Benefits of a Civil Engineering Master's Degree



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With the rapid growth of cities around the world, global infrastructure demands are on the rise, which means the demand for civil engineers with advanced skills in on the rise, too.

A master’s degree in civil engineering will allow you to gain the advanced knowlege in your engineering specialization that will lead to greater career prospects (not to mention, salary!) and the skills to engineer better structures and systems as society creates more complex infrastructure to keep up with rapid growth.

what's up everybody Isaac here with civil engineering Academy jumping on giving you another quick tip today we're going to talk about the value of getting a master's degree and whether that is worth your time as a civil engineer to get so hang out with me today and we'll answer that question okay so the question again is as a master's degree worth it in civil engineering and today I'm going to talk about the benefits of getting a master's degree I've often kind of preached that getting your PE is looked at more valuable than getting a master's but obviously a master's degree is going to be really valuable as well in fact some people move up in a company don't even have their PE license but they're able to get into management and other positions without their PE even though they have a master's degree so let's talk about some of the benefits first of all the US Department of Labor says that the median salary for a civil engineer is about $85,000 that was in twenty twenty seventeen so that's a pretty good starting salary I think well not a starting salary but a median salary you know what I mean so eighty eighty-five thousand dollars now if you have your master's degree that actually usually is a little bit more than that so a master's degree that's a benefit right off the bat is that gaining a master's you also are paid a couple thousand dollars more to have that degree the other thing that's a benefit of having a master's degree is that it really specializes you so if you go into school you're gonna take classes that you enjoy if you want to go deeper into and it gives you an edge on the competition that is out there so if you're a structural engineer you're gonna take additional concrete courses structural loading courses still courses anything do a structural structures or structure of structural material so all those things and getting an edge with more education more education always gives you an edge on your career so getting a master's degree also helps with that the other benefit of getting a master's degree is that also future proofs yourself so by having a master's degree you are set up for the future right and what I mean by that is that you don't need to go back to school to get if you can knock out your master's degree while you're in school earning your bachelor's right after that would be my recommendation the other thing that's coming up is the ncees organization has been talking about for years trying to get people to have a master's degree or an additional 30 credit hours under their belt so they can become professional engineers now that's ten additional courses which is a master's equivalent and if you already have your master's degree you're already set up for that so you don't need to worry about it so having a master's degree really future proofs yourself you don't need to worry about coming back to school to get those things if you don't have your PE license or whatnot so anyway guys that's the benefits of getting a master's degree I do highly recommend it there are plenty opportunities out there is whether it's online through a school all your coursework online or if you actually attend a classroom so I've seen plenty of good programs with either one I've actually done a master's online as well and found it very helpful with time management especially have kids or family so anyway I do think a master's is worth it so get out there and find one that works for you and I think it will benefit you in your career alright guys that'll wrap it up we'll see you next time bye

Can Mr Salles Predict the Power and Conflict Question?



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hello and welcome to this last minute revision video for the power-on conflict where I'm going to get off a fence and try to give you a prediction now in order to work that out it's really worth you seeing how the examiner has thought in the three specimen papers and the exam of 2017 and the exam of 2018 so the first specimen paper asked us to think about the idea of power I should have made that bold because it comes up all the time in awesome an dias and as you know you always have to relate it to one other poem and it has to be from the power and conflict section in 2015 the next specimen paper talks about the natural world and it used storm on the island so we've got a pre 1918 poem and a modern poem then there's a third specimen paper which looks at the effects of conflict in poppies and so that was war that was the natural world and that was power for the first actual exam they went for war again with bayonet charge and then for 2018 look they repeated the theme of power from the 2014 specimen paper well once you see the examiners repeating things from the specimen paper you then have to say well is it going to be conflict of people or the natural world which one of those two are they most likely to repeat and then the other question is if they've had a pre 1918 poem just recently are they likely to go for a modern one in 2019 I think the answer is probably yes so I've tried to think a little bit tactically for you here so my prediction is that it won't be a pre 1918 poem and that the question will either be on place which hasn't come up or the natural world which is similar at all between people if you prepare for a question on nature that would also answer a question on place and very lightly answer a question on people and to hit all of those I'm going to suggest camicazi in a minute as a great one to revise London will also cover people because it lists all these different people it's brilliant and he's chosen London for a reason with lots of descriptions it will also cover place it doesn't quite fit the idea of nature although you could make it fit because he is a pastoral poet whose romantic and he's describing cities and London as the opposite of nature which is why it starts with the idea of the chartered Thames so if you're really good strong candidate you could answer a nature question with London but otherwise you'd go for Comikaze now I'm not saying in fact I'm hoping that neither London or camicazi will be the named poem and the reason I'm hoping that is you've got the named one in front of you and it's easy to find quotations and remember what you want to say so what were actually trying to predict is a poem that will fit the named poem to compare to my go to as you will know from my videos is always to pick a pre 1918 poem because you can write about the form of structure so well so if you're writing about London you can include the idea of human nature if it's people and you can link the idea of human nature to nature we see the exploitation of children as unnatural the destruction of women in this poem as unnatural the transmission of sexual diseases which are also unnatural I mean the diseases are natural but the way in which they're spread isn't it's done through recklessness and and all of these are caused by a move to cities caused by urbanization caused by the ills in society that Blake thinks would be cured if we had a more pastoral ideal if we still lived in a natural state if we still lived in nature the place is used to demand political change that's why sets in the capital in London and this is a direct link to the French Revolution which Blake supported and so if you want to know more about London and why wouldn't you you should just type mr. Sally's London into YouTube you'll find my 36 minute analysis it's not had that many views but I think it's pretty good obviously I've tried to update that two months ago so that you can just concentrate on five key quotations and that's a top revision method because you only need five quotations really to answer the question because obviously you're going to have five quotations from the other poem that's ten quotations that's a lot to write about and if you're feeling really interested there's a little watched video that I made with my daughter I didn't film her but this was her favorite poem when she did a-level so she's got some really interesting things to say about it when we're thinking about the structure and form of London you've got this Nursery Rhyme kind of feel which links it to the idea of childhood the innocence that's being destroyed by the city it's also an easy way to make the poem memorable in order to change readers opinions because you carry the poem around with you it's meant to be repeated outloud and passed on in families and obviously making it childlike also has the added political message that this is how we should educate our children in contrast to the kind of experience that children have within the poem right camicazi is unusual in a modern poem in that it also has an interesting structure that you can speak about I'll put links to my videos up here so you can explore that more fully but the idea here is that everything is reported second and third-hand the natural world is what chain is the pilots mind the father's mind so we can write about nature here because what he sees from his aeroplane all this description of nature is what inspires him to live it seems to be speaking to him directly but we also have what is unnatural in it well obviously killing himself is an unnatural act seen from a different cultures perspective anyway and also we have the unnatural education of the children where they are taught not to love their father we then got the final reconciliation with the speaker's children and their grandfather and rejection of the mother's view so again you'll need to watch my video on camicazi if this did not make sense to you but I'll explain it briefly here so we have the kamikaze pilot who returns and his wife rejects him this wife teaches her children also to reject him the Speaker of the poem is their daughter of the wife and the pilot and she's now telling a story to her children but she's telling it about grandfather's boat now what this means is she's talking about their grandfather which means she's talking about her father the pilot so although the speaker's mother has rejected the father the new generation the daughter has actually grown up to accept him in other words she's changed the culture and Japanese culture is no longer about this pointless self-sacrifice that glorifies suicide and he has now got this new life welcomed into the family as a grandfather of the daughter's children okay now I know teachers aren't teaching that interpretation but that's the only interpretation that makes sense to me and it's because of that phrase grandfather's boat it must mean that he has now been accepted so you will distinguish yourself from other candidates if you're writing about this poem and you've got that interpretation and it's also about conned conflict between individuals and the society they live in and as I've suggested here the society has changed and again if you type Mr Sallis camicazi into YouTube you have two choices here my full grade 9 analysis which takes 41 minutes and that might put you off because revision is you know touch-and-go now my much shorter five key quotations to get the top grades is only 16 minutes long is a really good one to go to I'll try and link it up here right your next job is to work out how to compare the poems to get the marks and if you type Mr Sallis how to compare you get these come up that one's not the one that you want how to compare the poet's purposes is really good five secrets that poetry comparison people don't like this video I don't know why maybe YouTube objects to the skull and it were it won't promote it and how to choose your poetry comparison is really good and how to get grade 9 when comparing and my top recommendation for you actually is this learning the foss method so that's the one that i think you'll find most useful and is the one that i'll try and link up here but lots of comparison videos which will really help you nail this question so remember when you're revising kamakazi it's really important to do that analysis of the natural world and so find the quotations of nature there to write about and when you're looking at London you can still include the natural world if you're sophisticated enough but obviously people in place this is also about Japan so it's all about a specific place and it will fit that question as well so we're hoping that neither of these poems are named and you can use both of them to fit any question and if by some bizarre coincidence the examiners decide to repeat last year's question go for war then kamikazes got that covered as well okay get cracking in that revision good luck in the exam see you soon on my channel

MPSC 2020 | Polity | Imp articles | राज्यशास्त्र | for upsc combine exam



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Can Mr Salles Predict the AIC Question?



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Very pleased to have predicted this one correctly!

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Tomorrow is Coming! AQA Literature Paper 2



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Kindle Unlimited lets you read all my ebooks for free for 30 days!

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MPSC 2019 | Pre Result & Cut off | नापास झालेल्यांनी काय करावे ? पुढचा प्रवास कसा ?



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What NOT to do at University



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क्या आप बुद्धिमान हो या फिर सामान्य? Scientific Research of Signs Which Prove You are a Genius



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क्या आप बुद्धिमान हो या फिर सामान्य? Scientific Research of Signs Which Prove You are a Genius

Hello friends, science and scientific research fact and analysis in various fields like medical science, medicine and biology has helped us in the creation of technology that can save real lives of real people. Human patients in hospitals that are critical in their health condition. Discoveries in science and technology improved humans life in a whole another level and many developed countries has been actively encourages their people for new interesting researches. Those research helped humans to improve there brain power and understand human physiology in real life. Those research shows something unique and shocking about human brain which will amaze you. For a long time we decide human intelligence base on how they perform in exams and there grades in educational system but scientific research proof that any human being can be genius. Every one have there own unique capabilities which make each person unique. We in this video will do some analysis and investigation and try to uncover the shocking facts about brain which can improve human life in new level. Also those factual science information which is explained in a easy to understand language so you can understand how important you are and also you can be a genius. From the past research we know that Genius does not mean having more knowledge. Knowledge of mathematics, physics or tech gadgets, laptop and computers or even if you have huge knowledge about software or hardware does not make you Genius. For each people the definition of genius can be different you could have high technical knowledge, it means your memory power is good and you could be genius on that field but for others the term genius is multi-dimensional. This could sound unreal but which the help of neurology, neuroscience and medical science, we can clearly see how different common activities in your life can improve your brain power and make you an super genius. A genius is a person who displays exceptional intellectual ability, creative productivity, universality in genres or originality, typically to a degree that is associated with the achievement of new advances in a domain of knowledge and he must also educate himself practical knowledge. If you want to test you brain and have the courage to became a genius . Let’s watch the entire video in Hindi to know about most powerful part of our body which have so many interesting facts.

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The Civil War, Part I: Crash Course US History #20



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In which John Green ACTUALLY teaches about the Civil War. In part one of our two part look at the US Civil War, John looks into the causes of the war, and the motivations of the individuals who went to war. The overarching causes and the individual motivations were not always the same, you see. John also looks into why the North won, and whether that outcome was inevitable. The North’s industrial and population advantages are examined, as are the problems of the Confederacy, including its need to build a nation at the same time it was fighting a war. As usual, John doesn’t get much into the actual battle by battle breakdown. He does talk a little about the overarching strategy that won the war, and Grant’s plan to just overwhelm the South with numbers. Grant took a lot of losses in the latter days of the war, but in the end, it did lead to the surrender of the South. If you want to learn more about the Civil War, we recommend these books:
Battle Cry of Freedom by James McPherson
The Civil War by Shelby Foote

Hey teachers and students – Check out CommonLit’s free collection of reading passages and curriculum resources to learn more about the events of this episode. There were many causes of the American Civil War and events that led to disunion:
Once the war started, its outcome was determined by the different abilities and resources of the divided North and South:

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Mpsc आरबीआय पूर्ण नोट्स माहिती दिली आहे ||economics lectures in marathi||Economics RBI notes||RBI



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#mpsc_handwritten_notes
#mpscnotes। #mpsc

RBI पूर्ण नोट्स दिले आहे ..
याबाहेर STATICS नोट्स वर प्रश्न येणार नाही
फक्त जी RBI monetary policy आहे ..ते फक्त dyanimcs राहील …

आशा करतो की तुम्हाला हे नोट्स नक्कीच आवडतील ..

जर नोट्स नाही आवडल्या ,तर त्याचे कारण नक्की द्या आम्ही यामध्ये नक्कीच सुधारणा करू

जर नोट्स आवडल्या तर विडिओ ला like करा आणि channel subcribe करा .

handwriiten notes ची series संपल्यावर आम्ही PPT LECTURE series सुरू करणार आहोत..त्याआधी

पहिल्यांदा आम्ही पूर्ण नोट्स देणार आहे
नंतर SHORT नोट्स REVISION साठी देणार आहे

नंतरच PPT lecture सुरू करणार आहोत
त्यामुळे तुम्ही हे नक्कीच miss करू नका..

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Mpsc सर्व पूर्ण नोट्स आहेत याचे short notes revision साठी लवकरच channel वर अपलोड होतील ..त्यासाठी channel ला subcribe करा आणि जवळच bell icon दिसेल त्याला पण touch करा त्यामुळे सेकंदातच तुम्हाला नोटिफिकेशन मिळेल ।…miss होणार नाही ||channel subcription फ्री आहे …आवडलं तर नक्की करा

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A GOOD EXAM!?! AQA 9-1 GCSE ENGLISH LITERATURE REVIEW!!



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Very happy with the exam!! How did you find it??

A GOOD EXAM!?! AQA 9-1 GCSE ENGLISH LITERATURE REVIEW!!

AP Gov Review: Final Exam Review!



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If you would like to download the PowerPoint or fill-in-the-blanks video guide, please go here:

In this video, I cover everything (hopefully) that you need to know for the AP Government exam.

Videos that will help reiterate content discussed in this video:
AP Gov Review: “Iron Triangles”:
AP Gov Review: Federalism:
AP Gov Review: Federalist Papers:
APUSH Review: Plessy v. Ferguson:
APUSH Review: Brown v. Board of Education:

Unless noted below, each picture is part of the public domain, or in the case of the sweet checks and balances visual, my creation.

File:Choropath Map 2012a.svg. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Accessed on March 30, 2016.

File:Congress-Graph.png. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Accessed on March 30, 2016.

University Study with Me! A Day In The Life of a Maths Student



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Come study with me! On this day I was studying from home as it was during the uni strikes, and I also got my Semester 1 exam results!
For those who don’t know, I’m in my 3rd year of Maths at Southampton 🎓📚💯

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Economic Survey 2018 – 50 expected MCQ Questions – UPSC/RBI Grade B/IBPS/SBI PO & Clerk/JAIIB/DBF



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DU SOL (Paper-1) English Literature-4First Year QUESTION PAPER 2019



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May 2019 | चालू घडामोडी | 06-10 मे | Current affairs | for mpsc/upsc/combine/talathi exam



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Is This the Best AIC Video Ever Made?



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Birling 1:42
Gerald (6:42)
Eric (15:53)
Sheila (21:35)
The Inspector (26:23)
Capitalism (36:42)

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hello and welcome to another video which is going to get you the very top grades if you're aiming for grades 5 & 6 I'm going to show you what that looks like and then I'm going to take the same points that we look at in grade 5 & 6 and show you how to turn that into grade 7 to 9 and that will look like this you'll get a quotation for every single character and every single theme and I'll explain how that will get you a grade 5 & 6 and then I'll show you how to interpret that in a different way with another quotation that you can link it to to get grades 7 8 & 9 then I'll reveal the text underneath so you can take notes if you want to and fully understand how to get those top grades and the great thing about studying literature is getting these grades is actually just knowing stuff and you are going to know the right stuff after this video I'll also double-check with you so that you understand exactly what grade 6 skills look like how to put those together in an essay and then I'll teach you what you need to do for all of the AOS to jump up to grade 7 8 & 9 and you will uncover the mystery of why something's yellow and 1 some things are green and then finally I'm gonna do myself out of money I'm very upset about this but the exams are closed and here we go I'm going to show you how to read all my guides and in fact every other guide that's on Amazon for all your subjects for free for 0 bucks 0 pounds for absolute free that'll be at the end of the video jump to the end if you want to find out or wait as a magnificent cliffhanger okay let's start straight in with Burling as you know he represents capitalism Priestley is trying to explore what's wrong with capitalism by exploring what's wrong with Burling and you probably used to this word that I use in nearly all of my videos Burling is therefore a construct and that means the author Priestley constructs him in order to put forward this point of view now once you've talked in those terms you're automatically at grades 5 & 6 our quotation that a man has to mind his own business and look after himself and his own so this is the view that priestly writes the play to discredit he wants to prove Burling wrong another grade 5 & 6 point is that the inspector appears immediately after Burling has said that as though burling's words have summoned him with some kind of supernatural power it's like an incantation okay great give me great seven eight nine well the next quotation I want to take you to is one you might not have studied I'm talking I should change that from taking I'm talking as a hard-headed practical man of business now we can show this proves that Burling is unfeeling so he's hard-headed and that suggests that capitalism is unfeeling and selfish which we got from this quotation so that's how we link the two quotations together but there is a lot more going on Priestley is deliberately using the language of the Labour Party manifesto so you probably know there was an election in 1945 the same year that this play was put on and this phrase the hard-headed man of business is actually in the Labour Party manifesto and it's something that the manifesto complains about so that's a direct link to why Priestley has created Burling and given him those words it's a call to people during this 1945 election period to vote Labour and he does that by turning this campaigning speech into a drama that his audience can relate to and we relate to it through our emotions and are therefore more likely to be convinced but let's go even deeper this is an allusion to the language of Sistani Baldwin now Stanley Baldwin was a prime minister three times between 1912 and 1939 the very period that the play covers remember it's set in 1912 and it ends at the the end of the Second World War when it's produced so everyone in the country who was literate would have known about Sistani Baldwin's words about the hard-headed men of business and he accused them of profiting from the war so now we have a much more in-depth attack on capitalism and the other way that we can really attack the idea of capitalism is how Burlington finds business so you probably remember that he wants Sheila to marry Gerald even after Gerald has confessed to an affair and he calls the marriage a business opportunity he talks about how Crofts and burling's are going to get together now this is hypocritical because in this quotation he talks about looking after himself and his own and we think of his own as his family but Sheila isn't just his family she is his property his own and he directly links her to business in this patriarchal view of society so hopefully you've understood that and if you have I guarantee you can now get grade 7 8 9 if the question is about Burling or about capitalism now let's have a look at point number 10 in grade 6 so to get the grade 6 you need to link everything you've written to the writers ideas and perspectives now if we just have a brief sneaky peek at the marks cream grades 5 & 6 exist on this border between the 15 and 16 mark and so at grade 6 you have to write about ideas and perspectives but at grade 5 in the green here you don't need lots of ideas and perspectives you just need some relevant context yet so the relevant context was that he represents capitalism but if you've understood anything that I put there anything at all its grade 6 straight away and then above so hopefully you can see how this video going to work to get you the grades okay Gerald here comes the conventional grades five and six view Sheila says of him you were the wonderful fairy Prince you must have adored it Gerald this of course is when he has his affair with Eva although he knew her as Daisy and he also says she'd been happier than she'd ever been before now when the inspector leaves he doesn't accuse gerald of being especially sinful and evil instead Gerald is presented as kind even though he's deceitful he treats Eva and Daisy apparently on the surface quite well he's not as cruel as the other characters according to the inspector and Priestley does this he creates him as a construct to show that even good men like gerald are still cruel if they are capitalist so being capitalist forces them to exploit other people so just as gerald agrees that Burling was right to sack eva so he treats Eva as a commodity a little bit you know she's in love with him he's met she's made really happy by his attention actually she's a bit in love with him but he still ends the affair and so this is an element of Cruelty but it's one that we can perhaps forgive so that's the conventional view but let's get in to those key ideas that take us up a grade Gerald says Daisy knew it was coming to an end now this is really interesting because although he claims the end was brought about by needing to go away for business for a few weeks that's what aunt Sheila we know the real reason is that his friend was returning from Canada so I don't know if you remember this his friend gave him the keys to his flat and basically told Gerald to use it any way that he wanted which was code for putting the mistress and as soon as he gets the key what does he do he goes to the palace bar to find a mistress who does he find Eva as Daisy he takes her out for miel but doesn't feed her first he gets a drunk gets her drink first and then once he's got a drunk then he installs her in this flat now hope this search shows that it was all part of his plan and far from being a wonderful fairy Prince he's actually exploiting her let's look at how he exploits her so this would mean that Gerald would have to pay for a flat to put her in if he was going to use his own money but he doesn't he has the flat for free this would cost far more than the little he is paid her so this is how he described it she'd lived very economically on what I'd allowed her become outward allowed and how it shows how superior he feels so he's given her a very little amount of money I'd like to argue that that's less money over time then he'll have to have given her if he was paying her as a prostitute from the palace bar so he's treating her apparently in a much nicer way like a fairy Prince but actually he's paying or less and as soon as he thinks all my friends coming back from Canada I would have to pay for a flat he gets rid of her she's not even worth the rent of a flat to him and you know this would not be a lot of money to a man like Gerald who's running his father's business so what we see is total sexual exploitation it's the patriarchal society at work where men use women for their own benefit and they use their own power to control them and they control them so successfully that they're able to tell themselves that they've done good so he says Daisy had been happier than she'd ever been before even though in this relationship in the power relationship he's completely abused her and effectively had her for a very cheap amount of money so you may have gathered I feel that Gerald is actually a despicable human being not just because of what he's done but because he then deceives himself into portraying himself as a good and kind person the opposite of what he actually is now let's consider mrs. Birling the key quotation is where she talks about Eva as girls of that class so she is very dismissive of anyone who is socially inferior particularly of the working classes so eva is actually a woman at this stage but she's diminished by being called a girl and priestly has constructed mrs. Birling in this way to attack the idea of social hierarchy to attack the idea of class you'll remember that the inspector keeps saying we are all of one body and he wants there for us all to be treated equally and his attack on mrs. Birling isn't so much that she's a capitalist but that her capitalism leads to supporting this idea of a social hierarchy which allows one group to feel superior to another and therefore justified in thinking worse of another group this is relevant in 1945 because priestly wants to create a welfare state he wants a National Health Service he wants proper money available to people who were out of work and this is represented by mrs. burling's charity and by her decision not to give money to girls of that class they're very people who need it so there is a cruel irony there that the people who most need money go to it to ask for it from people higher up in the social hierarchy who think of them as less than themselves as inferior okay that was two interpretations so on bang-on grade six at the minute the examiner can't fail to give me less than a grade six if I fully explain those views hopefully you're ready now for grade seven and above our quotation the girl had begun by telling us a pack of lies so we can easily link these two there is that diminishing description of IVA as a girl again but it's also a logical doubt that she has given the lies that have preceded it so what's interesting here is that mrs. Birling isn't wrong IVA has told her a pack of lies she said she was called mrs. Birling she said she was married you know none of this was true so we can understand why mrs. Birling thinks that she's a liar because she is but this is the key thing that mrs. Birling misses and most people miss IVA would rather commit suicide than take the stolen money or marry Eric so this is a huge clue from Priestley that something much deeper is going on Priestley appears to be suggesting that Eric has had a far greater effect on our committing suicide so we've got a structure point here this is why Priestley gets mrs. Birling to confess first so that when we come to meet Eric we realize that his offense is much worse so if you get that question about who is most to blame for the death of IVA I'm going to argue that Eric is the most to blame and this will be part of your proof she'd rather commit suicide and take his money or marry him and he does offer to marry her I'm not going to prove that here it's in my other videos all my revision guide so it's not so much that mrs. Birling and her charity denied IVA help as that they forced her to return to Eric and so she comes on and says if the girl's death is due to anybody then it's due to him of course there's this huge irony that she doesn't know the him in question is Eric but this is Priestley's device of showing the audience that Eric is actually the one most responsible now Eric of course will also represent his own class mrs. burling's class and therefore represents the social hierarchy so Priestley's gay to be arguing that Eric is also responsible because he's a member of the upper classes and as we'll see in a minute he has exploited Eva as a girl of that class in a much worse way than mrs. Birling has let's now consider Eric then his most important quotation is probably this I think it's a shame we try for the highest profits why shouldn't they try for the highest wages so this is an attack on capitalism so as a construct he's anti-capitalist he also represents the younger generation along with his sister Sheila and he also represents the voice of hope for change if the young believe this and there's an opportunity for them not to act like their parents and not to act like Gerald so seeing him as a voice of hope is the conventional grades five and six view having more than one view pushes you up to grade six you could even link it to the inspectors message we are all of one body by showing how he constructs this idea around equality they deserve high wages like we deserve high profits there's a balancing and equality with this word highest and that level of language analysis there pops you straight into the grade seven by the way okay our grade seven to nine quotation she told me she didn't want me to go in so this is his first encounter with E with Eva and this shows us that he forces his way into her room she has tried to refuse him so instead of treating her as an equal as he implied here actually his behavior is just the same as his mother's he treats her as an inferior who has to do what he wants he then explains that he was it in that state when a chap easily turns nasty so some language analysis here is going to take us straight to the top grades first he doesn't call it a state I was in ace instead he calls it verse state now sorry that state I was in that state in other words he expects everybody to know what that state is that a man gets into so here is a massive attack on the patriarchal society it's about men exploiting their power and Eric is saying but we all know about that state in other words he's normalizing it he's saying this is how men behave I am no different to other men that's a terrible self justification for what he's done which is forcing his way in and then forcing himself on to her so this suggests that nasty the description of the state has nasty his one common to all men not just Eric okay but the word nasty again suggests what has happened in there if I tell you what that is YouTube won't let me put any adverts on the video so you're just gonna have to use your imagination about what he's done then he distances himself from this nastiness by referring and Sue himself not as AI but as a chat and chap kind of makes him sound less vicious less violent less cruel than if he'd called himself a man even chap is a way for him to distance himself from his responsibilities now this is important because at the end of the play you're going to ask yourself whether Eric has truly learned the inspectors lesson and I'm going to argue from this that Eric deceives himself all the way through the play so here he's trying to explain what he's done but he deceives himself about how serious the incident was and our proof that it was so serious remember is that Eva would rather have committed suicide than go back to him that is a massive clue as to what happened when events turned nasty now another way that he of always responsibilities is when his father accuses him of stealing the fifty pounds and his answer is not me I intended to pay it back now that is an appalling abdication of his own responsibility isn't there he's saying I didn't really steal it well of course he did and there's another level of sophistication here which Priestley's audience would have understood and we don't because we have forgotten that there are 20 shillings in a pound but when you remember that there are 20 shillings in a pound as everybody at the time would have done 50 pound is there for over 40 weeks of the wages that either would have earned at burling's well there is no way that Eva would suddenly go to mrs. burling's charity to ask for more money if Eric had actually been giving all this money to her so there's the other level of self-deception he's obviously spending a load of this on his own drinking so he stolen this money but not even given all of that to Eva now this will help us go back to the younger generation idea and argue that in fact Eric will not really change yes he'll learn the inspectors lesson but he will not act on it because it is against his nature his nature is to deceive himself and to deceive others now let's consider that other member of the younger generations Sheela her most important quotation is probably this one at the end of the play no because I remember what he said how he looked and what he made me feel fire and blood and anguish so we're going to make the point that she learns the inspectors lesson so she is the voice of the younger generation and the hope for change we can also argue that she is a proxy for the inspector proxy means she takes the place all because remember the inspector leaves before the ending of the play he leaves during act 3 to allow the characters to either take responsibility or not and we can clearly see that Shakespeare as Sheila does take responsibility as the quote proves and she keeps banging on although that's not very formal she keeps emphasizing Priestley's message which is the inspectors message so we've gone full grade six here and she represents the inspectors message which is Priestley's message and she also represents the idea of hope from the younger generation right here come the grade seven eight nine ideas and they have to do with the younger generation and whether the inspectors lesson has been truly learned so I've just argued that she does learn that lesson but the ending of the play makes us question that Gerald says everything's all right now Sheila he holds up the ring what about this ring Sheila doesn't just refuse him she says no not yet it's too soon I must think now priestly does this to force us to ask well what do we think she's going to do surely if she's learnt the inspectors lesson she can't go back to Gerald because he stands for everything but the inspector rejects he's still confirmed as a capitalist he still doesn't really think he's done much wrong with his affair and he certainly believes that Sheila should still marry him and just forgive him so there's no real Gilbert if she accepts the patriarchal society she will marry him and that means she won't ultimately carry on with the inspectors lesson she'll give in well what evidence have we got that she might well let's look at what she says when she finds out about the affair now at least you've been honest and I believe what you told us about the way you helped her at first just out of pity now what I showed you about Gerald is there's no way he helped her just out of pity this was totally premeditated he took her to his friend's flat as soon as he had the first opportunity and then got rid of her as soon as his friend was coming back so I'd strongly suggest here that she's lying to herself and society has encouraged her to lie to herself because women in this society in patriarchy always have to lie to themselves about their men they have to pretend that they've got some sort of equal relationship where the reality is quite different and you can easily see that in my other videos analyzing mrs. Berlin for example right as an audience we find it very difficult to agree with their assessment of journals motives and that final contained sentence also suggests that she herself does not believe it is his real motive so just out of pity is curtailed it doesn't have a verb in it and that kind of suggests that she doesn't really believe what she's saying on a subconscious level or an unconscious level she doesn't believe in her own words and then she says and it was my fault really that she was so desperate when you first met her well that's true it was her fault when Gerald met her because Sheila had got us act from Mill Ward's but she's blaming herself more than she blames Gerald and that I'd argue is symbolic of how women behave in a patriarchal society they are taught from birth to blame themselves more than men so all these three quotations taken together really do suggest to me that she will accept Gerald's offer of marriage now a further thing that suggests that she does is the second death of Eva Smith and I'll explain later how that works symbolically to suggest that Sheila does in fact marry Gerald and therefore the future does not change it remains capitalist and a younger generation like Sheila and Eric do not create a socialist future well amazingly I'm going to deal with the inspector with just one quotation you'd need more than that in an essay but you can easily get to grades 8 & 9 just with this one quotation with a really in-depth analysis of it I do have a separate video on that which can find on my channel but let's dive in these eyes final words we don't live alone we're members of one body we are responsible for each other and I tell you that the time will soon come when if men will not learn that lesson then they will be taught it in fire and blood and anguish so we can easily take the view that this is an attack on capitalism and we're automatically in grade 5 territory now I'm going to give you some other interpretations which take you beyond that so the first is the Christian interpretation this phrase we are members of one body comes directly from the Bible and it also comes directly from the church service when Christian congregations take communion now 80% of Priestley's audience are Christian at the time and so he deliberately uses language which they are used to in order to make an absolute connection what he's saying is that socialism is the same as Christianity therefore if you are a Christian human being I know 80% of you are then it is your duty to think like a socialist because we share the same outlook on life it is in fact the same view of how people should treat each other this of course is another attack on capitalism it says that capitalism is anti-christian if you're a capitalist you're not behaving in a Christian way so there's a really powerful argument for why he uses that language a great bit of language analysis for you and a bit of context now the other context which students often forget is that this play isn't just about capitalism and socialism it's also an attack on war that's why we have this phrase of fire and blood and anguish what he's suggesting here is that capitalism leads directly to war now I'll explain that a bit later in my capitalism section but for now you need to know the inspector saying war is a natural consequence of capitalism if you believe in capitalism and therefore exploiting people for financial profit well war is another way that you can exploit people for financial profit so this is an anti-war play and that's why these are the very last words that the inspector speaks they are about the wall so if you start writing about this we're automatically in grade seven eight-nine territory the other thing is this is also an attack on the patriarchal society you might not have noticed but this word is not man man means all men and all women no it is men and what he's saying here is it's no good meat persuading women like Sheila because they don't have any power in 1912 you'll know about the suffragettes campaigning for the vote and women didn't get the vote until much later into 1928 so Priestley's arguing really strongly here that war is the fault of men and also that capitalism is the fault of men it's men who hold all this financial power and all this political power and that's what's wrong with society he's saying it's that men and women do not have equal influence and power men are the problem the problem is the patriarchal society my play proves that we should get rid of it okay you've got three separate perspectives here that's easily gradate easily right this section on capitalism you're gonna really hope this comes up in the exam because this is a whole essay that I'm giving you here so first we'll start off with his reference to the Titanic being absolutely unsinkable now this is a metaphor for capitalism so he believes that capitalism is unsinkable but Priestley is trying to suggest that it is sinkable we can get rid of it and move to socialism a more sophisticated point is to take that image of the Titanic and actually say preach priestly wants it to be a metaphor for the class system so it's not so much business that he wants to get rid of he actually wants to get rid of the way people think about each other so that we are members of one body is much more important as a message because it shows that the class system is wrong because it sees different parts of the body is more important he wants to get rid of that class system to create an equal society and that links directly to the patriarchy that we've been talking about all the way through the video he also that priestly also uses Burling to discredit capitalism so Burling says there's a lot of wild talk about possible labor trouble in the near future this of course is dramatic irony because the audience know that there is a lot of industrial trouble in 1912 there were a huge number of strikes and that's of course the year that the play is set so he looks ridiculous there and then in 1926 there's this huge general strike that crippled the country a huge number of industries just stopped because millions of people went on strike and this of course is deeply ingrained in the memory of the audience and so they know that Burling is completely wrong and therefore what he stands for capitalism is also completely wrong and then finally he says we're in for a time of steadily increased prosperity and the audience know this is completely wrong because of the great oppression which you know started in 1929 however it isn't just dramatic irony because Burling isn't say that saying that the whole country is going to get this prosperity know that we here refers to what he said earlier which is we employers and actually the employers did have so the increased prosperity because people still needed to buy basics like clothing which of course is what burling's business sells so the same men who did very well out of the depression were the ones who were called hard-headed men of business by so Stanley Baldwin you remember from the beginning of the video so here Burling is actually right the we which is the businessman really do make loads of money and as you will see later in the video they also made loads of money because they go to war and war is going to be an extension of capitalism it's going to be capitalism by another means let's see how that will work so he says we've got everything to lose and nothing to gain by war well this again points to burling's stupidity because what he's saying here is actually false there is enormous amount to be gained by war and Priestley shows that to his audience really cunningly with it we can find it with this bit of language analysis by looking at the word lose and gain well the language of profit and loss is the language of business the language of capitalism so using this language of profit and loss shows that Burling does not fully understand capitalism there was a huge profit in war as the Stanley Baldwin illusion too hard method headed men of business proves now if you think there are ten million soldiers fighting they would need more than one uniform each probably imagine the great boon to burling's business that's going to create 10 million uniforms all being made by companies like Berlin and Crofts and then when you add in the businesses making guns and tanks and you know rifles the lot you can soon see that loads of rich industrial men made an absolute fortune out of war another way of looking at it is that in to maintain their profits they actually needed a wall and that's what Priestley is suggesting here he's suggesting that capitalism works best when countries fight because many more things need to be manufactured and then they get destroyed and therefore more things need to be manufactured so war is the ideal market for a capitalist economy now of course it can't remain as as war because eventually you don't get enough people to buy the products you're creating so in a capitalist society you need periodic Wars not permanent wars and that's exactly what Priestley is all about here we've got a big war in 1912 great and then another one in 1939 satisfying the needs of capitalist businessman and there's another brilliant level of irony where Burling talks about aeroplanes that would be able to go anywhere and look at the way the automobiles making headway bigger and faster all the time and then ships so all these things that are real industrial advances which are created by capitalism you know businesses make these things efficiently and well because that's how they're going to make money but also think about these things these are the things that made war possible and that made world war possible it meant that war could be exported by aeroplanes by car by bigger and faster ships now that's exactly how we get a world war instead of a local war so capitalism actually makes war bigger and worse so Priestley presents Burling as an idiot because he doesn't realize this but he wants his audience to realize that capitalism needs war and therefore if as an audience you don't want war you need to stop believing in capitalism and start pursuing socialism and that's a really powerful message at the end of the second world war in which millions of people have died and that's of course exactly when this play is performed we can also see a different attack on capitalism when Burling points out we were paying the usual rates and if they didn't like those rates they could go and work somewhere else so he's talking about the strikers like Eva who wanted more money so this shows how Burling justifies the sacking and it shows how capitalism is wrong well that's our grade six point let's jump into grade seven and above what's going on here is actually a cartel now what does a cartel mean it means when businesses get together to rig the market to turn it into their favor so if they had to pay different wages according to what workers were worth then someone like Sheila could get more money going to another job but because the biggest employers in Bromley are in fact burling's and Crofts what they've done is got together and said right we're gonna pay our workers the same rate and therefore they won't have an incentive to move from one company to the other and therefore the companies won't have to pay more money to attract the best workers they'll be able to keep the best workers and pay them low rates so win-win for the businesses but lose-lose for the workers because the workers can never earn more by being better at their job and they can't move to a better job because the other employers won't pay them any more money so this means all the factory owners are paying Eva and the thousands of other women who work in their factories a wage that is only just enough to get by with barely any savings and we know that's true because Burling and gerald talk about it when they laugh about how the strike couldn't possibly last more than a couple of weeks because they both know that on the money they get they couldn't possibly have savings that would last them more than a couple of weeks now that's appalling and that is a cartel that is actually illegal and Priestley is pointing out that businessman get away with illegal activities once you have a capitalist system Eric retorts with it isn't if you can't go and work somewhere else so he knows a cartel is operating and this is Priestley's point once you start giving this power to men they will start abusing it and I think this is also why he chooses to set the play in an industry that employs women he's trying to point out that it isn't just the working class and gets exploited that exploitation is far far worse if you're a woman and that's because the people with power are overwhelmingly male because this is a patriarchal society okay before we deal with these four grades seven eight and nine points let's look at the grade 789 criterion so in your essay you have to write a well-structured argument and that means you've got to start with the points of view that you have as a thesis so you need to write about your points of view and I've shown you that in each and every analysis you need at least two interpretations which again I've shown you in each analysis you need really good evidence which was the quotations that I showed you now you also have to include the ending of the text which I'm going to go on to next that's our final thing and the reason I'm saving it to last is if you don't really write about the ending of the text you can't really write about the full task and you can't get full marks okay so that's really important don't forget you must write about the ending write for a oh – you've got to really focus on individual words and phrases and I've tried to signpost that for you by going on about these bits of language analysis that I've done as usual you need more than one interpretation and I've shown you that all the way through you also need to write about the form so why it's written as a play and I will go into that in the next part of the video you need to write about the structure and I'll go into that in a lot more depth in the next bit of the video and you need to write the use the right terminology well I've been giving you that as we've gone through for example the word proxy for ao3 context again you'll see you need more than one interpretation and so your thesis is going to argue why one interpretation is better than the other context means anything about the author's life or Society about the time or literature at the time and that of course includes the Bible so we've already covered lots of that and then finally in your conclusion you've got to say why one interpretation is more convincing than another and I've tried to do that in the way I've structured the grades five and six interpretations here and then what I hope is the more convincing seven eight and nine on the other now I just want to take you through the greens so my greens are for when things occur more than once and what you'll see is interpretation and thesis interpretation and thesis get you the marks in ao3 interpretation gets you the marks in a o2 and interpretation and thesis gets you the mark in a oh one so guess what if you've got more than one interpretation and a really good thesis you're pretty much inevitably going to end up with a grade seven unless of course you don't prove anything in your thesis but you will because you've watched this video in fact we're 43 minutes in if you're still watching this video you're definitely getting the grade because people who don't understand what I'm talking about will already have given up you're here because you do okay on the flip side of capitalism we have the idea of socialism and this is really relevant to the 1945 general election you've heard me mention that quite a few times and it's going to be relevant to any essay title that you get but socialism remember is also a way to stop war happening in Priestley's mind the socialist society will not use the financial reasons to go to war there will be much more turn off about the consequences to people about how we will be destroying our one body because the death of one person affects us all but after all is the theme of the play the death of Eva affects everybody and that's what he's trying to show us as a reason not to go to war as a society you may well have looked at the characters as deadly sins I've got other videos that go through that there I'm not going to go through it now but this characterizes the play as a morality play which means that priestly is teaching a lesson so there's another purpose to the play it's to teach a moral lesson hence the morality play but it's also to eat to teach a political lesson about socialism and about being anti-war it's obviously also linked to Christianity and we're going to argue that he uses these Christian symbols because he's linking Christian belief to socialist belief and saying that if you are a Christian you must also be a socialist because the ideas match so exactly right now let's get into the structure now you won't need all of these points but any of these points will take you into grade seven in the bulb so burling's words summon the inspector yep so when he's telling Eric and Gerald this this is when the inspector suddenly appears as though by supernatural contact as though he's been listening from another dimension and appears in order to prove this belief wrong so this links to the idea of the inspector being a ghost which you've got from ghoul and that links us directly to the novel A Christmas Carol where Dickens uses a series of ghosts in order to teach the main character Scrooge more lessons about looking after other people well it's the same moral lesson that Priestley is teaching and he knows that his readers will be familiar with a Christmas cow probably 99% of his readers would have read the book and the people gain the theater would have read the book so consequently he's using a literary allusion that he knows all his readers will understand and that helps the moral purpose of his play to become clear why does he decide the inspector disappears I mean he can keep the inspector on till the end couldn't he but he chooses not to well this again is about free will so he allows the inspector to disappear to give the characters the free will to decide whether they should take responsibility for Eva's death or whether they shouldn't and what I'm going to argue is as soon as they don't take responsibility the new phonecall happens and we'll deal with that in more detail down here why does Priestley introduce the idea of the inspector showing separate photographs well it's to give Gerald this false idea that they could in fact have been different girls it allows Gerald not to take responsibility and then convince the others not to take responsibility however if you look at all the descriptions of Eva and not just what she looks like but when she was employed and where she came from in the country and her parents were dead and all this stuff everything that every character hears matches with what every character already knows about her in other words they are obviously the same person I've got videos proving that so he does that in order to give Gerald a way out a way to deceive himself but also to let the audience know this is self-deception we know that this must have been the same girl because of all the descriptions next we need to consider why Eric's revelation comes last well as I alluded to earlier I think Priestley does that simply to show that Eric's exploitation of Eva is far worse than anyone elses and also the logical conscious of a patriarchal society so priestly is arguing that once you dehumanize people by cheat treating them as inferior to you and once you make them commodities things that you can earn money from then the logical consequence of that is what Eric does to Eva and the logical consequence of that is despair and eventual suicide okay now we get to that second phone call well just like the inspector is summoned by Bolling's words I'm going to argue that Gerald is sorry that the second phone call is summoned by Gerald and Sheila's words the second phone call is sign posted by a ring and the word ring is in the stage direction let's go back to Gerald and Sheila's words everything all right now Sheila holds up the ring what about this ring no not yet it's too soon so what's happening here is the second phone call happens when Sheila decides she's going to take the ring that's my reading of this section you don't have to agree with it but I think it's a really neat one because it explains why the second phone call happens so the second phone call happens because Sheila doesn't fully learn the lesson of the inspector because she eventually I think chooses to marry Gerald and therefore that second death occurs now the second death happens because it's a symbol of the two world wars so the first world war is symbolized by the first death of Eva and in the second world war happens because society didn't learn the lessons of the first world war and that's mirrored by the burling's not learning the lessons of their first treatment of Eva a fuller analysis of that is in my inspector calls video which I will have linked up here you will have seen the eyes appear and then finally why is it set in 1912 instead of 1930 because all the points would have been just as valid if it was set just before the war and the inspectors last words about learning in fire and blood and anguish blah blah blah that would all have been relevant if the play had been set in 1937 well it's because this predates the First World War and he wants to write about both wars so setting it in 1912 he's a massive clue to the audience that he wants us to think about the First World War as well as the Second World War and so then we can clearly see the two deaths of Eva as representing those two wars in other words this says to the audience are not just talking about capitalism this play is also an anti-war play and if you want to get rid of war you have to stop thinking in a capitalist way and start thinking in a socialist way and finally this links us to the form the form of the play is pretty much a morality play and it is didactic didactic means it's there to teach a lesson so priestly wants to teach through this play and therefore he chooses these elements of the morality play like the seven deadly sins and the elements of this moral novel like a Christmas carol with the ghost in order to signpost to his audience that this isn't just an entertainment it is a play with a message a political message a teaching message okay so we've done one two three four and five and now six how can you get all of my guides every single one of them for free on Amazon how does that work well it works like this you get a 30-day free trial so 30 days from now all your exams will be over and that means without paying a penny you can get every single guide that's on Amazon as an e-book for free because you can cancel your membership after your 30-day free trial so yes you can get all of my revision guides but look I type a revision guy into Amazon and you can get all of these revision guys and this this must just go on forever so every single subject that you study so there are 400 pages available here you can get every single one of these from their money at all well of course that would also mean that I get absolutely no money although Amazon will give me some if you use a link in my description so if that service looks brilliant to you and why wouldn't it please go in through the link in my description and then Amazon will give me more than 35 pence that I normally get if you buy a guide so I pretty much hope this has been the most useful video I've ever made on and in spectacles and if you've got this far you're definitely gonna get grade 7 and above I'm really excited for you thanks for sticking with me don't forget to subscribe if you want more and good luck in those exams

What if Paper 1 Was Rubbish?



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What to do if Paper 1 went badly. And how to make Paper 2 go well! It really isn’t as bad as you think.
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hello and welcome to another video trying to get you the very top grades so I'm posing you this question how do you want to remember these weeks in August so when you come round to get your results in August how do you want to look back at this time I'm asking that because it's really easy to be deflated by a difficult exam so I've seen many comments about yesterday's biology exam and quite a few people disappointed with today's English exam and I'm going to try and bring you the good news and it really is good news about how you can still get the grade that you want so this might surprise you your grade is graded against everyone else not by the question so if you did particularly badly in a question because the question was difficult that won't matter to your grade because the chances are everyone else will have had similar problems so it's a bit like this analogy here is a man being chased by a bear now this in my picture here is someone who thinks they've done badly in the exam however he hasn't the bear is not going to kill him because he's already moving it's the photographer who's standing still trying to get the picture and he only has to be faster than the photographer the Bears going to kill him and that's the old joke isn't it to two people running away from a bear or a lion or whatever you don't have to be able to run fast you only have to be able to run faster than the person next to you and that's exactly what's going on in this exam you just have to work harder or smarter than the person next to you now a person who does feel that they didn't do their best in today's exam is very likely to beat themselves up about that and therefore not do as well next Thursday because they already think they've done badly and this becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy however if you put today a song and just think no I'm gonna get on with it and do my best you surely will and that's why I started with this question when you look back in August do you want to look back at yourself and think oh I didn't do as well as I wanted but I still kept going I concentrated on my other exams I treated each exam as though it was my first one so I could do my best or do you want to remember yourself as getting worn down by the exams and beating yourself after that way you didn't get the right answers well I imagine it's the former you don't want to be the person who beats themselves up and this is why you shouldn't beat yourself up nobody comes out of an exam thinking that they've done their absolute best it's impossible under exam pressure to do brilliantly all the time so you're always going to make mistakes and you're always going to look back and think oh if only I thought that why didn't I do this and that's natural that happens to everyone need to put those doubts aside and focus on the stuff that you've done well so have you worked hard in the exam and coming up to the exam if you have that will pay off in the exam in fact because you've worked hard you've probably started to think of lots of great things you could have put in the exam and didn't because you know so much did you keep writing my guess is if you're beating yourself up you probably did keep writing and that is the major difference between students who succeed and don't people who don't succeed finish the exam early and just don't keep writing they stop believing and they lack a sense of urgency and the chances are if you're beating yourself up it's because you do have a sense of urgency because you want to do well and hold on to that positive because it does make you different to students who don't do well you're probably saying that you revised quotations but you couldn't fit them all in what doesn't matter none of us can fit them all in but you did revise quotations you had some to use in your answer it's very likely if you watching my videos that you focused on the author's ideas and if you didn't you know to do that next time it's going to boost your grade I hope that these two are happening when you watch my videos and if you haven't done these then I suggest you do by the next exam on Thursday give yourself a break today but when you come back to revise make some notes from the videos and probably the best way to do it is after the end of the video because it's much quicker and then you can see what you don't know whereas if you make notes during the video you can kind of pretend that you understood it all but you don't really know however you might get to the end and miss loads out which is fine that again is completely normal and then I recommend you watch the good ones again at about 1.75 speed so they go much more quickly and it has the added advantage of you revise the same content twice and remember it much more another top tip is to do that second viewing the next day and that will help it stick in your brain more and of course there are lots of good youtubers out there they don't have to be my videos they could be any ones that you value now we all find it difficult to bounce back from what we think of as a setback and so far I've been trying to tell you that you don't have to worry about that setback you've got another go at the next paper and also if you are worried the chances are is because you've already revised quite a bit and planned other sorts of responses you'd like to give and the ones that you gave just don't measure up to the hard work that you've already done but the fact is you're still probably further ahead than other people who took the exam and that's going to give you a higher grade however I think and this is a personal thing as a teacher I think this confidence gap between girls and boys does also exist in school and you're more likely or in general this is okay you're more likely in general as a girl to think that you've done worse than you have girls are much more self-critical specially as teenagers than boys and this is a news article that says this holds true even for women in highly paid professions and now if that does describe you I want you to think about August and when you look back on these exams and think you know maybe mister Sally's was right maybe I shouldn't beat myself up so much maybe I did okay all right not as well as I hoped to but I worked really hard and so something good would have stuck in that exam and I didn't let it get me down for my next exams not just in English but my other exams are I'm taking and one of the reasons I mention that is that 58% of my viewers in the last month our female and 42% are male and so typically what I see is girls often revise harder but then beat themselves up more when they don't get the grades they want but remember you haven't got that grade yet it's not written in stone and you've still got another exam which incidentally for AQA is worth a few more marks so the next exam has a real opportunity to turn around how you did in this one you can do even better and to help you over the next week I will be making quite a few videos I shall make some on the power and conflict and how to compare those poems I'll make some on a few of the relationships poems that I haven't really made many videos on so far I'll give you some more on an inspector calls the kinds of quotations that you need something that will help you for the exam and I'm going to try to give you some predictions now remember my predictions are just guesses and I'm gonna do those later because what I'll say to you is you've got to revise everything but I'm going to give you a prediction just in the last few days before the exam just so you can focus on a particular thing if you're if you're not sure where to put your best efforts I did that with Jekyll and Hyde in a Christmas carol and Macbeth for this round of exams I got the it's question for Jekyll and Hyde and A Christmas Carol but I didn't get Macbeth now bear in mind that the examiners could ask probably six to ten questions for any text so to get to right and 1/2 right I spotted I was I spotted Macbeth or not and thought that it would be with Lady Macbeth as well but there you go that's a pretty decent track record I'm a bit nervous of making more predictions because I'd like to quit on a high but I will actually give you my strong suspicions about an inspector calls I don't have much of an idea about relationships I do have a sneaky feeling about power and conflicts but of course that could be completely enough to leave wrong anyway I'll have a good old think about how to help you with those videos good luck with your revision don't beat yourself up if you've tried hard that's all you can ask yourself look back in August with a sense of pride that you did your best no one will ever ask you to do any more and this is the thing you will never ask yourself to do any more than your best if you think about it so see you soon on the channel good luck with the exams

Classical & Folk Dances of India – Static General Knowledge



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The whole of GCSE 9-1 Maths in only 2 hours!! Higher and Foundation Revision for Edexcel, AQA or OCR



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hey guys here is a quick summary of a whole of your GCSE math what I suggest you do is go through your vision guide or free vision guide on my website make sure you know every single point that any points that you don't know go and find you individual videos and check those bits make sure you do know them by the time you go into your exam you if in the exam they ask you to write it as an integer that answers integer be looking for whole numbers do not be afraid in the exam to draw out two number lines it is just you and the examiner so you are never going to be embarrassed or friends are never going to know if you draw a number line in the exam if you need to for a question so if positive and negative numbers especially negative numbers loads of people have problems ordering these just draw a number line take your time and fill it in slowly to make your life easier in the exam I strongly suggest that you get familiar with fractions it is really really going to help you in if you know your fraction to decimal conversions that you are used to putting these in order you can make flashcards you can watch a video that I've made doing flashcards or you can go to our website Facebook at home and download those from there but this is definitely something you should spend time in because of the non calculator paper this is going to come up and it will make your life a lot easier if you are familiar with this you need to have to use a lot of symbols in GCSE maths equals not equal the less than more than less than or equal to more than or equal to if they asked you in the exam for mathematical operation what they mean is divide add subtract or multiply something and in the exam you're going to be doing this a lot in your non calculator paper it is going to come up a lot so I strongly suggest that you learn your long division and your long multiplication and for the calculator paper you know how to use your calculator possibly including bid math this is really important when we are adding fractions we need to make the bit on the bottom the same so when I select the denominators same so I'm going to take you this one here times it by 2 giving us 2 over 6 plus 1 over 6 equals 3 over 6 for subtracting fractions again we need to make the number on the bottom the denominator the same so I'm going to times this one now I'm not going time to this one by 3 giving us 3 over 6 minus 1 over 6 which equals 3 minus 1 2 over 6 we can then divide that by 2 giving us 1 over 3 as our simplified answer when we're multiplying fractions we deal with the topic and then we deal with the bottom bit so we have 1 times 2 over 5 times 3 which gives us 2 over 15 which we are dividing fractions the easiest thing to do is just turn one of them upside down so we get 1 over 2 times 6 over 1 which just like tylium fractions is 1 times 6 times 2 times 1 which gives us 6 over 2 6 divided by 2 equals 3 when we are adding decimals it is important that we keep things consistent so you fill it in any spaces with any blanks and then we are just going to go down as normal so 0 plus 8 is 8 3 plus 1 is 4 2 plus 9 is 11 so we carry 1 9 plus 5 plus 1 is 15 so we carry 1 and then 1 plus 1 is 2 taking where the same numbers to divide again I'm going to put my number in there and you can see that 0-8 isn't useful song lady 13-18 30 minus 18 equals 12 that goes in there 2 minus 9 isn't helpful so I'm going to borrow a number from here that is going to make that one there 8 that's going to make about 12 so 12 minus 9 equals 3 3 years there and then I'm going to the 8 minus 5 8 minus 5 equals 3 and then finally one – theory gives us one when we are dividing decimals the first thing we want to do is to get rid of decimals so we can move this in place 1 and who is just almost 1 in 1 we have to move it in the other which gives us 72 divided by 4 which is a much nicer form to do so 4 goes into 7 once and we have a remainder of 3 4 goes into 32 8 times 7 point 2 divided by 0.4 is 18 or you can do something similar with multiplying decimals so we're going to shift our decimal place over 1 what we end up with is 3 times 15 3 times 15 is 45 and because we moved our decimal place once in the other direction we have to move it twice in the other direction once for moving it this way it wants to move it this place it has moved 2 times back giving us an answer of 0.45 at the beginning calculate paper they might ask you to put something into a calculator and just check you're doing it correctly and if they don't let you do it on the connection each paper if it's in the non calculate paper need to be using bigness or both maths whichever way you prefer with brackets indices or orders division multiplication and subtraction add a minus operation and divide and times opposite operations so if we have X plus 4 to get X on its own we need to do the opposite we need 2 minus 4 if we have X minus 10 and we're going to give you the most n we need to do the opposite and add 10 if we have x over 3 and we want to get rid of it we need to do the opposite and times by 3 if we have 4 X and want to get rid of 4 we need to do the opposite and divide by 4 I remember our numbers are only divisible by themselves and one and it's really helpful just to recall the first few prime numbers so the question comes up in the exam you don't have to work on out the first few are 2 3 5 7 11 17 and 19 when we are looking for factors in these numbers that other numbers can be divided by so 20 is divisible by 1 and 20 by 2 and by 10 and 4 and 5 for multiples Peugeot's upwards so 40 and 60 above see multiple of 20 the highest common factor for number is a number that is factor of both things and it's a highest one so you need to look at two numbers you're comparing work out with factors of Axford lion-o 1 & 9 3 & 3 facts of 12 are 1 & 12 4 & 3 & 2 & 6 the highest number that is common to both of these is 3 the lowest common multiple is something as relational base numbers but is the lowest common multiple of base numbers so if we look at our 8 times table and our 12 times table we have 8 16 24 and 32 and our 12 times table 12 24 36 and 48 and we can see that the lowest number that is on both of those lists is 24 for prime factorization when you take everything down to our prime numbers remember our prime number of things that can only be divided by themselves and 1 so 2 and 24 we can go into 2 again Bay's 2 and 12 we're going to again that is 2 & 6 we're going to 2 again that is 2 & 3 so these are our prime factors that gives us 2 times 2 times 2 times 2 times 3 or 2 to the 4 times 3 it is well worth learning your square numbers definitely 1 – 13 15 and 20 your cube numbers if you can as well because they're so much so often it's really reinforce that you know is here is my little video I've made on these you can make your own flashcards I strongly recommend making flashcards or if you're on say that I'm going at my cash cards for my website so square numbers so here are your square numbers 1 squared T squared 3 squared 4 squared 5 squared 6 squared 7 squared 8 squared 9 squared 10 squared + 4 12 with 13 3 to 15 squared + 20 squared really worth learning those you need as many cube numbers as you can but I definitely recommend the first 5 so 1 Q 2 Q 3 Hughes 4 cube and 5 cubed and if you know your square numbers and your cube numbers you are going to be able identify your square and cube roots of many of these as you can remember is really really can help you on the non calculator paper and is massively going to speed things up and if you recognize these numbers as important numbers then that's definitely going to give you a hint as to what to do on some of the other more complicated questions it is really important that you can use your calculator properly to calculate Pels or 4 or higher and calculate roots square roots cubed roots and roots the 4 roots of 5 this is really important to just spend some time getting familiar with your calculator learning which bones to press in which order so when going to the exam you know what to do and again police and some time with a calculator getting to know how to properly use the fractions button to look keypad in the middle and getting to know how to use a shift key and where pi is sometimes long numbers are a little bit of a hassle to write out so we write them in standard form now what we need to send a form and take our decimal place from there and move it to there so we are going to get to two point seven times ten and then we need to look at how many places are different places moved one two three four five six seven so that very long number there so we witness two point seven times ten to the seven works in a similar way for numbers less than zero we need to move our decimal place from here to here so I'm just going to pop it in there we are going to get three point nine two times ten and because it's less than zero is minus and we count jumps one two three four five six seven eight three point nine two times ten to eight much easier to say and right then this number here if we're going the other way around four point three times ten to the four so three four three and then after some places we need four digits so this is our first one here one two three four we can check this because those whole places moved from here to here so that should be four jumps one two three four jumps with numbers below zero it works very similar way so here we have minus six the first thing we can do is write out six zeros one two three four five six per our different place in to our number in nine to one and you'll notice I different places moved from here to here so you can check the jumps and it should be six one two three four five six this is another one where it helps you familiar with buttons on your calculator and how they work just in case you have to input this in during your exam it is really going to help you in the exam if you know your fractions decimals fractions conversions is really really worth taking the time to learn these you know what your video is made about this make your own flashcards or if you're on Facebook I'm prepared some website you can download slash cards from there as well as using whole numbers in ratios you need to have these fractions in ratios as well on the non calculator paper very likely to get you to use some fractions so you need to be able to work out what fractions are so 10% of 800 is going to be 80 15% is going to 80 plus 1/2 so that is 120 whereas 200% is going to be double it units conversions are incredibly important and that you need to have to recognize when to convert unit so everything needs to be in the same unit and you need to have to do that confidently so grams into kilograms there are a thousand grams in a kilogram absolutely this one we need to divide by a thousand and if we are going the other way we need to times by a thousand if we are going from seconds into minutes we need to divide by 60 minutes into hours we need to divide by 60 hours into minutes times by 60 minutes in seconds times by 64 millimeters in centimeters meter divided by 10 centimeters into meters it is divided by a hundred meters into kilometers it is divided by a thousand kilometers into meters times by a thousand meters in centimeters times by a hundred centimeters and millimeters at times by ten so go from pence into pounds we need to divide by a hundred to go from pounds independence we need to times by a hundred sometimes when we have a number go to a large number of decimals it's annoying to work with special non calculate paper so we can use estimation so 3.94 1/2 can be rounded up to make four and three point zero zero zero one can be rounded down to make three which is a much easier some fast to do you might be asked whether your answer is an adverse station on underestimation if your rounded up is going to be an overestimation brand down under estimation if it's in a fraction it's slightly different so if you've rounded up and you made it a denominator it is then going to be an underestimation rounding is an important skill so here are two numbers we will go around to two and three significant figures so the first thing you need to do is to look for your decimal places where your your significance bieber's going to be so choose consistently as we want these two we then need to look at this number here because it is above five to two significant figures this is going to be nine four and then we need to replace the rest of numbers with zero so nine come 0t from 0 1 from 0 through from zero to become zero and one from zero for three significant figures these are three numbers we're going to write down so 9 3 9 we then need to look at additional but is below 5 so we don't need to round it but we do need to write them in in place as zeros so 2 1 3 2 1 the same for decimal places we are going to go in first two decimal places so that is these ones looking at this number here it is below 5 so it's going to be nine point three nine and because it's below zero we get out here to pay attention to the rest of them looking at three different places it is these ones looking at this number here we're going to get to nine point three nine to here we have an inequality and our number X falls between these two numbers so it is greater than or equal to minus five and we send all that on a number line by putting in a field in that circle or less than mine or less than four so that is an open circle and our inequality will fall in this region here one way of looking at the limits of accuracy we're talking about combining rounding and in this case a case inequalities so what is the lowest possible value that could round to minus 5 so if we have a think about this – five point one so once in this configure is going to be minus five so is minus five points 3 and minus five point four but minus five point five is going to round to minus 6 so our lowest possible value is minus five point five our highest possible value that is round two less them for but not equal to four and this is something that's a little bit complicated it's going to be three point four because if it was three point five that would round to fall but our number is not equal to four it is less than four so these are our limits of accuracy if you're doing the foundation paper you have now finished and this video you can go and watch the other videos go and try some of the example walkthroughs to check that your knowledge and that you can apply what you learnt or if it in high t paper we are a few more bits to go you need to have to estimate roots for any given number and this is another instance where learning your square and your cube numbers comes in will be useful so if we are trying to find the square roots of 39:39 falls in between two square numbers 36 and 49 and 39 falls pretty close to 36 so you can see that will start with a six and is going to be quite close to 36 put one seems a bit too small so six point two is a rough estimate look for the square root of 39 another thing is well worth spending time to calculator if you learn how to input served properly so that you don't make a mistake when you are calculating with and you also need to know how to simplify expressions using sides so here we have square root of 5 squared bass games be the square root of 5 squared square root of 5 squared is simply 5 – square root 5 plus 3 square root 5 is just 2 Plus 3 added together so it's going to be 5 square root 5 – square root 5 times 3 square root 5 this is getting slightly more commentated now all we need to do is put everything inside square root so 2 squared is 4 times 5 times 3 squared that 9 times 5 what we end up with then is 4 times 5 29 times 5 45 20 times 45 900 and then we can look at that see if we can divide that out into any square numbers and we can that is 100 times 9 so square root of 100 is 10 square root of 9 is 3 so it's 10 times 3 which equals 30 as well as the non-return decimals that come up in the foundation – you also need to convert to between and decimals and fractions will reoccurring ones as well it is so we're spending on time just learning these it will make your life so much easier in it the exam if you have three things to do in order and need to know about the number of ways of doing these different things so task one say there are a number ways of doing it task 2 so there are being number ways of doing it and I squeezed either a see number of ways of doing it you could make a very very long list and work it out or you can do a times B times C equals the total product for this example fractional indices look scary and perfect for actually bad not they're just opposites so 8 squared is 64 and one over two as our indices is exactly saying the same square root so one over means like doing the opposite so 64 to power of 1/2 is square root of 64 which is going to be 8 so 3 cubed is 27 and 27 to a third so it's the opposite of doing the cube so the cubed root of it is going to be 3 if we're combining things we just follow the laws of indices so 9 to 1/2 times and 1/2 square of 9 times squared 9 because its indices means we add them neither one that just gives us 9 if we have a vacuum or communicated indices and fractional indices then we need to break it down into path so this is basically saying the square roots of 4 cubed so the square root of 4 is 2 2 cubed is 8 sometimes in math writing things out fully can be really really tedious so there are a few conventions that we use to speed things up you have to be able to rationalize what they mean and you have to be able to use them in algebra so x times y can be written as X Y we don't need to bother writing the times M if we have X and X and X again that's writing out quite a lot of things we just have three X's X times X with Y is x squared and then if we want to have X divided by Y we can try it out of X either Y in EDL to put terms into an algebraic expression so here we have 2 X s 3 and x equals 4 so what we need to do is replace the X with 4 that is 2 times 4 plus 3 equals 8 plus 3 gives us 11 n is how to collect like terms in an algebraic expression and for this what I stated is is we write things in order or get your highlighters out and start highlighting so we have X's things you like seeing things as X in this is why in things is yn things with Y in now we can rewrite this as X plus 2 X plus 3 X all together that makes 6 X plus 1 2 3 wives I can multiply out a number in front of our bracket so here is our 2 in front of our bracket we need to turn it in by everything inside the bracket to get rid of the brackets so we have 2 times X gives us 2 X plus 2 times 4 gives us 8 whenever you see a long complicated algebraic expressions it sounds quite simple but you should always consider factorizing it to factorize it anything for what both things common so we both have three white amber 12 can be divided by three so they're going to put that outside we're going to make some brackets three Y divided by 3 is y 12 divided by 3 is 4 you must go out to expressions now this is a things that get a bit complicated and I think it's really important that you draw your lines in even if you are that really good this please just draw your lines in because in the exam you might get a bit stressed you might make a silly mistake that you wouldn't otherwise makes please draw your lines in there were two different ways of drawing your lines in you can go one two one two all the way that I prefer to do it just because it looks a bit a little bit nice stuff is like this and then we can turn it into a smiley face now I know this is really really trivial but exams are stressful situations so anything we can do to make it a little bit nicer a little bit happier a little bit less stressful is going to be a good thing so there is my expression I need to do this in whatever color you like we still have some multiply it out the other thing I would like you to do is once you have finished doing the line just cross it out so that you know you've done it you don't repeat it so first of all I'm going to do this line here that gives us x squared and I'm going to cross out the lines I know that I've done it but I'm going to do this line here three times four then I'm going to cross out the line so I know that I've done it then I'm going to do this one three times X then I will cross out the lines I know that I've done it then I'm going to do this one X minus four then I'm going to cross out the line then because I've done that one then you need to collect the terms together so these two these two those two are the same so you're going to need to put them together and you need to sort things into the right order so x squared plus 7x plus 12 now two different methods up here this one will give you things in the right order whereas the smiley face method won't give you things in the right order usually remember to put them in the right order that's writing things that when former x squared plus BX plus C so for this one here we need two numbers that multiply and for this number here we need two numbers that add so first thing you do is you write down your two open brackets since this is just x squared we can pop that in already X since both of these are plus we can pop that in as well then we need to think of all the things that multiply to make eight so we can have a one and eight we can have two and four I think that is everything nailing to look at your list of numbers can we use one and eight in any way to automate six no we can't can we use two and four in any way at all to make six yes we can two and four sometimes your algebraic terms will begin and quite complicated so you want to make things as simple as possible I once imply an algebraic expression you can need to collect like terms you need to factorize you might need to deal with some black is expanding brackets in there you also might have to deal with some fractions awesome thirds rearranging equations to make a different thing subjects the formula comes up so frequently in so many different places is definitely one of the core skills I recommend you practice a lot so here we are going to make Y the subject of the formula so first thing I'm going to do is sum minus 6 on both sides so we're going to get 8x plus 4 minus 6 plus 4 minus 6 is going to give us 8 8 X minus 2 equals 2y you can see why it's coming times y 2 so I'm going to divide that by 2 giving us 8 X -2 divided by 2 equals 2y divided by 2 you see here I've got two on top and bottom so it's going to cancel here I've got numbers I can divide so that is going to give me four X minus 1 equals y it does not matter that Y is on this side the equation is exactly the same happening on this side it just happens to be on the right-hand side do not feel you have to minus 2y at any point to get Y over here and then Y X get x over this side is perfectly okay to have Y on at the right hand side so another example where knowing your square numbers and your square roots this is going to come in really really handy answers are not scary they're just a nice easy simple way of writing a long horrible number for example square root 6 is much easier and more accurate than watching the number out in full but you can just treat them like anything else in algebra 2 square root 6 plus 2 square root 6 all we need to do is to add the numbers in form just like adding 2x and 2x and we are going to get 4 square root 6 again just like algebra if you have 6 square root 6 divided by 2 3 6 6 divided by 2 is going to give us 3 square root 6 if we have square root of 2 times group 18 that is exactly the same as saying square root of 2 times 18 2 times 18 is 36 the square root of 36 is 6 so now they look awful but they're really really not I promise if we are multiplying terms we need to add the indices for example X cube times X – 7 we need to add the indices 3 times 7 or give us X to the 10 if we are dividing terms you need to subtract the indices for example X is 6 divided by X – 2 6 minus 2 is 4 so it's going to give us X to the 4 functions another thing that looks awfully scary but really aren't so FX equals 3x plus 2 when used answer if s is 3 so all you need to do your notice here excellent replaced by three so in here we need to replace X with 3 so that it's going to give us 3 times 3 plus 2 3 times 3 is 9 plus 2 equals 11 coordinates are going to be in the format X and then Y so X and then Y and vectors not relevant here but kind of so excellent op and white on the bottom so if you're plotting points we need to go X first so 2 across and then 4 up so our first coordinate will be there and we mark that with a nice cross with a sharp pencil a blunt pencil is not going to be any good in the exam for our second set of coordinates we go minus 1 minus 3 down there again sharp pencil if you're plotting a line from an expression see y equals 2x plus 1 the simplest thing you can do is work out some points so if y equals 1 so when x equals 1 y equals 2x plus 1 so when x equals 1 y equals 2 times 1 which is 2 plus 1 making of that 3 when x equals 2 we have 2 times 4 2 times 2 which is 4 plus 1 giving us 5x equals 3 it is 2 times 3 6 plus 1 7 we can now plot those points on our grid and using a ruler which I don't have you can join the prints up when we're trying to find the gradient or the insect of a straight line and we need to be thinking y equals MX plus C M being the gradient and C being the intercept so if we look at finding the gradient first what you need to do with a pencil and a ruler is draw the biggest triangle that you can fit on bigger triangles are better because they aren't more accurate and so I'm going to get in there because it's a nice number so we are going from 5 to minus 3 that gives us 8 then we are going from 3 to minus 1 that gives us 4 so to find the gradient it is up divided by a cross so up we went 8 across we went for so 8 divided by 4 gives us a gradient of 2 and then C is just where it crosses the y-axis it crosses the y-axis at minus 1 so our C is minus 1 giving us a total equation of y equals M which is 2x C which is minus 1 if two lines inform that way it was an extra see are parallel they don't have same gradients or the same M so it doesn't matter where they cross the y line if they have same gradient they will be parallel for a quadratic class the roots are going to equal the x intercept and the x intercept are going to these points here on the x axis turning point is going to be the coordinates of this point here the graph of y equals x is going straight through the middle increasing a number in front of X is going to make it steeper decreasing membrane font X is going to make it shallower putting a number after it is going to shift it either up or down you need to recognize the shape of the graph of x squared which is nicely like a big smiley face unfortunately minus x squared is less a third race pinning a larger number in front of the x squared say 2x squared squashes it and a smaller number makes it expand outwards X plus a value squared is going to shift it left by that value x squared plus three is going to shift it up by that value here is the graph of y equals x cubed minus X cubed 3x cubed with a large number in front of the X cubed 1/3 X cubed with a small number in front of the X cubed x cubed plus a number will shift it up or down by that number and X plus number and then keys will shift it left or right by that number here is a graph for 1 over X the important notes remember when you're plotting graph is that your points are accurate a sharp pencil and a cross especially to accurately plot points that they are clear that you do not do a massive circle our massive splodge or your pencils not sharp enough so there's no exactly clear to the examiner where you've putted it on one box or another box your axis has had a clear scale on it the scale has to be an order scale has to make sense it has to have a title and it has to have a unit and your line needs to be a smooth curved line this sort of line here is not going to get you any marks in the exam remember this is maths not arts we need a smooth strong confident line and a line of best fit distance time and velocity time graphs look identical the only difference is that one is labeled distance and one is labeled velocity or speed and you have to be paying attention to the graph before you can answer the question because either MOSI looks the same as having you very very different things so if we first look at this section here on a distance time graph this is going at a study speed the middle section here on a distance time graph you will see that as time is progressing distance is not progressing so this is staying still then the last section they are also moving at steady speed but if we look at the slope or the gradient of the line you will see that this steady speed is slower than this steady speed here if we look at a velocity time graph the first part is acceleration the middle part where it's flat so time is going across a velocity is not increasing but velocity is not zero so they are still moving so this is now a steady speed and then the last part is again acceleration but if we again look at a slopes you'll see the slope here is shallower the gradient is shallower than this one so it is accelerating less rapidly if we want to solve to see linear simultaneous equations from a graph we need to be drawing the points on the graph we need to be looking at where they cross over and that is going to be this solution if you have a linear and a quadratic equation again you need to draw them on the graph and the points where of course over this is going to give you two solutions is the answer here we have a quadratic equation that we need to solve by factoring so we need to draw our brackets X X you can see we have a plus and a minus so they're not both parties two can't like that in there the moment we need to look at numbers that multiply to make four and then add or subtract to make three so we can have one and four or we can have two and two there's a bit more complicated in that because it's minus four so we can have minus 1 and plus 4 or we can add plus 1 and minus 4 minus 2 and plus 2 but they need to add in some way together to make 3 and there's nothing we can do with 2 & 2 so you can't leave that it has to be plus 3 so minus 4 plus 1 is going to give us minus Teresa's not that one so there has to be this one here so we are going to have plus 4 and minus 1 applause my brackets and once 4 plus 4 and minus 1 now we know this equals 0 now something to equal 0 two things times by each other equal 0 one of these has to equal 0 so to make each bracket equals 0 X plus 4 equals 0 we need to rearrange that so X is minus 4 or X minus 1 equals 0 which rearrange will give us x equals 1 so there are two solutions to a quadratic equation by factoring you have to put it into brackets and then make the brackets equal 0 simultaneous equations can be solved in a large number of different ways you can find the way that works the best which you prefer and then go with that one substitution which is for no particular reason one third method multiplication addition subtraction or you can fill them graphically graphically is it more complicated and and Leslie asked you to do it don't generally do it that way so I'm going to show you two ways of solving this same equation and hopefully we should come up with same answer both different ways so I'm gonna call this equation number one I'm going to call this equation number two and I will start with substitution so I'm going to rearrange equation number one to make wireless objects the formula so 2x plus y equals seven y equals 7 minus 2x so now I know what Y is I can pop it into equation number two so 3x minus y equals 8 3x minus y which we know from previously is 7 minus 2x equals 8 most kind of brackets 3x minus 7 plus 2x equals 8 tie this up to 3x plus 2x gives us 5x 8 plus 7 gives us 15 15 divided by 5 x equals 3 now we can now we know what X is we can put that into either equation number one or a crazy number two I'm going to equation number one 2x plus y equals 7 x equals 3 so 6 plus y equals 7 and rearrange that so y equals 1 so that's doing it by substitution I'm now going to do it by addition now addition subtraction and multiplication all go together because if you want to have addition you need to have something with the same number in front here I've got one a 100 one but different symbols if I add these together they're going to cancel each other out subtraction would work if this is plus y and plus y and if we didn't have any of the numbers same here we could multiply one of these equations and for example we could multiply this one by 1/2 if you wanted to get X the same so we could either add or subtract those so those three work together so I'm going to add the equations together so 2x plus y equals 7 3x minus y equals 8 add them together gives me 5x minus y Plus why gives me zero 5x equals 15 divide that out x equals three now that x equals three I can pick either of the equations since I picked equation um one last time I'm going to pick quiz number T this time so 3x minus y equals 8 x equals 3 so that's 9 minus y equals 8 take 9 over slightly at minus y equals minus 1 times at 1 minus 1 y equals 1 so you can see both methods give the correct answer both methods are valid you just need to pick which method you prefer the next part making equations from a situation given in text can be tricky for some and when I'm working use for exam papers I try and do this for you as much as I can pilot because math makes more sense in my head than words does and partly because you need to know how to do it for your exam so Primrose went to the shop and she bought 4 biscuits and one sweets this cost her 124 the next day she went to shop again amble to Fisk and two sweeps this time it cost her 199 how much is you sweating biscuit cost now on the face of it this may look like a hard it made it look impossible question 4 what I've done is I've taken information texts I've written it down as two equations and I can solve it as a simple simultaneous equations question don't try and solve this I literally just made it up so I don't know where there are actual answers to this so please don't leave those comments about how I've done the equation wrong several inequalities can scare people because of this big in the quality here in the middle but you can just treat it exactly the same way as you can and equals so air cross 3 is greater than seventh meeting the 300d outside – and three gives us X is greater than 4 now we need to pop that on a number line so we can draw an open locals at four because open circle shows that it's greater than if it was greater than or equal to if it had this symbol we would do filled in circle but it's just greater than and then we are going to go this way now there are a few things you need to be aware or volure solving inequalities the sign does not change direction if you add or subtract numbers or if you divide by a positive value but sign will swap so from greater than to less than if you divided or multiplied by a negative value if you are given an empty sequence a n plus 4 you need to outline any sequence in this term so when n is 6 n plus 4 is going to equal 10 and when n is 100 it is going to equal 104 now slightly more complicated that is doing it reversed finding the nth term from a sequence the first thing you need to do is to work out the differences so between 1 & 5 is plus 4 between 5 & 9 it is plus 4 between 9 and 13 it is plus 4 telling us the first part is going to be 4 n now we can actually work out what 4 n is so if n would equal 1 4 n would equal 4 if n was 2 for second term 4 n would be 8 if n was 3 for n it would be 12 if n was for 4 n would be 16 now we can work out the difference between what the term would be if it was 4 n this is for n and then we're going to work out the difference so 4 minus 1 is 3 and 8 minus 5 is 3 12 minus 9 is 3 16 minus 13 is the ring and that gives us the second part which is minus 3 for n minus 3 your square numbers cube numbers and high numbers are going to come up a lot so is worth recognizing them least but preferably what I would like you to do is try and learn as many as you can for square numbers that is 1 2 13 15 and 20 so 1 2 13 15 and 20 they will speed things up if you keep pressing those those as many cubed numbers as you can and some of these triangular numbers as you can you can see over here that I've made you a video going through all of these you can flash cards are a great thing to do or even though this website and download the ready-made set of flashcards to speed things up foundation to students well done you have finished this section and you can go on to do another section or go on and test yourself with some past papers or go through the revision guide and work out which bits you need to work on which bits you okay on high OC students I'm afraid we still have quite a lot left to do third in fractions in things sometimes freaks people out there's no reason why it should do that you can either work with the fractions as they are and simplify it or you can get rid of fractions and you just need to get rid of fractions here is two times everything by 4 so 1/2 times 4 is going to give us 2x 3/4 times 4 is going to give a story and then 1/4 times 4 is going to give us 1 now isn't easy one to solve you could just leave them as they are and filled it like that so we are going to have 1/2 x equals 1/4 most 3/4 that's minus 1/2 so X is going to equal minus 1 let's just check the other side moving 3 over we're going to get 2x equals minus 2 so x equals minus 1 slightly more complicated quadratic to factorize now still them starting the same weight by drawing down our double brackets 2x has to go in one of these because the only thing that times is to make 2 is 1 and 2 so 1 and 1/2 1 1 I'm happy to if it was 4x it was slightly more complicated because it can be 2x and 2x or it could be 4 x + 1 X now remember we need to have things multiply to make this and add to make this one so things that most try to make 6 are 3 & 2 1 & 6 but your notice is minus 6 so that is a bit more complicated so it could be minus 3 and plus 2 or it could be plus 3 and minus 2 so minus 1 and plus 6 or plus 1 and minus 6 but because we also have to be 2 in front there we don't know which way round they go and this time it does matter so it could be minus 2 and plus 3 or it could be plus 2 and minus 3 or it could be minus 6 and plus 1 or it could be plus 6 and minus 1 so we actually have quite a lot of combinations to go through here now we need it somehow in combination with 2 to add to make 6 and then looking at this initially if it wasn't a certainly more complicated quadratic you would initially assume it's this one because these ones easily combined to give +1 but we have taken into account that one of these numbers is going to be multiplied by 2 so you need to little bit trial and error you need to do a little bit thinking and without thinking even if one of these numbers was x by 2 there was no way we can make it add to make one so we can discount all of those problems who's at the beginning now what you need to do is to put a few things in and try and work it out now we know one of these has to be x by 2 however if we x is 3 by 2 that's going to give us 6 and there's nothing we can do to 6 & 2 to make it equal plus 1 if we times a 2 by 2 that gives us 4 4 & 3 we can combine to give us plus 1 so from that we can assume that it has to be the two that is x by 2 and the 3 that isn't x by 2 now we just need to work out where our pluses and our – is go and we need to come up with +1 so they don't have had plus two times by two giving us plus four minus three and these can seem quite complicated if you go through and do every single possibility by trial and error that will take quite a long time these you just sit think and try and apply a bit of logic before you start with trial and error that should narrow down the number of things that you have to try a directories can seem complicated but in adjust and the application of logic and algebra together there are a few short hands that you need to know to make your life easier if you need to have an even number it is 2n because even if n is odd number say three times by two six that is an even number if you want something that is an odd number you can do to n minus one with an even number minus one or plus 1 is going to be an odd number if you have consecutive numbers you can have n n plus 1 and n plus 2 and if you need to produce something is a multiple of something else what you need to be thinking about is factorizing so if you need to create something is multiple of six then you can take whatever it is and as long as you can divide six out of it then you proved is a multiple of six inverse functions may seem complicated but they're not you need to do take your function and then think about what you've done do it backwards and do the opposite so with three X plus two you would times by three and then add two if we want to find the inverse function of this you would need to do it backwards so you would need to do the opposite but going backwards so instead of adding two last we would – two first and then instead of x in by three first we would divide by three last so what we are going to get is X minus two over three constant functions are combining two functions at once and what you need to do is look at the one that is closest so we need to do G to X first and then once we've got our answer we need to put it back into F so if we put G if we put X into G we are going to come up with two x plus one so then we need to put that into F in place of X so we're going to get three and so writing X I'm gonna write my answer from G which is two x plus one plus two now we need to multiply out the brackets so three X 3 times 2x gives us 6x plus 3 plus 2 so 6x plus 5 if a and B are perpendicular lines on the graph then the gradient of a and the gradient of B together are going to equal minus 1 for example if a gradient of a was 1/2 and we knew that if they were perpendicular they would have to equal minus 1 so we're trying to find the gradient of the what we would need to do is to rearrange the equation see B equals minus 1 over 1/2 so it's going to give us minus 2 the turning points on a graph is the bits down here where the gradient changes now you need to rearrange your quadratic equation so it looks like this and as a formula then we can say the X plus a squared minus B equals 0 and note even I've used a and a and B and B here these do not necessarily mean these are the same values and once you've got that you can just rearrange it to find what X going to be and once you have X you can then find y the graph of y equal to 2x will look like this the graph of y it was half to the X would look like this both of these passing at one you need to recognize the sine cos and tan graph so your Stine graph is going to start at 0 it's going to get up peak at 90 back through 0 at 180 down 2-1 at 270 again through 0 at 360 peaking at 1 at 450 and then back down to 0 at sli's 40 your cost graph looks very similar it is shifted over slightly so at 0 we're going to be at 1 and then going through 9 to go to 0 at 90 down to minus 1 at 180 back up to 0 at 271 it's 360 0 at 450 and then minus 1 at 540 your tan graph does look quite differently so starting at 1 we go up and then we go just past 90 ever so slightly just past 90 we're back down again 0 at 180 and then these are going to touch either side of the 270 and 450 lines this is just combining things that we know about functions and things that we know about graph so instead of just looking at the function as algebra if we sketch it graphically you should be able to sketch both of these graphs x-squared + GX equals 4x minus 5 and then think about the things that you're used to doing to graph so making them wider make them narrower for quadratic graphs moving them up down left or right so this isn't anything new here this is just combining two slightly different things to in one question sometimes in maths they need you to be very accurate and specific and sometimes they will need to estimate an answer so if you want to work out the gradient of graph because it's telling us something like in this instance the gradient of a velocity time graph is the acceleration if you want it to be exact and we have a straight line we can look at a change in velocity over change in time however here we don't have a straight line we have a curved line so if we just want an estimate say over the first minutes we can just look at the points where it ended up where it started and used those points assuming it is a straight line to then work out the change of velocity changing times work out the acceleration this will not give you an exact answer such questions as calculate this not what we do this is what you do is the question is asking for an average or if the question is asking for an estimate to work out the distance travelled from a velocity time graph we need to work out the area under graph now the best way to do this is to divide this up into sections like this this section a b c and d now oops another section there sneaky look for that being – and every time you see a change in velocity or changing the graph put in another section now to work out the area of a is just the area of a triangle areas B is the area of a rectangle B – you'll notice we have a rectangle here with a triangle sitting on top of it every C is just a rectangle whereas with D again we have a rectangle with the triangle sitting on top of it then add those together and you have the distance travelled from a distance time graph working out the distance traveled is just going to be reading off axis here working out the speed is going to be distance divided by the time so it might just ask you for section or it might ask you for the whole work thing from a velocity time graph if you want to work out a different phase area under the graph the speed you are just reading off here the only difference between speed and velocity is the velocity has a direction when it's combined quite a lot to find the creator of tangent from the equation circle first thing that we know is that the tangent is perpendicular radius so if you're trying to braiding at the radius by the gradient of tangent we should get minus 1 to find the gradient of the radius you can just turn it into a right angle triangle workout up which is the wide point once workcenter divided by the across exponent takes center that give you the gradient pop it back into this equation make it equals minus 1 and from that she's worked out the gradient of the tangent you can then use the equation Wyatt – and the work will network we have from our point it was a gradient which was just worked out here times X minus the x-coordinate that we have from our point to find the equation of a tangent if we're solving for exact equations by completing the square we are forcing our quadratic equation into something that looks like this now if we think back to multiplying out brackets this number here times this number here is going to come up with our X so that is going to tell us what this value here has to be so for this we only need one brackets and if we are going to get something plus something which is gonna be the same thing equaling 6 X it has to be x + 3 squared inside the brackets now what we can do is multiply out x + 3 so it's going to give us x squared + 6 X + 9 you can see we don't actually want plus 9 here we want plus 7 so to get from plus 9 plus 7 we – 2 so our answer is going to be x + 3 squared – – if you're going to solve an equation using iteration this is just slightly more sophisticated method than try an error so you'll generally give an equation you generally given and a clue as to webstart or you're told that your solution lies between two values and you need to be vertical you need to be inaudible you need to explain what you're doing at any examiner's otherwise I'll get lost so start with the values that they give you work out and what the answer is going to be in here and then write whether it is too big too small with your close and then maybe go up in licks bits you might have to make a big jump you might have to make a teeny teeny tiny jump but it's all about making small jumps commenting little small jumps letting the example know your logic so that you can work out what the answer the closest answer you can get is going to be solving linear inequalities using a graph is very similar to solving equations using graph in to the sexual point you're going to have a whole area that fulfills your results so here is my inequality and you need to work out which area of the graph is going to fill your result what you might get is a second line on there as well and you'll be looking for the areas that overlap so say this area and this area so this area here would still the answer for both inequalities the last bit here for high-tech algebra quadratic and sequences so very similar to our previous sequences first thing we need to do somewhere count difference there we had 1344 minus 25 is 1969 minus 44 is 25 100 minus 69 is 31 they are not the same like you would expect in a non quadratic and term so we need to work out the differences again 19 minus 10 is 625 minus 19 is 6 31 minus 25 is 6 so we've had to go down to layers that tells us is N squared the difference between these is 6 because N squared we need to divide that by 2 so that gives us the we and squared now we need to work out what 3 and where'd is if n was 1 2 3 4 5 I said 1 squared times 3 is 3 2 squared is 4 times 3 is 12 3 squared is 9 times 3 gives us 27 4 3 16 times 3 gives us 48 5 squared is 25 times 3 gives us 75 and then we need to work out what the original value minus 3 and is and we shift that up there is give it so original minus 3n squared gives us so 12 2 3 3 is 9 25 to a 12 13 44 takeaway 27 is 1769 minus 44 is 21 and 100 minus 75 is 25 now we can do the same work out the differences between them so 13 minus 9 is 4 17 minus 13 is 421 were 17 is 425 most 21 is 4 so that will give us plus 4n now we need to work out what 3n squared plus 4n is which will give us values of 720 39 64 and 95 and what we need to do is original minus 3m squared plus 4n and for every single one of those three a difference of 5 so this tells us our total term is 3x squared plus 4n plus 5 to get from seconds to minutes there are 60 seconds in a minute so you need to divide that by 60 to get from minutes into hours there are 60 minutes in an hour so you need to divide that by 60 to go the other way to go from hours into minutes you need times by 60 and then minutes into seconds times by 60 grams into kilograms you need to divide by a thousand kilograms into tons divided by a thousand tons into kilograms times by a thousand kilograms into grams times by a thousand now meters second into kilometers per hour is least bit tricky we need to do several steps the first step is times by 60 the second step is times by 60 and then the final step divided by a thousand and then in reverse and we want to be from kilometers per hour to meters per second it is times by thousand divided by 60 divided by 60 and if you want to go from pence into pounds there are a hundred pence in the pound so we need to divide by a hundred to go the other way we need to times 500 and it is the same for prices one gram per centimeter cubed is equal to a thousand kilograms per meters cubed so slightly different here when inter times at five thousand and then going the other way we need to divide by a thousand there are barrels and Pascal's in kilopascal so to get from Pascal's to kilo Pascal's and meters help the other one was unusual needed divided by thousand and this one we need two times five thousand to go from centimeters into meters there are hundred centimeters in a meter so we need to divide that by a hundred again other way winning two times by a hundred now as we gave two from length two areas of volume it gets a bit more complicated because in one methyl we have a hundred centimeters one meter a hundred centimeters one meter 100 centimeters so one meter squared is not equal or is not the same I was thinking about though from centimeters to meters because we have a hundred times 100 which is 10,000 centimeters squared so to go from centimeter squared into meters squared we need to divide by 10,000 meter squared in centimeter squared is x by 10,000 we can think about cubed in the same way because one meter cube is one meter by one meter by one meter so one meter is 100 centimeters one meter 100 centimeters one meter 100 centimeters so one meter cubed is going to have one two three four five six zeros after it one two three four five six centimetres cubed after it so this is a bit more complicated going from centimeters cubed into meters cubed we need to divide by 10 Liam three four five six so I'm going the other way times two three four five six to be able to use scale factors scale diagrams and maps you're going to need to get your ruler out so please remember to take it into the exam with you and you're going to need to I measure really actually I'm talking millimeter measuring here and for every for example one thing to me to measure on the map that could be three point seven set kilometers in real life so you just take whatever you can measure on the map on the exam paper and times that by the scale factor given to you in the exam ratios can come up in a lot of different ways one of the ways in come up is in particularly worthy questions where it doesn't necessarily look like a huge question but you have to work out and you have to take the rule of context and then spreche the relationship as a ratio so a party there are men and there are women there are eight men for every six women if there are 24 women how many men are there now you'll notice what ever since out I've left a big gap in the middle here that is because I'm going to put one in here and this is how I'm going to work out my ratio so what you'll have to do six to get down to one I have to divide that by six so I have to do the same to the other side divide that by six which in to give me at four over three now I need to get from one to twenty four to get from one spoonful and these times that by 24 so this is same as the other side times by 24 so four over three times 24 equals 32 I know it's different ways you can do this and you can see this one has included a fraction you can also be asked to work out parts these need to work out the total number of parts in this case which would just be 8 plus 6 percentages can come up on the calculator or the Hmong calculator paper so it's worth knowing a couple of ways to work them out online how to enter paper you can work them out by using a blocks or tens fives and ones so 10 percent of 824 will be eighty two point four five percent will be half of that which would be forty one at point two and then one percent of that will be eight point two four and using correlations of ten fives and ones you can generally make any number that you like so in your calculator paper you need is trying to 32 percent of it or you can do is take 32 divided by 100 come up with a number in this type into calculator which is 0.32 multiply that by 824 and you can get your answer like that interest is just another way or another word for working out percentages so if you leave your money in your bank the bank will pay you interest on it unfortunately not very much interested moment it's going to be these three percent interest or 800 people counts how much would you get after year if we have questions or equations using direct or inverse proportionality for direct proportionality we can say that X is equal to Y but we need to put a constant in there which is generally K and you can take any values that are given to you the question plug that in find the value of K and then further use value okay and any other questions for things lit inversely proportionate we can say that X is equal to K over Y again pop any values in work out the value of K and then you can go on to use that value of K to finish of the question when things are directly proportional you are going to get a nice straight line graph when things are inversely proportional you are going to get a curved graph when you have a graph the gradient or graph is going to tell you to show you how quickly how things are changing or the way to change the example I use here is distance time graph and speed the rate of change is going to be distance divided by time so our gradient is going to be the changing up divided by the change in a cross there are two ways you can work out interest the long slow and methodical way or you can remember the equation so the long slow methodical way is to work out each year by year by year so if we start with 795 pounds at 3.5% compound interest and at the end of year one that they are going to have a 795 pounds plus the interest which is acute which is going to be twenty seven point eight two five which is three point five percent of 795 smokes going to equal eight hundred and twenty two eight two five in total that is the number you then use for the start of next year work out three point five percent of eight hundred twenty two which is going to be twenty eight seven at nine and this real number star getting quite a long so you need to round them or you install them in your memories calculator but don't around them too short otherwise you're going to get a rounding error and what you're going to end up in you having the wrong answer for either white your entire number down from the calculator or store it in that your limb ill calculator memory so after three years we're going to have eight hundred and eighty-one pounds and forty three pens now the equation that you can remember for this is the final amount is you could pay open brackets one plus r/100 close brackets to power of n where P is the amount that you start with r is interest rayon n is the number of times you've acute interest which generally is going to be a year by year so popping that in here we will see that I'll start around with 795 one plus three point five over hundred ^ 3 gives us really really nicely the same answer one ways quicker but you have some remember the formula the other ways slower and is more likely to make mistakes because you have to write down a phone number and if you do it the way that these demonstrate want you to do it and someone if they want use formula you get a year-by-year you might lose your marking your working marks so this is a tricky one you need to be careful of if you're doing and foundation take you have now finished this unit you can even on to the other units and check what you do don't know in the revision guide or you can go and track the exam papers hiatus students don't worry we don't have too much left to do you need to have to use a tangent to find the gradient at point on a line because in real life it is very rare that we actually get straight line graphs so here we have our curve line and we want to find the gradient the rate of change at this point here so what you need to do is you need to get your ruler and you need to draw a straight line exactly at that point you will see that this line here is not the gradient for any other point on this line and then from this straight line that you have done you can then use that to work out the gradient of the line when you're working out the gradient of a line bigger triangles the better and we need to do changing up by changing across for iteration we are looking for the closest approximate solution so generally if I give you an equation that you can't solve by any other method and tell you that the value of employing this case X is between 7 & 8 so those images don't have a nice neat table see making everything to examine exactly what you're doing start by popping X is 7 there start walking X is a in there so you're working to work out what it actually is and then make a comment whether it is too big too small and then try intermediate numbers if you're really really close only go up a little bit if you're very very far away go up a big bit if you're not sure we'll try a number in the middle and there is a little bit of luck involved in this because depending on where you start and which path you go you may get to the solution quickly or it may take you a little time to get to a solution some nice definition starts off here point is going to be the point also shape where two lines meet a line is going to be thin connecting two points though sees that is going to be the point or on a lip diversity is going to be the point of steepest angle an edge again is along here and then the plane is going to be a flat surface that goes in all directions here we have some parallel lines here we have some perpendicular lines and a right angle can be indicated if we just draw a little box in the corner there parallel lines can be shown by little arrows going like this and if we look at our equation for a straight line parallel lines going to have the same gradient so M is going to be the same on both of them for a regular polygon we're going to have all citing same and all angles being the same and if n is our number of sides we can find the sum of the interior angles but in n minus 2 times 180 this applies whether it is a square or regular pentagon like your hexagon with a hexagon octagon dongola etc etc when we reflect something we can flip it or reflect it across a line creating a mirror image rotational symmetry is when something looks the same as it did at the beginning after you turn it round little bit if you want to draw a perpendicular bisector of a line you need to even if I'm pushing it to open a compass really wide and we're going to start by putting a point of our compass on a over here and what you need to do is draw a big circle so a big arc that goes around like this switch your compass points is over on B again draw a big arc from B and then this point and this point here all the points that are important you need to join these two up with a pencil and a ruler a sharp pencil a ruler on a compass obviously I know I'm not doing that but you need to do that in your exam and then this line here is going to be your perpendicular bisector for lesser problems you may be given a scale that you have to use so you're going to need to set your compass and your ruler to that scale or you may not be given one what you're generally going to be asked to do is to draw a circle around point a with a compass not roughly like I'm doing and then a circle around point B again with a compass not like I'm doing and see where those two intersects but the really really important thing here is accuracy with compasses accuracy with rulers so if your window at the moment is covering tip X is broken the markings will come off it please please please go and spend 58 pounds getting yourself a decent clear ruler or if you can't do that don't talk to your head a year or your form tutor or your math or science teacher and they will generally be able to help you if we have angles that all meet at point A plus B plus C plus D are going to equal 360 if they are on a straight line a plus B is going to equal 180 if we have vertically opposite angles they are equal when we have parallel lines are corresponding angles are equal don't forget this is also going to have alternate angles and they are also going to equal and it is going to have alternate angles now the example does not like you calling these red angles but they are also going to be equal so if we could use the terms corresponding angles and parallel lines alternate angles and parallel lines vertically opposite angles and just don't call them by a local terms like their angles and all the angles inside a triangle add up to 180 degrees a square is a regular quadrilateral is going to have equal sides it's going to equal angles these are 90 degrees these are right angles and it's area you see two thousand multiplied so that's going to be x squared for this primitive for X and then for Dragon ones can be x times square root K a rectangle is going to have two sets of equal size this is going to equal and these are going to be equal but the angles inside are going to equal again they're going to be right angles it's area is one side times the Associated length times width parameter is 2x plus 2y a parallelogram is legislative skew with triangle or rectangle for the parameter means group will go around the edge stays 2x plus 2y for the area we need the base times the height is going to have a two sets of lines that are the same the opposite angles are going to be equal and angles a and endless be going to add up to 180 for a trapezium we're going to have four random sides with for the perimeter it's even speed let's see this disco ball there on the edge that area is half the top of the bottom times the height and then the top and the bottom I'm just going to be parallel for a kite we're going to have two sets of lines that are the same so our perimeter is going to be 2x plus 2y our area is going to be half a plus B sorts of height times the width and we're going to have one set of angles that are the same for a rhombus you're gonna have all sides being same to the perimeter equals 4x the area is going to be half a times B and opposite angles are going to be the same if you want to prove that two triangles are the same you need three pieces of evidence and there are 4 different ways you can get three piece of evidence side side side side angle side angle side or right angle hypotenuse side so these two triangles is another drawn in different orientations have three sides that are the same so they are the same for side angle side the angle has to be the angle in between two sides so here we go side angle side side angle side they are the same here we have two triangles that have two identical angles and a side of same cities are the same our last two triangles both have a right angle they both have same hypotenuse and one of the other sides is the same for an equilateral triangle we are going to have all sides and all angles being the same for our sausage triangles we are going to have two sides being the same and then the angles at the base are going to be the same if you want to rotate to shape the examiners may even tell you what to do or they may have a rotate the shape and also you watch D you need to give the degree that it's rotated by the direction it's rotated by and where it's rotated about so you're going to rotate the shape 90 degrees clockwise about 0 0 and the first thing you need to do is find the first point which for me is this point here rotate it 90 degrees and then all the other points will follow on from that if we're going to reflect the shapes that will generally give you an align to reflect it in work out how far away your first point is from the line and that will give you your second point that will give you where your first point easier slow the line all your other points can reflect on a from that if you were given a translation today it may come as a vector so hearing is translate by 3/4 that means every single point has to move three crossing X and then four up in Y so we are going to end up with our shape up here somewhere if we are going to enlarge a shape you need to know the centre of enlargement your lines from the centre of enlargement through each of your corners and then work out this from your Center to your first corner mm since I say enlargement is two and then that will be where the corner ends up and then your shape draw and slightly better than mine will end up the larger and further away from your central larger ones here is the center of our circle the radius goes from the center to the edge a chord is a line that touches both edges a diameter goes through the middle and touches both edges circumference is distance all the way around a tangent is a straight line that touches the circumference and arc is part of a circumference executive is like a pie shaped wedge of a circle and the segment is cutting a bit off of it when we are talking about cubes or cuboids you need to know the places the edges the surfaces and the vertices for a cube it is going to be identical on all edges which means all six spaces are going to be identical all twelve edges really identical is going to have eight vertices if we have an edge which is of length x the volume is going to be X cube is base times height times width and the surface area is going to be six because there are going to be one two three and three behind six faces times x squared okay way slightly different because each of the faces are not identical prisms and cylinders can be sort of of 3d versions of shapes that we are very familiar with in 2d if you want to work out surface area these sometimes it helps to think of these as flattened out shapes and then it becomes a lot less intimidating because working out the surface area of a cylinder can seem intimidating but if you break it down into a circle and a large rectangle well that's no problem at all and to work out volume we need to do surface area times the height for pyramids cones and spheres the best thing you can do in the exam is to slow down and think logically about things how many phases can you see on the pyramid and then don't forget about the ones behind the frames of the cone and the sphere turning a 3d shape into a 2d shape or 2d shape into a 3d shape can be incredibly incredibly hard to do this is a really really tricky skill I probably didn't want you to either draw three ovations so maybe top side in front or they're going to give you three and ask you to draw the 3d shape this can be an incredibly hard skill if you are not sure about it if you are having trouble visualizing things in 3d or if you're just not sure about how things are supposed to look the best thing I can suggest you to do is to use what you have on your pencil case and stuff that you're allowed to have in your pencil case like your sharpener and your rubber and try and use those to maybe try and construct some kind of 3d shape that looks similar but this is this is a mental skill that you have to do in your head it's correlated if you are not used to it and the best thing you can do is practice with this one for a maps scale conversions bearings is really important that your pencil case is up to date so I'm talking a clear ruler that you can use that has the divisions on it not one that's covering tip X was broken the same with a protractor and same with a compass so what they could ask you to do is give you point A and point B ask you to measure the distance between them and they want centimeters it's three point five kilometers turn that into a conversion they might also ask you what the bearing is so how far around it goes from north for that you're going to need your protractor you need to know and use all these formula now they start off by saying you needed to know all of them now they said that some of them they will give you in the exam so here are the ones that you need to know volume of a cuboid that is length times width times height for volume or prism they're the area of the cross section times the length Pythagoras a squared plus B squared equals C squared trigonometry when it's fine those are opposites over hypotenuse the area of a triangle that is half base times height the area of the trapezium that is half a plus B which is double comments' times the height of the programs in the circle when you have a radius 2 times pi times radius the area of a circle that is pi times the radius squared sub C I'm giving it away and giving it like the area of a rectangle length times width the area of a parallelogram is worth that base times height the volume of a cylinder that is pi times the radius squared times the height circumference the circle when you have the diameter that is pi times diameter trigonometry when it's tan that is opposite over adjacent trigonometry when it's cos that is adjacent over hypotenuse speed is equal to distance over time density is equal to mass over volume and pressure is equal to force over area to help you with this if you want to save it time you can download all those flashcards from my website to work out the length of an arc what you need to do is to work out the circumference and times that by the ratio what I mean by that is this conference call thing so 2 PI R the whole thing is 360 how many degrees round was the circumference so 2 PI R times n over 360 to work out the sector area is very similar you need to find the area of the total circle and then you need to times that by Bill ratio so area of total circle is going to be PI R squared if this is n degrees or realms there is going to be PI R squared times n o 360 remember all the way around in a circle is 360 halfway around is 180 when we have similar shapes the corresponding sides are going to be in the same ratio as each other and the corresponding angles are going to be equal for right angle triangles you need to be thinking Pythagoras and you need to be thinking trigonometry so for right angle triangle we have a and we have B we can write as C by using the formula or if we can work out one of the other sides or an angle now the really important thing here is labeling your angles if we have angle the one opposite living aside so an opposite is opposite one next to it is the adjacent and this is the formulas here I'm sure there are loads and loads of brilliant ways mnemonics that you have remembering those so please please please share them down in the comments to help other people I strongly recommend you spend some time learning these values they can come up in lots of different ways to help you I'm going to show you the video or you can save it time and get flashcards for my website so sine of 0 is 0 cos of 0 is 1 tan of 0 is 0 sine of 30 is 1/2 cos of 30 is square root of 3 over 2 tan of 30 is 1 over square root 3 sine 45 is 1 over square root of 2 cos 45 is 1 every square root of 2 tan of 45 is 1 sine 60 is square root of 3 over 2 cos of 60 is a half tan of 60 is square root 3 sine of 90 is 1 cos of 90 is 0 and tan of 90 you don't need to know when we are talking about vexes it is excellent op and Y on the bottom so if you want to apply translation it is a movement in X and then the movement in Y if we want to add subtract or multiply them it's just like doing normal mass just slings on top of each other so if we want to add vectors a and B first of all we look at the top line so 1 plus 3 is going to give us 4 then we look at the bottom 2 plus 4 is going to give us 6 subtracting them is the same so 1 minus 3 is going to give us minus 2 and then 2 minus 4 is going to give us minus 2 multiplying them works in the same way 2 times 1 is 2 2 times 2 is 4 if you're doing foundation tear well done you have finished you can move on to the next section you can try some questions or you can try some past papers to help you apply what you've learned when we are realizing my negative scale factors it is very similar to enlarging but positive ones you just need to go in the opposite direction so again you need to draw your lines from your corners about your center of enlargements and then here if this is one away in this direction we were lodging it by -2 so we need to go the other direction in minus 2 so that will go there and then all the other ones will follow on like at a combination of rotations reflections and translations is going to be tricky but Salah swings through logically in of the exam take things carefully look at what has happened to it and describe absolutely everything that's happened don't skip any steps circle theorems can see nasty by each need to read levels an angle at the center is going to twice the angle at the circumference angles that are in the same segment are equal the angle in a sensor who is a right angle opposite angles in a circle quadrilateral add up to 180 degrees a call can be bisected by a perpendicular line from the center the angle between tangent and the radius is 90 degrees to tangents that come from the same point are equal and alternate segments clearly tells us that this angle and this angle will be equal and this angle and this angle are going to be equal here are the last three rules that you need to learn and be able to apply so we have the sine rule with the cosine rule and the rule for working out the area of my angle triangle so for this final you need an angle or two sets of angles and corresponding sides for cosine rule you need an angle and then three sides and you can find where the size or the angle and the error is an on right angle triangle you need an angle and then two sides in an exam you won't be given a set of raw data and from this you might be expected to draw a graph you might be expected to do some maths work out the mean median or the mode you might be expected to draw slightly more complicated gravity to draw box plots and this video is going to cover all of those skills patience tables are one way of interpreting information and if you're given a raw piece of information you may be asked to put it into the table so here's always me to the top even number odd number and you start off by setting this in italia so one when i'm not two three five five seven nine eleven eleven eleven twelve thirteen eighteen bar charts are another way of doing things and what you need to be really careful with bar charts is unity is a pencil and a ruler you need to have your balls neatly you need to have titles you need to have units you need to have a key part out I touch more complicated to construct because we need for everything into 360 degrees so here we have everything out of a hundred we need to work out what each degree is going to be worth ministry 360 divided by a hundred that gives us each is worth three point six where they need to take 50 percent or three times that's 50 times three point six is going to give us 180 degrees for strawberry ten times three point six is going to give us 36 degrees the chocolates 14 times three point six is going to give us 144 degrees for both of them you need to draw a circle please Le'Veon a circle not by hydral then measure 180 degrees and remember label things it is really important that you label your sections pictograms can be used something similar so say we were using strawberry chocolate or both again and we had a key with one triangle equals 10% strawberry at 50% would get five triangles chocolate at 10% would only get one and then both at 40% would get full triangles for this one they might ask you to fill in a missing section or to work out the key or to work out the total usually to use logic and the information that you have been given with line charts again for your axis you need to have title units and you need to have a key and the inch point mark on with a neat little cross with a sharp pencil where you want it to be if you are going to be comparing two sets of eight or graph it helps have line through them so we could have this ylim this could be time fiscally velocity and we can pair the acceleration by little at the gradients of two of these or it could be a distribution graph and we can compare the distribution based on where the peak of the graph would be to calculate the median it is the middle number so if we look our numbers work it won't have to be in order for this work in from outside we can see the median is nine the mode is the most common at number and for that you can see eleven turns up three times the mean is the values added together and then divided by the number of values so if I add all the values up let 128 there are 15 values 15 divided by 128 is 8.53 reoccurring the range is the highest number which is 19 minus 1 which gives us 18 the radial class is worked out from a table and it is the class with the most common numbering so in this case it will be this one here for above 10 there are five types of gas graphs you need to be familiar with the first one over here is showing no correlation then because all the points are tightly packed we have a strong positive correlation here the points aren't very tightly packed so we have a weak positive correlation here again that the points are tightly packed but they are going down so there's a strong negative correlation and then here we have a weak negative correlation now using a pencil and a ruler you can draw a line of best fit through these things please use pencil and ruler not like this and you draw a line of best fit for these things and fond of the lines that you've drawn on your grass you can extrapolate these lines forward into the future and make predictions about what is going to happen just so well out there and I can edit out there's a very particular way the histograms need to be drawn your groups need to be your x axis so everything along here say this was one this would need to go along here like this and they do not have to be the same size so here this second one is larger than the first one and again the third one is larger than the first and second one the frequency is the number of things that go in that group and then the y axis is a frequency a team that needs to go up the side here knows the first thing that you need to calculate the frequency density and that's calculated by frequency divided by class width I really like box lots and a good tip for the exam is to sketch one out quickly write the numbers in once you work the numbers out and then draw it properly on to the grid that I give you so over here we have the lowest value over here we have the highest value the box ends at the lower quartile and the lower quartile is n plus 1 and n being the number of values divided by 4 the median is 2 n plus 1 divided by 4 and the upper quartile is 3 n plus 1 divided by 4 the interquartile range is here and that's just that upper quartile minus the lower quartile I definitely recommend you sketch out size before you draw it out neatly on the exam paper I can describe the probability of an ailment from a table or a tray so here on table I have some results and I've got the number of times that each of these results occurred to find out the permeability of any particular results occurring you need the number of times that be the number of times it occurred over a total so here the total is 100 if I want to find the probability this three occurring about B 19 over 100 a 5 would be 27 over 100 and so on and you can use tree in a similar of the same way looking at the number of times inviting it by the total number of times it could have possibly happened I can determine if your event is fair random or equally unlikely so an exam question there might say something like a fair diet is thrown this way you can assume that each event is equally likely or if it's a way to die they should tell you how is weighted alternatively they might expect you to be able to work it out from a table now if you've got a very low number of total times we can say that's a low-end number it's going to be very hard for you to tell but if you have the more results you have some more times the dice or whatever's been thrown we say there is a high n number and it's much more likely to even out so these numbers here if we threw this dice or spinner or counter and a thousand times would be much more likely to eat them out if it was a fair spin up if it was a weighted one then that the weighted would show up more often the more times it was thrown I can give value out of one for the probability of an event so if you go back to our first such data the probability of getting a five is twenty seven over 100 we can write that as a fraction or we can write it as a decimal so not print to seven and that is a value out of a hundred to give the probability of an event now all probabilities equal one because when you throw a dice you are going to get a number doesn't matter if they're divers and even divers a weighted dice or whether it's a six dice if you throw the dice you are going to get a number so all probabilities will add up to one you might be asked an exam to combine set the probability so say we had a dice and a coin and you'd have to work out all the different combinations so for this you'd need to draw a table so your dice your coins your die fat obviously have one two three four five six and different ways of landing one two three four five six your coin would have two different ways of landing so heads or tails and then we have a total over twelve possibilities so that you can work out the individual probability of anything so the chance of getting a four and a head is going to the one out of twelve Venn diagrams can look scary but they are not that bad you just need to get used to the way of naming things so here in our little curly brackets is a set of data and I'm going to call that set a and element not the chemistry elements I'm afraid is part of the set so we can say that four is part of set a the number of elements is going to be the N number so we can have n of a and in this case N equals six because that's the number that I've gone up to each part of the set is a member so we can say that six is a member of a and then all items in the set are everything so we use this symbol here to say everything in the set now when we have our Venn diagram we might be combining two sets of data so here a set of data a and here is set of data B and if we want something that is in both sets of data so in a and B we can use this in the mixture a and B if we want something a B that is in either A or B we go A or B and then if we want something that isn't in our set of data here is a he was everything else he is everything that is called a everything else so the bit outside our diagram is a everything else the new month sure here you can make these a bit nasty but it's still just proviously still treat it like any other probability and you will be fine whenever you see a word question probability try drawing a trait so here we have two dice being thrown so first ice second eye and I want to know prohibiting an odd number or an even number so odd even odd even odd even now we know that there were going to be six total possibilities one two three four five and six and that odd is going to be 1 3 or 5 so it is 3 over 6 or 1/2 and even t46 is only 3 over 6 or 1/2 link put these on half half half half half half now with these would air the you see a probability question what I want you to do is decide which path you're going to follow and then highlight the party were going to follow so here I will be getting too old and here I'm going to get into evens rolling a dice twice and the kit results are both going to emit dependent events so if we want to combine these we look along our highlighted pass here and see we've got half and half so we have odds write it down here 1/2 and 1/2 and and can be replaced with times so this is 1/2 times 1/2 and then we do the same for even so is it 1/2 and 1/2 giving us each M has a probability of 1/4 now if we want you to find out what our talents are getting odd and odd or even and even we would then need to add these numbers again giving us a half so and is times odd if class or is plus 9 days time or is Plus in a bag we have 4 red balls 1 2 3 4 and we have 2 blue balls after ball is taken is not placed well chances you pick two balls of the same color so again we're going to draw a tree to work this out this is your first pick here is your second pick and we're going to go red blue red blue red blue now the important air bit information here is that they are not replaced so when you take that into account when we are drawing our probability tree so the first and they probably put on that red is going to be for a total of 6 balls Baloo is going to be 2 out of a total of 6 balls after we have taken a ball out the total is reduced by 1 so the total is now 5 balls in there so all of these are going to be over 5 and this is the bit that people sometimes need so if I take your red ball out first of all there are now only three red balls but there is still two blue balls if I take a blue ball were out first of all there's only one blue ball left but there are still four red balls left going back we're going to answer the question now what are the chances you pick two balls the same color so reasoning to pick red and red or we can click blue and blue because your probability of picking your second ball is affected by what you picked in the first round this is a sector of dependent events so radioman red is going to be 4 over 6 and which is times 3 over 5 and then blue is going to be 2 over 6 and 1 over 5 our probability of picking red and then red is 205 our progress we picking blue and then blue is 115 if we add those two together we will get a total bill to picking red and red or blue and blue of seven over 15 the next section is variety students only so if you're doing foundation teach and now going to look at some of practice papers go back and check through your vision guide make sure you understood everything going to find some individual videos that you didn't understand or go and watch the next whole topic video conditional probability is going to be combining probability and algebra algebra links in all over the place so maybe we had two events event a and event B and we knew the probability of event a which is one like that equals say not point three but we don't know what the probability of event B is we want to find out the probability of event a and event B so probability a and B what we do know is the conditional probability so a probability of isn't be happening given that a has already happened and we can write an equation to work this out so you can say the probability of event B given that's what that line means a have happened is equal to the probability of a and B divided by the probability of event a happening so nothing too complicated here and then sorry once you've done that you can just take the numbers that they gives you in the question pop them in there with small numbers here pop them in and then you can work out the answer so it's just a combination of algebra and poverty nothing too complicated but it might trip you up in the exam whatever making it Zn guys this is quite a long video but we're going to take a second and be really dick this is only a vision you have done on the animation you're planning on doing you're not going to be getting those top top grades it is completely unrealistic to expect two three years with teaching to be squashed down into roughly an hour you need to go and practice practice practice practice if you want to be getting those top grades I strongly strongly suggest you don't find a playlist for your example and look at all the example work through the great nine playlist the great seven playlist go and look at all of the questions and do as much practice as you can

Conflict Poetry Comparisons (English Literature)



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hello welcome to another tutorial video so in light of the request I've actually made a comparison list of the confer poems which ones can be compared to other ones now before I look at this at all and I did just go over all the poems it's probably the first time I've talked to them all like that in one go I reckon that you could compare anything with anything and still do very well still get a there's only two that don't fit in very well with everything else and that's flag and Hawk roosting I know flag isn't gonna be on there economy with a focal roosting will be the flag Tiffany isn't gonna be on the higher paper as the actual named question there's two others but I figured me they escaped me right now so we'll just look at all of them and then see see where we get to so every single poem is mentioned in here and I've got the general theme or idea that you know might been mentioned or why she comes across very strong and then the the link or the way it's actually linked and then we've got an alternative suggestion just so we kind of catch everything in now this is just one way of looking at you could make sixty of these lists and they'd all still be deadly accurate so don't if if if if the first thing you see that I've put hit isn't the first thing that came to you then don't worry about it you know whatever you know works for you you've got your smart points you've got your own your teachers notes you may have your revision guide whatever it gives you an instruction and you feel comfortable with that's what you've got to do you've got to write about what you feel confident about but it was asked for so these are the ones I think just kind of sink in with each other quite quite nicely so we start with them at the border and that's looking at people's lives when I thought it was really kind of good to compare it to out the blue because you know there's sustained events and there's the positive idea that these people are actually gonna get out of the of the situation and there's a negative connotation that he's not gonna get out of it but at the same time these people are quite deluded about the situation they're on thinking that everything's going to be better whereas this person is very accepting and real sorry realistic about his situation so you can actually mix and match and play play around with that and Poppy's is an interesting addition to this because it's also looking at people's lives looking at the life of the mother and how she deals with it and obviously the perspectives are different and the language and the tone are very different so there's a lot to compare contrast moving on into yellow palm well yellow palm really focuses on an anti-war message is probably the strongest thing we get throughout there and we get that from Mets word as well and both them have really negative connotations and also they've got the visitors experience in both so again there's a lot of things to actually compare and there's a lot of imagery in both as well so there's a lot to actually analyze and compare and link and we've got the other thing other comparison can I – that is the come on comeback where we've got this other person's experience it's being commented on again but this one's more absurd and this one actually takes it to an extent that's more similar to moments were than that is death at the end of it you know clearly mentioned whereas this one obviously it's alluded to but we don't actually see the dead and we know there's death but it's just nice not directly in front of us so yeah they're both obviously have the negative connotations and they're the antiwar we've got the bayonet charge next and that's focusing on a soldier's experience primarily and that can straightaway be compared to the charge of the Light Brigade and both of the negative actions in what they were actually in doing even though the outcome for one is slightly more positive than the other again that's a comparison point and we compare that to we can either two momenta looking at the soldiers experience and imagined it after they die as well it gives us a very interesting other angle so looking at the charge of the Light Brigade we can look at Patriots patriotism etc and flag was the one that actually come came came forward and the reason I picked that one because you've got the following of orders and then the ambiguity of of ideas and I thought they contrasted if you look through the video said every single one of those was very ambiguous and the reason I think that these actual compare is because they're both focusing on the patriotism although one is doing it a very ambiguous ambiguous Lee making you wonder what what it could mean whereas the other one that was unquestioning so you've got that similarity and contrast straightaway to actually delve into remember you're only going to talk about two maybe three four points in the whole thing in terms of your main ideas or your feelings themes that choose that you're actually going to and then you're going to really flesh out with the analysis of all the things that support and bring you to that and if you haven't already watched it please please have a look at the a-star Zed primer – I was already up moving on then to the falling leaves what's really focusing on death as is poppies and the tone of those two is very similar they're both the the writer's kind of backgrounds in that similar and they've got like the look from the outside and that can be Church excuse me compared with to the charge of the Light Brigade because that's also about death but it's in a much more heroic sense than the the soft consideration of death that we find in these two poems Belfast confetti that well again that's one of the harder ones to actually link to anything else but we look at the way people are treated so that allows us to compare at the border nineteen seventy nine and we've got this immediate reaction to how they're treated by police you know reading held up against the wall and ask questions and these ones is very slow but again it's still a degradation in both they're they're both been degraded but it's the pacing is very different and I compared them also to rightward because even though the poets only talking about the person turns out to be a child outside the main emphasis that we're getting is is that she's still judging that person therefore she's still treating them differently and she's still coming to erroneous conclusions about them moving on to come back we can look at the absurdity of war and we can compare that to futility because of the idea of the Sun recharging here and there's the whole poem being come on coming back it really helps us focus on the absurdity of war and how but the tone is very different in both ones come horses as a dirac or one's more you know just a very somber and we can also add the right word to that connection because the absurdity of what's going on there is that she thinks through all these ideas before she actually knows the truth and obviously the first one couldn't been further from the truth when we know the end result moving woman to flag full flag is very ambiguous as very philosophical ideas you know thinking about the nature of things and is a flag Nisour is a flag now as a fact this or as a flag man and that allows us to think about the right word as well thinking of others and how they how they are and how we judge them etc and the power of words so they were looking at the power of words and have an instan here we're looking at the power again of something but something different we're looking at the power of the flag itself and what represents and with that anyone a man or any object artifact should I say we move on then to the last one their futility so futility here is really focused on death and some extent absurdity and we can link that to the whole carousing because the thoughts on power there are very absurd as well and he brings death or wherever he goes and we can link that later on to come on come back which again deals with the absurdity and death so it's very fitting in that in that trilogy there so all these things that I've picked out like I said before they're not the only ways of doing it but you asked what some people asked for a video on it so how I was happy to oblige and yeah I hope that's useful and all the best of luck with the exam

Digestive System || How The Digestive System Works || By Dr. Vipan Goyal



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In this video Dr Vipan Goyal is discussing about the “Digestive System” and various organs participating in the process and their functions. which is very very important for all gov. exams…

Last Minute Revison Tips for GCSE English



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this week is brutal because I'm just in between your biology exam and your chemistry exam you have your first English exam so I've just a different video for last night chips with GCC science this is your last minute tips for GCSE e in lished now whites are so so important for this you need to know the quotes you need to know who said or did that particular thing and then you need to know the context the meaning behind it so you haven't got flashcards or posters or mind maps for your quotes that'd be a really really good thing for you today there are loads of flashcards already available people don't videos on these or if you don't slightly loads of app websites like quiz ladies good one there are going to be loads of quote flashcards up there already and waiting for you so that you don't have to make them if you don't want things to help you with English over own website I have teamed up with the amazing Stacey I'm sure you know her she has a fantastic YouTube channel and together we've written a couple of books basically she wrote it and then I after I'm did Ritchie formatting so don't worry about me writing English books because I didn't do that Stacey did it so we're definitely website we've got Romeo and Juliet and we for inspector calls and these are such fantastic works that she has written and we'll be really preparing you in-depth character analysis seems all your quotes are in there and they're really really gonna help you pay for your English exams um I know there's gonna be a lot of I to go in the exam so make sure you take spare pens in with you I know that sounds like really really obvious and make sure they are not FriXion pens those fiction pens are not good for exams just make sure that plain standard by rays um so there you go guys my top tips for love and in return for GCSE English going to cut bringing workbooks Stacy's written future download from my website going to about Stacy's brilliant YouTube channel where she has so much analysis Stacy also just loads and loads really good stuff with Instagram life and so you can see her not just in live videos whatever place there um and yeah good luck guys IRA nice long run and it's a hot month we are gonna get through this together

Price Controls, Subsidies, and the Risks of Good Intentions: Crash Course Economics #20



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So, during times of inflation or deflation, why doesn’t the government just set prices? It sounds reasonable, but price ceilings or floors just don’t work. Adriene and Jacob explain why. Subsidies, however, are a little different, and sometimes they even work. We’ll also explain that. Today you’ll learn about stuff like price controls, deadweight loss, subsidies, and efficiency.

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أهلًا بكم في Crash Course Economics.
اسمي أدريان هيل. وأنا جيكوب كليفورد،
واليوم سنتحدث عن النوايا الحسنة، وكيف يمكن أن تؤدي لنتائج سيئة، فتعرقل
رقابة الأسعار الأسواق ويفسدها الدعم الحكومي. ومصطلح "الحمولة القصوى"
ليس مجرد وصف ينطبق على حبيبك السابق. "شارة البداية" لنفترض إن كرايغ أصبح الرئيس،
وأنه ضبط جميع أسعار السلع الاستهلاكية. من وجهة نظره، الأسعار المنخفضة ستنفع الجميع،
الفقراء والطبقة المتوسطة والشركات الصغيرة، الجميع. قد ينخدع البعض بهذه السياسة،
لكن ليس أنتم. أنتم تشاهدون برنامجنا،
ما يعني أنكم طرفاء وأذكياء وجذابون، وأنكم أيضًا تفهمون سبب سوء هذه الفكرة.
قد يبدو هذا المثال غير واقعي، لكنه حدث فعلًا، ليس أن كرايغ أصبح رئيسًا،
بل كان الرئيس ريتشارد نيكسون. في مطلع السبعينات، فرض نيكسون
تجميدًا للأسعار والأجور استمر 90 يومًا كان الهدف منه مكافحة التضخم. ساند عامة الشعب
الفكرة، لكن خبراء الاقتصاد كانوا متشككين. وصف ميلتون فريدمان التجميد
بـ"أحد الخطط المعقولة جدًا التي تبدأ بداية حسنة جدًا،
لكن عواقبها في العادة تكون وخيمة ومؤسفة." عندما تحدد الحكومة الأسعار، يسمى ذلك
في علم الاقتصاد بالرقابة على الأسعار. هناك نوعان للرقابة،
وسننظر لكليهما في فقاعة التخيل. عندما تحدد الحكومة سعرًا أقصى لسلعة
أو خدمة ما، يسمى ذلك بسقف الأسعار. فلنقل إن الحكومة فرضت على محطات الوقود
أن تسعّر غالون الوقود بدولار. قد تبدو تلك فكرة حسنة، صحيح؟
فأسعار الوقود المخفضة الإجبارية تنفع الجميع. هذا ليس بصحيح. إن حال المجتمعات فعليًا
يصبح أسوأ. عندما ينخفض سعر الوقود، فإن المستهلكين سيشترون المزيد،
لكن بيع الوقود لن يعود مربحًا لمنتجيه. ستقل كمية الوقود المنتجة
بسبب انخفاض السعر، ويصبح لدينا عجز. أرضية الأسعار هي قانون
يضع حدًا أدنى لسوق معين، والغاية منه إبقاء السعر مرتفعًا
ومنعه من الانخفاض لدرجة التوازن. فلنأخذ الذرة كمثال.
لنفترض أن الحكومة حددت سعر الذرة الأدنى كيلو الذرة بـ7 دولارات،
بينما سعر التوازن هو 4 دولارات. إن السعر المرتفع سيحفز المزارعين على إنتاج
المزيد، لكن، بسبب ذلك السعر المرتفع، سيشتري المستهلكين البدائل، كالقمح أو الأرز.
وبدلًا من رقائق الذرة سيشترون رقائق الأرز. في النهاية، لن يتحسن وضع المزارعين بالضرورة. قد يبيعون الذرة بالسعر المرتفع،
لكن زبائنهم سيكونون قلة. فيما يتعلق بمصلحة المستهلكين والمنتجين،
فإن الغالبية العظمى لخبراء الاقتصاد يعتبرون نتائج الرقابة على الأسعار عكسية.
لكن هناك استثناء واحدًا لذلك، وهو حد الأجور الأدنى. إن حد الأجور الأدنى
موضوع معقد جدًا سنتحدث عنه بفيديو آخر. شكرًا يا فقاعة التفكير.
فلنعاين هاتين السياستين مجددًا باستخدام رسم العرض والطلب البياني. فلنفترض أن سعر
التوازن للوقود 3 دولارات، وأن الحكومة فرضت سقفًا للسعر هو دولار واحد. مع هذا الانخفاض
في السعر، سيشتري المستهلكون وقودًا أكثر، وستكون الكمية المطلوبة هنا. سيقل حافز
المنتجين لإنتاج الوقود، وسينتجون أقل. ولذا، ستكون هذه كمية الوقود المعروضة.
في المحصلة، ستقل الكمية المباعة والمشتراة، ما يؤدي لحصول نقص.
إن كمية الوقود التي يريدها المجتمع هي عند تساوي العرض والطلب. وإنتاج كمية أقل
سيؤدي لما يسمى في الاقتصاد بالحمولة الزائدة. إذن فالكمية المنتجة عند وجود سقف للأسعار
توزيعها عديم الكفاءة، أي أنه لا يتم إنتاج كمية كافية.
وكلما انخفض سقف الأسعار تزيد الحمولة الزائدة وعدم الكفاءة.
تذكروا أن سقف الأسعار يؤثر على السوق
فقط عندما يكون أقل من سعر التوازن. هناك دول كثيرة تطبق سقف الأسعار،
منها فنزويلا. في الأعوام الأواخر، عانت الدولة من نسبة تضخم عالية، لذا، قررت
الحكومة أن تضع سقفًا لأسعار السلع الاستهلاكية، مثل الأطعمة الأساسية والأدوية والمناديل
الورقية. لكن السعر الجديد منخفض جدًا مقارنة بتكلفة الإنتاج،
ما يسبب خسارة المزارعين والمصانع. فعمدوا إلى توقيف أو تقليل إنتاج سلع عديدة،
ما أدى إلى طوابير طويلة ونقص ورفوف فارغة. الرقابة على أجور السكن نوع آخر لسقوف الأسعار.
في مدن كثيرة، منها نيويورك وسان فرانسيسكو، هناك حد لأجور بعض الشقق.
الهدف منها أيضًا رفع مقدرة الاستئجار، كي يستطيع المستأجرون البقاء في منازلهم
حين ترتفع أسعار العقارات. لكن في الوقت نفسه، لا تشجع الأجور المنخفضة
على الترميم والأبنية الجديدة ما يقلل من الكمية المعروضة من الشقق.
المحصلة هي نقص في عدد الشقق، ومالكون للشقق بلا حافز
لصيانة مبانيهم أو تلبية احتياجات المستأجرين. لا يختلف خبراء الاقتصاد
على الرقابة على أجور السكن إطلاقًا. جميعهم يرون أن سقف الأجور
يقلل كمية ونوعية أماكن السكن المتوفرة. لكن ماذا عن أرضية الأسعار؟
إن افترضنا أن سعر توازن الذرة 4 دولارات للكيلو، وأرضية السعر 7 دولارات.
ارتفاع السعر سيحفز المزارعين على زيادة الكمية المنتجة. لكن المستهلكين
لا يريدون شراء الذرة بهذا السعر المرتفع، لذا فإن الكمية المطلوبة ستنخفض. ستكون النتيجة
فائضًا وحمولة زائدة، ونتيجة أسوأ على المجتمع. من النقاط المساندة لوجود أرضية لسعر الذرة
هو أنه إن لم يحصل المزارعون على سعر كاف، فسيتوقفون عن الإنتاج، وسينفد الطعام ونموت. خبراء الاقتصاد، فيما عدا مالثوس، لا يحبون
المجاعات، لذا فإنهم يعرفون أن الحكومة عليها التدخل أحيانًا لحماية الإمداد الغذائي،
لكن ليس بفرض أرضية الأسعار. فلنتحدث عن الدعم الحكومي للمحاصيل الزراعية. الدعم هو مال تعطيه الحكومة
للأفراد أو المنظمات أو الشركات، والهدف منها موازنة الأسعار لمصلحة هدف عام. فلنقل إن الحكومة دعمت مزارعي الفراولة. هذا سيشجع المزارعين على زيادة العرض،
فتزيد الفراولة وينخفض السعر. في بادئ الأمر، قد تبدو هذه فكرة رائعة. تنخفض
الأسعار على المستهلكين ويربح المزارعون أكثر ويبقى السوق في توازن، وليس هناك نقص ولا فائض. مناصرو الدعم الزراعي يقولون إنه يسهم في حياة
مستقرة للمزارعين ويحد من تضخم أسعار الغذاء ويضمن أننا سننتج طعامًا يكفي الجميع. لكن قبل أن تصبحوا من أنصار الدعم الزراعي،
انتبهوا إلى أن خبراء الاقتصاد لا يحبونه. فأولًا، كثير من المزارعين هذه الأيام
ليسوا فقراء. بعض التقديرات تشير إلى أنهم أغنى من العائلات غير المزارعة.
يجادل خبراء الاقتصاد أن المزارعين لديهم دخل يمكنهم من التعامل مع صدمات الأسعار.
كما أنهم يرون أن الدعم قد يثبط من الابتكار الزراعي والتجديد في طرق الزراعة،
إذ إن الدخل الذي توفره الحكومة مضمون. حسب استفتاء أجري بين خبراء الاقتصاد، 85% منهم
يرون بأن الحكومة يجب أن ترفع الدعم الزراعي. أيكره خبراء الاقتصاد المزارعين؟ لا يكره خبراء الاقتصاد أحدًا،
إلا علماء الفيزياء ربما، لأن قوانينهم لا تنكسر وتجاربهم مضبوطة تمامًا.
ليت الاقتصاد كان علمًا! يعرف خبراء الاقتصاد أن سعر السوق موضوع لسبب.
إن انخفض سعر الذرة بسبب انخفاض الطلب، فمن غير الفعال
ومن الإسراف أن يُنفق المال على الدعم. طبعًا إن حدث جفاف أو كارثة طبيعية أخرى
تضر بالمزارعين، فإن الدعم قصير المدى قد يكون ضروريًا لإعانة المزارعين. لكن اليوم،
دعم المزارعين في الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية لا يعطى لمساعدة المزارعين لتخطي موسم صعب. إن الدعم قائم في الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية
منذ حدوث الكساد الكبير. كان الهدف منه دعم المزارعين وأسعار المحاصيل.
القانون الزراعي المعدل الذي صدر عام 1933 دفعت للمزارعين كي لا يزرعوا المحاصيل
على أجزاء من أراضيهم، كما أن الحكومة اشترت فائض المحاصيل. على مدى عقود لاحقة،
استمر مزارعو الذرة والقمح والقطن وفول الصويا في تلقي الدعم الحكومي. في أواخر التسعينات،
أضاف الكونغرس برامج زراعية جديدة، منها ما يسمى بالدفعات المباشرة،
التي أعطت بموجبها الحكومة شيكات للمزارعين حسب ملكية الأراضي ومستويات الإنتاج.
وحصل عليها المزارعون بعض النظر عن سعر السوق للمحاصيل أو الكمية التي أنتجوها. حسب جريدة واشنطن بوست، "عام 2005، عندما
وصلت أرباح الزراعة قبل الضريبة لرقم شبه قياسي هو 72 مليارًا، كانت الحكومة الاتحادية
تنفق أكثر من 25 مليارًا على الدعم." كان ذلك أكثر بـ50% مما كانت تدفع للعائلات
التي كانت تعيش على الضمان الاجتماعي. كما وجدت واشنطن بوست أن الحكومة أعطت أكثر
من 1،3 مليارًا لأناس ما كانوا يزرعون أصلًا. عام 2014، ألغت الحكومة نظام الدعم
بالدفعات المباشرة. ظل الدعم الزراعي يكلفها 20 مليار دولار سنويًا،
لكن جزءًا كبيرًا منه ذهب لمساعدة المزارعين في التأمين على محاصيلهم. لكن حتى ذلك لم يعجب خبراء الاقتصاد كثيرًا.
يقول بعضهم إن أي نوع من الدعم الحكومي يفسد السوق، ويؤدي لعواقب غير مقصودة.
فمثلًا، هو يعد بمثابة دخل مضمون للمزارعين، ما قد يشجعهم للإقدام على مخاطرات أكبر،
منها الزراعة بأرض أقل خصوية. إذن فهل هناك حالات
يكون فيها الدعم الحكومي مناسبًا؟ دعونا ننظر لرسم العرض والطلب ثانية.
ينتج السوق كمية التوازن، وهي الكمية التي يحتاجها المجتمع بالضبط في
أغلب الأحوال. لكن ماذا لو فاق احتياج المجتمع تلك الكمية بكثير؟ ماذا لو كانت هناك
خاصية مميزة لهذا المنتج لم يأخذها الباعة والمشترون بالحسبان؟
في حالة كهذه، فإن الكمية المنتجة أقل مما يريده المجتمع، والمحصلة ستكون
حمولة زائدة وعدم كفاءة بسبب قلة إنتاج المنتج. هنا سيحسن الدعم الحكومي
حال المجتمع ويزيد من كفاءة السوق. فلننظر لتكنولوجيا الطاقة المتجددة.
يميل بعض خبراء الاقتصاد للدعم الحكومي المتعلق ببحوث وتطوير الطاقة،
معللين ذلك بأن الألواح الشمسية وغيرها لن تُطور أو تُنتج بشكل كاف دون دعم الحكومة
الذي سيخفف من الحمولة الزائدة. خبراء اقتصاديون آخرون يقولون إن الشركات
لديها دافع بالفعل للتطوير، وأن الدعم سيخلق طلبًا كاذبًا.
جدلهم قائم على أنه ليس هناك حمولة زائدة، وحتى لو كانت موجودة، فإن السوق سيتكيف معها.
زبدة هذا الجدال هي أن الدعم الحكومي ليس بحد ذاته جيدًا ولا سيئًا، بل هو منوط
بقيم المجتمع والأسواق المعنية بالدعم. بفضل ناسا مثلًا، فإن لدينا عدسات غير قابلة
للخدش والإسفنج المتذكر ولعبة Moonbase Alpha. إذن ما زلنا على وجهة نظرنا:
الأسواق أداة ناجحة تساعدنا في تحديد الكمية التي علينا إنتاجها
واستخدام مصادرنا بفعالية. السياسات الحكومية، كسقف وأرضية الأسعار،
تفشل عادة في تحسين وضع المجتمع ككل. أحيانًا تفشل الأسواق،
وعندها يجب على الحكومة التدخل. شكرًا على المتابعة، نراكم الأسبوع القادم. ساهم في إعداد Crash Course Economics
كل هؤلاء الأشخاص الطيبين. يمكنكم دعم برنامجنا في Patreon
كي يبقى مجانيًا للجميع وإلى الأبد، ولتنالوا جوائز رائعة.
شكرًا على المتابعة ولا تنسوا أن تكونوا رائعين.