Correlation Meaning and Types Class XI Economics by Manju goyal



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Classical and Quantum statistics in hindi || Raj Physics tutorials #physics #science



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Do I Regret Getting My Masters Degree??| Learn from My Mistakes!!



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hey everyone organic a shear how's everybody doing out everybody's doing fantastic sorry if the lighting goes in and out I'm sitting in front of the window he wants a mirror and still of a sudden is probably gonna go in and out of the clouds but I prefer to use natural Sun fighting as you guys can see by the title I'm actually gonna be talking about something a little bit different on my channel today on the organic quiche Channel I'm gonna be talking about school and if I regret going back to graduate school okay if you don't know I graduated with my master's degree in May made it stay for a birthday 2018 and I got my masters in health service administration so that was a huge accomplishment because not everybody is able to have a master's degree and so therefore it was a very big accomplishment and I was very very proud of myself to have completed in with a pretty high GPA might I add I think graduate with honors I was so close but I did that I didn't graduate with honors that point a little bit of backstory I got my undergrad bachelor's degree in psychology May 2015 so between May 2015 and when I started my program my master's program in January 2016 there was about a seven-month gap between the two I knew I definitely want to go back to school but I wasn't sure what I wanted to focus on if I want to focus on you know psychology and furthering that to go to my clinical psychology to be a psychologist or even a psychiatrist if I chose that route and then I started to think about maybe being a mental health counselor which you just need the master's degree to do that but then I did some research on it and I realized that that's not what I wanted to do so I knew I loved organization and administration and I also knew I loved healthcare I just didn't want to be on the clinical side of healthcare or the medical side of healthcare I wanted to be more on the management administration side and so when I saw the degree Health Service administration a master's program I was like ok you know what let me try that I graduated in May it is now October 2018 so it's been some months and I graduated I wanted to do this video for my college students who are right now doing undergrad and you're wondering should I continue my education to undergraduate level or even if you're in high school and you're wondering should I go and get my master's degree or maybe but you have kids and you are thinking about going back to school and you're wondering should I go ahead and get my master's degree okay if you were to ask me if you were to ask me right this second with my finite knowledge of the future because I have no idea what God plans for me in the future as far as my education in my career goes and you were to ask me today do I regret getting my master's degree I would say yes I would say yes Cheers why MIT I feel like it was a very expensive piece of time that I gave away it was very expensive to get my master's degree and I could not obviously afford it out-of-pocket so I have to take student loans and so therefore now I have a lot of student loan debt that I have to pay back and I'm just looking at the knowledge that I required versus the amount of debt I am in because of this degree and I'm just like I just don't believe it was worth it I just and this is my finite line speaking I just do not believe it was worth it but I don't want this video just to be about my opinion on whether or not my degree program was worth it or so on so forth I actually want to kind of give you guys some advice when it comes to picking a degree and also when it comes to choosing whether or not you want to go to the graduate level okay because I think it's very important to consider these things as you progress in your educational career now for me personally I feel like it was kind of a waste of time for me based on my life and based on my work career all through my life really and the others at this point I have never worked a real nine-to-five I've never worked a job where I had the clock and clock out my parents were very very amazing when it came to me and saying that you know I don't have to bust my butt at work while going to school they were like just focus on school focus on school don't focus on anything else just focus on school and that's all you need to do we'll take care of everything else and so be cuz I had the leeway to not work I never really did it just got my bachelor's degree so in that set of months span I was looking for work trying to find work I couldn't obviously because I didn't have much work experience and so it's difficult for me to find work then and so then I started my graduate career then I went throughout my whole graduate career without working as well and so I got all this education but I have no experience to back it up and so what I'm saying is that if you are going to school for something specific where it takes your degree to attain the job that you're looking for make sure you are getting some experience under your belt do not make the mistake that I did where you just kind of went to school and even though my parents are great they still agree with me when it came to money's effective to work you guys oh my goodness use a bag then so let me get a job especially in high school but there's like no no and I have Haitian parents though if you have patient parent then you grew up in my generation then you probably understand where I'm coming from but they're just like no no no it's just not happening but now they kind of regret it as well because they're just like that experience is so necessary when you get into the work field not how the experience has really kind of bit me in the foot because now I have this huge degree that is sitting prettily on my wall along with the other two degrees that I have up there and I'm not working and it's been difficult for me to find work my whole point in making this video is if you do want to go ahead and progress into higher level education make sure you have experience under your belt make sure you start working at a receptionist desk or make sure if this is what like if you want to do health care administration or you want to do some kind of management within hospital systems or within medical organizations make sure you do front receptionist desk at a clinic or something that will give you experience if you are in high school or if you are in undergrad and you're thinking about going back to or going and furthering your education to the graduate level make sure make sure you are gaining experience in this time because on your resume when they're looking at your education and your experience they want to see something there so get your foot in the door and any company that you can to get that experience you don't have any experience and they're looking your resume like yeah okay I can see that you made a high GPA and you have all of this education but where's your experience how can I trust that you're gonna be able to do this job well they don't know you um say like they don't know you they don't know your work ethic they don't know that you'll be the best administrator or the best manager or the best whatever they don't know you and it takes that experience for them to be able to know okay she's worked at this place for seven years or she worked at this place for three years but at this place for another three years and they she has great recommendations from both of her managers like they won't know unless you had experience right now a whole separate part of that is is it worth it financially to get a graduate degree my answer is yes it is definitely worth it if you have experience and you get the education that I think that it is financially worth it to get a masters or doctorate degree because the salary that you would be getting at that level with experience can easily compensate for the money that you have to put into your tuition in your books and you know just your college career in general so I do believe it's worth it and do believe that my degree has value but because I do not have experience it's just kind of been you know a struggle bus for me so right in this moment I think yes but that's only because I didn't have experience going in now I don't know what's gonna happen in the future but for right now just know like okay I'm in all this money's worth a bit and I don't have anything to show for it but a certificate that hangs on my wall but that could just be me being bitter so yeah I don't I don't want to harp on that also think about this this way when it comes to choosing a degree program for you to pursue make sure do your research to know whether or not this is a lucrative career that you can find yourself working in after you graduate make sure to also check okay are there certifications that I'm gonna need because with a mental health counselor once you get that degree you still have several certifications that you have to take and pay for and pass in order to be licensed to work as a mental health counselor so don't just look at the degree look at all the certifications that you're gonna need with that degree and also if getting a job in this field is actually paintable after you graduated because some of these jobs are very very hard to obtain after you graduate like you might be sitting years trying to find work and just so you really have to do your research check to see the salaries the adverse salaries for a person who can have this degree and working to feel that you wanted to work in and make sure that the certifications are either none or very limited or something that you can at least think okay I can do it so that once you graduate you can do your certifications and then get the job that you're looking for but the biggest biggest thing is to make sure that you're gaining experience as you work your way there so that you don't end up like me a sitting duck having to start from the bottom and then work my way up even though I do have the master's degree so get your experience alright my camera spot guys so I'm gonna go ahead and wrap this up I hope this was helpful to you if it was glory because god if you're not subscribe to my channel I don't know what you're waiting for go ahead and click that subscribe button so that we can become family also give this video a big big thumbs up if you enjoyed it and share it with somebody you believe will enjoy it and then lastly if you want to follow me on social media or my handles will be down below in the video description box and also on the screen and I'll see you guys on the next one bye y'all beautiful things don't need attention

Marathi – Syllogism tricks – MPSC / IBPS PO / SBI / BANK PO CLERK / Maharashtra exams



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CPEC – China Pakistan Economic Corridor + South China Sea issue – Full analysis and explanation i



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Quartile Deviation Class XI Economics by Manju goyal



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For the first time in INDIA, textbook in Economics, Accountancy & Business Studies with FREE Video Lectures by Eminent Authors/Subject Expert.

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hello children today I am going to discuss with you another measure of dispersion there's the second measure of dispersion first was range which you have already understood now we come to the second measure of dispersion that is quartile deviation or it is also known as semi interquartile range so this is second measure of dispersion range as you have done earlier range considers only the extreme values extreme lowest and extreme highest right so it considers only the lowest and the highest values and eliminates the central values whereas quartile deviation it eliminates the lowest 25% and the highest 25% of items of series it is eliminating the lowest 25 and highest 25% of the series and what it is considering only the central to 50% of the values of the series so it is different from range so only central 50% of items are considered or considered so this what I deviation considers only 50% of central values eliminating 25 lower values and 25 percent of upper values QD that is quartile deviation is the difference between upper quartile and lower quartile divided by 2 you have done quartiles that means dividing the series into 4 equal parts and accordingly we have q1 q2 and q3 what is quartile deviation that is the difference between upper quartile and lower quartile upper quartile is q3 lower quartile is q1 the difference between the two divided by two is known as quartile deviation interquartile range is q3 minus q1 that is range of the quartiles is q3 minus q1 q3 is the upper quartile q1 is the lower quartile so the range is q3 minus q1 the difference between q3 and q1 and semi interquartile range is q3 minus q1 upon 2 this is also known as quartile deviation q3 minus q1 this was q3 minus q1 only interquartile range and semi interquartile range is q3 minus q1 upon 2 right so now we'll take the calculation of quartile deviation in different series now what are the steps for calculation calculate q1 and q3 so as cuartel deviation is the difference between q1 and q3 or you can say q3 minus q1 so you have to calculate q1 and q3 first for calculating quartile deviation find out the value of q1 and q3 this you know because you have done it in the previous chapter also subtract q1 and q3 subtract Q 3 and Q 1 you know q3 is higher so q3 minus q1 and divide the result by 2 right so q3 minus q1 upon 2 this you have to calculate coefficient of quartile deviation is q3 minus q1 upon q3 plus q1 this is the relative value coefficient relative measure coefficient of quartile deviation okay now we'll take the calculation in different type of series first we'll take individual series marks are given like this these are individual items how do we solve Q 1 and Q 3 Q 1 is size of n plus 1 upon 4th item you know the formula for Q 1 in the individual series is n plus 1 upon fourth item and what is n total number of items give it over here 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 so n here is 7 7 plus 1 upon 4th item that is 2nd item now second item in this series is this is first and this is second item so Q 1 is 25 right so this way you calculate Q 1 in individual Series naught Q 3 size of 3n plus 1 upon fourth item that is equal to 3 into 8 upon 4 3 into 8 upon 4 means 24 upon 4 equal to 6 by 2 and that is equal to 65 1 2 3 4 5 6 item and that is 65 right now QD is q3 minus q1 upon 2 is equal to Q 3 is 65 q1 is 25 so 65 minus 25 upon 2 is equal to 40 upon 2 is equal to 20 this is QD QD is 20 very simple q3 – q1 q3 you have calculated q1 you have calculated as 25 in 2065 65 minus 25 0.2 you will get 20 this is QD coefficient of QD is q3 minus q1 upon q3 plus q1 this is a relative measure here put the values q3 is 65 q1 is 25 65 + 25 40 upon 90 and this is QD coefficient of QD this is QD and this is coefficient of QD right not discrete series this is the simple calculation of individual series remember the formula what you have to apply for individual series now we will take the calculation in discrete series right discrete series you know well it has the frequency so X column and F column these are the values for X column these are the values for F column frequency given now for solving or for finding out q1 and q3 you have to make three columns first column you will write down X in the same order coffee down frequency copy down in the same order find out CF write by adding up the frequencies now after completing this part we move to q1 in the discrete series also q1 is n plus 1 upon 4th item here n is 69 this is n given 69 total of frequency number of items so 69 plus 1 upon 4 that is 70 upon 4 is equal to 17 point fifth item now 17.5 is not q1 it is 17 point fifth item now very 17.5 fighter it is here this is 20 inside this figure we have 17 point fifth item value and in front of this this is q1 right similarly Q 3 3 n plus 1 upon 4th item 3 into 70 upon fourth item 210 upon 4 52 point fifth item now 52 point fifth item in this series is here right and if in front of this we have this as q3 clear so q1 and q3 you are going to calculate in this manner after calculation calculate QD QD is q3 minus q1 upon to q3 you have got 53 q1 is 35 put the values divided by 2 18 upon 2 and QD is 9 so simple very simple to calculate enough practice you have done in the case of quartiles you know how to calculate quartiles you

Lectures From the Institute: David Diener and Virtue



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Dr. David Diener began his formal post-secondary education at Wheaton College where he graduated Summa Cum Laude with a B.A. in Philosophy and Ancient Languages. After putting his philosophical training to work by building custom cabinets and doing high-end finish carpentry for an Amish company, he moved with his wife to Bogotá, Colombia, where they served as missionaries for three years at a Christian international school.

He then attended graduate school at Indiana University where he earned an M.A. in Philosophy, an M.S. in History and Philosophy of Education, and a dual Ph.D. in Philosophy and Philosophy of Education. He has taught at The Stony Brook School and Taylor University and has served as Head of Upper Schools at Covenant Classical School in Fort Worth, TX, and Head of School at Grace Academy in Georgetown, TX. He currently works at Hillsdale College where he is the Headmaster of Hillsdale Academy and a Lecturing Professor of Education. He also is an Alcuin Fellow, serves on the Board of Directors for the Society for Classical Learning and the Board of Academic Advisors for the Classical Learning Test, and offers consulting services through Classical Academic Press. He is the author of Plato: The Great Philosopher-Educator and serves as the series editor for Classical Academic Press’ series Giants in the History of Education. The Dieners have four wonderful children and are passionate about classical education and the impact it can have on the church, our society, and the world.

the topic of today's talk is the cultivation of virtue and the Telos of Education before we can really begin digging into this topic I want to start by laying out a few basic definitions and grounding assumptions first of all the Greek word Telos means goal or purpose or end the goal toward which something is directed i cannot underestimate the importance of the fact that every model of education whether it's secular or religious progressive or classical whatever every model of education has whether it admits it or not whether it's implicit or explicit a tell us that is to say every model of education has a goal a vision of the good life that it is attempting to pass on to its students or to put it another way every model of education is based on a set of values there is no such thing as a values free or values neutral education every system of education is based on and inculcates certain values into its students and this truth has been recognised throughout history from ancient to modern from pagans to Christians to atheists basically everybody let me just give you one example the 20th century philosopher Bertrand Russell writes in his book on education we must have some concept of the kind of person we wish to produce before we can have any definite opinion as to the education which we consider best think about that before we can figure out what kind of education we want to put together we have to know where it's going what kind of person is it trying to produce and so the question is what should our goal or what should the Telos of education be now there are two problems with most contemporary discourse about education the first is that contemporary dialogue about education typically avoids discussion of tell us altogether there's just really not much talk about the purpose of Education out there the emphasis in educational research and policy development is overwhelmingly on the how of Education and why is almost completely overlooked so we get things like how to raise test scores how to increase graduation rates how to help students with educational challenges how to train teachers to use technology etc and there are unfortunately a plethora of teachers administrators and even educational theorists around our country who would be hard-pressed to give a clear definition of what the purpose of education is at all that's tragic because it means that as a society we are working hard to make sure that our educational train is running efficiently without seriously asking where that train ought to be going consider a metaphor used by David Hicks in his book norms and nobility he writes both policymaker as strategist and school administrator as educator resemble the farmer who tries to plow a field with his eyes on the plow rather than on that imaginary point on the horizon on which he must fix his gaze if he expects to leave a straight furrow when I was learning how to drive I remember one of the first lessons I learned is that if you want to drive down the middle of the road you can't look right over the hood right I would I would I started sort of looking right over the hood of the car and trying to drive to stay in the middle and my dad said no no you have to look up look look down the road and I said but I got to stay on the road right here and he said no no but when you look down the road it what you're doing right here will work itself out ok and David Hicks asthma is making the same point with with his metaphor of the plow if we want our educational system to take us in the right direction we've got to lift up our eyes away from just the how do I create a lesson plan how should we do assessment how how how how and ask the question of where are we trying to go what what is our goal what is the direction toward which we are aiming so the first step of the problem is that we don't talk enough about the goals of education the second step of the problem is that when we do talk about education goals we often unfortunately have them all wrong in the 21st century most people simply assume that the primary purpose of education if not its only purpose is to equip students with the knowledge and technical skills that they will need in order to go out into the world and be successful and generally if you push hard enough on what do you mean by successful you get something that's reducible to pecuniary plenitude in other words to be rich the idea is to put it baldly education is a means toward the end of making money thus when you ask the question for example why is k-12 education important you get an answer like well it's important to have a good education so you can get into a good college you say well why is that important well you have to get into a good college so you can get into grad school why is that important well so that you can get a good job well who cares who wants a good job well so that you can make a good living you know and and have a good happy successful life now note a couple things about that chain of reasoning first of all education is merely instrumental on that line of thinking there's nothing good in it in and of itself about education it's merely a means to an end it's not an end in and of itself and note also that there is a Telos in mind I said all education is directed towards some tell us there is a tell us or goal here the purpose of Education is ultimately to make money William tereska wits describes our situation thus we talked about national competitiveness the 21st century labor force technology and engineering and the outlook of our future prosperity but we never talked about the premises that underlie this conviction conversation as if what makes for a happy life and a good society were simply self-evident and as if in either case the exclusive answer were more money unfortunately this is how many people in our contemporary society think about education I have heard international leaders in education give talks about education in which the closest thing to any sort of teleological claim was something insipid like well school prepares students for college and career Sir Richard Livingston's 1944 read lecture he summed up this illiberal approach to education in a way that I think transiently depicts our current educational milieu as well he said this it is characteristic of today that when we discuss which subjects should be studied or which languages should be learnt the first consideration is nearly always utility we ask what is most useful for the machine not what is most likely to make a good human being at times the right motto for our education seems to be prop tier V Tom Vivendi pair dairy cows us that is for the sake of livelihood to lose what makes life worth living the material in life tends to dominate spiritual and moral life as forgotten wisdom and even judgment recede into the background in a 1975 essay titled a remarkable man Wendell Barry similarly writes that we think it ordinary to spend twelve or sixteen or twenty years of a person's life and many thousands of public dollars on education and not a dime or a thought on character there are many people however who don't bat an eye at the notion that the basic purpose of education is to teach job skills so that people can go out and find jobs and make money and even a cursory examination of of statements by public politicians our presidents government's governors federal state educational policymakers demonstrates that our leaders often view the importance of our country's educational system primarily in economic terms the goal of education it would seem is to prepare people for jobs so that they can have a successful career and contribute to our economy now there are two basic problems with this view the first is that it's just plain dumb and the second is that it runs contrary to thousands of years of profound educational thought and if you think that just plain dumb doesn't sound very sophisticated or nuanced you could substitute this it is philosophically theologically and functionally anemic in other words it's just plain dumb it doesn't make sense conceptually it doesn't work practically so what I'd like to do in the rest of our time today is to paint a picture of a much more robust understanding of the Telos of Education that has the cultivation of virtue at its center and I hope that you walk away from this talk convinced of two things first I hope that you're convinced that we ought to hold the cultivation of virtue to be a central goal of education and second I hope that you walk away being convinced that this indeed has been the standard understanding of education for centuries and that contemporary views of Education that neglect the centrality of virtue are historical anomalies now there's no way in our short time together today I can cover the central role that virtue has played throughout the entirety of the history of educational philosophy so instead what I'm going to do is first focus on the Greek philosopher Plato who is both the founder of the Western philosophical tradition and also widely considered to be the father of philosophy of education as a discipline as the 20th century philosopher Alfred North Whitehead famously quipped the safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato in other words Plato wrote about all the big questions he wrote about all the big ideas and for the last over two thousand years since then we've just been adding footnotes to what he wrote okay maybe a bit hyperbolic but the point is he's a central figure in this tradition so if we're going to focus on one thinker who's thought has shaped the last couple thousand of years of Education in the West it makes sense to focus on Plato and then after examining Plato's thought in some depth I will close by offering offering a rapid-fire sequence of other thinkers statements about the role of virtue in education to show that there is in fact a long tradition of thinkers who are basically in agreement about virtues centrality in education Plato who lived from 427 to 3 47 BC clearly understands education to be fundamentally teleological in other words he recognizes that all education again whether explicitly or implicitly has a goal or goals toward which it is directed furthermore according to Plato the primary and ultimate goal of education is to form people who are virtuous the primary purpose of education is not to transfer to students a body of knowledge the primary purpose of education is not to teach practical technical skills the primary purpose of education is not to prepare students for a specialized vocation rather the primary purpose of education is to cultivate students into virtuous human beings who are equipped to live well now I want to pause for a second and just unpack this word virtue and what we mean by this the Greek word for virtue r8a is broader in meaning than the English word virtue our essay is an interesting word that's usually translated virtue or excellence and while the word does have moral overtones it's not an exclusively moral term rather it refers to the capability of a thing to fulfill its purpose or nature so for example a knife can be virtuous insofar as it is able to cut well that is to say fulfill its purpose as a knife and function according to its nature a cow could be excellent or virtuous insofar as it is capable of producing milk that is to say of fulfilling its purpose as a cow so similarly the virtue of a person is the quality that enables a person to fulfill his purpose and live according to his true nature for what it's worth the latin word vir tous from which we get our word in English virtue also has a broader meaning the latin word vir tous comes from the Latin veered which means man so etymologically virtue means something like manliness and to be virtuous is to be manly now we shouldn't think of that in any sort of macho sense right the idea is rather to be virtuous is to be an actualized human being a person who lives with excellence and thus embodies all that human beings were made to be the co Supremes in his preface to the four cardinal virtues that these four virtues can enable man to attain the furthest potentialities of nature this isn't just moralism when we talk about forming virtuous people we're not just talking about people who do the right things right they don't cheat on their taxes they don't lie etc that's part of it but it's something broader we're talking about forming people of r8a of virtue or excellence who are enabled to fulfill their purpose and live according to their true nature who can be all that they were made to be above all else the truth for which Plato searched was truth about the nature of virtue if you read his dialogues it's really remarkable that all throughout them Socrates is continually conversing with different interlocutors to figure out that the nature of different virtues so in the Euthyphro its piety in the Republic its justice there there are others that in nummy know it's the it's the nature of virtue itself okay Plato lived in a context in Athens in which the Sophists had convinced many Athenians that the measure of educational success was one's ability to win an argument convinced a jury or please an audience they use rhetoric and their message was that the education they offered was valuable was worth what it cost because it could make students successful if you come to us we will train you how to go into the court and win plato's critique of this view as relevant today as it was over 2400 years ago is that utilitarian ends such as these are paltry substitutes for the true Telos of education the purpose of Education is the formation of human beings who are good throughout his works Plato is explicit that the purpose of education is to form people who are virtuous or good in the Republic for example he writes that the final outcome of education I suppose we'd say is a single newly finished person who is either good or the opposite nobody what he's not saying there he's not saying you can judge whether an education was well done or not on whether the student gets into college or whether they go out and get a job or whether they make a lot of money or whether they have lots of friends no he says what what determines whether the education they received worked or not is whether that person is good that's the key question he goes on to argue that the form of the good is the most important thing to learn about and that it's by their relation to it the good that just things and others become useful and beneficial in the laws he similarly explains that what he means by education is not training for a particular trade or business but education from childhood in virtue and he goes on to explain that this virtue consists in having one's loves properly aligned such that one adores what is good and abhors what is not he writes there is one element you could isolate in any account you give of Education and this is the correct formation of our feelings of pleasure and pain which makes us hate what we ought to hate from first to last and love what we ought to love call this education and I at any rate think that you would be giving it its proper name thus in contrast to the Sophists whose primary goal was to equip students with practical skills that they could go out into the world and use to be successful in Athenian society for Plato the ultimate goal of Education is right conduct not success as society defines it this understanding of the goal of Education significantly affects how Plato understands the value and purpose of various curricular subjects and he's explicit that the subjects he thinks ought to be studied should be studied not because of their content per se but rather because of their ability to turn the soul away from darkness and toward goodness and truth he admonishes that each of us must neglect all other subjects and be most concerned to seek out and learn those that will enable him to distinguish the good life from the bad and always to make the best choice possible in every situation so Plato recognizes that the various subjects in the curriculum are not ends in and of themselves rather they're educationally valuable only insofar as they promote the realization of Education ultimate goals that is the formation of virtue I'd like to just briefly point out as an example of this the rationale that Plato gives for the four subjects that later came to be known as the quadrivium arithmetic geometry what we call music he calls harmonics and astronomy the the the four subjects of the quadrivium are part of the liberal arts the Trivium is the other three of the traditional seven liberal arts so the traditional Trivium is grammar dialectic and rhetoric and then again the quadrivium arithmetic geometry music and astronomy those are the traditional seven liberal arts and in the Republic Plato gives a rationale for why certain subjects should be studied and he covers the four subjects of the quadrivium and I want to point this out because sometimes within classical education circles there's this idea that the math and science courses are a little bit less a part of the liberal arts right literature and history we say nurture our humanity and our character we get that they help us to become virtuous but math and science are technical they're not liberal arts they just help us do stuff build bridges and figure out which size of a jar of salsa in the in the grocery store is a better value etc okay Plato however disagreed and his rationale gives us insight into the true purpose of all areas of study so briefly arithmetic a lot of people don't understand why studying math is important and you know the students say why do we have to learn this when are we ever going to use this and then teachers try to come up with you know various reasons well you maybe you'll go into a field where you or well you know wouldn't it be nice if you could figure out whether the six ounce jar or the nine ounce jar is a better value at the grocery store whatever okay Plato though argues that arithmetic is valuable not because it enables us to carry out business but because it leads us toward truth and the ability to grasp being he argues that the true purpose of Education in arithmetic is not and I'm quoting here like tradesmen and retailers for the sake of buying and selling but rather for ease in turning the soul around away from becoming and toward truth and being have you ever heard that explanation given to eighth graders for why they should learn algebra now geometry he turns to geometry and he says geometry is knowledge of what always is he argues that geometry draws the soul toward truth and produces philosophical thought by directing upwards what we wrongly direct downwards the inscription above the door of Plato's Academy in Athens again as the founder of the Western philosophical tradition it that inscription is indicative of his estimation for geometry it said let none but geometers enter here in other words what he's getting at is when you study geometry you study shapes perfect triangles circles cubes okay etc you're able to abstract from the reality in which we live in which there really are no perfect circles or no perfectly equilateral triangles they don't exist actually oK we've never touched one or drawn one or seen one but nevertheless we mentally can understand it okay so what it does what it does is it enables us to see these eternal shapes and patterns truths that are true no matter whether we draw them well or not whether we imitate them or not and he says that helps us to understand the nature of reality in an important way astronomy Plato praises astronomy because it compels the soul to look upward and leads it from things here to things there and then finally harmonics or what we would call music Plato claims that the study of harmonics is useful in the search for the beautiful and the good but pursued for any other purpose it's useless and think about that the reason why we study music the reason why we learn to play music is because it's part of our search as human beings for the nature of the beautiful and the good it's not for entertainment it's not to make us feel good or give us a beat to dance to it's because ultimately Plato says it helps us to understand beauty and goodness and that's part of what it means to be a human being and live a virtuous life ok so note that while he understands that the subjects are very are valuable in practical ways as well knowing arithmetic does help you in the marketplace for example he recognizes that those disciplines do have ancillary practical value his essential point however is that these practical benefits are not the primary reason why they should be studied their purpose is not simply to provide technical training however practical they might be they nevertheless have a much deeper function in other words the disciplines of the quadrivium lead us toward truth and enable us to make sense of the world and our place in it and the same could be said of course of the other disciplines of the Trivium that's an important thing for us as a human as human beings to do it's important for us to understand who we are and the world around us and how we should live in it so for Plato the principal question that must be asked of any educational proposal is not how much does it cost or will it work practically the question is will it promote the moral formation of the students toward whom it's directed will it help them to live virtuously that's the question now before I stop talking about Plato and give you some quotes from other thinkers throughout history I do want talk a little bit about knowledge because obviously education has to do with acquiring knowledge right we give tests in which we ask students to to show that they've learned certain certain bits of knowledge that we have taught them it's interesting that according to Plato knowledge without virtue is worse than useless it's pernicious and the goal of education is therefore not merely to impart knowledge again that's a part of it but it's not merely to impart knowledge but also to nurturing students the virtue and wisdom that they will need in order to use that knowledge for the good education is most fundamentally concerned with conduct not with knowledge and the problem with knowledge says Plato is you can use it for good or for ill even if you have great knowledge of the world it still doesn't answer the fundamental question what then should I do how should I use this knowledge in the Republic for example Socrates explains that the one who is most able to guard against disease is also most able to produce it unnoticed and that the person who is clever at guarding money must also be clever at stealing it knowledge in other words is not intrinsically good for without a moral compass to guide its use it can bring about great evil thus David Hicks writes that where knowledge grows without wisdom and without reverence it threatens both our humanity and our world so think about the fact for example that the same knowledge of construction and architecture that you need in order to build a cathedral could be used to build a gas chamber the same knowledge the question is not what do you know but what virtue do you have that will enable you to use what you know for the good the purpose of Education is not just the assimilation of facts or the retention of information but a habituation of the mind and the body to we'll and act in accordance with what we know in the youth Adiemus Plato makes a similar point about supposed goods like wealth he says you know what are things that people think are good well money's good being healthy is good having good looks is a good Hey he says look unless any of those things is guided by wisdom they are greater evils than their opposites you you are better off being poor and virtuous than wise I'm sorry there's a second you are better off being poor and virtuous than rich and corrupt the rich person who's corrupt can do a lot more damage in the Meno Plato again claims that supposed goods like health strength beauty and wealth can both benefit and harm us and that whether they benefit or harm us depends on whether we use them rightly or wrongly think about all the harm that money can cause if it's misused think about all the harm that strength just physical strength can cause if it's misused think about all the harm that beauty can cause if it's misused he's explicit that the acquisition of these supposed Goods must not be taken to be the purpose of education in the laws he writes a training directed to acquiring money or a robust physique or even to some intellectual facility not guided by reason and justice we should want to call course and illiberal and say that it had no claim whatever to be called education a knowledge is not enough obviously education is partially concerned with giving students knowledge but according to Plato that can't be the whole story the purpose of education is intrinsically moral in nature and the ultimate goal is to form students who are equipped with wisdom with an understanding of the good with a love for the good such that they can use whatever knowledge they may possess in way that are virtuous so those are a few of the key ideas of this incredibly important thinker Plato with regard to the purpose or Telos of Education and in this last section what I would like to do is turn away from Plato and now look at some other thinkers who have in many ways echoed his thought up until the end of the 19th century so within the past 150 years or so something akin to the Platonic view that I've just described has been the overwhelmingly dominant view of the purpose of Education the centrality of virtue in understanding education –zz purpose is not particularly Plato nor to the Greeks nor to the ancients rather it has been a commonly accepted understanding of Education that endured for millennia and was supplanted really only in the second half of the 19th century and then in some cases into the 20th century I could trot out nearly endless examples to demonstrate that this is the case but I will restrict myself to a few that collectively offer a sort of inductive argument to demonstrate the point okay that these ideas I've been talking about from Plato are not are not unique to him throughout the history of education many people have thought something very similar so Plato's student Aristotle another Greek philosopher is highly critical of his fellow Greeks who failed to embrace a system of education with a view to all the virtues but in a vulgar spirit he writes have fallen back on those which promised to be more useful and profitable Hey with regard to what subjects should be taught Aristotle notes occupations are divided into liberal and illiberal and too young children should be imparted only such kinds of knowledge as will be useful to them without making mechanics of them and any occupation art or science which makes the body or soul or mind of the free man less fit for the practice or exercise of virtue is mechanical wherefore we call those arts mechanical which tend to deform the body and likewise all paid employments for they absorb and degrade the mind the object also which a man sets before him makes a great difference let listen to this last part if he does or learns anything for his own sake or for the sake of his friends or with a view to virtue that action will not appear illiberal so note that what Aristotle is saying here is not that learning mechanical arts is necessarily worthless what he's saying is that the reason for which something is learned is of the utmost importance in determining its value learning carpentry or engineering or economics can be worthwhile provided that it is learned with a view to virtue and not as we just saw with a view toward what is useful or profitable the Roman philosopher and orator Cicero similarly writes when to an excellent and admirable natural disposition there is added a certain system and training of education then from that combination arises an extraordinary perfection of character such as is seen in that godlike man whom our fathers saw in their time africanus and in Caius Laelius and Lucius furius most virtuous and moderate of men and in that most excellent man the most learned man of his time Marcus Cato the Elder and all these men if they had been to derive no assistance from literature in the cultivation and practice of virtue would never have applied themselves to the study of it well what Cicero is arguing in other words is that all these great heroes of Rome these great men understood that the purpose of studying literature is to cultivate a life of virtue he says if they wouldn't have thought that that's what they were gonna get from it that it would have developed virtue in them would have helped them to live more virtuously they never would have studied it of course why would you study something if it's not gonna lead you to be a more virtuous person the 14th and 15th century Italian Renaissance educational thinker Petrus Powell various wrote in 1404 we call those studies liberal which are worthy of a free man those studies by which we attain and practice virtue and wisdom starting to see a theme here that education which calls forth trains and develops those highest gifts of body and mind which in noble men and which are rightly judged to rank next in dignity to virtue only couple hundred years later in 1643 the founders of Harvard College wrote a pamphlet in which they expressed the mission of Harvard College thus let every student be plainly instructed and earnestly pressed to consider well that the main end of his life and studies is to know God and Jesus Christ which is eternal life and therefore to lay Christ in the bottom as the only foundation of all sound knowledge and learning like Plato and these other thinkers the founders of Harvard recognized that education is a fundamentally teleological activity it's directed toward something and the end toward which it is directed is one of an intrinsically moral nature the 17th century British philosopher John Locke writes in his 1693 book some thoughts on some thoughts concerning education I'll say that again the 17th century British philosopher John Locke writes in his 1693 book some thoughts concerning education that what all parents desire for their children assuming they take any care of their education at all he says is contained I suppose in these four things virtue wisdom breeding and learning I place virtue as the first and most necessary of those endowments that belong to a man or a gentleman as absolutely requisite to make him valued and beloved by others acceptable or tolerable to himself without that I think he will be happy neither in this nor in the other world couple more quotes coming across the pond to to the United States founding father Benjamin Franklin writes in a 1750 letter to Samuel Johnson I think with you that nothing is of more importance for the public weal than to form and train up youth in wisdom and virtue wise and good men are in my opinion the strength of a state more so than riches or arms think about that it is better for our country to have wise and good citizens then to be strong and have wealth and military power so education according to Benjamin Franklin is essential for the well-being of our society but not because it trains workers or equips us to help manufacture other countries rather education is essential insofar as it forms students into wise and virtuous beings as Tracy Lee Simmons writes in climbing Parnassus the healthy society begins with healthy souls and the healthiest souls are not formed without intellectual and most of all spiritual labour in 1787 the famous Northwest Ordinance was written in which the government gave its official support for the development of schools the Northwest Ordinance states religion morality and knowledge being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged here again the underlying assumption is that education is not merely about the acquisition of knowledge but also about the religious and moral formation of human beings the famous african-american thinker and activist w eb de bois writes of education in 1903 this if we make money the object of man training we shall develop moneymakers but not necessarily men if we make technical skill the object of education we may possess artisans but not in nature men men we shall have only as we make manhood the object of the work of the school's intelligence broad sympathy knowledge of the world that was n is and of the relation of men to it this is the curriculum of that higher education which must underlie true life and he goes on to declare I insist that the object of all true education is not to make men carpenters it is to make carpenters men education must not simply teach work it must teach life again the point is that if we just teach students to do a certain job in society we've not necessarily helped them to live well but if we teach them how to live well then they'll be able to do that whether they end up as carpenters or teachers or architects or go on down the line whatever career they go into education is not just career preparation it is to make people in whatever career they choose into virtuous human beings human beings who are able to live well the famous 20th century British mathematician and philosopher Alfred North Whitehead claims in a 1929 essay technical education in its relation to science and literature that the art of education is never easy it is the training of souls and finally Arthur Holmes another prominent philosopher of the 20th century wrote in 1975 the question to ask about an education is not what can I do with it but rather what is it doing to me as a person education has to do with the making of persons now I could go on giving examples like this all day long and the point I want to make is that the centrality of virtue in Plato's understanding of Education is not a historical anomaly in contemporary society many people are trying to make education into something that supposedly is value neutral but almost no educational thinker throughout history would have agreed that that's a good idea or even possible school schools are thus not weird experiments but rather a continuation of an educational legacy that stretches back for over two millennia and arguably even much further back if you go back into the Hebrew tradition throughout history education has almost never been thought to be a wholly secular enterprise but rather one that is intimately connected with the development of morality and virtue in students the contemporary charade of value and virtue free education is thus not only a philosophical and practical absurdity but also demonstrates an asinine refusal to accept the nearly universal recognition of the importance of moral training that has existed throughout the history of Education that's the fancy of way of saying it's just plain dumb ok I'll say that once more as we close the contemporary charade of value and virtue free education is not only a philosophical and practical absurdity but it also demonstrates an asinine refusal to accept the nearly universal recognition of the importance of moral training that has existed throughout the history of Education the cultivation of virtue has been absolutely central in the understanding of Education tell us or purpose for thousands of years and it should be in our own understanding of Education as thank you you

Census and Sample Methods Class XI Economics by S K Agarwala



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we now move on to more details about primary data so our topic is collection of primary data senses versus sample let us see first how can how we can proceed suppose we have to conduct a study of 2000 children and their parents in a school there are two ways there are two ways of making this study one contact all 2001 way second contact only 10% that is 200 when we contact all the entire set of 2000 it is called universe it is called universe it is also called population population here does not mean number of people population here means number of items to be covered in the survey there may be people there may be things they may be anything and when we contact a part of this universe say only 200 we call it a we call it a sample the Houmas core sample volt a mathematics kibosh on may we can call it population subset population subset you have the club so much you get hungry those are bachata survey carne sub call a per year those are universe caligra is miss a couch coal a toe sample Kellogg the survey done in these manners it is called census survey and in this manner when you take only a part of it we call it sample survey census survey and sample survey there are 2000 children there are 2000 items each item is called an element her item comb element voltage so in this we take all elements and in sample survey we take selected elements we take selected elements so broadly there are two ways of conducting a survey the sensor survey take all the elements or the sample survey take the selected elements now the question arises which is better senses versus sample which is better we will bring in all the elements which we had already talked about it will all depend upon depend upon time time to naturally cost time cost three information required caki information chai a kidney chai a and above all level of accuracy kitna accuracy level je accuracy casa a TA who conducts survey the people the the trained personnel they conduct survey trained manpower more they are trained more can be the accuracy where do you think can provide more training in census or sample in sample you require few people few trained people so it is easier to train few people in census you require a large number of people for example in our example of schoolchildren for conducting 200 if you require two people for conducting two thousand you require twenty people you have to Train twenty percent 20 teachers 20 persons so clearly on this basis normally simple can give you more accuracy see only in terms of collection sample can operate disadvantage me okay less coverage with a bow sorry cheesy misogyny hey you scam Bartnik array so level of accuracy the people who conduct survey how much trained they are that is so we have two principal methods of conducting a of collecting primary data now we concentrate on sample basis because most of the surveys in the country our own sample basis barring a few for example population census is on census misses otherwise most of the surveys are on sample bases so we now talk about sample in detail first we will talk about methods of choosing a sample sample to touch the asani you have to think on many lines let us first briefly review the terms involved one term is universe we have said if you cover the entire population all number of items then it is universe if you take a part of the universe say 10% of the students it is a sample second term you are already familiar with it then there are sampling units sampling unit it is a new term these are of two kinds primary sampling units then elements primary means you make groups from within the sampling units groups once you select the group then you take each item in the group so second is element choosing items in each group so we have primary sampling unit groups and there then elements each item in the group now we come to another aspect of methods of kinds kinds of sampling what is sampling means selecting items from a universe example 2,000 children is a universe we have to select 10% the question is which 10% you

12 Rules For Life- Jordan B Peterson's Book Summary and Review



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A very popular book in the BookStands in 2018 is JB Peterson’s – 12 Rules for Life- An antidote to Chaos . I took over 3 months to listen to the book. Went over chapters multiple times because this book does present a unique perspective to dealing with the chaos we encounter in day to day life. Book remains very easy to understand but seems to be inclined totally towards the western way of life (Obviously) making the examples may be a bit too off the radar for a eastern reader. Much of the knowledge in the book is knowledge that has been available to the world already, no reinvention of the wheels here. Nevertheless, amidst all the chaos that JB Peterson has accumulated its hard to look at just what the book presents to the readers and not get entangled in the internet-hoopla around him. The book is an antidote to chaos if you pay attention to the message. Controversies are free marketing strategies. Read the book without the unnecessary bias and you shall find gold.

hello and namaste today we are going to talk about somebody that's all over the freakin internet if you've been searching anything in the line of you know anything that has to do with self-help books with self-help videos motivation and anything in that keyword criteria I'm quite sure you've fallen down to one of these videos from s Peterson the way I was introduced to Jordan Peterson was one of these videos itself and I also had a chance to listen to him speak at Joe Rogan's podcast and I also got to know about him from other platforms where people were talking about the best-selling book of 2018 I think it was the best seller on Amazon so that's how I got introduced to dr. Pearson and he's actually a Canadian professor a clinical psychologist and I would like to add a great orator of philosophers of our time and when I say philosopher I used the word very casually to the last three years I've also been dwelling into the idea of such improvement and self-help and you know I've dabbled into it so I've come across some very prominent writers and I've read some of their books and I'm always as I would do with music when I was younger always good for the next what's the next happening thing in today's context you can say what's the most trending thing so when I saw Joe Jordan Peterson's podcast with Joe Rogan and I also downloaded the app audiobooks and because nowadays I don't have a lot of time to sit down and do a lot of reading the audiobook format really works for me and it is a bit expensive but it's very convenient convenient as well so I bought the audio version of mr. Peterson's book and also drilled into some of his videos and public speeches and debates as well I am aware of the fact that he has had some controversy and he's done something in the political sphere in Canada and you know has gathered some haters and a lot of people that admire him as well my viewpoint on this is that you know and my angle of looking at Pedersen is as a writer first and you know the whole internet shebang had it not been for the internet would Peterson's book be as popular as it is today I approached it from that angle and I wanted to see you know even though I had seen the videos I wanted to read the book for its merit and see what I can find in there and what I cannot find in there and what I found was that you know mr. Peterson is a ray of light for the Western society Beach right now because you know they really don't have a lot of role models though the whole world in and aggregate seems to be lacking in real role models and the capacity of you know putting thoughts to words that mr. Peterson is displaying is a rare phenomena in this time and I think the Western society was hungry for somebody like him if I may and when I read the book and get into the depth of the book and the lessons that it's bringing in forward I tend to find that you know all his findings are already in other literature and in in the pool of knowledge and it's already it's already been out there he just put it through his perspective given it his miracle poison if you know what I mean and he's a clinical psychologist so he's gonna come from that angle and I started to read the book so I'm going to go chapter wise so what are the twelve rules another big thing these days is that you know we love lists like making lists of things like top 10 and you know the Billboard chart and all that good stuff so we like those kind of things and B I think it's a marketing genius of Peterson and his publishers to put it in that format where they're telling you hey these are the 12 rules for life is life that simple that 12 if you follow these 12 rules you'd really have a successful life and a happy life no I think it's just life as a meaning of its own for every individual in a mate in many different ways because we go to different struggles and we are good at few things and we're bad at few things and some people struggle in one thing and other people and something else so you cannot take this book like you know with that kind of a perspective you just have to go edit and read it openly and for the Western society I can see how some of the content of this book can be actually very you know they're hearing it for the first time but for a Easterner like me who's been hearing similar stories and for close and recently I've been diving into meditation and spirituality a little bit so you know I've already heard it before from other auditors if you know what I mean from other philosophers so let's go into the chapters the first chapter is titled I forgot the title but what the first chapter teaches about is posturing and it gives you this research analysis of lobsters that dr. Peterson talks about and postures matter and I also feel that you know he simply puts it together as saying stand straight you know because that has a lot of subtle unspoken signals that it gives out and it also has a physical metaphorical effect on your mind and your subconscious as well that you know you have yeah if you're drooping and you're just kinda slouching and you letting people know that you are weak by your postures it has a lot of implications like in finding mates and those kind of things so you know that's not something I am hearing for the first time you know we've talked about body language in marketing and I've studied this kind of a compliment before but Peterson puts it in such a way where you know it's very interesting and you know the first chapter is very catchy as well you start to get into the book and the first chapter talks about posturing it says rule number one is stand straight basically and chapter 2 chapter 2 goes into self-love what I understood from chapter 2 is that we cannot we cannot love others if we can't love ourselves and if we cannot admire what we have and be grateful for and not just kind of we are worst critics ourselves and beat ourselves over with these small things that we lack if that's where we put all our focuses on do and not time to look at the many great things that we have been blessed with you know so loving yourself is what the second chapter dwells into the third chapter is choose the right friends choose to be around people who make you better in the long run as a youngster you know it's very difficult to I've seen people postings online like you know BFF and the best friends forever let me tell you kids friends don't last forever really some do some do but not all of them do so we have to have the ability to see through the BS and you know just hanging out people hanging out with people is not gonna make you good friends with them that's not the true definition of good friends I think those are just companions that come into your life they move out and you know they really don't have a significant impact on who you are what you do and where you go so the third chapter basically tells you the third rule is you know choose the right friends let's move on to chapter 4 chapter 4 talks about compare yourself to who you were yesterday not someone else let me repeat that you should compare yourself to who you were yesterday not comparing yourself to someone else you know it's good to be competitive I don't think it's a bad thing it gets the best out of you but we have to understand that we can't win all the time and we have to accept failure it's the same way and the way competition is so beautiful is that you know you can go back compete again you know most of the time so when you compare yourself to others you're definitely going to see the grass greener on the other side you know and there is truth to that saying and the only parameter that all the metrics that we should measure ourselves and measure how much we are improving from one day to the other is by comparing ourselves to ourselves and looking at it from the perspective of who we were yesterday and who you are today and the trajectory going forward where you want to be so you know there's no point in paying attention to people that don't add any value to your life just like the friend chapter this also dwells into that the rule number five is do not let your children do anything that makes you dislike them some of my favorite chapters in the book has been books about parenting because this is something that I am new to as well and I have learned a few things from a couple of the chapter that dwells into the parenting side of things and this actually tells new parents or you know you have children how to raise them without being sort of like politically correct in today's context trying to trying to raise your children with the standards that the world has set for you or some self-help book I set for you that is total BS you know I think the old-school way of raising a children is the right way well you know old school in the sense that at some point if there is need for a small establishment of authority to emphasize something to your child I think that is absolutely important and that in today's context that's been taken out of context and turn into something else so chapter a5 says that do not let kids do something that makes you as a parent dislike then talk to them talk to them in a straight manner you know tell them what's right tell them what's wrong and if there is necessary action that's needed something in the line look sort of like threatening them to show who's boss and that they still have a lot to learn and they need to listen to their parents I know every kid will rebel to this but you know you have as a parent you have to be honest that's what the chapter talks about so rule number six is set your house in perfect order before you criticize the world so you know we trying we might try to look at what's wrong with our life you know we all know what's really wrong with our lives it will really be honest to ourselves and look really deep within ourselves the answers are already there and we tend to kind of find an excuse to just throw darts and shoot arrows at other things and say that oh I am NOT happy or I am NOT this way because so in subsets or such conditions are not being met so I think this chapter or the rule number six is just about stop what you're doing and before you're trying to teach others what's wrong with their lives you should stop and look at your own and be honest with yourself and move in the right direction so let's move on to another chapter rule number seven it says pursue what is meaningful not what is expedient life can seem meaningless but you have to find your own private meaning or mission in life I agree to this chapter this rule because you know meaning of life is such a big question it can have so many different answers to that and you have to find what works for you you know you have to find the sail to your boat and lady just cruise along you know you have to find your own meaning so rule number seven is more about pursuing what beings more meaningful to you for me it might be doing podcast and doing book reviews and that's all of the things one verse to you you know number eight is very very simply just like chapter one says stand straight rule number eight says don't lie and I agree to this because you know even though we say these lies I'm not saying I am completely clean and I've never lied before as well or neither does I think dr. Peterson don't lie is very simply putting that you know every time we say a small light that we have to say another lie to cover it or to you know he give give it consistency and continuity and then this is just a vicious cycle and just engulfs you within it and it will not take you to a very happy place so being honest you know even on the short run people might find that you are rude or you've not been kind to them but eventually in the longer the day you will understand that that's the right way and that's the way of peace is by being honest and straightforward and not lying and rule 9 says listen and learn you never know what you can learn from somebody in front of you don't underestimate the book by its cover that sort of a thing where you can learn something from everybody I was talking to I think two people in my live stream a couple of weeks ago and this is where we came out I remember this point where you can learn something from everyone so if somebody is sharing something with you listen with intent that's what chapter 9 deulim and I says rule number ten is be precise in your speech this is something this I like this chapter because it helped me a lot and I struggle with this as well sometimes I had to be correct because of the position that I mean it kind of creates a situation where I can't be 100% honest about my feelings and my thoughts I wish I want to say something you know that thought might be expressed in a rage kind of a way but because of the situation I am in and I mean I have to switch that and sometime light and I'm not able to be precise in what I want and what I'm trying to express through my words so you know rule number ten kind of emphasizes the fact that we precise in your speech that's going to help you because if you say something and you mean something and you're thinking something else that it creates chaos and this is the anecdotal of chaos so rhuebottom was very helpful for me I'm gonna move on rule number 11 or chapter 11 is another chapter about parenting and it says do not bother children when they are skateboarding and by this Petersons means we cannot emphasize our values and our ideas on the children because they are an entity of their own and this sort of like wild horses you know you have to let them run free because you don't know what kind of a one they're gonna be on and what kind of a horse they're gonna be turned out to be in the future and by setting those boundaries and telling kids not to take those risks we actually not letting them explore their own potentials in that way so rule number eleven is about parenting and it says don't bother children when they're trying to escape skateboard let them have a few brews is there something it's stronger and rule number twelve is pretty interesting it says that a cat when you see one this chapter sort of in in does is in the point that you know when we're engulfed with emotions and thoughts and you know things of that nature and we're trying to take decisions and solve problems we will definitely most likely start to forget the small-minded things that have the potential to give us happiness and and when he says dedicat that's what I think he means by it which is sometimes you can have a overwhelming day but then you can find the smallest things such as petting a cat to be very very desert um and peaceful and you know it might be anything for you paint a picture or you know clean your bike or something I don't know you know get your mind off it and you know do these small little things that you enjoy and that's how you get back to your your base mentally so that was in some way a summary and my review of the book twelve rules for life by Jordan Peterson I know that in he's propelled into a huge popularity platform right now and there's a lot of people that don't like what he says there's a lot of people that admire him and my viewpoint on this is that you know anybody who becomes popular is going to have some kind of controversy wrapped around them one way or the other one day or the other and I look at medicine as somebody that's very very intelligent and very very smart and he's also a very good writer and orator and the publication has done a great job by prophesizing him so you know if he's out there and he's done something obviously people are gonna hate I like people who are driven like him I can't break through and create something out of nothing you know we are all rebroadcasting the same old ideas by putting our own self and our own ideas into it and polishing it and representing it so you know a lot of the things that he's taught in the book I've read a lot of things that he's mentioned in books by Osho read books by other writers and you know similar things that he talks about has been you know passed on in other books as well so this is just a different serving and and the timeframe that it came out at 2018 really needed something like this to kind of shake the the already established and very vague ideas that are floating out there people have very little attention span these days and you know this helps people that are struggling with these my new things to kind of bring things back into perspective that's why the twelve rules just kind of making it easy and marketable so to all the pseudo-intellectual out there that you know just sit around saying he's this and he's that he was just bloody hell jealous of him man I think he's a great intellectual person and the world needs people like him to speak out in present very different viewpoints and different perspective about life as a whole so that's my review I hope you enjoyed it this is Melanie paisa actually shall be guiding signing off bye bye

(मराठी) What is Helicopter Money ? Economics – MPSC / UPSC exam preparation in Marathi



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Production Method or Value Added Method Class XII Economics by S K Agarwala



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For the first time in INDIA, textbook in Economics, Accountancy & Business Studies with FREE Video Lectures by Eminent Authors/Subject Expert.

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To view FREE Video Lectures visit www.goyalsOnline.com/commerce

About the Book
» Written strictly according to the latest syllabus prescribed by the CB.S.E., New Delhi.
» Up-to-date study material provided by using the latest available data.
» Elaborate explanation of the concepts.
» Summary (Points to Remember) given at the end of each Chapter.
» Numerical Problems from previous years’ question papers incorporated and solved in the respective Chapters.
» Methodology of solving typical numerical problems given wherever necessary.
» Methodology of drawing typical diagrams given wherever necessary.
» Comprehensive Exercises given at the end of each Chapter.
» Sample Question Paper given at the end of the book.
» Multi-disciplinay Problems given at the end of the books.
» Video lectures on each topic with replies to queries for better and clear understanding of the concepts by the Author/Subject Matter Expert.

Benefits of Video Lectures
» Easy to access anytime: With video lectures, students can learn anywhere from their mobile devices: desktops, laptops, tablets or smartphones.
» Students learn when they are primed to learn.
» Students can pause, rewind and replay the lecture.
» Eases the distraction of having to transcribe the lectures.
» Self-paced learning: Students can follow along with the lecture at their own pace, going more slowly or quickly
» Bookmarking: Students can bookmark the point where they’re up to in the video so they can easily return and continue watching the lecture at a later point.
» Searchability: Students can easily search through the lecture to find the required sub-topic they need, without having to rewind and fast forward throughout the video.
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» Facilitates thinking and problem solving: It improves research skills, collaborative working, problem solving, technology and organisational skills.

first we take production method production method is also called value-added method since value-added is also called net output it is also called net output method but in the examination normally these two terms are used production method or value-added method both mean the same thing so if we calculate national income from this method what steps we have to take we talk of steps 1 classify production units into sectors industrial sectors primary secondary tertiary for wound care subparts pella step sectors my divided Carnegie bath second step estimate net value-added add factor cost of each sector third sector garnett value-added maloom KJ what are the sub steps we have to take estimate value of output humble cool thomna value-added cough formula the methods are Oska is up such alrea and value of output we take as equal to sales plus closing stock – opening stock we get information about these three and we get value of output second step deduct intermediate costs from value of output to get gross value added at market price you see formula K subsets are a intermediate cost composition then deduct depreciation or CFC consumption of fixed capital from GVA MP to arrive at an V a MP naturally last deduct indirect tax and add subsidies to get and VA FC that was our step estimate and vfc HR step value of output maloom kuroh intermediate cost cutout depreciation k'tau indirect taxes guitar subsidies co-ed guru sorry and ad subsidies or NVA FC the poncho tees are a step be ye here take the sum of NVA FC by all sectors so which is simply Sigma and V a FC what do we get from this we get for us is NDP add factor cost now last step is clear we want to find out national income and national income is nothing but n NP at factor cost so last step add net factor income from abroad n fi a this is standard abbreviation used for net factor income from abroad to NDP FC to get n NP FC or national income so these are some of the steps the main steps are classify into sectors estimated V AFC of each sector by taking these sub steps take their sum to find n DB FC and finally add n FIA to get a national income this is the method but while calculating this there are certain precautions to be taken there may be a question in the exam what precautions are to be taken while estimating national income from the production method so let us talk about some of the precautions to be taken precautions we are also introducing another important it is not naturally a concept but is a term avoid double counting of output double counting it maybe double triple four but it's more than one times how can we avoid this there are two ways of avoiding one take only value added by each sector hot sector caster of value-added lijek showed us an example later here Molly J America's Team producer say farmer Baker grocer farmer we'd produce gotta be Carrasco be Scott Vergara maker word Carta or grocery um kabisa Molly Jeff our marquee value of output one thousand for the sake of simplicity let us assume that intermediate cost is zero for Monday acres are Rebecca VTR give me food grains by the Kia bigger name's Coby Scott Vergara Banneker Escudo huzzah rope I'm a convert country grocer news Quahog a betcha 2200 up take a value-added we 1000 is Kim value-added we 1000 K a kazarka thava naama Rossum honestly already harissa farmer say warm racket idea was Kelly intermediate cost a grocer Nadeau's our Cabana vinaya salmon charissa by sameba – doha zovsky intermediate cost 200 now take this sum value of output is 5,200 while value-added is 2200 if we take the value of output of all the three we are committing a mistake we are counting this one thousand three times once earlier once in this and once in this if we deduct this one thousand four fifty two hundred we get twenty two hundred so instead of taking output we take only value added by each sum them up and we get the right answer and we can avoid double counting there is another way take only the value of final products you

Data Structures and Algorithms Complete Tutorial Computer Education for All



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(मराठी) What is Money Multiplier ? Economics – MPSC / UPSC exam preparation in Marathi



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Percentage Bar Diagram and Pie Diagram Class XI Economics by Manju goyal



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For the first time in INDIA, textbook in Economics, Accountancy & Business Studies with FREE Video Lectures by Eminent Authors/Subject Expert.

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About the Book
» Written strictly according to the latest syllabus prescribed by the CB.S.E., New Delhi.
» Up-to-date study material provided by using the latest available data.
» Elaborate explanation of the concepts.
» Summary (Points to Remember) given at the end of each Chapter.
» Numerical Problems from previous years’ question papers incorporated and solved in the respective Chapters.
» Methodology of solving typical numerical problems given wherever necessary.
» Methodology of drawing typical diagrams given wherever necessary.
» Comprehensive Exercises given at the end of each Chapter.
» Sample Question Paper given at the end of the book.
» Multi-disciplinay Problems given at the end of the books.
» Video lectures on each topic with replies to queries for better and clear understanding of the concepts by the Author/Subject Matter Expert.

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» Facilitates thinking and problem solving: It improves research skills, collaborative working, problem solving, technology and organisational skills.

hello children today I am going to tell you how to draw the percentage part I gram as you remember earlier we have taken the discussion about the diagrams and especially the bar diagrams in which I told you that they are different type of bar diagrams for example simple bar diagram multiple bar diagram and subdivided bar diagram these three we have discussed earlier now another form of bar diagram is percentage bar diagram now let us see how we draw the percentage bar diagrams now first I'll tell you what is the meaning of percentage bar diagram these diagrams show different parts of the values of a set of data in percentages as the name denotes percentage so in this way the percentage bar diagram they show the values of any particular detail in the form of percentages now these diagrams they show different parts of the values of set of data in percentages so this way percentage bar diagrams are defining the data or explaining the values in the form of percentage all the bars here are drawn on the basis of percentage this means that the values which are given to us that has to be converted into percentage first then we can draw the diagram and if already the values are given in percentage then you need not convert it again so if the values are given in percentage then directly you will draw the diagram on the basis of the values given otherwise you have to convert the values into percentages now in this percentage bar diagram there are three characteristics mainly total length of the bar is assumed to be hundred right as you have done earlier in the simple bar diagram and in the multiple bar diagrams or even in subdivided bar diagrams the length of the bar was on the basis of the given values but here the length of the bar will be on the basis of percentage and all the total length of the bar will be 100 only so this means that all the bars will be of same length breadth of the bar and length of the bar was saved in the earlier bar diagrams but here the length will be hundred that will be the same but the breadth will vary according to the total value this I will explain to you with the help of an example then it will be more clear to you but one characteristic you should know that total length of the bar is assumed to be 100 in the percentage bar diagram each part is shown as a part of 100 so when you are dividing the bar on the basis of the given values then each part will be a part of 100 because it is on the percentage basis and comparison is again on the basis of percentage not on the basis of absolute values as we have done earlier now let us take an example to make it clear to you now in this case what example I have taken we have taken the expenditure of two families this is an imaginary example suppose we are taking the expenditure in rupees or family a and family B now for the explanation sake or to simplify the explanation we have taken only few items right and the values these are also imaginary it can differ according to the expenditure of the family now in this case first item is furniture in which family is spending 500 and family B is spending 300 rupees per month second electricity bill family a expenditure is 200 family B is 60 reigned 150 and 80 water bill 50 and 20 and the other expenditure which we have not specified here another category we have taken as miscellaneous and here family a has 100 rupees and family B has allotted 40 rupees for miscellaneous expenditure now the total of family a is 1000 whereas family B is 500 that means in a month family a is spending double of family B family be spending 500 rupees per month and family a spending 1000 rupees per month now for making the percentage bar diagram you have to take out the percentage of this because this data is not given in percentage so first you have to take out the percentage and on the basis of percentage you will divide the bar into different parts remember the length of the bar will be how much that will be always 100 right so how to take out the percentage this I have explained to you here now family a and family B this is in two parts now family a the expenditure family a is this much what I have noted down here now first we will take out the cumulative value of it cumulative value how to take out this as you have done in cumulative frequency distribution this added up 500 is here so one is first is 500 add up to hundred then it becomes 700 150 then 850 700 plus 150 is 850 850 plus 50 is 900 then again added up that becomes 1000 so total cumulative value of expenditure family a is 1000 which is the same as here this is the total this figure will be the same as this one now we have to take out the percentage expenditure then only we can divide the bar into different parts how to take out the percentage this will be 500 divided by total into 100 this means 5 – this is 50 so first percentages 50 right so this way we will take out the percentage expenditure out of the total so 500 divided by 1,000 is equal to 50 this is equal to 50 here same way we'll take out 700 divided by 1000 that is 20 then this 1 divided by 1,000 into percentage is 15 then next is this and this and the total of this will be 100 because we are taking the percentage next column shows cumulative percentage why do we have to calculate cumulative percentage because when we are dividing the bar then you need to have the cumulative percentage to divide the bar on the basis of added up expenditure then it becomes easier to divide the bar here 50 first 150 + 20 70 this again 85 then again added up 90 and then 100 right this becomes the cumulative percentage of family a this is the cumulative expenditure in percentage of family a similarly we have taken the expenditure of family B total expenditure of family be on different items is given here same 1 total is 500 again cumulative value is 300 + 60 again added up like this it becomes 500 the same figure this is same as this one then percentage again calculated in the same manner this is here it is 300 total is how much total is 500 into 100 this is 5 this becomes 60 so first percentage is 60 right so this way we have got percentage expenditure of family B 60 then again this one divide this one divided by 100 then again we get the percentage as we got the percentage expenditure in the case of family a now fourth column again will add up the percentage expenditure and we get the cumulative percentage expenditure got it so this way first we have to note down the data if it is already given in percentage then you need not to convert into percentage you just have to take out the cumulative percentage and plot the graph if the data is not given in percentage then this way you will convert it into percentage and take out the cumulative percentage and then plot the graph now let us see how the graph is plotted on the basis of percentage now we will move to this part where we have taken the graph remember the breadth of the rectangle is on the basis of ratio as I told you in the case of percentage bar diagram length will always be 100 but breadth may not be the same it depends upon the ratio of different values here in this case family expenditure total of family expenditure is 1000 rupees total of family B is 500 so this is in the ratio of 2 is to 1 right this means that the expenditure of family a is just double of expenditure of family B 2 is to 1 this indicates that the breadth of bar showing the expenditure of family a we'll be double and family B will be half this will be double to is to 1 that means whatever breath we are taking for this family B this breath will be just double to it right because it is the ratio of 2 is to 1 now here the bar is drawn the expenditure is taken on this side and the total expenditure what we have converted into percentage that will be on the basis of this figure given here this is 100 so total length of the bar in the case of family a as well as family B will be 100 that will be the same but here as you see the breath will be different family B is just half of family a because the expenditure is also half and the ratio is 2 is to 1 so the breadth of this family a expenditure is just double of this family B right now what is the next step here from this data you will take out the you will just go through this cumulative percentage this one and this one now according to this data you will divide the bar family a first is 50 so you will divide it till 50 over here then next is 70 so I do not have to add up you just move on to 70 and draw the line here then again next go to 85 here again then next is 90 and net rest is the remainder that is still 100 so this way different divisions are made and each division is shaded by different either by different color or by different sign or symbol so that we can distinguish it now in the first case here this 50 cumulative percentage that was for furniture that is 500 so this first division is for furniture as it is shown in the index second is for electricity bill as shown here third is for rent fourth is for water bill and the last one is for miscellaneous right same way here in family B first division it is 60 so divided till 60 draw a line here take the next division and so on and use the same symbol for both the bus just to make the comparison clear and easier to understand right and remember that whatever symbols assigns you are showing here that you have to clarify here that what particular symbol is indicating right so percentage bar diagram are very easy to draw and on the basis of the data given first you have to convert data into percentage remember and then draw the bar accordingly now I will tell you that what is the difference or you have learnt up earlier about the subdivided bar diagram and here now we have taken percentage bar diagram what is the basic difference between the two basic difference is that in the sub divided bar diagram you are comparing the parts comparison is two dimensional in the subdivided bar diagram you are comparing the parts as well as the whole but in the percentage bar diagram you are not able to compare the whole because whole is always given in percentage you can compare the values only in term of percentages or in the term of subdivisions meat but you cannot compare on the absolute basis as it is possible in the case of subdivided bar diagram so percentage bar diagram is always on percentage basis and the comparison is always made on the percentage pieces I think it is clear to you now next time next what I will telling you that will be pie diagram another form of diagram that is pie diagram right children now we will take the explanation of pie diagram this pie diagram this is another method to show the distribution of values of different parts in the form of percentage basis as we have done percentage bar diagram this is another way to represent the data on the percentage basis with the help of pie diagram though pie diagrams can also be drawn on the basis of absolute values but in the case of absolute values you have to draw two circles to show the data because the absolute values will be different and that will be a little difficult task so in that case normally pie diagrams are drawn on the basis of percentage basis for general explanation okay now we will see what are the bar diagrams it is a very simple and attractive way of representing various components of a total in percentage it is again shown on the basis of percentage and it is a very simple and attractive way of showing the data on the percentage basis so this is also known as angular diagram or pie chart right now what are the features of pie diagram first total angle of the circle is 360 degree as the distribution is shown on the basis of a circle and you know the circle has 360 degrees so the whole data is shown with a circle having 360 degrees or two pi and that is why it is known as pie diagram because the total circle is equal to two pi or 360 degrees second comparatively easier to draw what doing that comparatively easier to draw in comparison to subdivided bar diagrams or other diagonals what you have learnt in comparison to all children this is comparatively easier to draw and it looks more attractive and you know what is a pie it's like it's a pieces you have seen the Pisa you cut the pies that the pieces so here the circle is drawn and each piece is showing different values so it is very attractive and easier to draw third is it is suitable for making comparisons when the pie diagram is made different components are drawn on the basis of dividing the circle into different parts then each part will show different values and the comparison can be made that which part is bigger and which is smaller so at a glance comparison becomes easier and circle has 360 degrees and each angle is shown on the basis of the value given it is easier to emphasize a particular area of distribution that will be more clear to you when we'll be learning about the shape of the diagram so these are the four features it is it has the angle of 360 degrees it is easier to draw it is suitable for making comparisons and it is useful in emphasizing areas so these are the four main features of pie diagram now let us move to the limitations one is as you have to show the percentage on the basis of angles sometimes a lot of calculations are involved because the total value what is given in percentage if it is not given in percentage first again you will convert it into percentage and when you have converted them into percentage again you have to convert them into angles because according to the converted degree of angles only you will be able to divide the circle into different parts so sometimes it needs lot of calculation so this is one limitation of Pi diagram it involves lot of calculations second when it was lot of calculations then obviously there are chances of errors also so you have to be more particular in calculations second it is not suitable in case of number of components is large now as I told you it has 360 degrees it is a circle and if the number of components are very large then each angle is shown with the help of protector or you can say the whole circle is divided into different angles and if they are 20-30-40 subparts then naturally the diagram will be little complicated and difficult to draw because each and every angle is difficult to draw in the small circle so sometimes it becomes little difficult but if the items are less or components are less then it is considered a very useful and attractive way to show the you

Median Individual and Discrete Series Class XI Economics by Manju goyal



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For the first time in INDIA, textbook in Economics, Accountancy & Business Studies with FREE Video Lectures by Eminent Authors/Subject Expert.

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About the Book
» Written strictly according to the latest syllabus prescribed by the CB.S.E., New Delhi.
» Up-to-date study material provided by using the latest available data.
» Elaborate explanation of the concepts.
» Summary (Points to Remember) given at the end of each Chapter.
» Numerical Problems from previous years’ question papers incorporated and solved in the respective Chapters.
» Methodology of solving typical numerical problems given wherever necessary.
» Methodology of drawing typical diagrams given wherever necessary.
» Comprehensive Exercises given at the end of each Chapter.
» Sample Question Paper given at the end of the book.
» Multi-disciplinay Problems given at the end of the books.
» Video lectures on each topic with replies to queries for better and clear understanding of the concepts by the Author/Subject Matter Expert.

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Determination of Market Equilibrium Class XII Economics by S K Agarwala



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» Up-to-date study material provided by using the latest available data.
» Elaborate explanation of the concepts.
» Summary (Points to Remember) given at the end of each Chapter.
» Numerical Problems from previous years’ question papers incorporated and solved in the respective Chapters.
» Methodology of solving typical numerical problems given wherever necessary.
» Methodology of drawing typical diagrams given wherever necessary.
» Comprehensive Exercises given at the end of each Chapter.
» Sample Question Paper given at the end of the book.
» Multi-disciplinay Problems given at the end of the books.
» Video lectures on each topic with replies to queries for better and clear understanding of the concepts by the Author/Subject Matter Expert.

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» Easy to access anytime: With video lectures, students can learn anywhere from their mobile devices: desktops, laptops, tablets or smartphones.
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» Eases the distraction of having to transcribe the lectures.
» Self-paced learning: Students can follow along with the lecture at their own pace, going more slowly or quickly
» Bookmarking: Students can bookmark the point where they’re up to in the video so they can easily return and continue watching the lecture at a later point.
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» Greater accuracy: Students will understand the lecture better and can make sure that they have not misheard anything.
» Facilitates thinking and problem solving: It improves research skills, collaborative working, problem solving, technology and organisational skills.

we are studying of a competition we have already studied two aspects meaning and features now we come to its third aspect price determination I have just told you a firm cannot influence the price but industry can so we call such a situation as firm is a price taker you take the price as given while firm is the price maker price maker means that the firm can influence the market price now question is who determines price industry and all the buyers together they together determine the price neither industry alone not all the buyers alone both taken together they determine the price when is price determined when industry and buyers agree on a common price and a common quantity the price at which the industry is willing to offer the same quantity at which the buyers are willing to buy the same quantity let us take an example take example Lilith say price then we have market demand market supply suppose prices 1 2 3 4 5 and market demand lower the price higher the market demand say 500 400 300 200 and 100 and market supply higher the market price higher the supply starting with 100 200 300 400 500 out of all these combinations of price and market demand and market supply at first combination demand is greater than supply and this is a fact when demand is due to thin supply what will happen price will rise even here demand is greater than supply what will happen price will rise here demand is equal to supply this is equilibrium price here demand is less than supply price will fall here demand is less than supply price will fall so out of all these possibilities this is the equilibrium market price and this is the price which will be determined in the market where simple demand is equal to supply rule diagrammatically its simple demand curve is downward-sloping you are familiar by now supply curve is upward sloping you are also familiar by now diagrammatically where the two intersect at this point at this point quantity demanded and quantity supply are equal at a common price o P so this is the equilibrium price now the question arises why is no other price the equilibrium go your price equilibrium price ko nahin hang J equilibrium price Coney hey yeh kya yeh yeh kya yeh kya yeh yeh kya yeh let us in terms of diagram we can say why is this not equilibrium price why is this not equilibrium price suppose price is op1 prices op1 what do you find at this price at this price demand is greater than supply of course price will rise but why that we will see just now when the mod is greater than supply by how much let us say D 1 s 1 by D 1 s 1 V it is the other way around suppose prices let let us repeat suppose prices op1 hair demand is less than supply so we call by how much by D 1 s 1 D 1 s 1 at price p1 supply is P 1 s 1 demand is P 1 D 1 the difference is d 1 s 1 we call this difference as excess supply so D 1 s 1 is excess supply supply your hair what demand K mukha Blamey Xia hooky Abbess K effects care honking or let us say a defect Nikkei sorry effect okay chain of effects LIF at Cuyahoga supplies the other hair demand come here firms will not be able to sell all they want to sell Bishop angry I got business buying it so free Calgary it will lead to competition between firms causing competition say que Haga causing price to fall there will be competition price will start falling chicken Chema's Gillig a of the cake effect or or Cacique much power excess supply excess supply hanukkah Kamath low supply giada de Montcalm producers Mishnah buying it so they will have to to attract the customer they have to lower the price price starts falling now what will happen the price fall do what discourages producers why why does it discourage because they are now having less profit so it discourages price fall discourages producers so leading to what leading to fall in supply you

Economics Questions – UPSC Prelims – 2015 & 2016 Past Paper Analysed



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Multiple Bar Diagrams Class XI Economics by Manju goyal



Views:15367|Rating:4.81|View Time:14:28Minutes|Likes:154|Dislikes:6
For the first time in INDIA, textbook in Economics, Accountancy & Business Studies with FREE Video Lectures by Eminent Authors/Subject Expert.

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To view FREE Video Lectures visit www.goyalsOnline.com/commerce

About the Book
» Written strictly according to the latest syllabus prescribed by the CB.S.E., New Delhi.
» Up-to-date study material provided by using the latest available data.
» Elaborate explanation of the concepts.
» Summary (Points to Remember) given at the end of each Chapter.
» Numerical Problems from previous years’ question papers incorporated and solved in the respective Chapters.
» Methodology of solving typical numerical problems given wherever necessary.
» Methodology of drawing typical diagrams given wherever necessary.
» Comprehensive Exercises given at the end of each Chapter.
» Sample Question Paper given at the end of the book.
» Multi-disciplinay Problems given at the end of the books.
» Video lectures on each topic with replies to queries for better and clear understanding of the concepts by the Author/Subject Matter Expert.

Benefits of Video Lectures
» Easy to access anytime: With video lectures, students can learn anywhere from their mobile devices: desktops, laptops, tablets or smartphones.
» Students learn when they are primed to learn.
» Students can pause, rewind and replay the lecture.
» Eases the distraction of having to transcribe the lectures.
» Self-paced learning: Students can follow along with the lecture at their own pace, going more slowly or quickly
» Bookmarking: Students can bookmark the point where they’re up to in the video so they can easily return and continue watching the lecture at a later point.
» Searchability: Students can easily search through the lecture to find the required sub-topic they need, without having to rewind and fast forward throughout the video.
» Greater accuracy: Students will understand the lecture better and can make sure that they have not misheard anything.
» Facilitates thinking and problem solving: It improves research skills, collaborative working, problem solving, technology and organisational skills.

now children after completing the simple bar diagram or bar chart we next move to the multiple bar diagrams as the word denotes multiple here in the multiple bar diagram we have multiple bars right now in the simple bar diagram we had only single bar now here we have multiple bars in bar diagram now here multiple in this we have double bar diagram and triple bar Telegram that means two adjacent bars are drawn or three bars are drawn in the set but it will not be more than three otherwise the data will become or you can say the diagram will become more complicated or complex so in the multiple bar diagram we do not have multiple bars but only either two or three whereas in simple bar diagram we have only single bar now this is the example I have taken four double bar chart in the double bar chart two variables are given that means whenever you have to compare the data of two variables then this double bar chart is drawn for example if you are comparing the data given in a particular year birth rate and death rate you have to make the comparison between birth rate and death rate or you can say any other comparison like for example export or import so this type of data whatever in which there are two variables and you have to make the comparison between two variables then double bar diagrams are more suitable now here we have taken the example of birth and death rate I know you must be familiar with the birth rate birth rate is what the rate at which the number of children born per thousand per year right this is birth rate and death rate is number of people dying per thousand per year that is known as death rate so here we have got the data of birth rate and death rate and you have to compare that how many are born in a particular year and how many are dying in a particular year then this is showing two variables and you can make the comparison by a by drawing two adjacent bars now let us take the example of this with the help of diagram here you see the diagram I have given this is on the basis of the data of birth rate and death rate now here again as in the simple bar diagram I told you on the x axis that is horizontal axis will take the years and this Oh Y axis this shows birth rate and death rate right now here you see that two busts are drawn that means each year is is showing two set of bars right now one bar shows birth rate in this one set one is showing birth rate and are they showing the death rate similarly for another another year we have different set of two bars now here keep certain things in mind when you are drawing the multiple bar or double bar chart one thing that two adjacent bars are drawn in between there is no gap two bars will be joined together as shown here there is no gap between two bars that means one set of bars that is joined together but the gap between each set of bars that is same as it was in the case of bar diagram always maintained the same gap right so in this children you have to draw two adjacent bars and the length of the bar again depends upon the given data here right as I have one example I have take 1951 to 60 the birth rate was 42 and the death rate was 23 so this was 42 and this was 23 right so this shows one bar which has dots in it this shows birth rate and this shows death rate again to indicate the symbols of this you have to make the index here this index is also known as legend le ge and D this is either you name it index or you can name it legion now here this box in is indicating that similar to this box this is birth rate and similar to the other one this is death rate so both the pass has two different symbols and this you have to indicate here in the legend or in the index so that the reader or that person who is reading the diagram he can immediately make out that this particular bar is showing birth rate and the other one is showing the death rate and again in 1961 to 70 it is 41 birth rate and 19 this thing death rate this is 41 and this is 90 right so this way two bars are joined together to make a set of data and here with the help of this type of distribution you can easily make out that birth rate is high and out of this this many this much is the death rate so the comparison you can make and in different years you can say that birth rate has declined here and side-by-side death rate has also declined so with the help of graph or diagram you can make the analysis that birth weight was high in 1951 as well as death rate was also high but later on it is declining till 2001 to 11 right or in a particular if it is increasing then the bar will also go high this will show that there was an increase of particular year then again with there may be a decrease so with the help of this distribution of data or with the help of double bar chart you can make the analysis or you can compare a budget and death rate with the help of double bar chart is that clear to you so this is what I told you about double bar chart right now after this as I told you this a multiple bar diagram so as I told you this is the double bar chart similarly we have triple bar chart and remember I told you that it should not be more than three bars stick to maximum three bars together and if you have to show another data then you can make another diagram for that now here triple bar chart see here this I have not taken any data just I want to do the comparison over here of the production of different occupational sectors what are occupational sectors this is that on the basis of different type of occupation or activities carried on we have three main sectors these are primary sector secondary sector and doshy sector primary sector includes agriculture and it's allied activities or at related activities secondary sector includes all manufacturing industries and the tercius actor includes transport communication and all type of services so we have three main sectors in the economy in which all the activity are divided now here we are taking the percentage here in gross domestic product in different sectors in India this is different sectors in India now what is meant by gross domestic product this is also called in short we call it G D P this stands for gross domestic product now what does it mean G stands for gross that means total D for domestic this means domestic here means within the domestic territory of the country or within the country not including the production outside the country and production gross domestic production or product product means production so total production within the domestic territory of the country that is GDP so this data gives you percentage share in gross domestic product in different sectors in India that means how much is the contribution of each sector primary secondary and tertiary in the GDP of India this is percentage share we are taking so here we have not taken any particular data though it can be on the basis of data also or it should be on the basis of data then only you can find out the length now I have given you the example how three bars are drawn data can be in this form only three different sectors data may be given and on the basis of that you will draw three adjacent bars that again as it was in double bar chart two bars were joined together same way here in triple bar chart three the bars are joined together to make a set of bars right so here three bars are one is indicating for primary now again the same symbols you have to show here so that at a glance a person can make out that which bar is indicating what right so first is primary then secondary then tertiary so three sectors contribution is given in different years and again you have to keep in mind the width of all the bars is the same only the length varies according to the given data or the set of bars will have same gap right maintain the features what I told you earlier same thing you have to follow here and remember one thing that bars when you are making double bar or triple bar always children remember one thing that whatever symbol you are using for particular variable in the another set also same symbol should be used and besides this if you are taking primary first then secondly then tertiary in the second set also follow the same pattern right and for primary if we are using one particular symbol in all the sets for primary you will use the same symbol for secondary there should be only one symbol and for tertiary or the third bar there should be a third variable there should be only one type of symbol or sign it may be colors also if you are using colors you can use three different colors but maintain this thing that for primary you you will always use only one shade of color to show one variable right so this is the triple bar chart right so this way I told you what is simple bar or double bar and the triple bar so this type of distribution you can show with the help of any kind of bar out of these three depending upon the type of data given to you if only one variable is given you will draw a simple bar if two variables are there draw the double bar chart and if three variables are there draw the triple bar chart right isn't it interesting children okay now we will come to another type of diagram this we call subdivided bar diagram or subdivided chart now take the example here here you will see I have given one example to show the subdivided bar diagram now the example says the table given table shows production of rice beet and sugarcane in India during 2008 to 2011 not draw subdivided you

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