'll just save that money since all right we'll send you down there so I spent eight days in Guyana and I have to say that the brothers and sisters down there we're hungry they were hungry they wasn't just hungry they were hungry for African history I spoke in one presentation in a old dilapidated high school st. George's I think I think it's st. George st. Mark's st. Matthew's I forget High School and downtown Guyana the room was packed 350 people came didn't charge people a cent nobody left early they were on their feet I had a chance to speak in a place called I flirt I think it was and three or four other cities one presentation I gave the Prime Minister of the country came I had a chance to have private meetings with the mayors of the two largest cities in Guyana so over the last 10 months I have had a wonderful experience I'm planning to go to Cambodia and photograph the ruins of an African civilization call Angkor in November next month I plan to be with African people in Mexico in Fiji and Australia in Zimbabwe in New Zealand and who knows where else so it's wonderful to be here I want to thank you all your continued support because if not for you I could have done all those things not for you in the answer so give yourself a round of applause [Applause] now having said all of that and having given a long introduction let me begin the slide presentation itself and I want to take you on a trip with me not only to Russia but the African presence in early Europe now this is a slide presentation that I wanted to begin with I think the last time I was in New York I had a chance to speak at the first world forum another place I'm always delighted to be brother Bill Jones and sister Kepler like my mother and father out here and I had a chance to take this photograph and I have been acting you know when I do presentations I try to not only show images of African people historically but African people today because we make a connection between the past present and the future I think that's an African concept of time and this sister right here I've been saying I want you to send me a photograph I want you to send me a photograph and she put off sending me a photograph for nine months so I had a little disposable camera with two pictures left on there this is sister Shar see McEntire so i sat next to sister char C and we were becoming very good friends I remember her sitting right down here in the front row or very close and we would laugh and joke she didn't always agree with everything I had to say but that's alright if you're able to sit and talk to each other and reason with each other that's all right now so I she said Renault Co I'm sorry I haven't sent you a picture so why don't you take this photograph so here we have sister dr. Charlotte Lawrence McEntire sister char C for me and next to her is my own Queen in the back sister Tanya Washington my best friend and travel companion and all of that you can say hello to her when you go back and buy a tape in the back next to her is another dear friend of mine you am member sister Beverly Walton give her a big round of applause and next to her is sister Eloise Dix okay I think you may know her till now I took this photograph I thought it came out very good and one week later from that day I got a phone call in Los Angeles somebody said sister sister char C was there one week later now I feel like that was the ancestors making that connection I believe that we have some powerful ancestors a lot of times we don't recognize that but I think we have some powerful ancestors and they speak to us and give us messages we don't always receive them or we don't acknowledge them but anyway I wanted to begin with that slide which i think is a very powerful picture and I would like to think that she is somewhere smiling down on us right now next slide now this slide is important in some of these you will have seen before but I assure you some of them will be quite new I have never shown before some of them I just got process yesterday now this is a a black woman from the Andaman Islands in the Bay of Bengal this is off the eastern coast of India and I put this slide up here because I think that this is I hope you can see it all the way it's a head cut off you can see I think that these people are reminiscent probably what the first human beings on this planet look like short black people tightly curled hair dark skin and from Africa beginning probably about three hundred thousand years ago I think we went out and populated the entire world and and from Africa beginning probably about three hundred thousand years ago I think we went out and populated the entire world including Europe next now this slide is the first known statuette in Europe not the first depiction of an African but the first person that we know of depicted in the art of Europe and I use this up here up there to show the striking similarity between a little-bitty sister that I showed you with the child on our back and this right here this is called the Venus of Willendorf and the reason is called that is because this piece was found I think in either 1904 or 1911 near a place called Welland Dorf Austria it's made of soapstone it's only about four inches high I've actually had a chance to see a replica of this artifact you will look reverse it brother please go back now go forward the similarity cannot be a coincidence the hair the behind all of that okay next and there's just a follow-up I always can't resist but to put that one in there now this is what I think the first people on the planet looked like and they went into Asia they went into Europe they went into Australia and they can be found in the art and iconography they can be found in the folk tales and mists and let next and these are just same folk and this actually takes us to Asia I've been called on an authority or specialist on the African presence in Asia and this is what the first people I believe on the planet look like next now this takes us and I'm going to take probably about an hour so so bear with me I'll try not to be too dull this takes us to and if we could turn off one of this light over here is that a problem I think you'll show up much better and I could use a little more water please berate let's try to move on these are the ones that we need over here this takes us to the first civilization excellent thank you brother appreciate that in Europe and this is actually not in Europe per se I guess when you're in power you can write history to suit yourself for example I was told when I was a kid in junior high school they called the middle thank you sister Liz middle school very good that there that a continent by definition was a large body of land in fact somebody was asking me about continents before I got up here a large body of land completely surrounded by water on all four sides and the continents that I was given was Antarctica Australia Asia Africa North and South America in Europe now how does Europe fit that criteria in San somebody said I think it was dr. Wade Nobles that the essence of power is the ability to define someone's reality and make them live according to that definition this is from a little island called Crete and this island is midway between Africa and Europe it's a small island if you've been to Kim it and you fly back from Kim it to Europe and on to the United States you fly over creeks and by the way I made a major I took my glasses off I made a major omission let me thank Minister Clemson Brown for all of his participation and support and hit his brother round of applause now when I went to Trinidad and when I went to Guyana I was something of a celebrity among African people and the reason for that is some of the brothers and sisters had come to UAM and purchased some of the videotapes in fact they played these videotapes on a TV program in Georgetown KY Guyana called the African presence people were stopping me on the street I have to thank brother Minister Clemson Brown for that okay now this is free now the Africa our black man from Creek this is a civilization that developed in the 3rd millennium BC about 2900 BC and apparently the people who put it together were black people moving out excellent out of Egypt out of Lower Egypt the Lord commit and settling in Crete and this is an example as to what the first people look like it's called Minoan Crete because the first ruler was supposed to be a man named my nose and if you want more information on that there's a very good book by John G Jackson called introduction to African civilizations next slide and that's just a shell inlay now this takes us to Greece and this is one of my favorite photographs this is a African child a black girl from Corinth in Greece in the 4th century BC now you hear black folks all the time on the university's top my black Greeks but they're taught my fraternities and sororities but there really were African people who lived in ancient Greece next the nose been knocked off now this piece is you can find us in the Brooklyn Museum and this is an African from actually from western Turkey but it was at a time when the Greeks dominated that part of Turkey and this is a beautiful beautiful piece and the hairstyle looks so much like what you see many brothers and sisters wearing their hair like today I wish I could get mine like that but as you can see it's a bit too late for that next slide this is of a so-called Greek goddess she is the most powerful goddess in the Greek pantheon her name is Pallas Athena she is the patron goddess of the Greek city of Athens in Greek mythology and I grew up reading comic books and and reading about Hercules and all these never having any idea that there was an African presence there I believe that if you peel back to surface on virtually anything on this planet you gonna find an african presence because we have been everywhere we've done everything this is a signet ring a ring with the goddess there now the old Greeks who realized the importance of Africa people are carotids us and Plato and all of these fellows who spent time Pythagoras who spent time in Africa as students talked about an African goddess named Knight and in their works they pointed out their night was the basis of this deity here she's the goddess of the intellect she's the goddess of weaving but she's also a goddess of warfare in other words she was a sister not to be played with uh-huh and you can't can you get any blacker than that next now this is a depiction here of Hercules in search of his son I'm glad to say that whatever is going on down there that does not represent Hercules son this is because I don't know what's happening right there if you get a look at you see the little freaky scene and bestiality I don't know what that's all about I found this in the Los Angeles County Library and all I saw was Hercules and it was months before I looked down and tried to figure out what was going on this is a depiction of the so-called Greek hero Hercules right there I told brother Clarence it looked kind of like him brother Clarence Dudley okay next slide this is an African in early room my the room got quiet now I really have tried over the years and again I have to thank you for your donations I have tried over the years to put together the finest slide library I possibly could I won't have representations of African people everywhere and when I get out of here when I become an ancestor I want to bequeath this to an African school there's an expression that says a picture is worth a thousand words I think I'm a good lecturer but some of these photographs are incredible and this is of an adolescent black man from early Rome next this is an African Pope there are three African Pope's that I am aware of the first one first two of them in fact were born in Africa the other was born in Rome of African parents the first one is named Victor the first Victor the first was the pontiff from about 190 from about 195 to about 200 ad I think he was the 13th Pope and he was responsible for Easter being celebrated on Sunday every year that was his contribution and then we have this brother right here named Saint Milt ìitís multi-artist comes to us about 310 ad and multi artists is distinguished because it was under him that Constantine converted to Christianity most people have heard of Constantine he's the one who's supposedly on his way to kill some people saw what he claimed to be a cross in the sky and I said something to the effect by this time we shall conquer and converted to Christianity and under his reign the persecution of Christians were supposed to have ceased this happened under the reign of an African Pope all kinds of Africans in Rome by the second century AD one-third of all the members of the Roman Senate were born in Africa you have the greatest writer in Roman history of black men in Terrence afar a man who says something to the effect I am a man and therefore nothing human is alien to me this is a man studied by Julius Caesar by Cicero by Horus and yet refuse people acknowledge that he was African and then you have a third African pope named Saint delay seus three African Pope's now I'm not a Christian I can't get over the fact that if nothing else the first slave ship was called the good ship Jesus I can't get over that I can't get over the fact that in Mombasa Kenya today you have a slave dungeon called fort Jesus now I don't mean to step on anybody's toes because I try to respect everybody's religion but I can't get over that but if you are a Christian then you need to know something about the history of Christianity whether you like it or not we must be seekers of truth and sometimes the truth is not what we want or what we expect this is from a basilica in early Rome next this is an African Roman Emperor his name is septimus severus now I'm going to do our residency at him I won't tell you which one a major university in the Midwest in the middle of September and I was there a couple years ago and I showed this slide and it was like 95 percent Africans in the audience so I showed this slide or this powerful African Emperor of Septimus Severus and I said this brother was very powerful but I can't say much for his taste in women the see I believe African managed to do with African women and African women should be with African yeah that's what I believe it was a majority African audience everybody was sitting right on brother loco speak the truth and at the end of the presentation wouldn't you know it an African got up and it was a black woman who was mad enough to come personally come on the stage and punch me out saying how dared you interject your opinion and I said sister I'm an African man before I'm a scholar or historian and I got to speak to true now this went on this must have been 200 people now this went around the room for an hour black folks taking sides on the issue now even there were a handful of white people in Asians in the room even they got up and said I respect how you feel and I understand it it was the Africans who had a problem with it so finally one sister got up insta-kill all right you said that one person got up and said this is a sister Otis's she says she was dressed very culturally and she would not know about 50 young woman and then she got up and said you know most speaking to the audience cuz I just about had it you know I'm bout ready to walk off the stage and finally she says look I want to tell you something I'm older than most of you and she says I have a daughter who's a teenager who watches a lot of TV and she said one time her daughter told his mommy in order for me to marry a successful black man do I have to be white see that's the logical extension of the insanity that we're dealing with if you are proud of who you are you want to be with an African if you are proud of who you are you want to worship God in African image next slide my brother if you were focused out a bit and thank you so much for operating that projector get his brother round of applause the projectionists and the security weren't gonna let anything happen around applause I assume they're not getting paid any money for the work they're doing they're doing it out of love of African people that must be acknowledged all the time now this is Hannibal Barca Hannibal is an African who gave Rome hell he is a member of the Barca family VAR CA when he was a youngster I think when he was about 13 at a public ceremony he swore undying hatred to the Roman Empire when he was about they were trying to wipe the Carthaginians his people our Costas is a state in North Africa it was called cart Hadas which means the new town and it was established by African people from Asia and indigenous people to the continent now when he was about 21 he was elected democratically the commander-in-chief of the Carthaginian army his his whole family the Barca family was known as the Lions brood and they were serious warriors his father is believed to have been the founder of the Greeks of the Spanish city of Barcelona he led an army out of Africa through Spain across the Alps with elephants and fought the Romans on the doorstep of Rome and established his fame ultimately unfortunately after a series of three wars the Carthaginians were defeated the Romans just wore them down through sheer weight of numbers and although Hannibal lived 2,000 years ago his spirit is with us his deeds are with us time has not diminished the glory of his deeds next slide focus now perhaps of all the images of Africa or Africans in Europe the sequence that I will show you now are perhaps the most interesting and powerful and provocative and of course these are the black Madonna's this one is from Paris and I believe Paris itself is named after an African I believe the original name of Paris was power EC DOS or the growth of Isis Isis is the European name for I set a name which means the throne next and there she is with the child hey rude this is where we get the word hero from the African names are so important our set in Hebrew as opposed to Isis and Horus Isis and Horus I don't know if they mean anything our set means the throne and you usually identify her as an African woman with a throne on top of her head I don't know what Horus means but Jeru is where we get to word hero from next and this is just a sequence focusing please and these are some of my favorite slides this is a black madonna and child from Switzerland now all of the black Madonna's are considered miracle workers and I've actually had a chance to do some research and I've been able to read some of the prayers written to these Madonna's they are incredible and they are all kind of miracles associated with them some of them are supposed to have stopped a cholera epidemic they were actually these icons were actually taken into war at the head of armies because it was thought it would give them victory when the crusade was lost in the 13th century the Crusaders prayed at a shrine of a black Madonna who played in France Joan of Arc's mother would pray to a black Madonna in France every day and all kinds of stories have come to me about them how they came to be black that they represent the subconscious the unconscious that the worshipers used a lot of candles and incense and the smoke and soot accumulated on the face the hands and the feet I don't know why I didn't get on the rest of it or why didn't clean it off that they used bad paint to paint turn bad okay let's look at some of these with bad paint yes focus I may get to that one this is from Spain this one is so black that when the photograph was taken it looked blue and even little JC seems to be given the peace sign and we used to give in the 60s and 70s yes these are this is from Russia next we just go through this sequence and they're really beautiful look at the little frizzy hair styles that paint too next yes these are all from Russia next focus now if there was only one or two of these maybe you have an argument there more than 500 of these scattered all over Europe Church where they can kiss the feet of a black dog that's serious next nope nope no hold it this is the one the major one from Poland and there are a number of these I just found out and you see it has a scar on the face that was done in battle these these icons as I pointed out were actually brought and at the head of invading of armies because it was thought that their mere presence will bring them victory and this is the favorite Madonna of the reigning Pope yes this is from Krakow in Poland now sister Tanya just gave me this one a couple months ago look at the hairstyle that's black next these are all from Poland next this the whole family next and there is Jesus himself this is from Constantinople next now focus my brother this is from Germany and this is a black st. now brother Hosea showed some images of this Saint last week but not this slide this is one of my favorite slides right here this is an image of the black saint maurice who by tradition was born in egypt and this is a life-size statue in a place called magdeburg germany in 1240 and for those who have to go the videos are in the back you can purchase the videotapes and these slides are on there now I have to tell one quick story about this I was doing I live in San Antonio now I born in California in African born in California grew up there living in San Antonio no turn it down brother because I want you to focus on the slide thank you and I did a presentation to a group of real unruly youth some Africans who probably didn't know where Africa was and I did a presentation and little children and one little brother named Danny was operating a projector and I showed this slide and Danny couldn't control himself he jumped up and he looks like an ape not a little black kid like he just came from the car he looks like a monkey I was so hurt but I just had to just sit down and collect myself for riding for about ten minutes I didn't even know what to say is that a terrible thing to say saint-maurice next this is the slide my brother show last week next next and this is say Maurice now that banner then the fact if you focus this is st. Maurice close to me and st. George and the dragon on the other side you see the dragon downstairs everybody's heard of st. George and the dragon but honey nobody's heard about saint maurice who was patron saint of the germanic empire for about three hundred years and you have more than three hundred shrines in Germany alone to say Maurice a black patron saint even Hitler had to acknowledge saint maurice next this is a depiction of a brother named Kasper and this is from Munich Germany from around 1500 now the brothers Sharpe you got to give him that he needs a piece of Kinte cloth in his hand yes this is from Sweden and this is a depiction of the swedish court secretary his name is adolf baden da di in he was swedish court secretary from I think 1762 1804 I was given this photograph about this you can't imagine the work you have to do to put these kind of slides together you've got to be something of a detective believe me I was given thank you this poster this was a part of a poster and of all places Nottingham England in 1993 I was over there promoting a book and I thought so much of it that I had it cut out and had it converted into a slide his brother is playing chess who looks like a jheri curl 200 years ago in Sweden what are you doing over there nobody has told his story I haven't found any information in a book a lot of our work is just beginning yes this is st. Benedict amore he's the founder of the Benedictine Order of monks this is from Sicily next this is alejandro alessandro de medici he was the reigning Duke of Florence for five years his father was a cardinal in Sicily next this is a Black Knight obviously from France in the 14th century from Normandy now this photograph I got in the book and there's a white woman with him I just cut her off that's what I should've did with the one in the Roman Empire I just cut her off there there were black knights they were not mythological at all you have a man named Sarah Mauryan who was the greatest knight in medieval Europe he's described as black as a crow black as a raven black his pitch black as tar he was the knight of the round table with King Arthur next this is the Chevalier de st. George's he was born in Guadeloupe in the Caribbean in 1745 he moved to France he became the greatest ice skater the greatest pianist the greatest sportsman ladies man in France next this is the original Alexander Dumas now he too was born in the Caribbean he became a major general in the fridge army he went to Egypt with Napoleon in 1798 and fell out with Napoleon because of the desecration of the Egyptian monuments the Kemet my name is next now this is his son who achieves fame as a writer he is the author of The Count of Monte Cristo the three musketeers the man in armor and frikkin by our definition of African he wrote a book called the black tulip the black Corsican he gave us expression one for all and all for one but he also gave us another expression and that is a man's mind is elevated to the status of the women with whom he associates [Applause] a man's mind is elevated to the status of the women with whom he associates I try to follow that dictum next by the way his son became the president of the French Academy of Sciences since three generations of Africans in 18th century France 1819 drew friends this is just a depiction of an African from Morocco found in early France and that's beautiful piece of art some of these are just breathtakingly beautiful pieces of art next this is from England this is Stonehenge I had a chance to go there and some people believe that this was established by African people England people in England believe that yes these are just family crest from shields once again brother BAE showed some of these last week next another one from England next this is a Charlotte Sophia this was whom the City of Charlotte North Carolina is named after she was the Queen of England at the time of the so-called American Revolution she is the I think grandmother great-grandmother of Victoria she had 14 children some of the homeliest children you ever laid your eyes on okay next they must took after the daddy these this is just more his head's in England now next let's let's move on this is from early Spain next and this is a depiction of a war these were black people who fought with Hannibal and when Hannibal was defeated fought with the Romans and finally they were converted to Islam and in 710 and seven eleven led by Teresa and then Tariq they went into Spain and they dominated parts of Spain Portugal and France from about seven eleven to 1492 it was said that they had everything it took to make a nation great they introduced air conditioning public hygiene paved streets massive libraries it has cities like Cordova our ham brush Seville these are the names of automobiles now they were Muslims and they distinguished themselves and this is a more in North Africa the names Morocco and Mauritania bear their names today next this is a depiction of Moorish noblemen playing chess in the 11th century in Spain this is a depiction of Moorish noblemen playing chess in the 11th century in Spain with a white servant next this is a depiction of a Moors chieftain all the ladies loved this photograph right here let's go next laughs this is a black Christian in Spain going to fight the Moors next and this is a brother in the 16th century Spain next now this takes us to Russia itself and this is a black woman from a place called the Crimea next these are this is a depiction of one of the Madonna's I took a photograph of this is in Moscow next and this one – look at that I just got a little bitty camera winning a cathedral and shot next and this is the kind of Cathedral that these things come out of you see the walls are full of these icons you see the picture of Jesus right here with the pro and the beer next now this is the maternal great-grandfather of Pushkin he was given the name Abram Petrovich and he dropped that name and took the name Hannibal in recollection of his African ancestor next this is his son next and this is Pushkin himself next slide now what they tried to do the Russians although they acknowledged his African ancestry they tried to lighten him up let's go to the next one but this is what I found you ought to clap or something for that one right there now that is what push can look like Pushkin glory in his African ancestry next slide there's the actual statute does Pushkin over there and that's me right there this is Pushkin study at the time of his death Pushkin was so important that when he died Russians actually stopped their clocks he died at quarter to 3:00 in the afternoon on the 29th of January 1837 and this is his library this is his study I actually had a chance to go at the Pushkin study look at his desk see the manuscript and you can feel the spirit of Pushkin in there at least I thought that and you could you see his desk and at the time of his death he was working on a manuscript on his maternal grandfather called the moor of Peter the Great now I actually had a chance to see a modern version nearly finished seven chapters and he refers to him as the more the African and the black Pushkin was a small brother I was told he's about the size of Sammy Davis a ladies man at the time he died he had relations with 36 different women that didn't kill him he died in a duel yeah thirty-six sisters well not sisters thirty-six women next and this is what's on his desk now you can't see the picture of Pushkin is cut off but this is an African figurine on Pushkin's writing desk he had one I went in two of his residences the place where he lived right after he got married and the place where he lived during the time of his death and these figurines are identical there's an African who she knew who he was 200 years ago hey you tell me sister ignorance next slavery this is a statue of Pushkin in Moscow next now these are black folks let me wind down in recent history in the recent history of Russia you see the black woman the brother everybody really this photograph was taken in 1949 next this photograph is of a brother named Rosen Aviva cough and this photograph was taken in the Caucasus Mountains in 1913 let's not go there next slide now let me finish up and I want you to give every one of these a round of applause and I'll tell you why because these are the people who for the last hundred years or so have been documenting our history every time I do a presentation I try to take time to show some images of African scholars race men and race women historians who have been documenting the history of African people in the most difficult to times this brothers Reverend dr. Joseph Elias Haines he wrote four books on African people dealing with the African origins of European civilization including the Greeks and the Romans these books were published from about 1895 to 1911 I found two of them right here in the Schomburg library and nobody knows his name give him a black hand [Applause] one of the books even appears to be an analysis of the impact of melanin a hundred years ago next this is William Henry Farris he went to Yale he went to Harvard he became secretary-general of the universal Negro Improvement Association work very closely with Marcus Garvey he was an editor a minister in 1911 he wrote a book called the African abroad dealing with the African presence in Europe in 1911 give him a black hand he was born in 1873 he died in 1941 he died penniless they had to find money to bury him that's a disgrace a disgrace we cannot allow that anymore next this is sister jacilla Dungy Houston give her a hand [Applause] she wrote a book called the wonderful Ethiopian to the ancient Kushan Empire in 1926 and she had two other manuscripts that we can't find one of them dealing with the African presence in Europe and the African origins of the Aryans in the 1920s next this is one of my favorites this is George wells Parker don't wait for me to ask you to applaud them [Applause] [Applause] it's not for them we wouldn't be here our history or our historians didn't begin with shake on – D – Chancellor Williams as great as they were African people have been documenting our history from the time we got off the slave ship these are very important figures in our history now George Wells Parker I grew up in Omaha Nebraska of all places same take place I think where Malcolm's father was murdered and lived in Chicago he helped form an organization called the Hamitic League of the world at the time turned him my teeth EOP enclosure these were terms that were applied to African people he worked closely with Marcus Garvey in nineteen on I think April 1st 1916 he read a paper for the Omaha philosophical Society called the African origins of the Grecian civilization and any Pam published a pamphlet called children of the Sun next this is Arthur Alphonso Schaumburg [Applause] [Applause] he was born in San Juan Puerto Rico I think in 1868 he was a Mason he worked for the post office mostly he was a bibliophile he collected rare books and he wrote articles in the 1920s about Africans in more Spain next slide this is nan de AZ keyway nom de sica way was the first head of state of Nigeria he studied under Marcus Garvey and William Leo Hansberry in 1934 in crisis magazine he wrote an article called the African background to Greek mythology in 1934 he lived to be about 90 next give him give it give him a round of applause this is part of G Woodson a lot of people don't know a lot about cottagey Woodson Carducci Wilson was remarkable he was born in 1875 it was very poor I almost taught himself to read and write he graduated from high school when he was 20 in order to further his education and get some money he worked in a coal mine went to Harvard in 1916 he founded the Journal of Negro History and in the 1930s there were in three consecutive journals there was an article on the African presence in English literature and Spanish literature and French literature cottagey Woodson a race man [Applause] next slide we're gonna finish up this is the greatest to me of them all and this is Joel Augustus Rogers je Rogers this is the greatest to me of them all and this is Joel Augustus Rogers je Rogers [Applause] was born in Jamaica in 1883 he knew Garvey as the youth in Jamaica although never a member of the UNIA he lectured to UNIA locals his books were reviewed in a Negro world Rogers wrote and published 17 books about African people when white publishers refused to publish his works Rogers undeterred publishing himself Rogers was an African war correspondent he went to Ethiopia in 1935 and covered the Italian invasion of Ethiopia his work on the African presence in Europe is the best there has been that's je Rogers that's a tough brother there now these are my heroes these are what some people think of like Michael Jordan you see him on TV these are my icons next this is William Leo Hansberry William Leo Hansberry was the uncle of Lorraine Hansberry and of course the rain Hansberry as a person who thank you brother is the person who wrote Raisin in the Sun this is her uncle he was a student of WB Dubois he went to Harvard and he didn't write about the African presence in Europe he has a book called Africa and Africans as seen by class I think my classical historians or classical writers and he wrote about European historians who went to Africa and documented the African presidents it's an excellent book max we show you about three or four more of these yeah give it up come on focus who knows who that is no not John here Clark George team James George Graham boom Oh James how many of you have the book or know about the book stolen legacy that's the man who wrote it and many people say he gave his life for that book he was born in Guyana now when he wrote that book the book was published in 1954 and at the time he was working at the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff one of the historically black colleges now I lectured at that same school last September didn't get a cent but I wanted to do it because I believe the most important thing is that this information be disseminated but more important than that or as equally important it was were James taught when the book was published they don't even have a copy of the book in the library this is a historically black college it's not even in the library they don't have a picture of James on the campus they don't have a statue of George Jim James so I thought that when I went to Guyana where he was from one of the foremost objectives I would have was to give biographical information on George Jim James you know stolen legacy attempted to show the African basis of what it's come to be called Greek philosophy and so I went to Ghana do you know they don't even know what George Jean James is that's a damn shame that's almost criminal next slide now this is John Coleman de Graaff Johnson he wrote a book yeah give it up come on yeah I just got two or three more to go he wrote a book called African glory the story of vanished Negro civilizations that was also published in 1954 around the same time of stolen legacy and the book was reviewed by William Leo Hansberry now in the book he talks about the Moors and the Moorish invasion of Europe next he was from Ghana this is John G Jackson John Glover Jackson and when I lived in California I was able to invite him to come to Los Angeles and speak he had never been in California before and I had him in my apartment and we would sit and talk and I fell in love with that old man and I think he admired me too I could call him any time of day I remember I called him about 11 o'clock one night just wanted to talk to him and I said professor Jackson I hope I'm not calling you too ladies is Renault Co time has no meaning to me and he would laugh and joke he was going on if he had a great sense of humor he was born on April the 1st 1907 in Aiken South Carolina and he would say I was born on April the 1st I was born on April Fool's Day and I've been a fool ever since that's the way he would talk next slide he wrote introduction African civilizations ages of gold and silver man guides and civilization he had a family call was Jesus Christ a negro this is dr. Edward Vivian Scobie and he just became an ancestor a little while ago I didn't get to know dr. Scobie that well but we talked to our tenant some of his lectures he attended some of my lectures at first world I'm sure he lectured for you a.m. he was born in Dominica he moved to England he was a member of the Riddick what he called the Royal Air Force and then he got a taste of British racism his life was threatened he moved to back to Dominica he became the mayor of the capital of Dominica City carl rose so I think rasuu he at the time of his death was the world's leading authority on the African presence in early Europe he had a book called black Britannia he has several articles on the African presence in early Europe and in a book called the Golden Age of the moor which brother Bey talked about last week edited by dr. venema I actually had a chance to edit his work and John Jackson's work imagine that I even still have the manuscripts that they wrote on that's dr. Edwin Vivian Scobie next and last slide and it's the last one this lady's not a historian I don't even know who she is but I cut I cut this out of a calendar and I was struck by this foot I love African people I especially love African women and I love the elders okay and this lady you know I mean this really brought a lot home to me and I close with this slide this is kind of like who we are to me and what we are the people great people ancient and wise but kind of asleep we dosed off a little bit now it's time for us to wake up history is something that can provide that spark history is something that can excite us Malcolm X said of all our studies it is history that is most qualified to reward our research thank you very much brother and sisters okay brothers and sisters please don't leave please don't leave please all these I think you would agree with me you had an outstanding educational forum this evening didn't we can we and I think our part of the message is that we've got to know our history if you don't know where you've been you don't have any idea where you're going and you don't know what to teach your children just stay there with me for one minute all right you know we have our work cut out for us and the brother here gave us a brilliant brilliant presentation what I'm gonna ask you to do I'm gonna ask you to meet your African consciousness and dig a little deeper dig a little deeper all right you know what I'm asking you to do