Lecture 1 | Modern Physics: Special Relativity (Stanford)



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Lecture 1 of Leonard Susskind’s Modern Physics course concentrating on Special Relativity. Recorded April 14, 2008 at Stanford University.

This Stanford Continuing Studies course is the third of a six-quarter sequence of classes exploring the essential theoretical foundations of modern physics. The topics covered in this course focus on classical mechanics. Leonard Susskind is the Felix Bloch Professor of Physics at Stanford University.

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this program is brought to you by Stanford University please visit us at stanford.edu this quarter we're going to learn about field theory classical field theory fields such as the electromagnetic field gravitational field other fields in nature which I won't name right now propagate which means they change according to rules which give them a wave-like character moving through space and one of the fundamental principles of field theory in fact more broadly nature in general is the principle of relativity the principle the special printless the the principle of special relativity in this particular case the principle of special relativity well let's just call it the principle of relativity goes way back there was not an invention of Einstein's I'm not absolutely sure when it was first announced or articulated in the form which I'll spell it out I don't know whether it was Galileo or Newton or those who came after them but those early pioneers certainly had the right idea it begins with the idea of an inertial reference frame now inertia reference frame this is something a bit tautological about an inertial reference frame Newton's equations F equals MA are satisfied in an inertial reference frame what is an inertial reference frame it's a frame of reference in which Newton's equations are satisfied I'm not going to explain any further what an inertial reference frame is except to say that the idea of an inertial reference frame is by no means unique a reference frame first of all was a reference frame in tale of a reference frame first of all entails a set of coordinate axes in ordinary space X Y & Z and you know how to think about those but it also entails the idea that the coordinate system may be moving or not moving relative to whom relative to whomever we sitting here or you sitting here in this classroom here define a frame of reference we can pick the vertical direction to be the z axis the horizontal direction along my arms here to be the x axis X plus that way X my X is minus in that direction and which one have I left out I've left out the y axis which points toward you from me so there are some coordinate axes for space XY and Z and I didn't this in addition to specify a frame of reference one also imagines that this entire coordinate system is moving in some way relative to you sitting there presumably with a uniform velocity in a definite direction if your frame of reference is an inertial frame of reference in other words if when you throw balls around or juggle or do whatever is supposed to do in an inertial frame of reference if you find yourself in an inertial frame of reference then every other frame of reference that's moving with uniform velocity relative to you now remember what uniform velocity means it doesn't just mean with uniform speed it means with uniform speed in an unchanging direction such a frame of reference is also inertial if it's accelerated or if it starts standing still and then suddenly picks up some speed then it's not an inertial frame of reference all inertial frames of reference according to Newton and also I think also Galileo Galileo was often credited with the idea but I never read enough of Galileo to know whether he actually had it or not neither did I read enough of Newtons they both wrote in languages that I don't understand what was I saying oh yes right according to both Newton and anybody else who thought about it very hard the laws of physics are the same in all inertial reference frames laws of physics meaning F equals MA the forces between objects all the things that we would normally call laws of nature or laws of physics don't distinguish between one frame of reference of and another if you want a kind of pictorial example that I like to use a lot when I'm explaining this to the children or to grownups I like to think about the laws of juggling there are very definite procedures that you train your body to do uh in order to be able to juggle balls correctly now you can imagine yourself being in a railroad car moving with perfectly uniform velocity down the x axis and trying to juggle do you have to compensate for the fact that the train is moving and for particular when you throw a ball up into the air that you have to reach over to the right to compensate for the fact that the train is moving to the left my left your right the answer is no you don't the laws of juggling are the same in every reference frame and every inertial reference frame whatever you do in one reference frame you do exactly the same thing and you'll succeed or fail depending on whether you're a good juggler or not but it will not depend on whether you're moving with uniform velocity so the laws of juggling are the same in every inertial reference frame the laws of mechanics are the same in every inertial reference frame the laws Newtonian laws of gravity are the same in every inertial frame according to Newton what about the laws of electrical phenomena well there there was a clash the clash had to do with Maxwell's equations Maxwell's equations were the field equations the field theory that governed the electromagnetic field and the way that it propagated and sent waves electromagnetic waves that we ordinarily call light or radio waves or so forth and the fundamental dilemma as you all know I'm sure you all know the fundamental dilemma was both according to well here was the dilemma Maxwell's equations said light moves with a certain velocity if you take the various constants that appear in Maxwell's equations and put them together in the right way you get the velocity of waves moving down an axis and that velocity comes out to be a certain number out of Maxwell's equations you have two choices one is to believe that Maxwell's equations are true laws of nature as good as any other laws of nature in which case the principle of relativity says they should be the same in every reference frame but if it follows from Maxwell's equations that the speed of light is three times ten to the eighth meters per second which is about what it is if it follows from Maxwell's equations that light moves that fast and if Maxwell's equations are laws of physics fundamental laws of physics and if the laws of physics are the same in every reference frame then the speed of light must be the same in every reference frame but that was very hard to swallow because if a light beam is going down that axis and you chase it and run along with it that lets say three-quarters of the speed of light then you want to see that light ray moving much more slowly than three times ten to the eighth meters per second relative to you on the other hand the light ray going in the other direction since you're sort of running into it you should see going even faster so all these possibilities could not simultaneously be correct that the laws of nature are the same in every reference frame and that Maxwell's equations are laws of physics in the same sense that Newton's laws of physics namely the same in every reference frame something had to give well the point was of course that they were good laws of nature and that they were the same in every reference frame the thing that had to give is our concepts of velocity space and time and how we measure velocity especially velocities were up which are up near the speed of light now I'm not going to spend the full amount of time that I did previously on the special theory of relativity that can be found on lectures from how long ago and there on the Internet I believe relativity and electromagnetism I think that was maybe about three quarters ago I've lost track yeah they're up there they're on the net and they're the lectures on relativity special relativity and electromagnetic theory we're just going to cut through it real fast we're going to cut through the basic ideas of relativity a little more mathematically than I would do if I were teaching it for the first time I teach it the first time I tend to teach it the way Einstein first conceived of it how do you measure distances how do you measure velocities how do how does the propagation of light influence these things instead I'm going to take a more mathematical view of it and think about the properties of various kinds of coordinate transformations coordinates now consists not only of XY and Z but also time T so imagine every event in the world is characterized by just like every particle would be characterized by a position x y&z every event taking place in space-time is characterized by four coordinates X Y Z and T let's suppress for the moment y&z let's just forget I forget them for the moment and concentrate on X and T that would be appropriate if we were mainly interested in motion along one axis let's focus on that motion along the x axis let's suppose there is no motion along y&z then we can forget y&z for the moment momentarily we'll come back to them and think of motion along X and T and the various reference frames that might be moving along the x axis alright here's here's time vertically is space horizontally physicists always draw space horizontally and time vertically I found out that mathematicians are at least certain computer scientists always draw time going horizontally I didn't know that and I got into an enormous argument with a quantum computer scientist which was ultimately resolved by the fact that he had time going horizontally and I had it going vertically these are traditions I guess traditions grow up around subjects but time is north and X is east I guess or at least time is upward yeah yeah yeah that's what that that that's the point that is the point yes they're thinking of time is the independent variable and everybody knows that it's a law of nature that the independent variable should be horizontal ok all right now let's in let's imagine a moving observer moving down the x axis with a velocity V let's take his origin of spatial coordinates his origin of spatial coordinates at time T equals zero is just the same let's assume that my I'll be the moving observer I move down the x-axis I am my own origin there's nobody who was your origin that seat is vacant over there so that absent a human over there is the center of the x-coordinates in your frame I'm the X prime coordinates and of course I being very egocentric will take my x-acto is origin to be where I am there I do I move down the x-axis we pass each other our origins pass each other at t equals 0 so that means at T equals 0 your axis and my axes are the same or your origin in my origin is the same but then as I move down the x axis my core my coordinate center moves to the right most of the right that's supposed to be a straight line that's as good as I can do under the circumstances that's a straight line and it's moving with velocity V which means it's X prime equals SR it means x equals VT but it's also that's the way you describe it in terms of your coordinates my centre you described by saying x equals VT how do I describe it I just say X prime my coordinate X prime is 0 X prime equals 0 is the same as x equals VT all right what's the relationship between X Prime and X and T well it's easy to work out if you believe this picture the X prime coordinate is the distance from my origin the x coordinate is the distance from your origin so one of these is X the other is X prime the upper one here is X prime the low and here is X and the relationship between them is that they differ by an amount VT in particular X is equal to X prime minus VT or X prime is equal to X plus VT will have it wrong yes I do X prime is X minus BT and X is X prime plus VT yeah I think I have that's correct now all right what about time itself well according to Newton and according to Galileo and according to everybody who came afterward up until Einstein time is just time is just time is just time there was no notion that time might be different in different reference frames Newton had the idea of a universal time sort of God's time God upon his cloud ticking off with his with his super accurate watch and that time was universal for everybody no matter how they were moving and so everybody would agree on what on the time of any given event in this map of space and time here and so the other equation that went with this is that T prime is equal to T let's forget the top equation here let's just forget it one might say that this was the Newtonian or the Galilean transformation properties between X and T your coordinates and the coordinates that I ascribe to a point in space-time now let's examine a light ray moving down the plus x axis if it starts at the origin here then it moves along a trajectory which is x equals CT C being the speed of light now shortly I'm going to set C equal to 1 we're going to work in units in which C is equal to 1 but not quite yet incidentally once you understand a bit of relativity working in coordinates in which C is not equal to 1 is about as stupid as using different units for x and y are if we used yards for x and feet for y then we will have all kinds of funny factors in our equations which would be conversion factors from X which is measured in feet to Y which is measured in our yards the cycle has its uses log scale has its uses no long skilling long scale well let common interest yep I'm not sure we good but okay I'm just saying it is quite often in practical circumstances that one uses different scales yeah you sometimes you might there might be a good reason I mean um it wouldn't be totally unreasonable for a sailor to use different units for horizontal direction and vertical direction hmm I mean he's used to moving around horizontally he might use what miles miles versus fathoms or something nautical miles versus paddles yeah Persian is relative but um when you talk about a frame of reference you need to specify a period of time because obviously goes that 15 billion years there is no yeah we're ignoring now the fact that the universe began at some time and we're imagining now as Newton did and as the early Einstein did that the universe has just been here forever and ever and ever unchanging totally static and space and time have properties which don't change with time now of course that's incorrect in the real world and at some point we will take up the subject of cosmology and find that's not right but as long as we're interested in time intervals which are not I suspect this is what you're getting at as long as we're interested in time intervals which are not too long in particular time intervals over which the universe doesn't expand very much and so forth we can mainly say the properties of space don't change over a period of time and so everything just stays the same as always was is that what you're asking it seems that that this assumption if it is made it needs to what you're describing so well so the question is without imagining to some point as it doesn't lead it doesn't lead to what I'm describing where is this this room for different formulas here this is a formula which is based on an assumption the assumption being that time is universal that's what Einstein found was wrong basically what he found is that when you're in a moving frame of reference to different the observers will not agree about what time a particular event takes place this is the culprit here this one and some modifications to this one but in any case to see what's wrong let's go to Maxwell's equations Maxwell's equations say that light always moves with this velocity C being some numbers in meters per second okay 3 times 10 to the 8th meters per second we will later as I said say C equals 1 let's imagine a light beam moving down the x axis let's describe how X prime sees it in other words you see the light move this way to the right how do I see the light well let's see what I see let's just work it out X prime will be X which is CT for that light ray minus VT which is the same as C minus VT all this says is that I see the light moving with a diminished velocity a velocity C minus V why is that because I'm moving along with the light so naturally I see it move slowly the slow compared to what you see it what about the light going in the other direction supposing it was a light beam going in the other direction then how would you describe it you would describe it as x equals minus CT and if I do exactly the same thing I will find that X prime is equal to X that's minus CT – VT which is the same as minus C plus V times T so what this says is that I will see the light moving also in the negative direction that's the minus sign but I'll see it moving with an enhanced velocity C plus V if this were the right story and if these were the right transformation laws for space and time then it could not be the case that Maxwell's equations are laws of physics or laws of nature in the sense that they were true in every reference frame they would have to be corrected in moving frames just like the juggler who had to reach to the right who didn't actually but who thought he had to reach to the right to collect the ball when train is moving the physicist interested in light beams would have to correct things for the motion of his reference frame now it's an experimental fact that this is not the case that you don't have to correct for motion was the famous Michelson Morley experiment Einstein he just rejected he just felt this can't be right Maxwell's equations were much too beautiful to be relegated to the approximate or to the contingent on which reference frame and so he said about to find a framework in which the speed of light would be the same in every reference frame and he basically focused on these equations and after various very very beautiful Gedanken experiments thought experiments about light and about measuring and so forth he came to a set of formulas called the Lorentz transformations I'm going to explain them the Lorentz transformations in a more mathematical way not fancy mathematics but just get we want to get right to the heart of it and not spend the three weeks doing it the best way is to a mathematical problem but before I do let me set up a different mathematical problem which is for most of you you've seen me do this before but nonetheless let's go through it again the problem of rotation of coordinates we're going to do this quickly let's just take spatial coordinates now for the moment two dimensional spatial coordinates let's forget X and T and just concentrate on X&Y two coordinates in space instead of events in space-time concentrate on a point in space a point in space has coordinates and we can determine those coordinates the x and y coordinates just by dropping perpendicular to the x axis in the y axis and we would describe this point as the point at position let's just call it X Y now there's nothing sacred about horizontal and vertical so somebody else may come along some crazy mathematician a really nutty one who wants to use coordinates which are at an angle relative to the vertical maybe a couple of beers and you don't know the difference between vertical and worth worth worth we should give this direction a name oblique yeah all right the oblique observer the blue observer can blue be seen everybody can see blue okay good ah the blue observer also characterizes points by coordinates which he calls X Prime and Y Prime the X Prime and the Y prime coordinates are found by dropping perpendicular to the X Prime and the Y prime axis so here's X prime is y prime and given a point X Y there's a role it must be a role if you know the value of x and y you should be able to deduce the value of X I'm in y-prime if you know the angle between the two coordinates between the x coordinate and the X prime coordinate and the formulas simple we've used it least in these classes many times I'll just remind you what it is that's X prime is equal to x times cosine of the angle between the two frames between the two coordinate systems minus y times sine of the angle and Y prime is equal to minus plus I think X sine of theta plus y cosine theta I just want to remind you about a little bit of trigonometry all of trigonometry is encoded in two very simple formulas I've used them this signs on these signs of are on the right let's Ella and X prime is bigger than X for small theta since ours here are all so it's Auto Expo Rhine is bigger than it is is it yeah let's see if you rotate it to the next so that y is y prime is zero it's further out X prime rook will have it backward yeah what's your gift I'm not gonna fit nobody so let's say just make sure the links take survive is the little perpendicular there no my life primary so that's y prime y prime is this is why I'm here right right that's why I'm in X prime is bigger than X so there has to be a plus sign on the second you know its prime is bigger than X let's see um yeah X prime is bigger than X yeah X prime is bigger than X looks like that's probably right probably sign but then this one must be man negative yeah okay there's an easy way to correct for it another way to correct for it just call this angle minus theta that would also do the trick because cosine of minus theta is the same as cosine of theta and sine changes sign when you change theta 2 minus theta so if instead of calling this angle theta I called it minus theta then my previous formulas would be right it's true true but the it's an excuse all right what do we know about sine and cosine it's important to understand sine and cosine everything you ever learned about trigonometry can be codified in two very simple formulas if you know about complex numbers the two very simple formulas are that cosine of theta is e to the I theta plus e to the minus I theta over 2 and sine of theta is e to the I theta minus e to the minus I theta over 2i those two formulas contain everything about trigonometry you don't have to know any other formulas other than these for example I will assign you the homework problem of using these two formulas to find cosine of the sum of two angles but the way you would do it is just write the sum of two angles in here and then reexpress the Exponential's in terms of cosine and sine that's easy to do e to the I theta is equal to cosine of theta plus I sine theta and e to the minus I theta is cosine of theta minus I sine theta so work through these formulas get familiar with them they're extremely useful formulas once you know them you will never have to remember any trigonometric formulas again the other thing to know is that e to the I theta times e to the minus I theta is 1 all right e to the anything times e to the minus the same thing is one those things characterize all trigonometric formulas in particular as was explained to me by Michael a number of times if we multiply e to the I theta times e to the minus I theta we will get one on this side but on this side we will get cosine squared of theta plus sine squared of theta naught minus sine squared but plus sine squared cosine squared and then ice minus I squared sine squared that gives us cosine squared plus sine squared cosine squared theta plus sine squared theta so that's equivalent to the fact that e to the I theta times e to the minus I theta is 1 all right now the most important fact that again follows from the simple trigonometry is that when you make the change of coordinates from XY to X prime Y prime something is left unchanged namely the distance from the origin to the point XY that's something which is you know you count the number of the molecules along the blackboard from here to here and that doesn't change when I change coordinates so the distance from the origin to the point XY has to be the same independent of which coordinate axes we use well let's take the square of that distance the square of that distance we know what it is let's call it s squared I'm not sure why I use s but s for distance s s for distance s for space I think it must be for space that I'm using it for the spaces for the spatial distance from the origin to the point XY we know what that is it's Pythagoras theorem x squared plus y squared but as I said there's nothing special about the XY axes we also ought to be able to calculate it as X prime squared plus y prime squared well it's not too hard to work out that X prime squared plus y prime squared is x squared plus y squared it's easy to use do X prime squared plus y prime squared will have x squared cosine squared theta it will also have x squared sine squared theta when you add them you'll get x squared plus y squared you know you know the rigmarole so it follows from cosine squared plus sine squared equals 1 that X prime squared plus y prime squared equals also equal is equal to x squared plus y squared work that out make sure that you have this on the control that you understand why from the trigonometry not from the the basic physics of it or the basic geometry of it is clear make sure that you understand that you can see that from the trigonometry okay one last thing about sines and cosines if I plot on the blackboard for every angle if I plot sine or cosine along the horizontal axis supposing I plot cosine of theta along the horizontal axis and sine of theta along the vertical axis then if I plot all possible angles they will correspond to a bunch of points that lie on a unit circle Y on a unit circle because sine squared plus cosine squared equals 1 so one might call the properties of sine and cosine the properties of circular functions circular in that they're convenient for rotating they're convenient for describing unit circles points on unit circles are described in terms of coordinates which are cosines and sines of angles and so forth it's natural to call them circular functions these are these are not the functions that come in to the transformation the new transformation properties first of all these are wrong and I don't want to use X what's X ya ya now just wrong Newton had it wrong Newton or Galileo however it was postulated who postulated it Einstein modified it now we're going to have to make sure that Einstein's modification doesn't change things in situations where Newton knew where Newton's equations were good approximations the situations where I'm Stan's modifications are important is when we're talking about frames of reference moving very rapidly up near the speed of light before the 20th century nobody or nothing had ever moved faster than a hundred miles an hour probably well of course some things did light did but for all practical purposes light didn't travel at all it's just when you turned on the switch the light just went on so light didn't travel nothing and anybody's experienced direct experience traveled faster than 100 or 200 miles an hour and well I should say nothing travels faster than 100 miles an hour and then live to tell about it so all of experience was about very slow velocities on the scale of the speed of light on the scale of such velocities newton's formulas must be correct they work they're they're very useful they work Nutan got away with it so there must be good approximations it better be that whatever einstein did to the equations in particular to these two equations here had been a reduced to newton's equations in the appropriate limit okay let's come back now to light light according to the Newton formulas doesn't always move with the speed of light but let's let's try to figure out what it would mean of a better formula of a replacement for this but light always moves with the speed of light first of all let's set the speed of light equal to one that's a choice of units in particular it's a choice of the relation between space units and time units if we work in our light years for spent for a distance and years for time then light moves one light year per year the speed of light is one if we use seconds and light seconds it's also one whatever whatever scale we use for space if we use for time the time that it takes light to go that distance one unit of space if we use that for time units then the speed of light is equal to one now from the ordinary point of view of very slowly moving things those are odd units but if we were electrons with neutrinos and whizzing around like photons they would be the natural units for us speed of light equals one so let's set the speed of light equal to one as I said it's just the choice of units and then a light ray moving to the right just moves along a trajectory x equals T C is just equal to one a light ray moving to the left is x equals minus T how can we take both of these equations and put them together sorry x equals minus T can I write a single equation which if it's satisfied is a light ray either moving to the left or to the right yes here's an equation x squared equals T squared it has two solutions x equals T and X equals minus T the two square roots or x squared equals T squared is equivalent to either x equals T or x equals minus T in other words this equation here has the necessary and sufficient condition for describing the motion of a light ray either to the right or to the left supposing we found a replacement for this equation which had the following interesting property that whenever let's let's write it this way X square minus T squared equals 0 this is even better for our purposes x squared minus T squared equals 0 that's the necessary and sufficient condition to describe the motion of a light ray supposing we found a new set of rules a new set of transformation properties which which um had the property that if x squared minus T squared is equal to 0 then we will find that X prime squared minus T prime squared is equal to 0 in other words supposing this implied this and vice-versa then it would follow that what the unprimed observer you and your seats see is a light ray the primed observer me moving along also see as a light ray both of us agreeing that light rays move with unit velocity now this doesn't work for Newton's formula here it just doesn't work if X is equal to T it does not follow that X prime is equal to the T prime in fact it says something quite different okay so the form of these equations must be wrong let's look for some better equations now at this point let's in fact let's even be a little bit more ambitious it turns out being a little bit more ambitious actually simplifies things let's not only say that when X square minus T squared is equal to zero then X prime squared minus T prime squared is equal to zero let's say something even bolder let's say the relation between XT and X prime T prime is such that x squared minus T squared is equal to X prime squared minus T prime squared in other words pick any X and any T and calculate X square minus T squared then take the same point except reckoned in the primed coordinates in other words we take a certain event a light bulb goes off someplace you say that corresponds to X and T I say it corresponds to X Prime and T Prime but let's require just to try it out see if we can do it let's look for transformations so that X square minus T squared will always be equal to X prime squared minus T's prime squared that would be enough to ensure that everybody will agree about the speed of light why if x squared minus T squared equals X prime minus T prime squared for all X and T and so forth then when X square minus T squared equals zero X prime minus T prime squared will be zero and then if this is a light ray so is this a light ready everybody get the logic ok good so let's assume now that let's ask can we find transformations which have this particular property now it's not so different from looking for transformations which preserve x squared plus y squared equals x prime squared plus y prime squared it's just a little minus sign other than a minus sign here X square minus T squared look of these two is very similar and the mathematics is quite similar here are the transformations which preserve x squared plus y squared what are the transformations which preserve x squared minus T squared well they are the Lorentz transformations they are the fundamental transformations of the special theory of relativity they're not this but they're closely related or perhaps one should say closely analogous to these equations here but we have to substitute for circular trigonometry hyperbolic trigonometry so let's go back and remember a little bit about hyperbolic functions instead of circular functions well I didn't want to erase that all right these are the basic rules governing circular functions cosine theta this sine theta is equal to this and the e to the I theta in terms of cosine and sine all right let's see if we have a yeah we do have a blank blackboard here let me write whoops what did I do here I erased something I didn't mean to erase incidentally does everybody see how I got this side from the side you just add and subtract the equations appropriately and you isolate it to the I theta e to the minus R theta that's elementary exercise alright hyperbolic functions what are hyperbolic functions alright those are functions of the form hyperbolic cosine cosh hyperbolic cosine first of all the angle theta is replaced by a variable called Omega which I will call Omega Omega is called a hyperbolic angle it doesn't go from zero to two pi and then wind around on a circle it goes from minus infinity to infinity goes from minus infinity to infinity so it's a variable that just extends over the entire real axis but it's defined in a manner fairly similar to cosine and sine cosh Omega is by definition you're not allowed to ask why this is definition e to the Omega plus e to the minus Omega over 2 all we do is substitute for theta or for Omega theta I theta substitute Omega and that gives you hyperbolic functions likewise or similarly there's the hyperbolic sine and that's given by e to the Omega minus e to the minus Omega over 2 essentially you throw away all eyes out of that formula out of the top formulas just throw away all Sun all eyes the equations on the right-hand side become e to the Omega equals hyperbolic cosh Omega plus sin Chi Omega and e to the minus Omega equals cosh so mega- cinch Omega I think that's right is it right gosh – cinch it is yeah it is right okay now what about the analog of cosine squared plus sine squared equals one that simply came by multiplying this one by this one so let's do the same operation multiplying e to the Omega by each by e to the minus Omega gives one and now that gives cosh squared minus cinch squared you see we're getting a minus what we want we want that minus the minus is important we want the well somewhere is under here was a formula with a minus sign yeah we want to get that – into play here that's cos Omega squared knockouts Prakash squared Omega minus sin squared Omega so it's very similar everything you want to know about hyperbolic trigonometry and the theory of these functions is called hyperbolic trigonometry everything you ever want to know is codified in these simple formulas these in these and they're more or less definitions but there are the useful definitions now yeah go ahead yeah not only is it worth mentioning I was just about to mention it so I squared minus y squared is what hyperbola yeah right exactly so if I were to play the same game that I did here namely plot on the horizontal and vertical axis the values not of cosine of theta and sine of theta but cosine cosine cosh of that of Omega and since Omega what's in other words on the x-axis now we're going to plot cos Omega and on the y-axis cinch Omega then this is a hyperbola not a circle but a hyperbola and it's a hyperbola with asymptotes that are at 45 degrees you can see let me show you why why the asymptotes are at 45 degrees when Omega is very large when Omega is very large then e to the minus Omega is very small right when Omega is very large e to the minus Omega is very small and that means both cosh and cinch are both essentially equal to e to the plus Omega in other words when Omega gets very big cosh and cinch become equal to each other and that's this line here cash equals cinch along this line here so when Omega gets very large the curve asymptotes to to a curve which is a 45 degrees it's not hard to see that in the other direction when Omega is very negative that that it asymptotes to the other asymptotic line here so that's why it's called hyperbolic geometry it the hyperbolic angle the hyperbolic angles the caches the cinches play the same role relative to hyperbolas as sines and cosines do two circles any questions No so cosh Omega equals zero how would you plot that hi purple okay show me hmm Oh cos squared minus sin squared equals zero no that's no no cos squared minus sin squared equals one in the same sense that sine squared plus cosine square it never equals zero I think what I think you want to ask a different question I think oh well since Omega equals zero is the horizontal axis the costume a equals zero is the vertical eyebrows right okay well this is the x-intercept yeah it's it's the vertex I just think here's one point on a minute oh man the x-intercept there is one yeah because Kostroma cost of zero is one to see that just plug one r 0 in here 1 plus 1 divided by 2 is 1 at least it was yesterday yeah stores okay so now we we're sort of starting to cook a little bit we're starting to see something that has that nice minus sign in it but what's it got to do with X and T and X Prime and T prime we're now set up to make let's call it a guess but it's a guess which is based on the extreme similarity between hyperbolas and circles cautions and cosines and so forth he is the guess I'm going to make and then we'll check it we'll see if it does the thing we wanted to do my formula instead of being this has gotten with and we're now going to have instead of x and y we're going to have x and t time and x later on we'll put back y&z we're going to have to put back y&z but they're very easy okay so let's start with X prime X prime is the coordinate given to a point of space-time by the moving observer namely me and I'm going to guess that it's some combination of X and T not too different but not the same as where is it X prime equals X minus VT I'm going to try cosh Omega X let's write X cos Omega minus T sin Omega sort of in parallel with this I could put a plus sign here but you can go back and forth between the plus and the minus by changing the sign of Omega just as you did here so this let's do it this way X cos Omega minus T sin Omega and T prime going to look similar but without the extra minus sign here this you know the relation between sines cosines and cautious and cinches is one of just leaving out an eye you go from sines and cosines the clashes and cinches by leaving out the I well if you track it through carefully you'll find that this minus sign was really an I squared it's not going to matter much I will just tell you it was really came from some I squared and if you leave out I I squared just becomes one squared is no minus sign so here's the guess for the formula connecting X prime T Prime with X and T it equals let's say X since Omega – no – plus T cos Omega in this case there are two minus signs in this case there was only one minus sign okay but but let's check what do we want to check we want to check that X prime squared minus T prime squared is equal to x squared minus T squared your ask you're probably asking yourself what is this Omega what does it have to do with moving reference frames I'll tell you right now what Omega is it's a stand-in for the velocity between the frames we're going to find the relationship between Omega and the relative velocity of the reference frames in a moment there has to be a parameter in the lower end these are the lines in these are the Lorentz transformations connecting two frames of reference in the Lorentz transformations as a parameter it's the velocity the relative velocity that parameter has been replaced by Omega it's a kind of angle relating the two frames a hyperbolic angle but we'll we'll come back to that for the moment let's prove that with this transformation law here that X prime squared minus T prime squared is equal to zero ah is equal to X square minus T squared I'm getting to that point in the evening where I'm going to make mistakes all right this is easy you just work it out you use all you have to use is that cosine squared minus sine squared is 1 you can work that out by yourself but we can just see little pieces of it here X prime squared will have x squared cos squared Omega t prime squared will have x squared sin squared Omega if I take the difference between them I'll get a term with an x squared times cos squared minus sin squared but cos squared minus sin squared is one fine so we'll find the term with an x squared when we square take the square of the difference between the squares of this and this and likewise will also find the T squared the cross term when you square X Prime you'll have XT cost cinch when you square T Prime you'll have XT costs inch when you subtract them it'll cancel and it's easy to check that's our basically one liner to show that with this transformation here x prime squared minus T's prime squared is x squared minus T squared which is exactly what we're looking for let me remind you why are we looking for it if we find the transformation for which the left-hand side and the right-hand side are equal then if x squared equals T squared in other words if the right-hand side is 0 the left-hand side will also be 0 but x squared but x equals T that's the same as something moving with the speed of light in the X frame of reference if this being 0 is equivalent to the left hand side being 0 it says that in both frames of reference the light rays move with the same velocity so that's the basic that's the basic tool that we're using here X prime squared minus T prime squared is equal to x squared minus T squared all right that does follow by a couple of lines using cos squared minus N squared equals 1 but what I want to do let's take another couple of minutes now let's take a break for five minutes and then come back and connect these variables Omega with the velocity of the moving frame of reference somebody asked me a question about the ether and what it was that people were thinking somehow Einstein never got trapped into this mode of thinking um well what were they thinking about when they were thinking about the ether what exactly was the michelson-morley experiment well I'll just spend the minute or two mentioning it certainly Maxwell understood that his equations were not consistent with with Newtonian relativity he understood that but his image of what was going on is that the propagation of light was very similar to the propagation of sound in a material or water waves propagating on water and of course it is true that if you move relative to the atmosphere or move relative to the substance that sound is propagating in you'll see sound move with different velocities depending on your motion if you're at rest in a gas of material isn't there's a natural sense in which is a particular rest frame the rest frame is the frame in which on the average the molecules have zero velocity if you're in that reference frame then first of all light has the same velocity that way as that way number one and it has a velocity that's determined by the properties of the fluid that the sound is moving in okay Maxwell more or less thought that light was the same kind of thing that there was a material and the material had a rest frame and that particular rest frame was the frame in which light would move with the same velocity to the left as to the right and he thought that he was working out the mechanics or the behavior of this particular material and that we were pretty much at rest relative to this material and that's why we saw light moving the same way to the left of the right one would have to say then that Maxwell did not believe that his equations were a universal set of laws of physics but that they would change when you moved from frame to frame just happened by some luck we happen to be more or less at rest relative to the ether to this strange material um of course you could do an experiment with sound if you're moving through the sound you can check that the velocity in different directions is different you do let's not worry exactly how you do that that's what the Michelson Morley experiment was Michelson and Morley I suppose said look the earth is going around in an orbit maybe at one season of the year we just happen to be at rest relative to the ether by accident and some other season six months later we're going to be moving in the opposite direction and we won't well we won't be at rest only at one point in the orbit could we be at rest relative the–this or at any other point in the orbit we wouldn't be so if we measure in November that light moves the same than all possible directions then in what's what's the opposite of November May then in May we should find that light is moving with great with the different velocities in different directions and he tried it and a very fancy and sophisticated way of measuring the relative velocity in different directions but he found that there was no discrepancy that the light traveled the same velocity in every direction at every time of year there were all sorts of ways to try to rescue the ether but none of them worked none of them work and the result was one had to somehow get into the heart of space and time and velocity and mid distance and all those things in a much deeper way in a way that didn't involve the idea of a material at rest in some frame of reference that that propagated the light okay oh where are we I forgotten where we were when we stopped somebody remind me whoo-hah Omega yeah what is Omega forgotten Omega Oh how Omega is really metal speed of light but to the velocity of the moving reference frame here we have two reference frames X T and X Prime and T prime what's the relationship between them well the whole goal here was to understand the relationship between frames of reference moving with relative velocity between them Omega is not exactly the relative velocity but it is closely related to it okay let's say let's see if we can work out the relationship we know enough to do it let's see if we can work out the relationship between Omega and the velocity of the moving frame all right again let's go back to this picture there's a frame of reference moving let's redraw it here's my origin moving along okay what does it mean to say that from your perspective my frame of reference so my origin is moving with velocity V well by definition this is not a law now this is a definition and says that this line here has the equation x equals VT that's the definition of this V here my origin moves relative to your origin it moves with a uniform constant velocity that's an assumption that we're talking about two inertial frames of reference and you in your frame of reference will write x equals VT that's the definition of V if you like what will I call it I will call it X prime equals zero all along there I will say X prime is equal to zero it's my origin of coordinates okay now let's come to this transformation law here and see if we can spot how to identify V well X prime equals zero that's this trajectory moving at an angle with a velocity V X prime equals zero is the same as saying X cos Omega equals T sin Omega X prime equals zero set this side equal to zero and that says that X cos Omega equals T sin Omega all right so whatever the connection between velocity and Omega is it must be such that when X prime is equal to zero X cos Omega equals T sin Omega well let's look at that equation it also says that X is equal to sin CH Omega over cos Omega times T well that's interesting because it's also supposed to be equivalent to x equals VT now I know exactly how to identify what the velocity is as a function of Omega the velocity of the moving transformation the moving coordinate system must just be sin Chi Omega over cos Omega that's the only way these two equations can be the same x equals VT x equals sin Chi Omega over cos Omega times T so now we know it we know what the relationship between velocity and Omega is write it down the velocity of the moving frame now this is not the velocity of light it's just the velocity of the moving frame must just be cinch Omega over cos omega well actually i want to invert this relationship i want to find sin and cos omega in terms of the velocity i want to rewrite these Lorentz transformations where are they i want to rewrite these Lorentz transformations in terms of the velocity that's the familiar form in which you learn about it in in elementary relativity books X prime is equal to something with velocities in it to exhibit that all we have to do is to find Cinch and cosh Omega in terms of the velocity that's not very hard let's let's work it out the first step is to square it and to write V squared is equal to cinch Omega squared over cosh Omega squared that was easy next I'm going to get rid of since Omega squared and substitute where is it I lost it one is equal to cos Omega squared minus cinch Omega squared alright so wherever I see cinch Omega squared I can substitute from here namely cosh squared Omega minus one is equal to sine squared Omega so here we are this is just equal to hash of Omega squared minus one divided by cost of Omega squared or let's multiply by what I want to do is solve for cost Omega in terms of velocity I want to get rid of all these cautions and cinches of Omega and rewrite it in terms of velocity so first x cost Omega squared we have cosh squared Omega times V squared equals cosh squared Omega minus one or it looks to me like this is cosh squared Omega times one minus V squared equals one what I've done is transpose yeah cos squared times V squared minus cos squared itself that gives you cos squared 1 minus V squared equals 1 change the sign can everybody see that the second line follows from the first I'll give you a second yeah yeah yeah it's clear ok finally we get that cos Omega is equal to 1 divided by 1 minus V squared but now I have to take the square root cos Omega / one minus V squared and then take the square root and that gives you cos Omega now we've all seen these square roots of 1 minus V squared in relativity formulas here's where it begins the kayne we begin to see it materializing what about sin Chi Omega let's also write down sin Chi Omega well from here we see that sin Chi Omega is just equal to V times cos Omega this is easy since Omega equals V times cos Omega sorrow sin Chi Omega is V divided by square root of 1 minus V squared let's go back to these Lorentz transformations over here and write them getting rid of the trigonometric functions the hyperbolic trigonometric functions and substituting good old familiar velocities let's get rid of this and substitute the good old ordinary velocities ok so we have here X prime equals x times cos Omega and that's divided by square root of 1 minus V squared then this minus T times sin Omega which is V over the square root of 1 minus V squared or if I put the two of them together and combine them over the same denominator it's just X minus VT divided by square root of 1 minus V squared I think most of you have probably seen that before maybe slightly different let's let's clean it up a little bit X prime equals X minus VT divided by the square root of 1 minus V squared what about T prime T Prime is equal to t minus V X over square root of 1 minus V squared T prime is equal to T times cos cost is just 1 over square root and then x times sin CH that gives us the extra V in other words the formulas are more or less symmetrical and those are all good old Lorentz transformations now what's missing is the speed of light let's put back the speed of light the put back the speed of light is an exercise in dimensional analysis there's only one possible way the speed of light can fit into these equations they have to be modified so that they're dimensionally correct first of all one is dimensionless has no dimensions it's just one velocity is not dimensionless unless of course we use dimensionless notation for it but if velocity is measured in meters per second then it's not dimensionless how do we make V squared dimensionless we divide it by the square of the speed of light in other words this V squared which is here which has been defined in units in which the speed of light is 1 has to be replaced by V squared over C squared likewise over here V squared over C squared now velocity times time does have notice first of all the left hand side has units of length the right hand side this is dimensionless X has units of length but so does velocity times time so this is okay this is dimensionally consistent as it is but over here it's not the left hand side has dimensions of time that's all right 1 minus V squared over C square that's dimensionless this has units of time but what about velocity times X velocity times X does not have units of time in order the given units of time you have to divide it by C square okay let's check that velocity is length all the time times length divided by C squared that's length square R which gets correct but it's correct all right this is probably familiar to most of you who've seen relativity once or twice before these are the equations relating to different moving coordinate systems moving relative to the x axis but you see the deep mathematics or the mathematical structure of it in many ways is best reflected by this kind of hyperbolic geometry here and you know most physicists by now never write down the Lorentz transformations in this form much more likely to write them in this form easier to manipulate easier to use trigonometry or or hyperbolic trigonometry it's a little exercise it's a nice little exercise to use this the hyperbolic trigonometry to compute their to compute the compounding of two Lorentz transformations if frame two is moving relative to frame one with velocity V and frame three Israel moving relative to two with velocity V Prime how is three moving relative to one the answer is very simple in terms of hyperbolic angles you add the hyperbolic angles not the velocities but the hyperbolic angles the hyperbolic angle of three moving relative to one is the hyperbolic angle of three moving relative to two plus two moving relative to one and then you use a bit of trigonometry or hyperbolic trigonometry to figure out how you do the inches and kosh's of the sum of 2 hyperbolic angles very straightforward and I'll leave it as an exercise to see if you can work that out much easier than anything else ok so there there we have the Lorentz transformations yeah oh oh absolutely yes that's that's that's a good point yeah when we that's right if we have frame 1 let's call this x1 and y1 x2 and y2 and finally x3 and y3 well then the angle of – let's call F of 3 relative to 1 let's call it theta 1 3 is just equal to theta 1 2 plus theta 2 3 the angle connecting frame one with frame 3 is just the sum of the angle theta 1 2 plus theta 2 3 so in that respect the Lorentz transformations are much simpler in terms of the Omegas it's the Omegas which combined together to add when you add velocities now how different is omega from the velocity let's work in units in which the speed of light is equal to 1 where is our formula for velocity all right let's take this formula over here what a cinch Omega 4 small Omega let's put the C squared there a let's not put the C square there or not put the C square there since Omega is essentially Omega when Omega is small just like sine is omega where is theta when theta is small the cinch function the cost function looks like like this the cinch function looks like this but it but it crosses the axis with a slope of 1 for small Omega cinch Omega is proportional to Omega for small velocity one minus V squared is very close to 1 if the velocity is a hundredth of the speed of light then this to within one ten-thousandth is just 1 if we're talking about velocities a millionth of the speed of light then this is very close to 1 and so since Omega and velocity are very close to each other it's what's going on here Thanks okay so for small velocities Omega and velocity are the same the actual correct statement is that V over C is like Omega the dimensionless velocity over the speed of light is like Omega for small Omega and small velocity so for small velocity adding velocities and adding omegas are the same things but when the velocities get large the right way to combine them to find relationships between different frames is by adding Omega and not adding velocities when you add Omega like compounding velocities as you've got it there I guess you won't go greater than 45 degrees that guess because that would be faster than light no but Omega no more you see this bit the speed of light is V equals one that corresponds to Omega equals infinity yeah yeah so Omega Omega runs over the whole range from minus infinity to infinity but when it does V goes from minus the speed of light to the speed of light so you can add any omegas and still add any omegas Omega that's right there's no there's no speed limit on Omega is this like we just go on that diagram it looks like it's greater than 45 degrees if here where where I make a and I guess they use the definition of state along the hyperbola yeah that's right sorry where are we right there today I guess that's theta though isn't it this is Theta that's a good oh god yeah right right yeah Omega is the distance along hyperbola that's right distances that's right Omega is a kind of distance along the hyperbola all right now let's let's talk about that a little bit all right now that we've established the basic mathematics structure of the transformations I think we should go back and talk about some simple relativity phenomena and derive them oh one thing which is important which I yeah well let's see we're here are my Lorentz transformations over here I said we should we ought to at the end make sure that our transformations are not too dissimilar from Newton's in particular when the velocities are small they should reduce to Newton that's all we really know that's or at least that's all that Newton really had a right to assume that when the velocities are smaller than something or other that his equations should be good approximations isn't adding velocity good enough isn't velocities adding good enough in fact you're right in fact you're right but let's just look at the transformations themselves all right as long as the velocity is a small percentage of the speed of light an ordinary velocities are what a hundred miles an hour versus 186,000 miles an hour what is that it's small right and it's doubly small when you square it so for typical ordinary velocities even the velocities of the earth around the Sun and so forth fairly large velocities what 60 kilometers per second or something like that 60 kilometers per second is pretty fast that's the that's the orbital earth around the Sun it's pretty fast but it's nowhere near 300,000 kilometers per No yeah looks here on a thousand meters per second we're I'm sorry three times ten to the eighth no three times three hundred thousand kilometers per second right 60 kilometers per second three hundred thousand kilometers per second small fraction and then square it so for ordinary motions this is so close to one that the deviation from one is negligible so let's start with the top equation for the top equation this is negligible and it's just x prime equals X minus VT the bottom equation here you have a C squared in the denominator whenever you have a C squared in the denominator that's a very very large thing in the denominator this is negligible compared to T so here the speed of light is also in the denominator just forget this and it's just T but it's just T prime equals T it's just D prime equals T so in fact Newton's formulas are essentially correct for slow velocities no no significant departure from Newton until the velocities get up to be some some appreciable fraction of the speed of light okay let's talk about proper time proper time and then let's do a couple of relativity examples yeah question the bottom equation when X is very large yes that's right when X is exceedingly large you get a correction but that correction that X has to be very large look let's let's discuss before we do anything else let's let's let's talk about that a little bit X minus VT one minus V squared over C squared yeah let's alright in my drawings I'm going to sitt C equal to one but in the equations you can leave the C there okay this equation we understand apart from this one minus V squared over C squared in the denominator it's just this x equals V T or X minus V X minus X minus VT that's Newton let's look at this one over here okay let's look at the surface T prime equals zero T prime equals zero is the set of points that I in my moving reference frame call T call time equals zero it's what I call the set of points which are all simultaneous with the origin T prime equals zero is just everyplace in space-time which has exactly the same time according to my frame of reference and I will therefore call all those points synchronous at the same time what do you say about them if T prime is equal to zero that says that T is equal to V over C squared X now let's set C equal to one for the purpose of drawing just for the purpose of drawing I don't want this huge number C squared to distort my drawings too much it says the T equals V X what does the surface T equals V X look like it looks like this T equals V X which is also X is equal to 1 over V T so it's just a uniform line like that all of these points are at different times from your reckoning this ones later this ones later this ones later and so forth according to my reckoning all these points are at the same time so we disagree about what's simultaneous this was this was the hang-up incidentally this was the basic hang-up that took so long to overcome that took Einstein to overcome it the idea that simultaneity was the same in every reference frame nobody in fact it was so obvious that nobody even thought to ask a question is simultaneous does it mean the same thing in every reference frame no it doesn't in more in your reference frame the horizontal points are all simultaneous with respect to each other in my reference frame what I call horizontal what I call simultaneous you do not okay so simultaneity had to go let me point out one more thing about these equations I'm not going to solve them for you but I will tell you the solution anyway how do you solve for X and T in terms of X Prime and T Prime well think about it in the case of angles supposing I have a relationship like X prime is equal to X cosine theta what is it plus plus y sine theta and y prime is equal to X minus X sine theta plus or Y cosine theta and supposing I want to solve for x and y in terms of X Prime and Y Prime you know what the solution is just change theta 2 minus theta and write that X is equal to X prime cosine of minus theta but what's cosine of minus theta right cosine theta plus y sine of minus theta what's sine of minus theta minus sine theta times y and likewise for y prime Y prime is equal to minus x times sine of minus theta so that becomes plus X sine theta plus y cosine of minus theta which is cosine theta you don't have to go through the business of solving the equations you know that if one set of axes is related to the other by rotation by angle theta the second one is related to the first one or vice versa the first one is related to the second one by the negative of the angle if to go from one frame to another you rotate by angle theta and to go from the second frame back to the first you rotate by angle minus theta so you just write down exactly the same equations interchange Prime and unprimed and substitute for theta minus theta same thing for the Lorentz transformations exactly the same thing if you want to solve these for X and T write down the same equations replace primed by unprimed and change the sign of omegas to minus the sines of omegas change sinus rgn of all the sign all the cinches okay in other words just send Omega 2 minus Omega and that will solve the equations in the other direction yeah yes it's also the same as changing V 2 minus V yes the way to see that is to go right what was it what do we have cosh Omega yep yeah that's right via sign yes that was correct yeah you just well you change Omega 2 minus Omega it has the action of changing V 2 minus V you can just check that from the equations good alright let's let's talk about proper time a little bit proper time if you're doing ordinary geometry you can measure the length along a curve for example and the way you do it is you take a tape measure and you you know sort of take off you take off equal intervals equal equal little separations you can think of these separations as differential distances DS squared small little differential distances and that differential distance is d x squared plus dy squared with the x squared and the y squared are just the differential increments in x and y DX and dy this is d s alright so that's the way and you add them up you add them up that's the way you compute distances along curves it's quite obvious that if you take two points the distance between those two points depends on what curve not the same for every curve so I'll measure the longer curve you have to know not only the two points but you have to know the curve in order to say what the distance between those points are of course the distance between its longer straight line that's that's well-defined but the distance along a curve depends on the curve in any case D s squared equals the x squared plus dy squared is the basic defining notion of distance between two neighboring points if you know the distance between any two neighboring points in a geometry you basically know that geometry almost essentially completely so given this formula for the distance between two points you can compute if you like the distance along a curve because you've got to take the square root of this and then add them up don't anhedonia the squares add the differential distances all right the important thing is here that square root of DX squared plus dy squared which is the distance between neighboring points doesn't depend on your choice of axes I could choose X Y axes I could choose X prime y prime axes if I take a little differential displacement the X and the y or I just take two points two neighboring points don't even give them labels and measure the distance between them the distance between them should not depend on conventions such as which axes are used and so when I make rotational transformations the X square plus dy squared doesn't change the X and the y may change but the x squared plus dy squared does not change the same thing is true in relativity or the analogous thing we don't measure distances along the paths of particles let's say now that this curve here is the path of a particle moving through space-time there's a particle moving through space-time and we want some notion of the distance along it the notion of distance along it another example would just be a particle standing still as a particle standing still particle standing still is still in some sense moving in time I wouldn't want to say that the distance between these two points and space-time is zero they're not the same point I wouldn't like to say it's zero I would like to say there's some kind of notion of distance between them but it's quite clear that that distance is not measured with a tape measure this point and this point are the same point of space boom here at this point of space and that at a later time boom again at the same point of space two events at the same point of space how do I characterize and some nice way the distance between those two events that occurred in the same place you don't do it with a tape measure all right what do you do with a clock a clock you take a clock and you start it at this point tic tic tic tic tic tic tic a stopwatch you press it at this point tic tic tic tic tic it picks off intervals and then you stop it at that point and you see how much time has evolved that's a notion of distance along a particle trajectory it's not the distance the particle moves in space it's a kind of distance that it's moved through space-time and it's not zero even if the particle is moving standing perfectly still in fact what it is is it's the time along the trajectory what about a moving particle well you can imagine that a moving particle carries a clock with it of course not all particles carry clocks but we can imagine they carry clocks with them as they move and we can start the clock over here and then the clock over here what is the time read off by this moving clock the time read off by a moving clock is much like the distance along a curve measured by a tape measure in particular it should not depend on the choice of coordinates why not this is a question that has nothing to do with coordinates I have a clock made in the standard clock Factory the standard clock Factory and I don't know we're in Switzerland someplace makes a certain kind of clock that clock gets carried along with a particle and we ask how much time evolves or how much time elapses or how much the clock changes between here and here that should not depend on a choice of coordinates it shouldn't depend on a choice of coordinates because it's a physical question that only involves looking at the hands of the clock in fact we can ask it for little intervals along along the trajectory we could ask how much time elapses according to the clock between here and here well the answer again should not depend on what coordinates you use which Lorentz frame you use and there's only one invariant quantity that you can make out of the D X's and DTS describing this point describing these two points there's a little interval DT and there's a little interval DX now we're in space and time not ordinary not ordinary space and the quantity which is invariant there's really only one invariant quantity that you can make out of it it is DT squared minus DX squared it's the same quantity x squared minus T squared for a whole you know for a whole interval the T squared minus DX squared that's the quantity which is invariant it's minus D it's the negative of what I wrote over here x squared minus T squared okay this quantity is equal to the X prime squared minus DT power sorry DT prime squared minus the X prime squared the same algebra goes into this as goes into showing that X prime squared minus T prime squared equals x squared minus T squared incidentally this is the same as saying T prime squared minus X prime squared equals T squared minus x squared doesn't matter which way you write it all right so that suggests that suggests that the time read off the invariant time read off along a trajectory between two points separated by DX and DT is just the square root of DT squared minus DX squared why the square-root incidentally okay you're going to integrate in detail I can integrate DT yeah well alright why not just DT square minus the x squared for the time between here and here is it here's an answer supposing we go to you two intervals exactly the same as the first one we go an interval over here DX and DT and then we go another DX in DT what happens when we double the interval to DT squared minus DX squared it gets multiplied by four because everything is squared well I wouldn't expect a clock when it goes along you know when it goes along a trajectory for twice the the interval here to measure four times the the time I expected to measure twice the time so for that reason the square root is the appropriate thing here okay that's called D tau squared the tau squared the proper time along the trajectory of an object you're right that's just the towel or D tau squared being the x squared minus DT squared the Tau is called the proper time let's go I think we'll let's see the towel is called the proper time and it is the time read by a clock moving along a trajectory it's not just DT that's the important thing it's not just DT the T squared minus the x squared let's do one last thing let's just do the twin paradox in this language I think I think I've had it I'm going to finish you can do the twin paradox in this language all you have to do is to compute the proper time along two trajectories one that goes out with a uniform velocity turns around and comes back with the same uniform velocity versa a trajectory which just goes from one point to the st. the another point along a straight line and it's no more weird it's no weirder really from this perspective than saying the distance from one point to another along two different curves do not have to agree the proper time along two different curves in general will not agree what is a little bit weird is that because of this minus sign the proper time this way is less than the proper time this way that's the consequence of this minus sign here moving with some DX decreases the proper time all right we'll do a little bit more next time but then I want to get to the principles of field theory and and connect some of this with field equations for interesting wave fields the preceding program is copyrighted by Stanford University please visit us at stanford.edu

12 Common Archetypes (FTF Films)



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Psychologist Carl Jung developed a human psyche theory of “archetypes” (from the Greek words archein, which means “original” and typos, which means “pattern, model or type”), and it was in this theory that he developed the notion that our minds used “universal images” that lead to distinct psychological behaviors. These behaviors were individually acquired but also inherited from the “collective unconscious” (e.g. past life experiences). Jung proposed that apart from the Universal Self, Shadow, Anima, Animus and Persona archetypes, there were 12 other commonly found ones. Recently, scholar Dr. Carol S. Pearson and psychologist Dr. Hugh Marr developed a system of self-inquiry based on these universal Archetypes in order to help us find ourselves and transform our paths. Prepare for our journey of self-discovery by learning how to understand ourselves and our needs. Embark upon our quest by becoming initiated into the mysteries of the human psyche. Return to transform our lives as a result of claiming our uniqueness and personal power.

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Pepperdine Bible Lectures 2016 – Randy Harris (Part 1)



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The Church in an Election Year: “A Cruciform Proposal” (Part 1: Strangers)

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Pepperdine Bible Lectures 2016 – Randy Harris (Keynote)



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Evening Keynote: “Cruciformed Life: The Scandal of Carrying a Cross”

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when Mike asked me to come and speak on the lectures we first start out with a guessing game me trying to figure out what it is I'm supposed to bring to this and I assume how Mike you want me for my ruin and scholarship right well no I've got in T right oh you've wanted me for my charisma and my energy and my sense of style no I have faith hey good well you want me because you know even though I'm a little older I just got this hipster way of connecting no I've got say news and Dave Clayton well why don't you want me well I've also got Luke Norsworthy and Wei Hodges and I need somebody a little easier on the eyes so here we are I just want to say to my preaching students who are listening on streaming right now I haven't graded your last sermon so you grade on the curve and I will – okay and have that agreement almost a quarter century ago during Rushford decided to invite an obscure philosophical theologian from Arkansas to come and speak and if memory serves correctly and there's no guarantee of this at this point in my life in Stoffer Chapel I talked about mark 8 the same text I'm going to talk about tonight and there is no text over the last 25 years that I have preached more often it would not be an exaggeration to say that I've preached mark 8 a hundred times and it's highly likely that many of you have heard me preach it it is one of those half dozen texts that mean more to me than any other in the Bible my students know that in my freshman class I build the first six weeks of my Jesus class building up to the grand moment in mark 8 and a preaching at Pepperdine is anxiety-producing to start out with I would like to tell you that that's all from good motives but that wouldn't be true the big thing is you really don't want to be the ugly duckling you don't want to fail you don't want to look bad but there is a higher motive to because you went to considerable trouble to get here and you came to hear a word of God and what if we should send you away empty-handed well for me preaching has always been 75% listening 25% speaking I teach my students and I believe that you start with the text and you listen and you listen and you listen and if you listen long enough a sermon will emerge and then you create some structure around that Word of God that you've heard so believe it or not I decided on mark 8 to start all over and just to listen and I know this sermon has a title but I didn't start with the title I started with the text and I listened and the sermon title that I came up with is this the Gospel according to Peter and what I'm going to share with you for a few minutes is what I saw and what I heard and if you've heard me preach Mark eight before you haven't heard this one because it's never been preached and we'll find out here shortly whether it will ever get preached again listen to the text mark 8 verse 22 Jesus and His disciples went on to the villages around Caesarea Philippi on the way he asked them who do people say I am they replied some say John the Baptist others say Elijah and still others one of the prophets what about you he asked who do you say I am Peter answered you are the christ jesus warned them not to tell anyone about him he then began to teach them that the Son of man must suffer many things and be rejected by the elders chief priests and teachers of the law that he must be killed and after three days rise again he spoke plainly about this and Peter took him aside and began to rebuke him but when Jesus turned and looked at his disciples he rebuked Peter get behind me Satan he said you do not have in mind the things of God but the things of men then he called the crowd to him along with his disciples and said if anyone would come after me he must deny himself take up his cross and follow me for whoever wants to save his life will lose it but whoever loses his life for me and for the gospel will save it what good is it for a man to gain the whole world yet forfeit his soul or what can a man give in exchange for his soul if anyone is ashamed of me and my words and this adulterous and sinful generation the Son of Man will be ashamed of him when he comes in his father's glory with the Holy Angels let's sit with the text there's a way of listening to the Bible that's often described as the Ignatian way it's a way where you use your imagination you place yourself inside the text and and you try to see what it sounds like and what it looks like if you enter the text so I did a kind of Ignatian thing and I wondered what this text looks like from the point of view of Peter and so I started to dream my name is Peter and I gotta tell ya we've got this sounds Peters sounding very much like Luke Norsworthy we've been in a few hundred years slump here but we've got this now because finally we've got the guy we had this conversation and he says what are people saying about me and you know I know they're saying all sorts of things about you well how about you what are you saying about me and I got this one you are the Messiah and let me tell you how I know because I've been trailing around after Jesus and I can tell you he's got all of the goods when the demons are in people he cast them out when people are crippled he makes them to walk when people are blind he gives them sight when people are dead he raises them up he can multiply food like that if this isn't the Messiah then who is and we have got this now I got to tell you he's a little strange he sometimes tells stories and it's not altogether clear what they mean but we've gotten used to it and I know that later on people are gonna write about this in their Bible and they they don't really write our reactions in there and that's a shame because there's this ancient Greek phrase that we have learned to use when he tells one of those stories okie-dokie hey you've got to be born a second time oh gee Doki God is like this unjust judge key Doki and he does these it does these kind of mind games I mean just earlier today there was this this blind guy and Jesus takes two cracks at healing him touches them says do you see yeah I see people they look like trees walking around and then this isn't in the text either Jesus ghost touches they begin he sees and you know what we said you don't you but we got this we've been waiting for centuries but Empire is over the hated Romans are gonna get kicked outta Palestine God is going to put the son of man on the throne he's gonna put us on little Thrones around him the kingdom of God is going to come fully into this world finally after centuries of abuse we've got this but then he has one of those moments Jesus does and he says oh you need to know this the Son of Man is going to be taken and killed and I'm sorry I cannot okie-dokie that what is this I have a messiah that doesn't know the Bible that is not the way the story goes Messiah doesn't die Messiah kicks the hated Romans out of Palestine restores the Kingdom of Israel to the throne and reigns and puts us on Thrones around him that's the way the story goes and I tried to explain that to him but he turns on me and says are you ready for this get behind me Satan you don't have in mind the things of God but the things of men and I gotta tell you I was sort of used to being corrected by him yeah I was that student but it's pretty hard not to take that one personally get behind me Satan and then he calls crowds around says okay if you're gonna follow me they're gonna have to deny yourself take up your cross and follow me because if you're interested in saving your life you're gonna have to lose it and by losing your life you're gonna save it and I gotta tell you I'm not buying it he is a wonderful messiah but when it comes to placing the kingdom of God in the world strategically he is clueless this will never work there is one and only one thing that works in this world and that thing is power and these Rowling's will never give up their power unless we force them to unless we take it away from them and you can talk about the love of God oh you want to what they really understand is when you cut off their ear it's the only way and if you'll get with it Jesus if you will get out in front if you will bring us together we will when we've got this you can raise the dead you can heal the sick you can multiply food as a military commander you got this we will protect our way of life we will protect our children we will beat off those alien forces who had overcome Christianity and with the Almighty power of God we will bring the kingdom of God to the world this is the Gospel according to Peter this is the gospel to which Jesus response is get behind me Satan that's not God's Way that's the human way and now I'm dreaming and it starts out as a dream but it turns into a nightmare and did the dream nightmare the gospel of Peter wins and when the gospel of Peter wins what you get is American evangelical Christianity it only took a scratch in the history of the world with all of the pain and disastrous wars and plagues that have afflicted the world it only took a stretch one Supreme Court ruling one terrorist attack one refugee crisis it only took a scratch and what we found underneath was fear and power and we were so afraid that we decided that Jesus Way would never work so we decided we'd take Peters way and not only has piers gospel won the day we are winning the day with Peters gospel and so in my nightmare I walk across the battlefield looking at the bodies of our vanquished enemies some are wearing turbans some are wearing pink some are atheist and unbelievers some are garden-variety liberals but we have managed to vanquish them and we have protected our way of life our children our kingdom we've won and then in my dream as I walked through those bodies I see the hands and the feet that are pierced as we've conquered our enemies we have killed the crucified Messiah but I jerked myself away it was a dream it was a nightmare and I wake up and I find myself preaching at the Pepperdine lectures and it's not too late but it is well into the night darkness closes in around us but it's not too late in the text that I read when Jesus says if anyone would follow me they must deny themselves take up the cross and follow me he was first of all talking about dying not metaphorical death not spiritual death death death the way I've described this in my earlier sermon was that the Apostles had thought they were on the power boat it turns out they're on the death ship it's a tough moment and the question is in front of us the gospel of Peter says we will kill our enemies to establish the kingdom of God and the gospel of Jesus Christ says the only way the kingdom comes in is if we are willing for them to kill us do we believe this or do we believe this will never work and the text that I read Jesus said if you want to save your life the only way can do that is lose it and the harder you try to save it the more likely you are to lose it but when you quit worrying about it and are willing to lose it then lo and behold you save it I tried to convince my classes on afternoon unsuccessfully they think that the gospel of Jesus Christ is the gospel of losing we are willing to lose our lives and you know it's hard to believe but you Christians you really don't need the government to protect you because God does that and this way of cross is attached to this promise that whatever you lose God will restore but the harder you're working not to lose it the more likely you are to lose it boy if you spend the rest of your life trying to make sure nothing in this life bad happens to you a lot of really bad stuff can happen to you is that who we are are we the people who are so fearful and have so little faith in the power of the Resurrection that we are not willing to try Jesus way the reason I am so devoted to this text is because everything is at stake in it there are two fundamentally different understandings of the gospel fighting each other here the gospel of Peter and the gospel of Jesus and I do want to point out that the enemies of Jesus are nowhere in this picture because the biggest threat to the cause for which Christ died is never as enemies that's easy it's his friends that are the problem it is that we are so likely to misunderstand and and and this handle the gospel that he's putting into us I went about the country for a long time presenting these very alarming statistics about how low church attendance is it is alarmingly low but the real problem that's facing us is not that there are too few Christians the problem is the Christians that we have are Christian enough yet the problem is we haven't quite been convinced of the gospel of the cross I tried to convince my class today that Christians are always more at home on a side that's losing we're on the side that's winning we get it all fouled up Christianity's always function better on the margins now you probably know that I am NOT by nature given to wild bouts of optimism I've said it before I consider optimism to be a form of mental illness apart from a miraculous work of God that is nowhere in sight the gospel of Jesus Christ the cause for which Christ died is mostly going under in North America now here's what I want you to hear in good times and in bad in times when the ground is fertile and in times when the ground is stony the Christian duty and obligation is always the same and that is to be faithful to the gospel of a crucified Messiah and what we need at this point is a bunch of faithful witnesses you will not get us to play the game of fear and power because that is not what our Savior taught us we are going to remain the faithful witnesses to the kingdom that no earthly power can resist or much to their much to their chagrin no earthly power can create we bear witness to the Kingdom that is coming we bear faithful witness and we will not kill for it but will willingly die for it because we won't stay dead and we won't spend our time trying to protect our way of life our chill and our religion because protection is God's job what we will do is take up the cross and deny ourselves and follow the one that we call Savior and Lord come on come on come on the Lord bless you and keep you the Lord make his face to shine upon you and give you peace to him who is able to keep you from falling and to present you before his glorious presence without fault with great joy to the only God our Savior be glory and Majesty Dominion and power through Jesus Christ our Lord before all ages now and forevermore world without end amen

Science Video for Kids: What is Light Energy?



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Light is a form of energy. We cannot feel light. We can only see it. Light comes from both natural and manmade sources. Our natural source of light is the Sun. Watch this video for some more interesting facts about light! #Education #VideosForKids

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light have you ever been at home when there was a big storm and your lights went out or have you been in a room and suddenly someone turned off the light what happened how did you feel you may have felt confused because you couldn't see anything around you light is something we need and use all the time when it's not there we realize how much we needed light is a form of energy we cannot feel light we can only see it light comes from both natural and man-made sources our natural source of light is the Sun the Sun is a huge ball of gas it gives off a lot of energy in the forms of light and heat the Sun is a star that is very far away from us it's so far away that it takes about eight minutes for its light to reach us here on earth sunlight helps us to see everything around us during the day it also provides the energy for everything on earth what is another natural source of light the stars give off light to their like the Sun only much farther away what about the moon the moon gives no light of its own it reflects the light of the Sun giving us some light at night when we don't see the sun's rays fire is also a source of light long ago people used fire to see in the dark they carried torches or candles let us now see some man-made sources of light these days most people use electric lights an electric light bulb is made of a wire that glows when a current flows through it it gets very hot but because it's in a bulb with very little oxygen it can't get hot enough to catch fire neon lights are a different kind of light they are used a lot for signs they're made from a gas that glows when electricity passes through it laser lights are thin powerful beams of light they're made of only one color lasers can be focused on a very small spot also the light from a laser can go a long distance without spreading out like other lights do now let's summarize what we've learned you

Combustion & Flames: What is Combustion – Definition & Chemical Equation – 01 For Class 8th and NTSE



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COMBUSTION:

Combustion reactions are chemical reactions, in everyday life which is called as burning. When a candle is lit it is combustion. The process of burning of a substance is called as combustion. It is an exothermic process. A chemical reaction which gives out heat to the surroundings is called exothermic reactions.
It is a chemical reaction in which a substance reacts with the oxygen present in the air to give out heat.

Combustible Substances: The substances which burn and catch fire are called as combustible substances. For example: wood, paper, coke, coal, liquefied petroleum gas, natural gas, hydrogen, petrol, kerosene, diesel etc.

Non Combustible Substances: Substances that do not burn or catch fire are called as non combustible substances. eg: cement, stone, marbles, glass etc.

hello students today we are going to start with new listen combustion and flame okay so in this chapter basically we will read about the types of flames how the things born why things burn about the fire okay now when I say we will study about fire should we all are well aware about the fire in fact you know like it has got religious importance also in India you may remember like in olden days lots of avenues to be done even now also and offerings used to be given to the in the fire during the marriages also have an lick heaven is or the fire is a very important part in religion also like it has got religious importance also now if we talk about something related to this even it is considered as the basic element of life you know and if we talk something beyond religion then I should say or I can say that fire is something which is very important in our life just imagine if you don't if we cannot lit if we cannot burn anything if you cannot lit anything then how we are going to cook food so there will be no difference left in eating because if we cannot lit the fire we'll have to eat everything raw and then this was what the olden men or the the men a delegate of our ancestors they used to do it they used to eat raw food so this fire it makes a big difference you know it proves that how how man has developed from primitive stages from primitive from Stone Age how we have developed ourselves and how we have come to this new era ok so first of all to begin we'll start the chapter combustion and flames okay when a substance burns okay when a substance burns what does it emits it emits lot of heat and energy okay see we put many substances okay we have seen many substances burning like talk about paper talk about Patrol talk about diesel kerosene gas LPG CNG okay so we have seen many substances burning okay but what is common between burning of all these substances and what is common among the substances so the common thing is that the substance which burns okay they produce heat and light okay why not why I am looking towards backward again again because I want to tell you the meaning of T combustion now what is the meaning of combustion children combustion is to burn okay whenever a thing is burning katniss we can say that this substance is undergoing combustion okay whenever a substance burns that means it is undergoing combustion and whenever a substance burns it always produces heat and light okay so always remember the saying that fire is very important part of our life it has got religious importance plus it is the one which has helped us to develop in our sins which we are now okay so to begin with what is combustion so what is combustion anything when or where a substance born it produces light and heat and how the substance can burn like what happens why a substance burns so when a success is burning katniss what is happening children when a substance is burning that means it is combining with oxygen we all know we have read this in the third standard pose that for burning what is necessary oxygen is necessary okay so when I say that we are talking about combustion that means we are talking about the substance which undergoes what combustion that means a substance is burning due to burning heat and light is produced and when I say when a substance is going to enter the process of combustion that means it is combining with oxygen okay so let's have a look first of all how substance undergoes combustion what actually happens okay so let me take the example of magnesium okay magnesium will reacts with oxygen okay so what will happen children okay what is form here magnesium oxide is form okay so again what is from here oxide is form now in the same way if I talk about carbon when carbon burns so what happens carbon dioxide is form okay so I will write over here magnesium oxide okay magnesium oxide and carbon dioxide so how can we first of all will talk about combustion again how can we define conversion so what is combustion when a substance when of substance bonds in the air it is called as combustion okay but this is a half definition okay when a substance burns in the air it is called as combustion but to produce what it produces what how can we complete this definition this definition is incomplete till we write what is produced heat and light okay heat and light art produce okay heat and light are produced in this process ok let's try to understand what we are discussing now children I am talking about what is combustion what is combustion children whenever a substance burns so we can say that the substance is undergoing combustion now when I'm talking about the combustion whenever a substance burn it produces two things it produces heat and light okay it produces heat and light so if we talk about burning okay when a substance is burning means it is combining with four children it is combining with oxygen see in sevens and also we might have you might have done the experiment or you might have seen the magnesium ribbon burning okay actually different substances bones in that different way which we are going to discuss in the later part of the chapter for now children when I say that some substance is burning that means it has to combine with God it has to combine with oxygen so just have a look magnesium is burning magnesium ribbon is burning so what is the case magnesium is actually combining with oxygen to produce oxide okay to produce oxide why children saying oxide because if we talk about magnesium it is going to produce magnesium oxide if we talk about sulfur like sulfur is burning sulfur is combining with oxygen so obviously sulfur dioxide will form okay if Naren is burning so oxide of nitrogen will be formed now when I am saying carbon is burning okay how carbon is burning we all know that in wood carbon is present okay when we talk about coal the like most of the part of coal consists of out carbon so when I am saying that I am burning a coal or a we are talking about the burning of coal so cool if coal is burning again it has to combine with what that means it is combining with oxygen so again when a carbon is combining with oxygen oxide will be formed so I have written over here carbon dioxide so from this till now what is clear from this children again same thing I will say that whenever a substance burns to produce heat in light we say that it is combustion okay now combustion means what to react with oxygen to combine with oxygen so I have written over your two examples that if you talk about the burning of magnesium ribbon if you talk about the burning of carbon if you talk about burning of any substance okay if it is burning that means it is combining with oxygen and then oxides are formed okay now how can we write that how can we say how can we write that when a substance is burning it is combining with oxygen how can we say that so I will just talk about a little experiment which we all have done maybe and third of four standard a very basic kind of experiment so if a candle is taking children I'd rather go and do this side if a candle is taken and what it is gold okay now the candle is burning now when the candle is burning you all can see that light is produced okay you try to touch so what will happen you will feel the heat you will understand that it is very hot okay that means when something is burning heat and light is produced this thing is clear okay so heat and light is produced this one is clear now instead of picking candle if you take example of anything if you take the example of coal or anything you will find that heat and light is produced now the second thing which we want to prove is that for burning oxygen is required so children you will see that candle is burning okay now if you cover the candle with some glass jar in this way if you keep a glass jar inverted okay inverted on the burning candle why I am seeing about why I am saying about the class yard with because it will be visible from the glass okay it will be visible you can understand like what is happening inside if you again L repeat if you take a burning candle and you will see that heat and light is produced from this and now when you cover the candle with the inverted glass what will happen within few seconds you will see that this you know flame is flickering okay it's flickering mean spot it's not able to burn as nicely as it was burning previously when it was not covered by any kind of inverted jar okay but after you covered the flame after you covered the flame what had started the flame has started flickering okay that means now it's not burning in the same way with the same heat energy with the same glow as it was burning previously now just wait for few seconds or maybe minutes what will happen you will see that this field extinguishes you will see that now candle is not burning candle is extinguished what is the case why does this happens children because in the beginning oxygen was there okay in the beginning oxygen was there okay when it was burning co2 is being produced okay but co2 is produced but it was getting mixed up with the atmosphere and this flame was getting atmospheric oxygen okay continuously there was flow contact of the atmospheric oxygen so there was no problem in the burning of this candle flame but once when it was covered by the discharge inverted glass so what happened now oxygen is not that okay no oxygen cannot come inside and due to burning whatever oxygen is present inside with the help of that oxygen this candle will burn and after burning as I say oxide will be produced here also carbon dioxide is produced but now what is happening children that now the oxygen is not available oxygen is cut off that means co2 has replaced oxygen please try to understand this that means co2 has replaced oxygen and now this area is covered by carbon dioxide due to this due to what when the area is covered by carbon dioxide that means there is no oxygen that means there is nothing which can help in burning okay that is the reason this candle extinguishes this flame extinguishes and you will find that the candle doesn't burn anymore okay so this is a little experiment which shows that for burning here for burning what is required oxygen is required and second thing what does it proves that whenever a substance burns it produces heat and light okay so to repeat this thing to just have a quick revision of this when a substance burns in the air again it has to be written children burns in the air it is called as combustion heat and light are produced I have written produces produced in this process okay heat and light are produced in this process okay when we have to define it properly so how we will write us when a substance burns in air and heating light is produced or when a substance burns to produce heat and light the process is known as combustion okay now after combustion we will see quick you know you might have seen this experience this thing in your life that there are few things which burns easily okay like you take the example of the you know very common one paper you all have seen a burning paper okay cotton burns paper burns okay there are many things which burns okay but at the same time you might have also experienced there are few substances which do not burn okay which do not burns so how can we can we have any kind of division between these kind of substances student which kind of substances that means two categories of the substances why substance which burns okay one substance which burns and the another substance which do not burn so that division we are going to talk about now I will write combustible substances ok combustible substances now what is the meaning of combustible substances shouldn't combustible substances means those substances which undergoes combustion which burns which combines with oxygen are you getting me clear like how can we define combustible substances those substances which burns to produce heat and light or which the substances which what they react with oxygen and heat and light is produced ok so there can be one category of the substances which we can say that these substances are combustible substances okay which can be the substances which can which we can say that via this substances are combustible so like cotton cloth okay even I have to told this thing many at times Patrol ok diesel kerosene all LPG all these substances they burn okay all the substances they undergo the process of combustion so all the substances which undergoes the process of combustion are known as combustible substances but shouldn't there signal substances which do not burn ok have you ever tried to burn you know glass or plastic or you know even if you try to burn sand ok or something like that which you might have experienced there is no need for me to tell or to recall just think about your own experiences you will definitely find a substance unless of the substance you which you might have you know in your yah yah yah Hadees or you might have tried at least once to burn something which doesn't burn okay so although substance is which do not burn which do not undergo the process of combustion are known as non combustible substances okay so first of all we'll talk about I'll write the definition of combustible substances so how can we define combustible substances so those substances which undergoes which undergoes combustion very easily to produce to produce war children again what will be produce your heat and light heat and light please understand what I am writing those substances which undergoes combustion very easily okay to produce what to produce heat and light our callers are combustible substances combustible substances okay now just now we have discussed about examples of combustible substances so for example cotton paper okay patrol LPG CNG kerosene diesel okay all these are the example of combustible substances why because all these substances undergoes combustion very easily and whenever they undergo combustion they produce large amount of heat and light okay now we will talk about the next fun non combustible substances just opposite to this what we have written here those substances which undergoes combustion so those substances which do not undergo the process of combustion okay are called is non combustible substances for example send glass okay all the substances undergoes combustion no these substances do not burn and so we cannot put all these into the same category okay now this one was I can write over here number one now we will discuss about a number two a rather definition of number two that is non combustible substances okay now this one is non combustible substances how can we do this so how can we write over here those substances which do not undergo the process off commotion ah got an ass non combustible substances okay now again here also we need to write some examples so for example just try to recollect the substances which you try to burn and it doesn't burns okay can you burn water okay so even water okay glass sand so all these are substances which do not burn etc okay so all these substances these substances do not burn they do not undergo the process of combustion and so these are known as non combustible substances okay so now first of all we have studied about what is combustion children whenever a substance bones whenever substance undergoes the process of combustion heat and light is produced okay what is combustion burning of a substance okay and producing on production of heat and light is what is what combustion now when I am saying combustion a substance is undergoing the process of combustion that means it has to react with what it has to react with the process of like it has to react with the oxygen and when it reacts with oxygen then we can say that this substance and regos the process of combustion after like what happens in combustion what is form oxides form okay an eeveelution of heat and light it is not the case that only heat and light is produced sometime even sound also produces is phallic sound can also be produced which will be seeing in the little part of the chapter after this we divided the substances the substance which can burn and the substance which cannot burn so combustible substances and non combustible substances now we will talk about something like what is required okay when I'm saying that this substance okay when I am saying that there are few substances which are burning okay there are few substances which are burning where i have written over written over here there are certain substances which are burning and there certain substances which are not burning so what is the case why does it happen there are few substance which burns and the few dozen burns okay so before that now we will talk about like when these substances are burning so what are the things which are important for burning for the process of combustion what are the things what are the conditions rather I should say what are the conditions which is essential for the process of combustion so let's let's have a look upon the conditions which are necessary for the process of the combustion

The Electromagnetic Spectrum



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[email protected]: EMS (Episode 1) – An Introduction To The Electromagnetic Spectrum


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Measuring the electromagnetic spectrum

You actually know more about it than you may think! The electromagnetic (EM) spectrum is just a name that scientists give a bunch of types of radiation when they want to talk about them as a group. Radiation is energy that travels and spreads out as it goes– visible light that comes from a lamp in your house and radio waves that come from a radio station are two types of electromagnetic radiation.

Other examples of EM radiation are microwaves, infrared and ultraviolet light, X-rays and gamma-rays. Hotter, more energetic objects and events create higher energy radiation than cool objects. Only extremely hot objects or particles moving at very high velocities can create high-energy radiation like X-rays and gamma-rays.

The different types of radiation in the EM spectrum, in order from lowest energy to highest:

Radio: Yes, this is the same kind of energy that radio stations emit into the air for your boom box to capture and turn into your favorite Mozart, Madonna, or Justin Timberlake tunes. But radio waves are also emitted by other things … such as stars and gases in space. You may not be able to dance to what these objects emit, but you can use it to learn what they are made of.

Microwaves: They will cook your popcorn in just a few minutes! Microwaves in space are used by astronomers to learn about the structure of nearby galaxies, and our own Milky Way!

Infrared: Our skin emits infrared light, which is why we can be seen in the dark by someone using night vision goggles. In space, IR light maps the dust between stars.

Visible: Yes, this is the part that our eyes see. Visible radiation is emitted by everything from fireflies to light bulbs to stars … also by fast-moving particles hitting other particles.

Ultraviolet: We know that the Sun is a source of ultraviolet (or UV) radiation, because it is the UV rays that cause our skin to burn! Stars and other “hot” objects in space emit UV radiation.

X-rays: Your doctor uses them to look at your bones and your dentist to look at your teeth. Hot gases in the Universe also emit X-rays .

Gamma-rays: Radioactive materials (some natural and others made by man in things like nuclear power plants) can emit gamma-rays. Big particle accelerators that scientists use to help them understand what matter is made of can sometimes generate gamma-rays. But the biggest gamma-ray generator of all is the Universe! It makes gamma radiation in all kinds of ways.


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something surrounds you unbarred you some of which you can't see touch or even feel everyday everywhere you go it is odorless and tasteless yet you use it and depend on it every hour of every day without it the world you know could not exist what is it electromagnetic radiation these waves spread across a spectrum from very short gamma rays to x-rays ultraviolet rays visible light waves even longer infrared waves microwaves to radio waves which can measure longer than a mountain range this spectrum is the foundation of the information age end of our modern world your radio remote control text message television microwave oven even a doctor's x-ray all depend on waves within the electromagnetic spectrum electromagnetic waves or e/m waves are similar to ocean waves in that both are energy waves they transmit energy e/m waves are produced by the vibration of charged particles and have electrical and magnetic properties but unlike ocean waves that require water eeehm waves travel through the vacuum of space at the constant speed of light eeehm waves have crests and troughs like ocean waves the distance between crests is the wavelength while some a.m. wavelengths are very long and are measured in meters many are tiny and are measured in billionths of a meter nanometers the number of these crests that pass a given point within one second is described as the frequency of the wave 1 wave or cycle per second is called a Hertz long a.m. waves such as radio waves have the lowest frequency and carry less energy adding energy increases the frequency of the wave and makes the wavelength shorter gamma rays are the shortest highest energy waves in the spectrum so as you sit watching TV not only are there visible light waves from the TV striking your eyes but also radio waves transmitting from a nearby station and microwaves carrying cell phone calls and text messages and waves from your neighbor's Wi-Fi and GPS units in the cars driving by there is a chaos of waves from all across the spectrum passing through your room right now with all these waves around you how can you possibly watch your TV show similar to tuning a radio to a specific radio station our eyes are tuned to a specific region of the e/m spectrum and can detect energy with wavelengths from 400 to 700 nanometers the visible light region of the spectrum objects appear to have color because e/m waves interact with their molecules some wavelengths in the visible spectrum are reflected and other wavelengths are absorbed this leaf looks green because e/m waves interact with the chlorophyll molecules waves between 492 & 577 nanometers in length are reflected and our eye interprets this as the leaf being green our eyes see the leaf as green but cannot tell us anything about how the leaf reflects ultraviolet microwave or infrared waves to learn more about the world around us scientists and engineers have devised ways to enable us to see beyond that sliver of the e/m spectrum called visible light data from multiple wavelengths help scientists study all kinds of amazing phenomena on earth from seasonal change to specific habitats everything around us emits reflects and absorbs e em radiation differently based on its composition a graph showing these interactions across a region of the e/m spectrum is called a spectral signature characteristic patterns like fingerprints within the spectra allow astronomers to identify an object's chemical composition and to determine such physical properties as temperature and density NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope observed the presence of water and organic molecules in a galaxy 3.2 billion light-years away viewing our Sun in multiple wavelengths with the Soho satellite allows scientists to study and understand sunspots that are associated with solar flares and eruptions harmful to satellites astronauts and communications here on earth we are constantly learning more about our world and universe by taking advantage of the unique information contained in the different waves across the e/m spectrum

12 Rules for Life Vlog 12 Chapter 12: Pet a cat when you encounter one on the street



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The last of the 12 Rules for Life.
Pet a cat when you encounter one on the street
This one’s fun and dark lol.

I learned a lot about myself doing this series. Reading the rules was great but this really helped me to understand them on a deeper level.

Nobody is perfect but anyone can grow if they want to.

Important links:

Love him or hate him, his logic is hard to argue with
Check out His channel here

Here’s the link to the whole 12 Rules vlogs playlist:

Till next week
Thanks everyone and take care

hello again everyone Chris Curti here with a gmod econ in Japan today I'll be finishing my series on dr. Jordan bean Peterson's book twelve rules for life an antidote to chaos rule number 12 tells us to pet a cat when you encounter one on the street it's deeper than south so pet a cat when you encounter one on the street but dogs are okay to an equally respected of course sorry cat lovers but cats definitely work better to understand what dr. Peterson is getting at with this rule and we'll get to why in a little bit but first we have to talk about suffering and dealing with the darkest of times because like it or not they happen to all of us to varying degrees at some point in our lives and life here on earth may be a test or a game or a series of them but sometimes we get stuck on a level that we just can't seem to pass and there are no cheat codes that allow you to skip a level if you can't beat the boss at the end of the level then you start at the beginning of that level again and this can really wear you down if it happens for too long we can fall into deep sadness and frustration when faced with our limitations but being would be pointless without those limitations just like a game needs to be challenging enough to keep you interested in playing life does the same thing but being is the ultimate full immersion interactive high resolution all Safety's off virtual choose-your-own-adventure game just like they say in the matrix some of the rules of that game or system can be bent and others can be broken and one of the first hurdles to get over is to realize that we're in a test or a game in the first place because it conflicts with what we're taught which is pretty inception aswhat do you think about it inception in Inception so here are the three parts of chapter 12 that I connected with and my thoughts on them okay first thing suffering and the limitations of being another huge limitation of our life is our fragility or mortality we can be hurt or broken physically or emotionally we're delicate everything affects us in some way and everything changes each on its own timetable without any care for how it affects us our test is to find how to surf the waves of change when they come rather than being crushed beneath them suffering and limitations are required for beingness there's an old Jewish story that begins with this question imagine a being who is omniscient omnipresent and omnipotent what does such a being lack the answer limitation it's part of being alive the second thing disintegration in pain sometimes life totally knocks us off our feet suddenly a car crash an illness of a trail but often it's the slow drawn-out stuff that brings us low years suffering with a degenerative disease or years in a marriage without healthy communication that's the stuff that causes us to fall into despair and depression when you're dealing with suffering and it seems like it'll never end but the amazing thing is it doesn't kill us we're still playing the game even when we think all hope is lost and that's the whole point you're still alive so that means there is still hope you're still in the game now I know even knowing about it doesn't really change your situation right so you've got to find a way of taking those small kindnesses and rays of light and be grateful for them and in that way you can remember you're not alone in all this and the third thing dogs again but finally cats dr. Peterson begins this chapter explaining that dogs are okay too in order to establish his dog lover status and not alienate the other dog lovers from connecting with this message he also apologizes to all the cat lovers for giving dog lovers any attention at all therefore coming out positive on both sides of that line but he concludes the chapter finally explaining why he named it the way he did so dogs are friends and allies of humans they are social hierarchical and domesticated and they're happy for their place in your family they pay for the attention they receive with loyalty admiration and love they're awesome cats are awesome too but they're different in very important ways they don't require your approval to be happy they aren't that social except in passing and they're only partially domesticated they don't learn tricks and they only give you attention when they choose to and that last part is the point when you encounter a cap on the street and you call it it may come or it may not but if it chooses to come then it's showing you that it accepts you and trusts you even for a small moment and in that moment the universe is showing you that it cares about you too it's a gift and if you can learn to perceive small things like that the laughs of a child the beauty of a sunset smell of coffee brewing in the morning and realized they're all gifts and they come in good times and bad makes sense I hope so so penny cap when you encounter one on the street so today's question is this what are some other examples of small gifts we receive no matter what our life situation please share your answers in the comment section below who knows it might brighten someones day remember light is a test a challenge and that means limitation and sometimes the suffering to it can be a rollercoaster of ups and downs some long some short but during the long downs when each day is hard just to get through look for the little lights that still shine on you and the small gifts we often take for granted you're still here and you're still watching this which means you're still looking for answers and that means you're on the right track I'm looking too so let's all help each other find them so that's the last of the twelve rules let's go over all of them one more time number one stand up straight with your shoulders back number two treat yourself like someone you're responsible for helping number three make friends with people who want the best for you number four compare yourself to who you were yesterday not who someone else is today number five do not let your children do anything that makes you dislike them number six set your house in perfect order before you criticize the world number seven pursue what is meaningful not what is expedient number eight tell the truth or at least don't lie number nine assume that the person you are listening to might know something you don't number ten be precise in your speech number eleven do not bother children when they are skateboarding and number twelve pet a cat when you encounter one on the street which rule spoke the most to you number seven and number nine were definitely mine so I'm Chris with a g-money Kannan in Japan thanks so much for watching I hope it helps and if you enjoyed this video and your first time to our Channel please give that thumbs up icon attack also you can check out the other 12 rules for life vlogs I learned a lot making them and I'm looking forward to making some videos about other topics so if there's any topic concept or idea you'd like me to explore just let me know in the comment section below or on our automatic on Instagram page see you next week domo arigato and take care

Lecture 1 | The Theoretical Minimum



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(January 9, 2012) Leonard Susskind provides an introduction to quantum mechanics.

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Biblical Archaeology: Eden



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Note* It is true the Hebrew word for headwaters mostly refers to the head of something, but the root word has so many meanings from head, chief, ends, divisions, companies, top, ridge, best, etc.

Needless to say, but the Hebrew is not necessarily referring to a place where one river splits to form 4 but can be referring to the reverse. The same can be seen with the word yatsa. It can mean to go out or came out:

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Sources:

Genesis: History, Fiction, or Neither? – James Hoffmeier, Gordon Wenham, Kenton Sparks

On the Reliability of the Old Testament – Kenneth Kitchen

The NIV Application Commentary: Genesis – John Walton

the Bible begins its story in a land called Eden a place which was said to be an earthly paradise but many believe Eden was nothing more than a fairy tale invented by Jewish writers as part of a fanciful legend was eaten a real place or nothing more than a fantasy the description of the Land of Eden in Genesis 2 is a peculiar one it mentions a land that would be a lush paradise in an area of the world that today is a vast desert and yet God is able to plant a garden that is even watered by a mist that comes up from the ground so it mentions the lack of need for rain even stranger is the author tells us a river flows out of Eden and splits into four other rivers two of them are known the Tigris and the Euphrates but the other two rivers the pichon and the ji-hun don't seem to be actual rivers that flowed out of the same area the Jihan river is said to flow around the whole land of cush cush was traditionally understood to be present-day ethiopia and we have no evidence of a river which used to flow from Turkey into Ethiopia we also don't really have any evidence the Tigris and the Euphrates were once one river that split into two all of these issues have caused many scholars to refer to Eden as a mythical place that didn't actually exist but was just a fantasy created by the Jewish authors but perhaps the problem might not be with the actual description of Eden but where we have been looking and how the passage has been translated we have to remember the earth is not static and is always changing the planet we live on now was not the same a hundred thousand years ago let alone fifteen thousand years ago in fact about fourteen to fifteen thousand years ago the continents were much larger this was because the polar ice caps contain much more frozen water which allowed more areas of land to exist that are now covered by vast seas and gulfs one area in particular is the Persian Gulf or the Tigris and Euphrates now flow into however this was not the case about fourteen thousand years ago the geography of prehistoric Sumer was quite different according to modern satellite imaging the tigris and euphrates used to connect and form one River that went through a habitable land at the bottom of the Persian Gulf but these were not the only rivers in fact there were many other smaller rivers that floated to this one River as well one larger River that also drained into this area has been called the wadi baton River which used to run through the land of Arabia however in the ancient world this area was called hvala this region also shows evidence of vast gold mines especially in the area called mud at ahem however the river dried up thousands of years ago roughly around the same time climate change transform the region into a desert but long ago this would have been a lush river that drained to the same river as a Tigris and Euphrates surprisingly if we go back in time enough this correlates to the account of the Pichon River flowing into Eden in Genesis 2 quite nicely dr. James hoffmeier says a possible candidate for the now-defunct pichon River was discovered with the aid of shuttle imaging radar technology it evidently flowed east from the mountainous Vizag region of Saudi Arabia dr. Farouk Elbaz the geologist and director of the center for remote sensing at Boston University discovered traces of its course beneath the sand with ground-penetrating radar images from the space shuttle James Sauer immediately saw the geographical connection between this ancient river and the description of the pichon River in Genesis 2 this River appears to have dried up sometime late in the 3rd millennium BC the fact that Genesis 2 knows about this River is remarkable indeed of course what about the alleged gijón River that allegedly went into Ethiopia or perhaps this is based on a mistranslation Kenneth kitchen argues the original Hebrew word without the later additional vowel points can simply be understood to mean the land of the Kazi i'ts or cashew which was in western iran their original homeland appears to have been the Zagros Mountains before they later controlled the area of Babylon after the old Babylonian Empire fell satellite data also reveals a long river that wrapped around the Zagros Mountains that drained into the same river as the other three which also correlates with the account of the Jihan River in Genesis 2 coming from the land of cash instead of cush so in fact thanks to modern satellite imaging we can see at one time four rivers did flow into one however many read the account in Genesis 2 to mean there was one river that split into four this has caused many to look for Eden in modern-day Turkey but with little success of finding a river that split into four and two being the Tigris and Euphrates and another flowing into a place of gold but as we have noted in our previous video the Hebrew can be quite ambiguous the same word is used to refer to the end of something specifically the end of a long pole so as Kenneth kitchen notes the Hebrew in Genesis 2 can be understood to be referring to a place where four rivers met to form one instead of one River splitting to form four as kitchen says this is a snapshot type view taken looking out from where the single stream entered the garden and looking back just upstream to the point where the four head rivers came together to form the single stream that entered the garden so the area beneath the Persian Gulf does correlate nicely with the Genesis account of the land of Eden before this area was flooded four rivers did drain into one as Genesis might indicate but there's even more about this area that modern science has revealed archaeologist Jeffrey Rose refer to this area as the Gulf of Aces because of its pristine conditions and environment in other words the area seems to have been the ideal place for early humans jeffrey rose says given the extent of the exposed land within the gulf basin the abundance of food water lithic raw material and it's conscripted geographic position this sizeable inland depression is thought to have formed one of the most important oases in the ancient world in other words the area would have been a paradise for early humans with abundant food fresh water and warm weather rose also notes that the area received very little rainfall only 40 to 120 millimeters per year however the area was watered by a rich mosaic of freshwater springs making this place unlike any other found on earth today and yet it is interesting how well the land of Eden matches this description John Walton notes the Hebrew language of claiming a miss coming up to water the land might be referring to Springs given a connection to a Sumerian ID it would actually be referring to an area being watered by subterranean Springs which still exists under the Gulf today and we also see four rivers met to form one one comes from Arabia where there is evidence of gold one comes from the original land of the CAHSEE i'ts or cache and the other two being the Tigris and Euphrates all meant to form one River in an oasis unlike any other place on earth that was watered by fresh water Springs and filled with vegetation and abundant sources of food it is no wonder we have found an abundance of evidence for prehistoric settlements around the Gulf which later became the cradle of civilization unfortunately we can't visit this region today because later on the whole region was flooded in any evidence of human activity beneath the Gulf is now lost but what is interesting is how well the description of Eden and genesis correlates with this lost oasis that has only been discovered recently we have no evidence from ancient Sumer Babylon or any other culture from around that region that describes a place like what we find in the Gulf of a psa's about fourteen thousand years ago only Genesis 2 has a similar description of a place that was lost long before other ancient cultures began writing down their own histories and mythologies it seems only the Hebrews preserve the memory of the Gulf Oh asses as a land they called Eden now obviously this doesn't prove the Bible is true or that God visited man in Eden but it does show the description in Genesis too seems reliable and probably describes a place that actually existed at one time which is astonishing because this place was probably flooded some 8,000 the 13,000 years ago in lost to mankind before the advent of writing because of this I would argue the details suggest the account of Eden is much older than the time period of the Babylonian exile where many scholars want to place it the account says the garden was in the east so from the perspective of the author that would place him west of the Garden and that would place him in the area of Canaan or Egypt it refers to the land of Arabia as hvala which appears to be an older name for the area around the time of Solomon the area became associated with the name Arabia but not prior to this it's possibly referring to the land of the CAHSEE i'ts being in the Zagros Mountains which is the most likely place where the Gihon River would have flowed through so would have it written down before the CAHSEE i'ts rolled over the old Babylonian Empire I'll admit this last piece of data is a little speculative but the overall description of the land of Eden does seem to be reliably describing an area no other culture wrote about that actually existed thousands of years ago in a place we have only recently uncovered therefore it seems very unlikely this account of Eden was written or copied from mythology during the Babylonian exile and probably is a reliable oral tradition that was preserved and later written down by the authors of Genesis 2 thus the archaeological record does likely suggest that Eden was actually a place that existed long ago before all was lost to a flood you

Pepperdine Bible Lectures 2016 – Dave Clayton (Keynote)



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Evening Keynote: “The Scandal of the Resurrection”

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and all week long it's just felt like this big family gathering and to be here in the presence of God and to be in the presence of one another's been amazing thing could you help me just give our thanks and appreciation to the team that just put this on to Mike and to Rick and the whole team and we love and honor you all thank you for the work that you do if you have a Bible action after one is we're gonna be tonight for just a few moments together my name is Dave and it is great to be here with you I just want to read this passage over us tonight and we're gonna kind of hone in on just one verse as we think about the scandal of the life that you and I get to live because of the resurrection of Jesus Christ so I'm gonna start in Acts chapter 1 we start in verse 3 I'll read through the whole text for us and then we'll pray you know we'll jump in the Word of God are you guys doing good tonight as everybody hold on pretend I'm fate are you guys doing good tonight fate I'm gonna call you up here bro if they don't get better than that okay we good okay all right here we go Acts chapter 1 starting in verse 3 it says after his suffering after his suffering he presented himself to them and he gave many convincing proofs that he was alive he appeared to them over a period of 40 days and he spoke to them about the kingdom of God on one occasion while Jesus was eating with them he gave them this command do not leave Jerusalem but wait for the gift that my father has promised which you've heard me to speak about for John baptized with water but in a few days you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit and then they gathered around him and they asked him Lord is this the time that you're going to restore the kingdom to Israel and he said it is not for you to know the times are the places that my father has set by his own authority but you will receive power when the Holy Spirit comes on you and you be my witnesses in Jerusalem and Judea and Samaria and to the ends of the earth and after he had said this Jesus was taken up before their very eyes and a cloud hid him from their sight they were looking intently up into the sky as he was going when suddenly two men dressed in white stood beside them men of Galilee why do you stand here looking into the sky the same Jesus has been taken from you into heaven will come back in the same way that you've seen him go into heaven and then the Apostles returned to Jerusalem from the hill called the Mount of Olives about a Sabbath stood a walk from the city and when they arrived they went upstairs to the room where they were staying those present were Peter John James and Andrew Philip Thomas Bartholomew Matthew James the son of Alphaeus Simon the zealot and Judas the son of James and they all joined together constantly in prayer along with the women and Mary the mother of Jesus and with his brothers this is the Word of God this is the truth of God and tonight we get to open this up together let me pray over us and I will spend a few minutes dreaming together father thank you for who you are father I've been so just convicted today that we don't need another sermon and that we don't need to be entertained God what we need is you God we need your presence we need a fresh encounter with who you are god I pray that tonight you would give us the eyes to see the ears to hear the hearts to receive whatever it is that you have for us got to pray that tonight we wouldn't just think about cruciform living or resurrected living but that God we would actually step into those things by the power of Jesus Christ raised from the dead and his spirit poured out upon us Jesus would you do it only you could do thank you for the way that you love us thank you for your patience in your grace upon us God tonight would you make me uh turley forgettable that Jesus would you become non ignoring would you be lifted high glorified worshiped and praised by us 2:9 is in the name of Jesus that I pray and give thanks and the other God's people say amen amen amen so this past week my wife Sydney and I she couldn't be here with me which is kind of a bummer to be in Malibu by herself but I'll suffer she is at home with the three kids if you're watching online I love you babe and thanks for doing that but we celebrated our 11 year wedding anniversary and this past week which is crazy and kind of hard to believe something you just know how that goes just time flies by and every year on our anniversary we have this tradition we just want to get away for a few days and sometimes it's a big trip sometimes it's a small trip where we stay in town but every year on our anniversary we really have two goals for our time away together one is that God would use that time to renew our love and some of you who are married you know what this is like you get in the the busyness of your day the busyness of your work the busyness of your children and sometimes you just become roommates with your spouse don't you and so every year anniversary would get away and we just spent a few days no kids no distractions no business and we just were like man we really like each other this is amazing like I still want to be in this with you and our anniversary is this moment of renewal of the love and the commitment that we've had for so many years but it's more than just a renewal of our love and commitment it's also a renewal of our vision because we know that our marriage doesn't exist for our happiness it actually exists to be a reflection of God's holiness that God gave us one another for the extension of God's kingdom into the earth and so we get together on our anniversary every year we just go God what do you have for a marriage in this next season like who D want us to be how can we work with you uniquely to advance the mission in the kingdom of God into the earth that's every year our anniversary becomes this moment of renewal of love and of our vision for what it means to be in this together and I was thinking about that this week as I've been eating meals and drinking coffee and hanging out so many of you because what my anniversary is to my marriage the Pepperdine Bible lectures in so many ways have become for our fellowship this is at time every year where we come back to this place and we get in this room with people from various states and various countries and various backgrounds and we get around the dinner table and we drink coffee and we have impromptu times of prayer and that sense of love for each other is kind of renewed during this week isn't it if you look around and go man I kind of like these people you know sometimes we get back to our own corners and we write blogs about each other and we do a bunch of silliness like that but you get face to face and you come back and you go man these are people and I love our people and this is a time where love is renewed among us but I'd argue that it's not just about the renewal of love that it's also about the renewal of God's vision then we come together and we hear people open up the scriptures and we're challenged and we're pressed and we disagree and we agree and we wrestle and we worship when we come back around the table and we do these things and there's this sense that every year when we come back to this space that we're trying to capture vision of what it is that God is inviting us to step into because I don't believe this time is a time for us to come back and to preserve a fading memory of what life used to be like when Churches of Christ were accelerating no this is a time where we come back together there's a family we look at each other nice man I love you I do do you love me well that hurt thanks faith my bro I love you I love you and God's not done with us but it will take God to move us into what he has us for and tonight I just want to take a moment to look at the scandalous life that the early church was allowed to step into after the resurrection of Jesus this moment where Jesus begins to speak to his disciples in Acts chapter 1 and I just want this one verse out of verse 8 to expand the borders of our imagination about what it means to be a people who are moving into the future and not fighting to preserve a fading memory of what life used to be like back then and I love this verse that we're just gonna dig into tonight where Jesus speaks but you will receive power when the Holy Spirit comes upon you and you'll be my witnesses in Jerusalem in Judea and Samaria and to the ends of the earth but you will receive power when the Holy Spirit comes upon you and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem and Judea and Samaria and to the ends of the earth and this is what I wanted to talk about tonight I want to talk about the one non-negotiable if we're really interested in living and to the cruciform life because our effort will not be enough to get us into the cruciform life and our morality will not be enough to get us into the cruciform life it will be the yielding to the submission to the fullness of God's Holy Spirit among us and Jesus says there is good news because I have raised from the dead because I am ascending to heaven help is on the way and that's good news and if we explore this tonight if you take notice I just want you to think about this what would happen if the future of the Churches of Christ is connected to people who are marked by the presence filled with the power and walking and the purposes of God well if we became a group of people that weren't just known by our style of worship what we were for what we were against but when people looked at estate wait man that's a group of people who've come face to face with the risen Lord that's a group of people that have been filled with the Spirit of God that's a group of people marched by presence walking in power filled with the purposes of God I believe that the future worth living for I believe what's God is inviting us into so I want to go back to this idea of becoming a people of God's presence you see this in verse eight Jesus looked through the disciples he says but you will receive power when the Holy Spirit comes upon you she says good news and the spirit that was there in the very beginning the spirit that is co-equal with God the Father and Jesus the son that spirit will not just be with you he will be within you he will be poured out upon you and this was amazing news because the disciples understood that what made them the people of God was not their style of worship for the buildings that they gathered in it was not their piety or their ability to keep the rules what made the disciples the people of God was the presence of God what made them jesus' friends was that they were in the presence of Jesus in the scandal of the resurrection is that that Sunday when Jesus came out of the empty tomb the disciples got what they had always wanted and what they always wanted was Jesus he was back he was among them and he looked at them after the resurrection he makes this amazing statement he says from now on you can be in communion eternal communion with the incomparable inexhaustible unlimited Spirit of God himself and for the sample this was amazing news this was this is what Moses need you remember in Exodus chapter 33 where God looks at Moses and the Israelites and he's so fed up with them and he says listen I'm gonna let you go into the Promised Land but I'm not gonna go with you I'm gonna I'm gonna give you what you want it but I'm not gonna go with you and how does Moses respond in Exodus chapter 33 mother says God what we want is your presence don't give us your promise without your presence what is it that makes us different from everybody else in the world Moses says it's the presence of God and if we have to choose between having the promise or having the presence god we want the presence so reason the disciples were so upset in John chapter 13 you know the night before Jesus was crucified he looks at him and he makes this unbelievable statement he says in a little while you will see me no longer and where I'm going you can't go with me and the disciples don't know what to do with it because they had no understanding of a type of Christianity that was possible apart from the presence of a living Christ the disciples were so unlike us they would have never heard those words of Jesus and said okay here's the plan then let's get a building let's get a notebook let's read it let's sing some songs not too new but let's like do our thing let's do our thing now they looked at jesus said what do you mean how could he be leaving us where are you going because they understood that to be the people of God meant that they walked in the presence of God and he makes them this promise he said I'm not leaving you orphans it says but my spirit the one that my father will send will come to dwell in you forever and one of the disciples says Jesus what about everybody else why do you reveal yourself to us not everybody else John chapter 14 verse 21 and Jesus says I'm telling you the truth anyone anyone who loves me and obeys me my father and I will make our home in them what a promise it would be the presence of God that would become the defining mark of the early church I love that scene in Acts chapter 4 where the disciples are doing some amazing things in the name of Jesus they're preaching great sermons they're healing the sick the religious establishment of the day has no idea what to do with them they look at these men and they say these are ordinary guys they didn't go to school for this they don't seem like they could do this on their own and what was the distinguishing mark of those men they looked at him they said man these guys have been with Jesus Church can you imagine what it would be like if when people thought of our tribe they went man those are people marked with the presence of God I remember the night before Sydney and I got married we had had our rehearsal and maybe you've been to one of those before where you just kind of do the little run-through for what you're gonna do the next day at the ceremony we had our rehearsal and we're getting ready for the rehearsal dinner which is always the best part where you going eat food and watch a slide show and make fun of the people that's getting married and pray for him in the name of Jesus and so we were getting ready for our rehearsal dinner I'm loading stuff up into the car I began driving down 19th Avenue South with a couple of my friends to go to the rehearsal dinner and as I'm on the way there my phone begins to ring and I look down at my phone and there's Sydney's name on the phone I'm a caller ID and I thought man this is an unusual moment her name is on my screen why is her name on my screen and then I have one of those outer body experiences I realized what's going on and I realized that my fiance's name is on my screen because she's not my car the reason she's not my car is because she's at the chapel the reason she's at the chapels because I forgot her the reason I forgot her is because I'm an idiot and in this moment of just trauma without thinking my friend pulls the car over I jump out of the car start running back to the chapel we don't even turn the car around that makes no logical sense but I'm running back to the chapel and I answered the phone sitting he's like where are you I'm like I'm on 19th Avenue South why are you having a sale because I forgot you and we had this moment of intense fellowship or some would call it a fight and I get in her car and we're driving to the rehearsal dinner and we have this conversation she says Dave what would have happened if you got to the party and I wasn't there I have this fear that as a tribe we've cultivated our hearts for the party and not the guest of honor and we've just gotten so good man if we find the right preacher if we find the right worship leader if we find the right venue or the right program or the right ministry the future the survival of this tribe is not based upon us learning how to decorate the party better the future of the tribe is the presence of the Almighty God being in our midst cultivating our hearts for the only one that can actually satisfy when's the last time on a Sunday morning we gathered and went man how was today and we weren't talking about the budget or the attendance or the programs or the Savior when do we gather go man was God with us was he here was the among us because when the people of God are walking in the resurrected life the cruciform life of Jesus the presence of God is dwelling there and the aroma of Christ is fragrant Mary and may our culture speak of us the way that the Babylonians spoke of Daniel we don't know what's going on with him but the spirit the holy God's with him that when people would gather in our midst they could reach out and grab on to the robe of God's glory and hear the voice of the father that says you are my beloved with him and well-pleased I don't know what the future holds but man I hope our people marked my presence but I love this because Jesus doesn't just promise the presence his presence with them he says I promise you that with that presence comes power look back at verse 8 he says and you will receive that was weak but you will receive but you will receive power power power but we've got to hear this word correctly because if we here's this word power through our American ears it will actually undercut everything we've been talking about all week with the cruciform life because the nature of this power and the reason for this power is so different than the power that we tend to long for as human beings I love this nature the nature of this power that Jesus is talking about he says listen this isn't a power that you possess this is a power that comes because of the presence of someone who possesses you in other words this is not something you control this is evidence of what happens when someone has come alongside of you is controlling you because I'm with you remember when I was in high school I played sports and every year they get all the student athletes together actually in kind of a room like this a huge gymnasium and it before any of the sports would start and we'd have this day it was called the max out day which was a terrible moment for a guy like me they bring together all the men and women and you have to see how much weight you could lift in front of all the other student athletes it was supposed to be a competition but when I was in high school I was like five foot one wait about 24 pounds and so it was just a humiliating kind of moment to be there in front of everybody and remember this one time in particular as a freshman and I'm coming up to the benchpress and the guy that had just gone before me had lifted so much more than I could lift I knew it but I was prideful and I just thought God if there's ever time for you to come through for me this would be the moment and so I laid down on the bench press and I began to lift the weight off of the bar and I had one of those moments where I thought I got this I can do this and then it just starts coming down and I'm praying like I've never prayed just lord help me God if you love me no I'm just praying praying praying and the bar comes down to my chest my eyes are closed I'm pushing as hard as I can and suddenly by the grace of God the bar begins to lift off my chest and I opened my eyes and there's this 10th grade girl from the soccer team just true story just just lifting it off it was a moment where I was experiencing the power that came with somebody else's presents I didn't get up and walk around the gym going look at me I kind of walk down and Jesus says this is the nature in your weakness as you come to the end of yourself as you find yourself in places and situations trying to glorify me the strength of the Spirit will be there to help he says the nature of this power is different it's a power that comes with presence but the reason for this power is beautiful it's that Jesus Christ would be glorified and lifted high Jesus says if the motive for our lives is the glorification of Jesus Christ the Spirit gives us power to do that and you see this in the book of Acts right the Spirit gave the disciples power with their words Peter stood up to preach a sermon and why was it so powerful was it powerful because he practiced you should know the answer was it powerful because he practiced no why was it powerful because the Spirit of God was very good in power to touch and to heal and in those moments Jesus was glorified in Acts chapter 5 ORN Acts chapter 16 the Spirit gave them the power to suffer well so that even in their suffering Jesus would be glorified or in Acts chapter 19 the Spirit gave them power to repent well so that the the culture would see these transformed lives or in Acts chapter seven and twelve the Spirit even gave them the power to die well so that in their death as they followed their Lord Jesus down the cruciform journey Christ himself would be magnified glorified lifted up in their midst and this is the promise of Jesus that if you're interested in this every nook and cranny of your life will be filled with the powerful presence of God for the purpose of lifting Jesus higher I think a lot of us and a lot of our churches were so scared of ever finding ourselves in a place where we need someone else's help that we actually end up insulating ourselves from the very mission of God itself so much of our ministry is explainable apart from the presence and the help and the power of God because we want to be able to do by ourselves because we're so fearful of being disappointed we're so fearful of being out of control and Jesus said this is the nature of this thing is that you'll have my presence and that presence will give you power to lift me higher one of the things that my wife and I do with our children we have three little boy is Micah who's five Jack who's three Judy who's one every morning around the breakfast table we'll read a story from Jesus's life and we'll ask them two questions we'll say what do you see Jesus doing in this story and what do you think he's asking you to do and so several months ago we were reading through mark chapter 2 and we came to that story where the four friends lowered the paralyzed man down through the roof on the mat you remember this story and jesus heals the man and forgives the man of his sins and so we look at our boys and we said okay what do you see Jesus doing this story and they said we see Jesus healing people who can't walk and forgiving sins and I thought wow that's that's pretty good for a five and a three-year-old and I said what do you think you're supposed to do with that story I'm three-year-old son looked at us and he said I think it means we're supposed to take people who can't walk to Jesus so they can be healed and our friends are supposed to help us with that Wow you don't need a seminary degree that was amazing you understand it so he talked about this and went about our day that evening we went to the airport to pick up my parents and we're there waiting for my parents to come in they were coming to visit and as I'm there with Micah and Jack my two oldest sons this woman in a wheelchair rolls by and I don't even think about it in the moment but my two sons go over and I hear them telling this woman the story of Mark chapter 2 I remember my son Mike is saying do you know that Jesus likes to heal people that can't walk and I would love to say that I was pumped about this but I was not pumped about this I was humiliated I was humiliated and I thought no this is gonna offend this woman and this is gonna disappoint my kids because there's no way God's gonna show up in this moment and they laid their hands on her and they prayed for she got up and I wish that happened but they lay their hands on her and they prayed for and I don't know if a miracle happened there wasn't one immediately but man one of the things that God began to reveal in me is I do not believe the teachings of Jesus I just don't and I'm so scared that Jesus won't come through on his promises that I make sure I don't put myself in places in which I'll need them and can you imagine what would happen if the future of our church was marked by the presence the powerful presence of God that lived for the glory of exalting God's purposes he looks at these men who had never been more than 40 miles from the place they grew up and he says you will receive power when the Holy Spirit comes upon you and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem and Judea and Samaria and to the ends of the earth and don't you know that one of the the disciples who was Taipei was probably going wait a minute how do we get to the ends of the earth these guys had never seen a plane or a car or the internet or a a picture they didn't have cell phones but Jesus makes this audacious claim he says because of the resurrection because of the outpouring of the Holy Spirit that's getting ready to come your life is getting ready to be captured by my purposes and I love this thing that unfolds in the book of Acts it's this group of people who all of a sudden the purposes of God become their purposes the agenda of God becomes their agenda can you imagine what it would have been like if the disciples treated the words of Jesus the way that we do oh Jesus you're alive in your Wow and the spirits coming alright we're going to build a building and hire a preacher and let them do the work and then we'll just do it or else and she says no this is the beauty that every person who has been baptized and raised in Christ is being inaugurated into the purposes of God's kingdom right here in right now and the purposes of God's kingdom have always been singular and that is filling the earth with the totality of God's glory it's what he said in Genesis chapter one have created you in my image to reflect my glory now be fruitful and multiply it's what he told Abraham in Genesis 12 it's what he told the disciples in Matthew 28 it's what he's reminding them here of Acts chapter 1 he says this is what you've been created for not songs not sermons not programs those things are okay those things are fine but what you were created for was to arrange your life around the will and the purposes of God it's not our job to come to God and say God what is your will for my life we come to God and say God what is your will help me rearrange my life around that will and there's a big difference in those two things and all of a sudden the disciples this group of ordinary people uneducated people began to carry this amazing message to the ends of the earth in 2003 two friends Larry Sanger and Jimmy Wales they had started this company it was gonna be an online encyclopedia company named nupedia in 2003 they had hired this group of researchers to write articles for this company and over the course of three years these leading experts and researchers managed to write 24 scholarly articles before they shut the company down in 2003 as the company was shutting down as her dreams were kind of folding they had this idea that they had never thought of they said what if we actually reversed the idea what if instead of using the experts to share the message we use the ordinary people and in the death of one dream was the resurrection of another and they started this little company called Wikipedia maybe you've heard of it but the word wiki means quick in Hawaiian and I said instead of using the experts what if we use the ordinary people and let them write the articles and in the same amount of time that the experts managed to write 24 articles the ordinary people wrote 22,000 and forever change the way that information has been understood and shared and you see this by the presence and the power of God unfolding as this ordinary group of people in the book of Acts are being filled with the purposes of God and going to the end of the earth sharing the message Jesus Christ they didn't they knew they didn't have to be experts but Jesus had never called them to be experts Jesus had merely called them to be witnesses and he says I will give you power my presence comes upon you to live into the purposes of God and I know it not all of you know me and so what I'm about to say I say in love okay so please hear this it's amazing to me how complicated we make following Jesus we've made it so complicated and in the midst of it we miss out on the very mission of Jesus and Jesus said you've been filled with my presence in my power to show a lost and dying world just how magnificent I am who wants in on that can you imagine what it would be like if our children treated our commands the way that our churches treat Jesus's commands like if I walked into my boys rooms and my kit and jacker in there and their clothes and their toys are out all over the room and I'm like hey boys could you guys help me could you clean up the room and I leave and I come back in 30 minutes later in the room still a mess I'm like hey guys what are you doing and Mike is like well we were we weren't sure where you wanted us to start we didn't know if you wanna start with the closet or the corner or the floor or the bed so we got a group together we meet on Sunday nights we we memorize what you told us we study what you told us we've got a guy in our green group that knows the Greek he's really helped just go deeper like clean the room okay where you start and I'm off for prayer and discernment dad this feeling that sometimes we use prayer and discernment to mask our disobedience they go God where should we go where should we go and he's like there are people all around you they don't yet know me start there and I'll show up there I'll do something there oh can you imagine can you imagine what would happen if all of a sudden every ordinary person in our church was given permission to live into the things that Jesus has already died and raised for them to be then every Sunday morning when you show up in your gatherings you're at a missions conference what do you know it or not every man woman and child has been commissioned by the glory of God can you imagine what it would be like if our churches started thinking and living like Antioch churches from Acts chapter 13 where we looked at our best people and our best resources and we go man we love Saul and Barnabas and they could really help us start a great young adults ministry but what could happen in the kingdom if we would cut them loose or man we could really spend some resources on us here but what would happen if we cut them loose can you imagine can you imagine church a group of people so filled out for the resurrected Lord that we're crazy enough to believe his promises and then all of a sudden we find ourselves marked with the presence walking in the power living in to the purposes and this has been an amazing week I've loved this theme this idea of cruciform 'ti is so unbelievable so the idea of cruciform 'ti is not something for us to study or something for us to celebrate it's something for us to step into that if we go home and just tuck these teachings into the back corner of our minds and go that life is normal the week has failed to serve its purpose but if we go back and go Lord you're not done with us yet and we want whatever it is that you have for us in the future and we trust that you Lord by your spirit will take us there and I know that in some ways right now I'm preaching to the choir I mean come on you guys took a week of vacation to come study the Bible how amazing is that of course it's in Malibu so you're not that holy but um you are I know this is what you long for I know this is what we long for all of us want a deeper connection with God all of us want to see the mission of God flourish in our midst all of us want to see the next generation reached I haven't talked to a person this week that doesn't want that and it tomorrow we'll go home and some of you are in ministry and you've just been so beaten up and you're so tired you go man this sounds good but I'm just not there yet some of your in the context is of churches that are dying and dwindling and you're going it just doesn't seem like that's happening yet and sometimes it is tough to believe because of all the things that we see isn't it okay so what do we do like what do we do how do we leave from here tonight I want to be practical how do we leave from here tonight to step into the cruciform life I think we do that by doing exactly what the disciples did in Acts chapter one I love this moment in Acts chapter one where the Angels look at them and they say hey what are you waiting for the same Jesus ascended will return in the same way essentially come on we've got some work to do and you would expect the disciples to run into the mission field start serving start planting churches start making disciples but what do the disciples do in Acts chapter one they run to their knees they run to that upper room they get down on their knees and they go god only you can do the things that you want to do and we're under no we were under no preset position that we can do this without your help and they get down on their knees and I believe that this is a place the cruciform life always starts what Jesus did in the garden against so many is what the disciples did in the upper upper room and they said Jesus empty us of us you fill us up you into the world with you glory and before they ever became an axe to revival they were in acts one people and before we will become an axe to people we must become an axe one church a church that says god only you can do this and here's how I want to end tonight it's maybe uncomfortable for some of you it's okay I want to invite us to literally just get on our knees some of you can't do it physically that's okay you can stay sitting but I want to invite us to just get on our knees and a call on the god of glory and just pray for our tribe to pray that God would breathe his resurrection life into our fellowship that God would empower us with more of his Holy Spirit to live the cruciform life and so on and just invite you to get down on your knees before the Lord if you're comfortable doing that I'm actually gonna give us just a minute or two to just pray on our own you can pray in groups you can pray out loud but we're just going to call on the name of Jesus together and then in here in just a minute I'm going to kind of wrap up our prayer time and we're gonna sing together as well I want to invite you to just start praying and calling on the name of Jesus ask him to just give us a hunger for his presence to fill us with his power to commit us to His purposes let's just pray out loud together as a church family before the Lord and then I'll call us back in a moment father we love you Jesus we love you Holy Spirit we love you I just pray the words of Isaiah 64 that God you would just rend the heavens over our nation father you would come down father for every church that is represented for every leader that is represented for every person that is represented in this room tonight God what would your spirit fall on us in fresh ways God would you create an unquenchable hunger and thirst in our churches for your presence would you give us a courage that would allow us to put our lives in places where we need your power father would you give us the ability and the tenacity to walk with you into your purposes father would you raise up a new generation of men and women who are fully committed to your ways Jesus would you be glorified among us Jesus we repent of any time we've put our tradition ahead of you our ways ahead of you any time we've been scared or have tried to control the outcomes God we were pin of those things what we say is that we want more of you and then we want more of your life and more of your heart in our midst God thank you for the way that you love us thank you for your grace upon us thank you for the way that you saved us Jesus thank you for going first for being the first and the last and for being with us in the midst of the journey would you make us like you would you grow us into the fullness of Christ Jesus and would you keep working on us into the fullness of Jesus in formed in us so the name of Christ we pray and give thanks amen

MOTH TRAPPING: In Laos again (Cambodia & Laos Se1)



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Please help! Youtube has NEVER ALLOWED ME to MONETIZE my content! Because of this, my channel is completely dependent on crowdfunding. I am an independent entomologist that mainly talks about moths but sometimes also shows other invertebrates and a bit of biology. Below are some links of my work, my social media and to some ways that viewers can support my mission to protect, document and create awareness for insects. HELP ME HELP INSECTS! Some ways to support me are:

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it was good here most of the time he passed his untouchable yes yes the other clearing what's up everyone so most of you already know the famous curricula which is the finest of small certainly the most but fewer people know about its relative it's more colorful cousin which which I just found a mill here in Laos and it is the famous Lemuria and I'm really impressed by its colors right now it's small but it's very detailed better unfortunately is a mill so I will be doing no breeding with these pieces although there's still a small chance that the female will come to my trap although females are more rare I mean their habitats are there's a chance it will happen either way I'm happy to show this attorney day which is not what I've seen before showed before my youtube channel so I am trapping moths in Laos and today my last trap attracted one very common species and although it's common it's really nice to see it's the lesser Zampa tropical Australasian type of granada' moth and I believe the host plant is endosperm and therefore really unique biology where they can have a synchronized big flight and they can be scarce for many years until all of them hatch from their cocoons at the same time causing a huge peak in population and a synchronized flight for example in Singapore one time this month was so common that it was considered a pest where it basically engulfed the entire city and all the lights of the city were millions and millions of individuals I do not know if the lessor sample is breathable I do not know if anyone has tried but it could be very challenging and complicated I will see what I can do about trying to figure out the life cycle of this beautiful insect in captivity last but not least here is one fun fact and some cultures people believe that these moths are the souls of relatives and friends that have died returning to the underworld and for that reason and these cultures people do not like to harm them and see them as sacred it's certainly very common moth but spiders cominis it's really fascinating and mysterious and we don't know that much about it so there you go so I'm not strapping here in a higher elevation location and very communist is trouble our species here collected one male and one female for this video but in reality there are many of them the male is green and the females yellow my youtube channel I bred many trouble are before my little Bella fish new but I'm not sure if this is the same species somehow it looks different from the other trouble at IFC hmm because I'm gonna take the eggs home and breed them to find out so stay tuned so I'm trapping in Ireland now instead of lowland and I just got this strange-looking oh god the stretched looking male of curricula I don't think it's three finished strata I think it's the click EULA and right perhaps it's very differently colored so I think I just ruined this specimen but yeah these guys need some research okay so I'm sitting at the light it's really late like five o clock it's getting real cold here at the mountain and I just got this huge as female of a leopard moth I have no clue of the famous yet or the species but wow look at that she's huge one of the bigger and she's licking eggs everywhere so this is all good news because I'm gonna read the hell out of this species when I come home hi everyone and thanks for watching my name is Bert Coppins a trifling entomologist from the Netherlands working with moss used to be my hobby but thanks to my exposure on YouTube and social media it became my job thank you for following my truffles in Laos and Cambodia which is part of the video series that you are watching now this is the outro video so skip ahead to the next episode if you like I would just like to remind all of you to LIKE and subscribe I consider joining my crowdfunding platform because as an independent entomologists crowdfunding enables me to do independent work on insects and improve my youtube channel so if you are willing and able please consider joining in otherwise I would like to say thanks for watching stay tuned for more insects and moths bye [Applause]

Einstein's Theory Of Relativity Made Easy



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… Albert Einstein’s Theory of Relativity (Chapter 1): Introduction.

The theory of relativity, or simply relativity, encompasses two theories of Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity. However, the word “relativity” is sometimes used in reference to Galilean invariance.

The term “theory of relativity” was coined by Max Planck in 1908 to emphasize how special relativity (and later, general relativity) uses the principle of relativity.


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SPECIAL RELATIVITY

Special relativity is a theory of the structure of spacetime. It was introduced in Albert Einstein’s 1905 paper “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies” (for the contributions of many other physicists see History of special relativity). Special relativity is based on two postulates which are contradictory in classical mechanics:

1. The laws of physics are the same for all observers in uniform motion relative to one another (principle of relativity),
2. The speed of light in a vacuum is the same for all observers, regardless of their relative motion or of the motion of the source of the light.

The resultant theory agrees with experiment better than classical mechanics, e.g. in the Michelson-Morley experiment that supports postulate 2, but also has many surprising consequences. Some of these are:

• Relativity of simultaneity: Two events, simultaneous for one observer, may not be simultaneous for another observer if the observers are in relative motion.
• Time dilation: Moving clocks are measured to tick more slowly than an observer’s “stationary” clock.
• Length contraction: Objects are measured to be shortened in the direction that they are moving with respect to the observer.
• Mass-energy equivalence: E = mc2, energy and mass are equivalent and transmutable.
• Maximum speed is finite: No physical object or message or field line can travel faster than light.

The defining feature of special relativity is the replacement of the Galilean transformations of classical mechanics by the Lorentz transformations. (See Maxwell’s equations of electromagnetism and introduction to special relativity).

GENERAL RELATIVITY

General relativity is a theory of gravitation developed by Einstein in the years 1907–1915. The development of general relativity began with the equivalence principle, under which the states of accelerated motion and being at rest in a gravitational field (for example when standing on the surface of the Earth) are physically identical. The upshot of this is that free fall is inertial motion; an object in free fall is falling because that is how objects move when there is no force being exerted on them, instead of this being due to the force of gravity as is the case in classical mechanics.

This is incompatible with classical mechanics and special relativity because in those theories inertially moving objects cannot accelerate with respect to each other, but objects in free fall do so. To resolve this difficulty Einstein first proposed that spacetime is curved. In 1915, he devised the Einstein field equations which relate the curvature of spacetime with the mass, energy, and momentum within it.

Some of the consequences of general relativity are:

• Time goes slower in higher gravitational fields. This is called gravitational time dilation.
• Orbits precess in a way unexpected in Newton’s theory of gravity. (This has been observed in the orbit of Mercury and in binary pulsars).
• Rays of light bend in the presence of a gravitational field.
• Frame-dragging, in which a rotating mass “drags along” the space time around it.
• The Universe is expanding, and the far parts of it are moving away from us faster than the speed of light.

Technically, general relativity is a metric theory of gravitation whose defining feature is its use of the Einstein field equations. The solutions of the field equations are metric tensors which define the topology of the spacetime and how objects move inertially.

The Cassiopeia Project – making science simple!

The Cassiopeia Project is an effort to make high quality science videos available to everyone. If you can visualize it, then understanding is not far behind.


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relativity relativity is just a method for two people to agree on what they see if one of them is moving and since we all move about pretty regularly we can find many examples of how useful relativity is in everyday life even if we don't call it by name one miracle of modern life is the global positioning system or GPS it is pretty amazing that the GPS can pinpoint your location anywhere on earth to within a few yards and this magic depends entirely on the existence of the two dozen satellites 12,000 miles above the earth and a little relativity briefly here's how it works the GPS receiver gives a timing signal from several different high flying satellites and using Einstein's theory of relativity it calculates the distance from each satellite throw in a little triangulation and I'll come to your location simple and concept but to do this successfully the timing signals must be accurate to a few billions of a second so that the distance calculations can be accurate to a few yards but with all this motion going on time and distance must be reconciled carefully without an Stein's version of relativity the accuracy of the global positioning system would drift more than seven miles every day but of course relativity was not a new concept with Einstein the problem of how two people reconcile their observations about the world if one of them is moving has been addressed for centuries let's easier way into relativity with some common experiences if you are travelling in a car on a smooth straight stretch of highway there's no sensation of motion at all you mean I could read a book or a drink flip a coin and everything looks and feels the same as if the car we're sitting still that's because relative to the car view of the book the drink and the coin are not moving notice that this works only if the car is not changing direction or speed so if the car accelerates or turns pouring that drink becomes a real problem but constant motion feels just like sitting still and if you want to know what it feels like to move at a thousand miles per hour just look around because of the Earth's spin we zip along our time zone at a speedy 1,000 miles per hour and because of its motion around the Sun the earth carries us through space about 67,000 miles per hour and because of the motion of our solar system about the center of our galaxy we are moving at more than half a million miles an hour but it's not enough to ask how fast am i moving we must ask how fast am i moving relative to some other thing let's make up a simple rule that allows two observers to agree on how fast something is moving we begin at a moving walkway at the airport the walkway is moving at a brisk 3 miles per hour so if Susan simply stands on the walkway she is moving at 3 miles per hour relative to Sara who is standing still but not on the walkway if Susan walks on the walkway at 3 miles per hour she can accurately say she is walking at 3 miles per hour but Sara sees her moving at 6 miles per hour and if Susan walks against the walkway at 3 miles per hour Susan can still say she's walking at 3 miles per hour but now Sara sees her as standing still zero miles per hour so our first conclusion is that two observers can simply add or subtract their speed with respect to each other to any measurement of velocity they make this idea is the basis of classical relativity here's another scenario suppose there's a truck moving down the road at a constant speed of 50 miles per hour on the back or a baseball pitcher a catcher and their pitching coach armed with the speed gun as long as the truck doesn't speed up or slow down or hit any large bumps they can conduct pitching practice just the same as they would on the baseball field and when the pitcher throws a 100 mile-per-hour fastball the coaches speed gun will read 100 miles per hour the ball is indeed moving 100 miles per hour relative to the pitcher the catcher the coach and the truck but suppose an observer standing by the side of the road plucks the speed of that same baseball what speed would this observer measure for the ball well the ball would already be moving at 50 miles per hour when the pitcher was just holding it so this observer would measure a speed of a hundred and fifty miles per hour for the pitch the speed of the ball relative to the truck plus the speed of the truck relative to the observer the example of adding velocities in the bullet and plane example is classical relativity at its finest this classical version of relativity simply add in the velocities worked perfectly well for centuries for describing horse carts and ships or baseballs and trucks even airplanes and rockets and bullets but the relativity of classical physics is merely a very close approximation to reality at very very fast speeds classical relativity breaks down but this wouldn't be clear until scientists began flying Sopwith camels and examining the nature of the fastest known thing light

Time Is But a Stubborn Illusion – Sneak Peek | Genius



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Time Is But a Stubborn Illusion – Sneak Peek | Genius

National Geographic

What is time? A deceptively simple
question, yet it is the key to understanding relativity. It is sort of the reason
my hair is going gray. [laughter] When we describe
motion, we do so as a function of time, 10 meters
per second, 100 miles per hour. But the mathematical
description of velocity is moot unless we
can define time. Is time universal? In other words, is there
an audible tick-tock throughout the galaxy, a
master clock, so to speak, forging ahead like
Mozart's metronome? The answer my friends is no. Time is not absolute. In fact, for us, the living
physicists, the distinction between the past,
present, and future is but a stubborn illusion. [music playing] A lot to consider, I know. I know. [laughter] But understanding time is
essential to understanding relativity. Now, I want you all
to close your eyes. Not to worry, I don't bite. But I am on the
lookout for a new pen. [laughter] Go on close your eyes. To truly grasp the idea of
time, we must take a step back and ask, what is light? So journey with me to the Sun. Light travels from the Sun to
the Earth through space, yes. When I was your age,
I wanted to know how can something, light,
travel through nothing, space? Let us isolate a light beam
and travel alongside it. But let us go faster. You're there with me. Faster. Faster! What is time? [thud] PROFESSOR WEBER: Herr,
Einstein, wake up! I wasn't sleeping, sir. I was thinking. Oh, really. About what exactly? The secrets of the
cosmos, I suppose. I suggest you think
about trigonometry instead, with your eyes open. And sit up! Laws of sines and cosines? c squared equals a squared
plus b squared, subtract 2 [inaudible] cosine b. PROFESSOR WEBER: The
area of a triangle? STUDENTS: The area equals
b squared times a times b over 2 times c. PROFESSOR WEBER: What is
the solution [inaudible] differential equation? Herr Einstein, are you
still too busy contemplating the secrets of the cosmos
to solve this equation? Oh, no sir. I've already solved it. PROFESSOR WEBER: Leave, now. On what offense? PROFESSOR WEBER: Your mere
presence spoils the respect of the class for me! That is not an
objective reason. Out! [music playing] The natural log of a
constant multiplied by x equals the natural log
of 1 plus v squared. And since v equals y
over x, that gives us the final function, x
squared plus y squared minus c x cubed equals 0. And speaking truthfully,
sir, your mere presence spoils my respect for the
future of Prussian mathematics. Out. [door slamming]

Pepperdine Bible Lectures 2016 – Rick Atchley (Part 1)



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The Bible Doesn’t Say That: “God Will Never Give You More Than You Can Handle”

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my name is Rick Ashley up on Fort Worth there's a lot of great classes right now and if you don't have the app and don't know where you're supposed to be not supposed to be here it will not bother me if you get up and walk out I have seen that happen many times usually they wait until I got halfway through the teaching so it actually would make me feel better if you did it right now so this is a class that'll last for two days and let me just go ahead and get an apology out of the way last year for the first time in 30-something years and my coming the flex year if I left after just two days because my daughter was graduating and I had to get back in time to see her graduate with her nursing degree from ACU and that was very exciting well this weekend my son is graduating and so the bad news is that I have to leave tomorrow because he's got a dinner on Friday an Abilene that I have to be at the good news is he is my last kid in college so you are looking at a man who just got a raise a really big raise and more good news he already has a job so not only is he graduating but he's not coming home and I love him but really that's a good thing so I promise I promise because I have no other children next year I'll be here for three straight days if they if they ask me to come back but so today I'll be teaching and tomorrow at 8:30 I'll be teaching and then unlike you I won't get to stay for the rest of this wonderful week and I'm sorry about that but then again I'm also celebrating so you can celebrate with me if you've had that joy let's stand up let's sing for just a moment okay this is the day this is the day that the Lord has made that the Lord has made I will rejoice I will rejoice and be glad in it and be glad in it this is the day that the Lord has made I will rejoice and be glad in it this is this is the day that the Lord asked me I will enter his gates with Thanksgiving in mind I will enter his courts with bread I will say this is the day that the Lord has made I will rejoice for he has made me glad he has made me glad he has made me glad I will rejoice for he has made me glad he it made me glad he it made me black I will rejoice for he has made me glad oh god you are my god and I will ever praise you oh god you are my god and I will ever praise you I will seek you in the morning and I will learn to walk in your way and step-by-step you leave me and I will follow you all of mine and I will follow you all of my day and I will follow you all of my days and step by step you leave me and I follow you all of my ring the wondrous love of Jesus in His mercy and His grace in the mansion ride and blessed he'll prepare us away when we all get to head and what a day of rejoicing that will be when we all see Jesus well sing at the victory let us then be true and faithful trusting serving every day just one glance of him in glory will the cause of life repay when we all get to heaven what a day of rejoicing that will be when we all see Jesus well sing and shout the victory amen and before you sit down turn to your neighbor and say when do we all get to heaven you'll have a good voice do that all right so I'm thankful to have such a good crowd now I know what's going on empty right teaches here at 1:30 and you wanted a seat so your just came early I'm totally cool with that in fact the only reason I'm on the program this year is because they wanted one speaker that didn't have an accent so how many of you have read books by the author Nicholas Sparks going to hold your hand out shame on you you need you need to go to church all right I'm kidding I've never read a Nicholas Sparks book I have never been to one of his movies if you don't know who Nicholas Sparks is he writes books and they turn into movies that sell Kleenex okay so that's all I know but I did go to see the movie by the Nicholas Sparks of my generation when I was in high school it was a movie called love story you might he remember that book it was written by someone that Erich Segal it starred two attractive young Hollywood actors named Orion O'Neal and Ali MacGraw he was a pompous self-assured jock she was the snarky sarcastic intellectual co-ed they meet in college and immediately they hate each other so you already know what's going to happen right they're gonna fall madly in love and so it had a typical plot forty-five minutes of comedy while they hate each other while they pretend to hate each other while they fall in love then about five to ten minutes of happiness and bliss then about 45 minutes of great tragedy as she contracts leukemia and eventually she dies and in one of the last scenes in the movie she's laying in her hospital bed and he is expressing regret and she looked at him and she bats her eyes and then she says it she says the line that became the phrase of my generation she says love means you never have to say you're sorry music cues and the Kleenex pops out and the tears flow and it became a poster and it became a hit song by a popular boy band and everyone knew in my generation that love means you never have to say you're sorry which is the dumbest thing anybody has ever said love means you always have to say you're sorry if there's any young men here about to get married let me just let you know love means you say you're sorry for what you know you did love means you say you're sorry for the things you didn't know you did love means you throw in a couple of random I'm sorry's every day just to cover a multitude of sins and yet it just goes to show how we can accept as true isms statements that actually are quite absurd and we do that it's in church we we just come up with these little phrases that make great bumper stickers and they look so great on coffee cups and refrigerator magnets and they sound right but they're not actually in the Bible for example god helps those who help themselves now what book do you find that in that's actually in first American 1776 or follow your heart just whatever you do you just go with your you just kind of follow your heart what book is that found in that's actually found in song of Disney 2016 okay or I know you've all heard the phrase God has a plan for your life and there's a sense in which that is true and there's a sense of which that phrase is used in which it is very very true you may have heard the story of the guy that was supposedly on a diet so he comes to the office one morning with a box of doughnuts and everyone says I thought you said you weren't eating sweets anymore I wasn't planning to but you know there's that popular bakery just right on the way to work and I know God has a plan for my life and so lord I said if it's your plan that I get some donuts there will be a parking spot right in front of that store and you know the seventh time around the block there it was and so we can use these kinds of phrases to really get ourselves in a lot of trouble and so today and tomorrow I want to share with you a two phrase is this actually comes from a series I did called the Bible doesn't say that and if you're interested you can go to our website and get the podcast of the entire series but the two phrases I've picked for this class I want to use because especially these are two phrases we use with the best of intentions because we want to speak a word of comfort to someone who has really gone into a tough season and so tomorrow we're going to examine does the Bible actually say everything happens for a reason but right now I want to introduce my phrase of the morning by asking you to watch a short little video clip we made for the this sermon back home so it'll be on the screen what's up you okay I'm just exhausted works been so stressful my dad is sick again I just I don't know dude dude she needs some encouragement no I don't say that look I know it's been tough but you've been doing so well I just don't feel that way let me explain whoa what just happened anytime she's about to explain something to me I tried to think of the quickest way to solve the problem do you really think that's a good idea yeah trust me it works every time and you are always a big part of it all right check it out your wife needs some solid advice what does the Bible say about this kind of stuff well I know that God can handle anything and God is for us wait a minute I've got it last week you know babe God will never give you more than you can handle anyway I'm gonna beat up the guys did not even say that okay so how many you have heard the phrase God will never give you more than you can handle of course doesn't that look great on a coffee cup okay but is that a helpful thing to say and even more is that a true thing to say I know you mean well when you say it you're trying to give someone a word of comfort but think about it in some ways doesn't it come across as more of a talk aren't you basically implying why don't you cowboy up you wimp why don't you power up why don't you just get through it because God is not going to give you more than you can handle is God some kind of a cosmic cheerleader who loads you down with burdens and then yells you can do it you can do it now I know what some of you are thinking now I know there's a verse somewhere in the Bible that says that we're not going to be tested beyond what we can bear there is a verse and out of that verse comes the theology that I want us to rethink today so let's look at that verse it's 1st Corinthians 10 and verse 13 no temptation has overtaken you except what is common to mankind and God is faithful he will not let you be tempted beyond what you can bear but when you're tempted he will always provide a way out so that you can endure it so what does that verse say and what does it not say well one thing it does say is that not sinning is always an option we've had a number of baptisms of our church recently in fact I had a great experience I taught a class for a CU l short course in January it was in Colorado at this camp there was 9,000 feet elevation you know the last night of the like a revival broke out and a bunch of the students wanted to get baptized well there was only one place to baptize and it was an outdoor pool now we're over 9,000 feet elevation and it's snowing and they wanted me to baptize them okay so I went to my room and I got on some dry fit workout clothes and put some sweats on over it and there was a little locker room next to the pool I went in took the sweats out and I shivered my way all the way into that pool fortunately the water was warm and we had this awesome moment we baptized number kids and so then I get out in someone hands me a town I shuffle back freezing to that locker room and I dry off and get those wet clothes off and hang them on a hook and put my sweats back on and as I'm walking out my wife says Rick one more student wants you to baptize them and I looked at those frigid cold clothes I had just hung up and my whole theology of immersion had a gut check like how important is that I've put those freezing things back on and baptized her and and here's now what I've got to do for her and for everyone else we baptize recently I got to say the baptism did not drown the devil okay baptism doesn't make all your problems go away you cannot avoid temptation but you can always escape it now that the power of sin has been broken now that you've United with the death and resurrection of Christ there's a new reality what Paul is saying is that once you unite with the death and resurrection of Jesus you cannot say I had no choice but to sin that word is only true if God's Word is not telling the truth when Paul says he will not let you he's implying that apart from his protection our enemy would test us beyond what we could bear you'll remember in the story of Job God would say to the enemy you can go this far but you can't go farther than that my Bob Russell tells a story of a little cat in New York City the kitten in her mouth trying to get across a busy street and of course the traffic was so intense it was not navigable so a police officer saw the situation walked out into the street held up his hand and all the traffic stopped and the cat darted across the street and down an alley this little kitten has no idea the entire authority of the New York City Police Department is behind her you don't either and neither do i we have no idea how much God is staying in our lives simply by holding up his hand and saying to the enemy you can't go that far there is a point to where we would be tempted beyond what we can bear but God will not let that happen so what's the point God is never gonna let you take a temptation test that was impossible to pass that's what he's saying not sinning is always an option there's always a way out from sinning but there's no way out from suffering apart from resurrection so the same apostle who said we never have to disobey told the same church that we might have to despair look with me now at second Corinthians chapter 1 verse 8 we do not want you to be uninformed brothers and sisters about the troubles we experienced in the province of Asia we were under great pressure far beyond our ability to endure so that we despaired of life itself so while not sinning is always an option not suffering is never an option disobedience is not to be excused I had no choice is not a true statement but while disobedience is not to be excused discouragement ought to be expected look at that same verse again from the New Living Translation we were crushed and overwhelmed beyond our ability to endure now does that sound like a man who did not have more than he could handle so here's what I'm saying at no time must be be overcome by sin but there will be times when we are overwhelmed by life can I get out oh yeah and God doesn't have to order this it's simply the consequence of living in a broken fallen world in need of redemption but what God doesn't order he does allow we'll talk about that more tomorrow God did allow the enemy to assault job in a way that was overwhelming or last year at my church I challenged my congregation to read a million chapters of the Bible in calendar year 2015 and so I was in the word last year more than I've ever and I bet I read through the Psalms 20 times and I just want to tell you David was bipolar I mean he could be so high and then he could be so so low and over and over in the Psalms to put it in my words you would hear David say I can't take it anymore and this was actually worship language offered to God a more than you can handle season is not an elective for some people it is a required course for all suffering is a given but it's also a gift and especially when it is too much so look at the very next verse Paul says verse 9 in fact we expected to die but as a result we stopped relying on ourselves and learned to rely only on God who raises the dead that same verse from the message reached like this as it turned out it was the best thing that could have happened instead of trusting in our own strengths or wits to get out of it we were forced to trust God totally so Paul is saying that being in a season that's just too much was actually a gift so I want us to explore that the gift of too much why would be an overwhelm be a gift well there are two things that we learned here's the first it's a gift because we will rely on God you need to know something about me and you need to know it about me because it's true you too my sinful flesh values self-reliance and it wants to pretend that it can just hunker down and power its way through anything I want that to be my testimony my flesh wants to tell you I was under this and I was under that and I gritted my teeth and I manned up and I putting my spurs on and I fought my way through it we need to know something else about me and you need to know what about me because it's also true about you I was created to need God and I'm actually in desperate shape when I'm not desperate for God and that's why too much can actually be just right you see we don't just experience God on the mountaintop now that's typically our approach and so we go to a lectureship or we go to a big worship night or we go to our favorite Christian band concert or we buy our favorite Christian authors latest book or we go to the latest Christian film and we go to the big retreat and we go on the mission trip and we constantly are looking for that next big awesome high well praise God for those moments but here's what I've learned life won't let you stay at the top of the mountain and you don't just experience God at the top of the mountain and so Paul knows about the mountaintop he says in this letter now I had a I I was taking whether in the body or not I can't tell you all I know is I had a vision I saw things that even if I had the words to describe I couldn't share I'm just telling you I in the in the third heaven things I saw it blow you away and then he says this this is so amazing verse 7 through 9 of chapter 12 so to keep me from becoming proud this is what happens if you stay on a mountaintop you get you get proud so to keep me from becoming proud I was given a thorn in my flesh a messenger from Satan to torment me and keep me from becoming proud three different times begged the Lord to take it away by the way do you think Paul had a pretty good prayer life so this is not about him not praying with faith praying with fervor this is not about a problem with this prayer life this is about him not understanding that what he's asking for is not actually best for him you ever prayed like that three times I begged the Lord to take it away each time he said my grace is all you need my power works best in weakness now how sovereign is God let me tell sovereign God this is so cool he used an attack by Satan to prevent Paul from falling prey to the sin that ruied Satan I think through that what destroyed Satan pride and so God is so sovereign he used Satan to attack Paul to keep Paul from falling prey to what ruin Satan that's sovereignty and Paul experienced in the depth of the valley a depth of grace that he had not known before God really convicted me about something a while back in my prayer life I pray contradictory more than I realize how many of us on Sunday have sang Lord we come before thee now that I think we hum or let us become more aware of your presence let us experience the glory of your goodness now do you mean that do you really really want to experience more of the presence of God because here's what I found often my prayers are Lord I want to know you I want my faith to grow I want our relationship to be more intimate I want to be closer to you than I've ever been and please take away all my problems well what's one thing you want because His grace is more powerful in your weakness remember the three Hebrew boys in Daniel chapter 3 where did they have the sweetest communion with father it was in the fire that's where they met God you cannot learn how strong the grace of God is without going through a season a weakness a season when you've lost your props a season when you've lost your crutches and if God doesn't sustain you you will collapse I went through a season like that about eight or nine years ago you know my job is hard I don't ask for pity because your job is hard everybody no not many easy jobs out there but this particular time my job was especially hard on top of that my mother was dying of cancer and my oldest son was in a terrible place a dark dark place I was in one of those seasons that were you've been where no matter where you are you feel guilty because you feel like you need to be somewhere else and you just can't be in all the places you need to be and on top of that it was nothing I could do if prayer could have taken away my mom's cancer then then it would have cuz I tell you I begged the Lord but the cancer didn't go away and I couldn't fix my son and I'm a type-a person I want to attack problems I want to put on my Spurs that's my job I fix people right well I submit but that's what we like to think is that we can fix people and he only be fixed and I can't tell you how many nights I would wake up two or three in the morning and you just went up on your knees and after a while you're not even sure how to pray because you've already prayed all that stuff and so it was one of those nights where I'm not even sure I was praying but I know I was because sometimes praying is listening and don't think I'm weird but every now and then I just really cleared her hair hear the Lord and the Lord spoke to my spirit and here's what the Lord said you came fix this just as clear as I'm talking to you you can't fix this and I've sinned my heart I remember thinking well then what am I supposed to do and the Lord said you're gonna have to let go never thinking well Lord if I let go I just have to totally trust you and I don't know how to explain it but I just know that not at some point I just surrendered and said you're right I'm just going to trust you and that's courrier want me to say and the next day I woke up and the cancer was gone and my son and no here's the thing about it when you enter those kinds of seasons they usually don't last for 24 hours they usually ask for days and weeks and sometimes months all I know is that I did wake up the next morning healthier and stronger and nothing had changed but everything had changed and I realized that I was experiencing the sustaining grace of God in a way that my pride had kept me from experiencing for years you see anything that humbles me is helping me God I can't handle this anymore is a sign of weakness and that's a good thing because some of you are here this morning just for what I'm about to say next you ready God doesn't give grace instead of weakness God gives grace in the midst of weakness and His grace to his people often comes through his people so look what he says next verse 10 and 11 we have placed our confidence in him and he will continue to rescue us and you are helping us by praying for us so why is too much a gift well one reason it teaches us to rely on God but here's the second reason it's a gift is because when we're in that season we learn to comfort each other now everybody's heard the phrase hurt people hurt people right that's true but let me tell you something else and the kingdom of God hurt people can heal people following Jesus is a team sport you can't do it by yourself and here's what the enemy is going to do if he cannot get you to sin if he cannot get you to be disobedient he will try to get you to be disconnected especially when life is overwhelming and so God's grace in more than I can handle seasons often comes through people who understand too much these are not the people that are going to bring you the coffee mug that says God will never give you more than you can handle these are the people who will put their arm around you and say hey I've been there I know what it's like when life is more than you could handle here's what it says 2nd Corinthians 1 for he comforts us in all our troubles so that we can comfort others and when they are troubled we will be able to give them the same comfort God has given us and so what I'm learning is that sometimes a better prayer than God removed my thorn is God Redeemer my thorn let my weakness be a channel for grace to flow not just into me but through me into someone else because here's what happens your scars become your story when you see somebody with a scarf you want to know the story right most of you are familiar with Bethany Hamilton a strong believer who lost her arm in a shark attack she was a surfer they made a movie about her I think I have a picture of her and she's shared her testimony with a lot of people and here's what she says I've had the chance to embrace more people with one arm than I ever could with to God is comforting others through the comfort he sent to her you see what you have come through has actually prepared you for what you might be called to do somewhat out of truth dad I'm gonna say that again what you have come through has actually prepared you for what you might be called to and so I want to do something now for two or three minutes that's going to feel a little uncomfortable or awkward but I hope you'll participate with me because I just want to make the point that every time the saints gather there is a wealth of potential grace to be shared now what typically happens and I've never been to your church and you never been to mine but I promise you were the same and here's how I know because if I walk up to next sunny to someone in your church and if you walk up to someone in mine and you say how are you doing what's the answer going to be fine that is the official church word church is for fine people if you're not fine you stay home get yourself fine then come back up here and tell us but the reality is on every row and in every pew life is overwhelming somebody so here's what I want you to in the last three years if you have experienced in your family or in a very close relationship the grief of death would you mind standing for a second okay thank you you can have a seat if in the last three years you have been touched in a very close way by the pain of divorce would you mind standing thank you in the last three years if you your family are a very close friend has struggled with cancer would you mind standing please okay thank you if you or someone in your family or a close friend in the last three years has battled with a real problem with addiction would you please stand thank you if in the last three years you or your family have been under a lot of financial stress would you mind standing thank you for your honesty thank you or have you in the last several years been under the very wonderful but very hard season of taking care of aging parents would you stand please okay thank you I hope you won't feel awkward by this because this is this is real if you or someone really close to you or in your family deals with mental illness would you mind standing for a moment thank you and just one more if you have a brother or a sister or a child who is far from God right now would you please stand okay thank you for your honesty and just so you'll know I would have stood on at least five of those myself you realize what's here how much we're having to rely on God life can give you more than you can handle but it can teach you to rely on God and it can be a channel for grace to flow among us because no one can take away our scars but we can give away our stories now one day all suffering is going to be removed but this day our suffering can be redeemed and when life is more than we can handle His grace is more than we can imagine that's what the Bible says and so I've learned to pray differently when we come to Christ I'm sure the preacher or the youth minister or the mother or the father or the elder or somebody said now if you come to Christ you need to surrender completely you need to give him everything well that's true but I never thought about does that mean giving my weakness oh yeah that means giving your weakness too and so my prayer recently has been Lord may my weakness become your witness instead of hiding it instead of trying to cowboy up instead of telling people I'm fine what if my prayer was Lord made my weakness actually empower my witness what if we offered that to the Lord I think that's what the Bible says so father a prayed now in Jesus name that you would give us the energy and the open heart and mind to receive all the blessings are going to receive these next several days speak to us fill our hearts challenges we want not just to go home refreshed but also reformed and especially God we pray for the courage to be honest about our scars take us God to a new level of walking in grace for Jesus sake amen have a good day

Amazing Experiments with Science Bob Pflugfelder



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Science Bob teaches Jimmy about light traveling through different substances, sets fire to the our studio floor and creates a gattling gun out of film canisters and a Tesla coil.

Trump Supporters Say Something Nice for Hillary Clinton’s Birthday

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Amazing Experiments with Science Bob Pflugfelder

How Much Do You REALLY Know About Autism?



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Autism Spectrum Disorder is often very misunderstood. What is it, and what causes it?
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hey there welcome to life noggin a lot of people talk about autism but not everyone understands what it is autism spectrum disorder or ASD affects how people communicate with and relate to others this isn't the same as being shy or not knowing what to say most people with autism don't understand some of the basic social conventions that others take for granted they might have trouble making eye contact holding a conversation or recognizing gestures and over one-third of people with ASD are non-verbal meaning they don't use speech along with communication issues people with autism often like to follow certain patterns or repeated behaviors many have a sensitivity to bright light or loud noises and others have physical problems like trouble walking or picking up small objects some have intellectual disabilities but about half have average or above average IQs it's also common for people with autism to have a great long-term memory for certain details and many excel in math science music or art with such a wide variety of symptoms no two people with ASD are alike the behaviors vary so much that they used to be classified as different disorders one was Asperger's syndrome where people obsess over particular topics miss nonverbal social cues and may not understand appropriate social behavior in 2013 scientists realized that the boundary between Asperger's syndrome and some of the other disorders was fuzzy so they decided to put them all under one name this made it easier to diagnose autism which is important the younger someone has diagnosed the earlier they can get help in fact many children who have autism will show signs by just 2 years old including not responding to their name avoiding eye contact and flapping their hands or Rocking repeatedly even though there is no cure for ASD therapy and medication can help people adjust scientists are also doing clinical trials to find other solutions they've learned that one out of every 68 children in the US has the disorder but they still aren't sure what causes it autism is over four times more common in boys than girls and most scientists think genes play a role because it often runs in families some people with ASD have abnormal chromosomes but this can't be the whole story there are people with the same gene changes who don't have autism other possible causes include having older parents being exposed to high levels of testosterone in the womb and having complications during pregnancy or birth it may even have something to do with gut bacteria since many autistic people have gastrointestinal issues but most likely it's a combination of many factors the one thing scientists know for sure is that vaccines do not cause autism no matter why it happens ASD is being diagnosed at a higher rate every year this doesn't mean it's becoming more common it just means more people are aware of the condition and getting diagnosed early and awareness is crucial the more we learn about autism the more we can understand and relate to those who have it it's important to note that people with ASD deserve the same respect fairness and chances that people without ASD receive this will help people with ASD adapt and grow in our communities we've put some resources in the description if you would like to learn more about ASD and figure out what you can do to help is there another disorder or any other topic you would like us to talk about let us know in the comment section below and if you would like to learn more about OCD we made a video on just that check it out or if they obsessed with safety they might force themselves to check that the doors are locked and that the stove is off dozens of times before they can leave the house my name is blocko this has been life noggin don't forget to keep on thinking

Pepperdine Bible Lectures 2016 – N.T. Wright (Part 3)



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“Cruciformed: Living in Light of the Jesus Story, Part 2”
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thank you Mike and thank you all for your support and encouragement this week it's been great to be with you writing is a lonely task scholarship is a lonely task and then quite suddenly you get out of the study where you're by yourself trying to get stuff done and then all these people and you think is what I've been working on going to mean anything to them and so far you've encouraged me to think it does I'm sure at least half of that is simply the British accent but Willem I and today yes we do have a we do have a task I do want to talk about Paul the subject of what Paul thought about the death of Jesus has filled many many volumes and I'm going to cut down what I'm going to try to do to something which even so is quite large so join me in a moment of prayer for wisdom as to how we do this together father we thank you for the privilege of being together one more time thank you for all that you are teaching us day by day and I thank you for my brothers and sisters here all the way that they are living out the gospel the gospel of the Crucified Messiah day by day year by year in their own ministries their own lives thank you for that support which then helps people like me to shape the way we say what we think we think and the way we read scripture so be with us now and give us your spirit afresh so that we may learn together from you in Jesus name Amen now of course with Paul if you say Paul on the cross your mind goes to well it might go to Galatians the Son of God loved me and gave himself for me or the end of Galatians the world is crucified to me and I to the world and there's so much in Galatians about the cross that book is shaped by the cross and I'm sorely tempted simply to forget everything else in talk about Galatians but no we're moving on or you could go to first Corinthians the word of the Cross is foolishness to those who are perishing but to us who believe who believe it is the power of God I having quoted that I'm going to tell you a story in akarma what here it was possibly 2003 something like that I was Hotel in Atlanta Georgia for a conference and very early in the morning I made a phone call back to the UK because England was playing in the Rugby World Cup final against Australia was that a three I think it was a three and I knew that my daughter would be watching this on the television and I desperately wanted to know what happened for some reason none of the television channels in the hotel room in Atlanta was showing the Rugby World Cup on it so not so as not to wake my wife I snuck down to the hallway and phoned up and the game had gone into extra time because it was even an evenly balanced and finally I my daughter was ecstatic the last kick of the game Jonny Wilkinson the fly-half playing for England had got a drop goal in England of beaten Australia in Australia it's always good that and then won the World Cup so I was ecstatic and I was in this hole in this this sort of darkened to tell for you a six o'clock in the morning and I wanted to go up and hug the whole Porter and say did you hear I thought probably doesn't know that there was a match on actually and I was and I looked at the you know the bellboys and so on and they they it wasn't good news for them wasn't and I waited and gradually conference participants came down for breakfast and the first person I met who knew that there been something important going on was in Australia so my my good news was was foolishness to the Americans and scandalous to the Australians but for those of us who believed it better now I I used this story at the beginning of my book simply good news and some of my Australian friends have forgiven me maybe not all yet they they they get their own back they have their own ways of doing that anyway so that was first Corinthians Colossians 2 Philippi Colossians 2 amazing passage about the fact that on the cross Jesus disarmed the principalities and powers and held them up to public contempt it's a heavily ironic passage because of course it looked as though that's what they were doing to him and somehow the cross itself and then the resurrection demands that we look at everything including the cross itself upside down and inside out or rather the real way around the way that God sees it rather than the way the world sees it and that dominates Colossians then there's Philippians 2 the great poem with Jesus the servant even the death of the Cross but you know in most of these there's no explanation of why the cross means what it means and as with Christology so with soteriology it looks as though this is so deeply entrenched in early Christianity from the very beginning that you can just summarize it in a dense little formula and everyone seems to know what you're talking about and then you can use the fact of the Cross in various different arguments and it's only really Romans where we get beyond the one-liners and the quick little statements into something more detailed and if I said I'm only going to talk about Romans today then Romans a itself is quite long and complicated as you know and fortunately for us Paul has given us though most people don't realize this a summary towards the end of what Romans is all about and in Romans chapter 15 getting towards the end of the theological exposition he has this line in 15 verses 8 and 9 way says the Messiah became a servant to the circumcised on behalf of the truthfulness of God so that the so that the promises to the patriarchs could be fulfilled and so that the Gentiles would glorify God for his mercy that's quite a dense summary but it does summarize pretty well what Romans is all about and it issues at once in this summons to the Gentiles to praise God with his people rejoice o Gentiles with his people and Paul quotes from the law and the prophets and the writings ending with the Isaiah quote about the Messiah who rises to rule the nations and in him the nations will hope and that my friends is why we're here today a nation that Paul hadn't even imagined but Paul is therefore summarizing a message which isn't simply you're a sinner Jesus died for you now you can go to heaven in fact it really isn't that he doesn't mention heaven in that connection at all it's a message of new creation because the Covenant has bill been fulfilled the Messiah became a servant to the circumcised he came as the representative of Israel to confirm the promises to the patriarchs so that everything God promised Abraham would take place and so that the Gentiles might glorify God for his mercy and that summary is cross-shaped through and through as we see when we go back to the beginning and of course that answers to the initial summary at the beginning of the letter chapter 1 verses 1 to 7 where Paul talks about Jesus as the Davidic Messiah who is designated by the resurrection to be son of God and marks out as what he already was secretly as son of God as a result of which there is a gospel for the nation's through whom we've received Grace and Apostleship to bring about the obedience of faith and then the summary of the gospel and its effects in chapter 1 verses 16 and 17 may I just ask it's a risky thing to ask how many of you have the New International Version in front of you I was afraid that might be the case hang in there guys because I'm afraid the phrase dick has you know through the righteousness of God doesn't mean what the NIV wants it to mean and if you want to know more about that check out my commentaries various articles and lots of other people's as well this is not unique to me that that is a problem it's a real problem with Romans in Britain and America at the moment because some of the people who most want to know what it's about open the NIV expecting to find out and we'll come to that but it's just a kind of a health warning before we get any further but then um I I learned this the hard way because when it first came out I started to use it in my classes glopped my students had it this was in the early 1980s and I would stand there at the lecture podium with the Greek Testament that I'd been preparing from and then the NIV because I knew that's what they had allowed before oh that's a pity oh yeah so so I kind of you know this was etched in me from the beginning and now Romans 1:18 to 2:16 most of you know that this is all about sin but actually sin is not mentioned for the first five or six verses of that passage it's about idolatry it's about worshipping and serving the creature rather than the Creator Paul doesn't say the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all sin he says the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness ungodliness as Serbia is when you're worshiping that which is not God and righteousness addict here is when you mess up the world as a result you worship that which is not God and then your your image bearing humaneness no longer does what it's supposed to do in the world which is to bring about a world of justice and joy and mercy and it brings about a dakea which is getting things out of kilter getting things wrong and then that results in sin specific sin but when Paul is talking about this it's idolatry that's at the front of it and to the extent that we have shrunken that so that were only talking about me and my sin then we shouldn't be surprised if we don't fully understand the remedy that Paul offers when we get to it don't simply flatten it out into sin because we're talking here about the image bearing vocation he says verses 22 and 23 they exchanged their glories is quoting Psalm 106 they exchanged their glory for the image of birds and animals and reptiles say quoting the golden calf passage from a Psalm 106 what is the point humans are made in God's image made to reflect his glory into the world Psalm 8 you have crowned them with glory and honor putting all things in subjection under their feet this is a poem about the Genesis vocation for humans in general turns out to be for the Messiah in particular we've exchanged that glory for idolatry and then the results chapter 2 verses 116 is there's no excuse nobody can say well actually yeah I see the problem and I'm just as cross about it as you are because they are doing the same things but then comes the crunch if we're gonna understand Romans 3 the passage about the cross you have to understand 2:17 following but you call yourself a Jew each issue you die or SEPA no matter if you call yourself a Jew and boast of God and know his will had said most people reading Romans to think that what Paul is saying you Jews think that you're better than everyone else but in fact you're just the same one recent commentary big academic commentary refers to this as Paul's attack on the bigot said the bigoted Jew who thinks that he's better than ever that misses the point and if you missed the point here you won't get chapter 3 because in verses 19 and 20 Paul says you think that you are a teacher of the foolish a guide to the babes of light to those in darkness because you've got God's law you are the one that's gonna put it right the boast of the Jew in 2:17 following is not that the Jew is better than everyone else but the Jew is God's solution to the problem Israel is called to put matters right and Paul agrees with that point he doesn't say no you're wrong he says yep you're right the trouble is according to Isaiah and Ezekiel and Jeremiah you have failed in that vocation there's all the difference in the world but you say I'm better than them and say God has given Israel the Torah in order to address and solve this problem that is a fundamental Jewish perception some people have quibbled with this but it seems to me it's written into Jewish texts from Genesis right the way through to the rabbi's as one of the later rabbis put it summarizing this whole thing that God said to himself I will make Adam first and if he goes wrong I'll send Abraham to sort it all out that's a neat sort of rabbinic quirky way of putting it but you can see that in the way they tell the story Genesis 1 to 11 Adam then Cain and murder and then the flood and then the Tower of Babel what's going to happen and as I said the other day when God wants to sort out the question of launching the true family and the true land he calls a childless Nomad and he makes impossible promises to him that through him and his seed all the families of the earth will be blessed and the trouble is that Israel has been faith less to that promise chapter 3 verse 1 what's the point of circumcision then if they'd been faithful was there any value to it he says much in every way to begin with get this they were entrusted with the Oracles of God that verse is so frequently misunderstood and then he says if some were faithless and people think that just means they didn't believe in God or they didn't believe God's promises no they were if I entrust you with the letter for somebody over there the letter isn't for you it's for somebody else so God entrusts Israel with this Oracle for the nation's that's a genuine vocation and they are faithless to that vocation they're untrustworthy and then comes the point what is God going to do at that point most of the church east and west and north and south and catholic and protestant and charismatic and goodness knows what and not actually sure which of those categories you will fit into the still you are who you are who you are yeah most of the church faced with the question what is God gonna do has said by implication even if they didn't really mean it well God's parked that idea somewhere in a side road and he's doing it differently by sending Jesus instead replacing election with incarnation no God has made promises to rescue his world through Israel and if Israel has let him down God is gonna be faithful anyway that's what Romans 3 1 2 9 is all about very difficult passage if you approach it in any other way very complicated passage but if you come at it like this it all fits and that means that by the time you get to Romans chapter 3 verse 20 what you're faced with is a double problem yes there is the problem of sin you know I and others who have written in what is sometimes perhaps misleadingly now called the new perspective people say oh you're not interested in sin and being saved from sin you're only interested in this funny covenant idea absolutely not the whole point is the Covenant was there in the first place to deal with sin so it's a double problem God has got to be righteous and just in dealing with the sin of the world but he's got to do so in a way which is covenant Allah righteous and just so Paul uses this blessed word Dakar's you name which we translate his righteousness and the trouble is we do not have one English term or one German term or one French term those the only modern languages that I have any claim to competence in we don't have a word that does in any of those languages what dick ozuna does for Paul it's a word which enables him to draw together both the sense of justice of putting the world right of dealing with sin and the sense of covenant faithfulness which is why in my own translation quick advertisements called the kingdom New Testament on this side of the Atlantic it's called the New Testament for everyone in the UK my own translation I quote talk at this point about covenant justice but now Romans 3:21 the des cailloux zu neethu who has been unveiled God's covenant justice has been unveiled that is he is faithful to the Covenant and thereby is putting the world to rights get it we just don't have words that'll do that and this is not about the Romans Road which is so popular and understandably which says I have sinned and therefore I'm unrighteous fortunately there is this thing called God's righteousness which Jesus has got lots of and he can somehow give it to me or imputed to me or whatever that's a way of trying to find a pathway through Romans without recognizing what 217 and following is all about missing out the crucial stage missing out act 3 in God's five act drama which goes creation for Israel Jesus and then the new creation if you miss out act 3 you won't understand act 4 so when we get to 3:21 that's the double problem that we were supposed to be dealing with now let's just cut round the back of 321 to 31 for the moment and hit Romans 4 because it's one of the great exegetical techniques that I advocate that if there's a really difficult passage go to the bit before and go to the bid afterwards and get as clear as you can about what they're doing and then hopefully the bit in between will emerge as the bridge between those two if this is a coherent discourse that's how it ought to work because you see if you say that the story is simply about we sinned God punished Jesus that's alright then so now we have lots of righteousness and we're justified by faith then what happens to chapter 4 you make Abraham simply an advanced example of somebody who was justified by faith in the Old Testament what he is that but that's not what chapter 4 is about chapter 4 is about the promises that God made Abraham in Genesis 15 again Paul is quoting Genesis 15:6 abraham believed God God karella guess they out of Mystic ozune and it was reckoned to him as covenant membership righteousness whatever word you're going to use that's part of Genesis 15 as a whole which is where God established the covenant with Abraham to give him a worldwide family and to give him Paul says not just the land but the world romans 4:13 the promises to Abraham and his descendants that they would inherit the cosmos that's because Paul is reading Genesis 15 in the light of Psalm 2 and Psalm 72 and all those other psalms about god's kingdom and inheritance being the whole world and that comes through to romans 8 God has promised therefore to justify the ungodly not in the sense that oh dear I'm ungodly and I need to be justified but God has promised Abraham this worldwide family in other words it's not just going to be Abraham's own physical descendants but a vast company who at present have nothing to do with Israel at all how is that gonna happen at the end of Romans 4 he quotes from Isaiah 53 he said it'll be reckoned to us to who believe in him who raised from the dead Jesus our Lord who was given up for our trespasses and raised for our justification and the the lights of resonance ought to be flashing for those who know Isaiah 50 why Isaiah 53 because that above all was seen by the early Christians with good reason as the place where Israel's vocation came to its full expression this is the place in the mystery of the prophecy of Isaiah where that vocation to be the light of the world that vocation to be the royal priesthood to be the family through whom all the families of the earth will be blessed that's where that vocation came to expression you can't snatch Isaiah 53 out of that context and make it an abstract statement of simply a substitutionary atonement which doesn't have any other narrative around it it means what it means precisely as the fulfillment of the Abraham from as' and now we are just about cautiously ready to creep in between 2 3 21 to 26 now the Covenant justice of God has been revealed yes I meant to say for 19 to 22 by the way often ignored for 19 to 22 is about how Abraham's faith when you look inside it and see what it is reverses the idolatry of 118 following Abraham even though his body was dead because he was 100 years old or so he gave God the glory he was convinced of God's power and he believed that God would do what he'd promised exactly the opposite of what the human race had done at the beginning according to 1:18 following so somehow 321 to 26 must be about God's Israel shaped sin dealing covenant faithfulness 3:21 2:22 God's covenant justice through the faithfulness of the Messiah pissed his Krista to 322 how does that work remember what I said about 2:17 remember what I said about 3-2 Israel was unfaithful to God's purposes and promises to save the world through Israel what's God gonna do he is going to come himself in the person of the faithful Israelite or perhaps I should say that better he is going to be the faithful Israelite by becoming human by becoming Messiah the Messiah represents his people God has saved the world through Israel as he always said he would through and in the person of Jesus and 323 sums up the sequence it's gone before all sinned and lost the glory of God again reference back to chapter 1 this is the image bearing vocation as in Psalm 8 and then when we get to 3 24 to 26 is very difficult and dense passage and I do want to say 324 226 is not Paul's complete statement of everything he would ever want to say about the cross we often treated like that and by the same token people often take the heat Nicoll term in 324 226 the hill Asterion in greek nacinda 5 which could be a propitiation or it could be a mercy seat or something and they build everything on that that's very difficult can't actually be done doesn't actually work we mustn't D we mustn't take it out of the covenantal context rather start with first 24 we are justified by faith through the redemption which is in the Messiah Jesus Redemption it's a lovely word I pull atrocious in the Greek it means exodus the time when God went down to the great slave market and bought for himself a people for his own possession now people have often said talking about Paul on the cross Oh Paul grabs these metaphors from here and there as a slave market metaphor then it'll be a sacrificial metaphor then it'll be a law court metaphor as though Paul has just got this pocket full of metaphors and he pulls them out and scatters them around and hopes they'll all work that's how some people think he did it but no these mean what they mean because this is the Israel story how does God rescue the world the way he rescued Israel with the Exodus this is why see from Romans 3 long-range lens going to Romans 8 where the whole creation will have its Exodus will be set free from its slavery the redemption the Exodus which is in the Messiah Jesus and I said two days ago yes Exodus is one thing but forgiveness of sins is another the Passover isn't a forgiving sin thing Paul does what the whole New Testament does what Jesus did at the Last Supper an exodus event with forgiveness of sins inserted into its heart and somehow this is all it gets very complex this is all cultic as well as law court as well as exodus etcetera it's to do with the day of atonement because it's on the day of atonement that the blood is sprinkled on the covering of the Ark of the Covenant the cap arete in Hebrew and the Greek word with which kappa reg is translated is the word we have here Hillis Tyrion and that's why some people have said too quickly oh that means it's the place where sins were pretty sure or God was propitiated because of the nation's sins no it looks as though the best translation of that this is the so-called mercy seat that was a 16th century attempt to translate that very difficult term it looks as though this covering of the Ark is the place where two things happen it's the place where the people are cleansed from their sin and it is therefore the place where God meets with his people the temple is the place where God the holy God lives therefore if people are to be in the presence of God then all the impurity which has clung to them for whatever reason needs to be cleansed and Paul says that God put Jesus forth as the Hillis tarry on the place and the means of cleansing and meeting difficult to translate it better than that because here at last heaven and earth overlap here at last we have a new temple here at last God and human beings can be together and be one without the deadly effects of pollution and sin and everything else that we bring with us and so he says this happens through his blood because the blood is a symbol of life in Leviticus as you know and the blood cleanses from all pollution because pollution is basically anything that's heading for corruption and death whether it's sin or physical pollution and the blood is the sign of life that God will deal with that and cleanse it and this is why by the way we in the Western Protestant tradition we don't normally think in terms of how the cultic imagery works and it just pops up from time to time and we notice it and go on our way but in Romans 5:1 following remember Paul says since we are justified by faith we have peace God through our Lord Jesus Christ through him we have obtained access to this grace in which we stand and we rejoice in the hope of the glory of God any first century Jew would know that access into God's presence is Temple language and the hope of the glory is the hope that God's divine glory will come back to his temple at last you can't read Romans without that temple well you can but shouldn't without that temple imagery going on in your head so I'm suggesting to you that in Romans 3:21 – 26 despite the widespread popular opinion the emphasis of this passage is not on how God punished Jesus so that he didn't have to punish us that is a twisted way of saying something that Paul says a little later which I'll come to in a minute what I think he's saying here is that this is the way in which and the place in which God did what he had in mind when he called Israel in the first place when he called Abraham and made promises to him in the first place he dealt with the pollution which prevented humans being with him and he did so through the Messiah Jesus for the benefit of the whole world and that's why 327 231 at once is about the coming together of Jew and Gentile in the one family exactly as in that summary in chapter 15 now there are a thousand more things to say about that passage but I do want to move on because I want to show you just how then in the last remaining quarter note I have how then the second chunk of Romans works and fits with that Romans as I said said before I think is a symphony in four movements one two four five to eight nine to eleven twelve to sixteen and they both do and don't fit snugly together what five to eight is a very different piece of writing from one to four doesn't quote the Old Testament in the same way though it's dealing with it it doesn't follow the same kind of argument and then in nine to eleven it's much more like one two four and so on and so on it's a fascinating document but there is a consistent train of thought because now that we've seen in one to four that this is how God is faithful to his promises to Abraham and his vocation to Israel through the Messiah he has done what he said he would he has fulfilled the Covenant so as to deal justly with the sin of the world and so as to make forgiveness available and so as to make it possible and actual that humans and the Living God can come together at last now he's done all that he stands back in five one to eleven and he says now we can see the end from the beginning if this has happened then were all the way there if God did this out of his love when we were still sinners the Messiah dying for us much more now that that has happened will we ultimately be saved through his life and 5 1 to 11 actually has a lot more about the cross of Jesus than we have in chapter 3 but usually people when they're talking about the cross in Paul and in Romans or when they're doing the Romans Road they try and get it all out of chapter 3 and it really doesn't work as well as it is often hoped to work so 5 1 to 11 is the summary of where we've got to in 5 1 to 11 anticipates the argument of the whole section through to the end of chapter 8 which is focused on the love of God on the Spirit of God and on the way in which the death of Jesus reveals the love of God and if you like generates a people who themselves are in breathed in dwelt by the spirit but then the very difficult passage 5 12 to 21 Paul tells the story from Adam to the Messiah now that we've shown that God has been faithful to the promise to Abraham we can go back and say okay if that was to deal with the atom problem how does that work and Paul puts the two together very dense and difficult passage but again this time he talks about the obedience of Jesus the Messiah the obedience remember Philippians 2 he was obedient even unto death even the death of the Cross this is not obedience to some moralist scheme in my tradition people talk about the merits of Christ because this comes out of a particular 16th century Reformed strand which sees the merits of Jesus as as it were in a medieval sense really earning righteousness for himself which then can be imputed to his followers that's not what Paul has in mind it's obedience to the Israel plan as in 2:17 following and part of the extraordinary thing that's going on there is the way that he isn't talking about humans just being rescued so they can go to heaven it's about humans being recreated as humans 5:17 those who receive this gift of the New Covenant membership he says will reign in life we are to be the royal priesthood as I've been saying all week and that's right there in Paul but then the dark note in 5:20 the law came in alongside so that the trespass might increase did God give the law to make sin worse that's a bizarre idea well wait till chapter 17 you'll see how it works because what happens then in 6 7 & 8 the most extraordinary large scale exposition Paul tells the whole Exodus story again think of it what happens at the Exodus they're slaves and they come through the water and they're free it's Romans 6 we think it's about baptism and holiness it is about baptism and only niz but he's talking about it in language which says come through the water and the slaves are free what happens then they get to Mount Sinai what happens at Mount Sinai oh they get the Torah what happens when they get the Torah they break it and they're a mess ever since that's Romans 7 only he tells the story of Romans 7 in such a way as to make it clear as many Jews would have agreed with right then and there that when Israel gets Torah and sins and worships the golden calf they are recapitulating the sin of Adam he's that story in such a way as to have Israel's story and Adams story jangling against one another that's the problem the problem of Sonia but then Romans 8 what happens next in the Exodus story is they are led to the promised land the inheritance by the pillar of cloud and far that come and dwell in the tabernacle to take them to the place God's promised Romans 8 is about being led by the spirit to the inheritance because my friends the inheritance as I'm sure you know but it's worth reminding ourselves the inheritance is not heaven the inheritance is the whole creation redeemed and restored and rescued from its corruption to decay in the Bible the whole world is now God's holy land so much Christian thought just misses out at that point but that's what Romans 8 is about now how has that happened how has that happened now we see in chapter 7 what that odd verse in 520 was about because when God gives Israel the Torah and says you are my people and through you I'm going to rescue the world Israel think this is great we'll just be a moral example we'll be the light to the nation's many to many devout Jews to this day still will say that is Israel's vocation to show the nations how to live and then the tragedy happens again and again and again as it doesn't quite work like that but Paul has a darker and different idea rooted in Scripture but in Chapter 7 verse 13 he says it was sin that did it so that it might become exceedingly sinful why did God give the law if it was just going to increase sin give sin a base of operations so that as the more Israel struggled to keep the Torah the more sin had it in its grip the answer is in Romans 8:1 – for there is therefore now no condemnation for those in the Messiah Jesus because what the law could not do in that it was weak through the flesh God has done listen to sending his own son in the likeness of sinful flesh and as a sin offering he condemned sin in the flesh this is penal there is no condemnation because he condemned sin in the flesh it is substitutionary he condemned sin in the flesh therefore there is no condemnation but it belongs within the Israel narrative it belongs within the Passover narrative it belongs within the new creation narrative not within the shrunken moralistic language of a works contract in which I got it wrong I needed to be punished so God punished Jesus instead notice Paul does not say God condemned Jesus he says God condemned sin in the flesh of Jesus we have been littled that and then have preached lots of illustrations out of the militant version we've got and not surprisingly many people in many parts of the Christian world get a very odd view of God as a result this then is the real substitution Jesus defeats the enemy alone in the garden he says let these people go Jesus knows he's got to go into this dark place all by himself it's part of the deal and sin does its worst to him as we saw was it yesterday on the Gospels the Gospels tell the story of how evil the whole all the evil in the world somehow converges onto this point this is your hour and the power of darkness not so that we could go to heaven but not so that we could behave properly though of course we will behave properly and God will look after us after our death and give us resurrection in due course but so that we could be the new temple he says in 8 9 to 11 if you belong to the Messiah then thus if the spirit of him who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you he who raised the Messiah from the dead will give life to your mortal bodies through his spirit who dwells in you this is temple language look the indwelling verb in the concordance and you'll see again and again it's God coming to dwell in the temple it's the same in Colossians one and two the Spirit is the presence of the Living God dwelling in the family of God in Christ and dwelling specifically Christian by Christian and the results is resurrection the Spirit is the Lord and giver of life and Paul is picking up here from that Old Testament strand that the temple which has been destroyed will be rebuilt and then the Spirit is the one who does in Romans 8 what the pillar of cloud and fire did and leads God's people to their promised inheritance result Romans 8:31 2:30 1039 what shall we say to this if God is for us who is against us and Paul draws out as John draws out so often the theme of the unbreakable unstoppable love of God nothing in all creation shall be able to separate us from the love of God which is in the Messiah Jesus our Lord and you see this picture is so much bigger so much richer so much more biblical than the little versions which we've often you know I've done youth evangelism as well I've sat down with people in the back seats of the pub and tried to explain to them you know what the gospel is about when they've already had three drinks too many and probably aren't taking it in we've done that so we so we naturally shrink it and I accept this is difficult to tell the whole story which has got the Israel bit in as well because that people just think it's weird people thought Paul was weird they said this message was foolishness I think we have to live with it and find fresh ways of saying what Paul says as opposed to saying our late modern post Kantian semi-platonic versions of all of that because what we have in Romans one to eight is not the Platonic heaven but the new creation is not simply an analysis of the human plight in terms of I got it wrong now God punishes Jesus so now it's alright but in terms of idolatry that we worship forces within the creation whether it's money or sex or power or all sorts of other things we give ourselves to them we give our allegiance to them and then the result is that they come back and say okay I'm in charge now and you're going to do this and you can't get out of it because it's got you in its grip sin with a capital S the force of the powers works through sins with a small s but when forgiveness of sins with a small s happens then the grip of the powers is broken again Christus Victor Christ the victor over all the powers because he has accomplished forgiveness of sins it's not an either/or and the theology in the Western world over the last half century at least has thought it was an either/or and Paul holds them together because we are called to be the royal priesthood by worshiping the true God seen now incarnate in Jesus scene now revealing the divine glory on the cross in Paul as in John and we are thereby enabled to be the royal priesthood the kings the priests the ones who sum up the praises of creation the one who bring the stewardship of God the loving wisdom of God into the world and all this generates this vision of Jesus death in which God condemned sin by Jesus dying as the representative substitute you need the whole of Romans much more than I've given you you need all of Galatians and Corinthians and all the rest as well but I think this is the heart of it that by 6:00 p.m. on Good Friday the powers had been conquered and a new world was ready to be born and that new world began on Easter day Jesus risen body is the beginning of the new creation and that new creation as I said the other night has the word forgiveness written over its door it has new creation as the goal towards which we are now going and it has royal priesthood as the pattern by which we follow the road the route to that goal we are therefore set free from our sins we are therefore set free from idolatry and whenever the idols come back to us and say actually you belong to me and you can't resist me and you're going to do this and that and the other whether you like it or not the answer is no that power was broken on the cross that's why we need one another in this business that's why we need prayer why we need the sacraments why we need constantly to be reminded of the power of the cross and it all comes back of course to the love of God love once more he loved his own who were in the world he loved them to the end God himself has come as the faithful Israelite God himself has come in the person of Jesus God himself has become God forsaken on the cross and the Spirit of the crucified and risen Jesus is given to us so that we too can be cruciform so that we too can be people of love so that we too can show forth his glory in the world amen thank you very much

Double Slit Experiment explained! by Jim Al-Khalili



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“If you can explain this using common sense and logic, do let me know, because there is a Nobel Prize for you..”

Professor Jim Al-Khalili explains the experiment that reveals the “central mystery of quantum mechanics” – the double slit experiment.

Watch the full lecture here:

Sometimes called the “two-slit” or “Young’s” experiment, it demonstrates that matter and energy can display the characteristics of both waves and particles, establishing the principle known as wave-particle duality. Furthermore, it questions the role of the observer in the outcome of events and demonstrates the fundamental limitation of an observer to predict experimental results.

For this reason, Richard Feynman called it “a phenomenon which is impossible … to explain in any classical way, and which has in it the heart of quantum mechanics. In reality, it contains the only mystery [of quantum mechanics],” (see more at

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سأقوم بشرح شيء أسماه (ريتشارد فاينمن) بأنه "اللغز الرئيسي لمكيانيكا الكم" هذا هو اللغز المركزي لميكانيكا الكم هنالك العديد من الأشياء الغريبه اللتي تحدث في عالم ميكانيكا الكم سأقوم بإخباركم عن تجربه وببساطه ستفهمون ماذا كان يقصد تسمى بتجربة الشق المزدوج سأبدا بهذا، تخيل لذيك مصدر للضوء يشع في اتجاه شاشه بها شقين وهذا الضوء يجب ان يكون ذا طول موجي احادي ليس كالمصباح الكهربائي فضوءه أبيض وهو متكون من جميع الوان الطيف والعديد من الأطوال الموجيه ولكن تخيل ان هذا الضوء ذو طول موجي واحد ويمكنك رؤيته يخرج كموجات كالتموجوات في حوض ماء هذه هي طبيعة الموجات عندما يصطدم الضوء بالشاشه ينضغط ويمر من خلال الشقين وكل شق من الجهه الأخرى يظهر وكانه اصبح مصدر جديد للضوء والضوء يبدأ بالإنتشار ويتشتت وعندما تتصادم هذه الموجات ببعضها ستتداخل مع بعضها البعض فعندما تصطدم قمه مع قاع ستلغي بعضها وعندما تصدم قمه مع قمه تتضاعف وهكذا والان في الشاشه الخلفيه نتحصل على مايسمى بالنمط التداخلي سلسله من الخطوط المضيئه والمظلمه (هامش) حيث انه إما الموجات الغت بعضها او عملت مع بعضها البعض وتضاعفت هذا جميل هذا ليس ميكانيكا الكم، هذه خاصية للضوء واللتي تمتد منذ اكثر من 200 سنة منذ القرن التاسع عشر تخيل اننا قمنا بالتجربه مرة اخرى ولكن ليس بالموجات بل بجسيمات نقوم بها بحبات الرمل، فهذه نفس التجربه ولكنها مائله 90 درجه عكس الموجات اللتي تنتشر خلال الشقين هنا لدينا جسيمات منفرده من الرمل وكل جسيم إما ان تمرخلال شق واحد او الاخر ولذلك نلاحظ وجود نتوئين تحت كل شق لذلك فالقمتين عباره عن الطبيعه اللتي تتصرف بها الجسيمات بينما النمط التداخلي فهو طبيعه تتصرف بها الموجات ماذا لو قمنا بنفس التجربة لكن بإستخدام ذرات حسنا تخيل ان لدينا مسدس ذرات حيث يقوم بإطلق سيلان من الذرات، لا يمكنك رؤيتها لأنها صغيره جدا ولنغلق احد الشقين، هذا الشق تم اختياره بعنايه من حيث الأبعاد ليرينا كيف تتصرف الذرات وإلى الأن كل شيء جيد لا شيء غريب هنا سترى الكثير من الذرات تصطدم بالشاشه الخلفيه وهذه الشاشه حساسه للذرات حيث انها تعطي دلاله على مكان وقوع الذرة والأن الذرات تصل وكانها نقط مضيئه نراها بالطبع العديد من الذرات ستحجب بسبب الشق المغلق ولن تمر من خلاله ولكن اللتي نجحت في المرور، يمكنك ملاحظة انتشار للذرات ولكن هذا يمكننا فهمه بعض الذرات تمر بسلاسه والبعض الاخر يصدم في الحواف وينتشر اللغز الأول لميكانيكا الكم يأتي عندما نفتح الشق الأخر لإنه الان نرى شيء يشبه النمط التداخلي اللذي حصلنا عليه مع الضوء بدلا من الحصول على شريطين خلف الشقين وكأن الذرات مرت من خلال الشقين وهي تتصرف كالموجات ونحصل على التداخل بين الموجتين إذا لم نعلم شيء عن الذرات وعن ميكانيكا الكم يمكننا القول ان الذرات تتصرف بشكل غريب وانه عدد معين منهم مسموح له بالجلوس مع بعض " انا ومجموعتي سندخل من هذا الشق، عذرا لا يوجد مكان لك انت اذهب في الشق الأخر" وهناك قاعده انه لا احد يدخل بين الشقين ولكن بعض الذرات السيئه تمر ونلاحظ التشتت لا نعلم ولكن قد يكون هناك "قوة" بين الذرات تجعلهم يتعانون بطريقه ما ليعطوا هذا النمط هذا ليس شيء غامض هذا فقط لأننا لا نعلم كيف تتصرف الذرات ولكن يمكننا ان نكون أذكياء ويمكننا حل المشكله ماذا لو لم نرس الذرات كلها مع بعض، بل نرسلها واحده تلو الأخرى نترك مساحه زمنيه للذرات لكي تمر وتصطدم بالشاشه بالطبع بعض الذرات لن تمر وستصطدم بين الشقين ولكن إذا نجحت في المرور ستصطدم في الخلف لنقم باعادة التجربة مرة اخرة وببطء ومع الوقت سنلاحظ انها تظهر وكانها تصل إلى الشاشه بشكل عشوائي، نقوم بإرسال الذرات واحده تلو الأخرى وفي النهايه نلاحظ ظهور النمط التداخلي نفسه إذا كل ذرة بنفسها تشارك وبطريقه ما وبجزء ضئيل إلى طبيعة الموجه الكلي اللذي نراه في النمط التداخلي كيف تفعل ذلك؟ نعلم ان الذرات هي جسيمات صغيره لا يمكن رؤيتها حتى تحت المجهر ونطلقها على شاشه بشقين ثم بعدها نرى ضوء في الشاشه الخلفيه، اي انها وصلت في نقطه معينه وليست منتشرة لا تحصل على صورة كامله على الشاشه انها نقطه صغيره واحده، الذرة متمركزه وتصل في نقطه معينه ولكن مازالت وبطريقه ما تتصرف وكانها على درايه بوجود شقين وليس شق واحد لذلك تعطينا النمط التداخلي كيف لذرة واحده ان تفعل ذلك؟ هل تنقسم إلا نصفين؟ هل تصبح كسحابه تمر خلال الشقين؟ حسنا يمكننا ان نحاول ان نكون أذكى ماذا لو تجسسنا على الذرة ونرى الى اين تذهب نقوم بمراقبه اي شق تمر منه فنضع كاشف فوق الشق العلوي واللذي سيعطي إشارة كلما رأت ذرة مرت من خلال الشق العلوي بالطبع نطلق الذرات واحده تلو الأخرى 50% من الوقت سيعطينا الكاشف إشاره ال 50% الأخرى اللتي لا تعطي اشاره تعني ان الذرة مرت من الشق السفلي ولكن بالطبع لقد غششتكم فلم اريكم نتيجه التجربه هنا هذا اللذي تحصل عليه 🙂 50% يعطي الكاشف اشاره ونرى نقطه وصلت في الشاشه الخلفيه خلف الشق العلوي مباشره ال 50% الأخرى لا يعطي اشاره ولكن نرى النقطه وصلت خلف الشق السفلي إذا نعم لقد رأى الكاشف ان الذرة مرت من الشق العلوي لذلك كل ذرة بالفعل تمر من خلال شق واحد أو الأخر ولكن هذه نتيجه مختلف عما شهدناه في السابق إذا إليكم اخر اسلوب من الخبث اللذي يمكننا لعبه مع الذرات بالتأكيد الأن سنقوم بفهم كل شيء أترك الكاشف هناك، ولكن وبهدوء أذهب وأفصله عن الأجهزه لا تترك الذرات تعلم انك لا تتجسس عليهم اجعلهم يظنون انك تراقبهم، "حسنا سنقوم بالتجربه مرة اخرة يا ذرات استعدوا واحد تلو الأخرى سنقوم بالتحقق من مساركم!" حسنا نقوم بالتجربة مرة اخرى الأن، إذا كان بإمكانك شرح هذا بإستخدام العقل والمنطق فأعلمني لأن هناك جائزه نوبل تنتظرك.

How Microwaving Grapes Makes Plasma



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A bisected grape in the microwave makes plasma. But how does it work? A grape is the right size and refractive index to trap microwaves inside it. When you place two (or two halves) close together the fields interact with each other creating a maximum of electromagnetic energy where they touch. This creates heating, sparks, and plasma, which is further fed with energy directly by the microwaves.

Huge thanks to Hamza Khattak, Prof. Pablo Bianucci and Prof. Aaron Slepkov (unavailable for the call) for chatting to me and helping me understand the physics of this cool phenomenon.

Linking plasma formation in grapes to microwave resonances of aqueous dimers

Special thanks to Patreon supporters:
Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd

Thanks also to Steve Bosi, my original plasma collaborator.

Animations by Alan Chamberlain

Music from “Seaweed”

قبل نحو ثماني سنوات عندما كانت هذه القناة
جديدة وقبل أن يكون لدي شعر ابيض في لحيتي في الحقيقة قبل ان يكون لدي لحية اصلاً عملت فيديو يوضح بانك اذا تأخذ قطعة من العنب وتقطعها من النصف بالكامل تقريباً وتضعها بالمايكروويف بأمكانك صنع بعض البلازما ولكن التفسير لهذا الفيديو لم يكن واضحاً هذا انا وزميلي الفيزيائي الدكتور (ستيفين بوسي) يجب عليك رؤية هذا في حلقة اخرى من (فيريتاسيوم) صراحة لا احد كان يعلم كيف تمت هذه العملية ولكن ليس بعد الى تاريخ نشر هذا الفيديو تم نشر عدة تفسيرات لهذه الظاهرة من قبل ثلاثة علماء في اكاديمية العلوم الوطنية لقد درسوا هذه الظاهرة بكاميرات عالية السرعة وكاميرات حرارية وبالنمذجة الكهرومغناطيسية وتقدموا بتفسيرات اظن انها مرضية جداً وتوسعت تقاريرهم اكثر من مجرد البلازما التي في المايكروويف لهذا بطبيعة الحال اتصلت بالعلماء في الحقيقة لقد شاهدت الفيديو الذي صنعته انت قبل بدئي بالتقرير ولهذا كنت مستمتعاً بالتقرير مسبقاً قال العلماء بانك لا تحتاج الى استعمال قطعة عنب فحسب بامكانك الحصول على نفس الظاهرة مع الحبوب المائية المهدرجة هذه الحبوب هي الحبوب التي عندما تضعها في الماء تمتص الماء ويكبر حجمها ما يقارب المئة مرة لمعرفة كيفية حصول البلازما في المايكروويف يجب علينا في البداية معرفة عدة اشياء تردد الاشعاع المغناطيسي في المايكروويف المنزلي هو 2.45 جيغاهرتز تقريباً وهذا يعني ان الطول الموجي للموجة في داخل المايكروويف يساوي 12 سنتيمتر تقريباً اذا كنت قد درست الموجات الكهرومغناطيسية من قبل من المحتمل ان تشعر بحدوث اشياء ممتعة عند تتطابق طول الجسم مع الطول الموجي ولكن بالتأكيد طول حبة العنب لا يصل الى 12 سنتيمتر ولكن السؤال المهمم هو كم يبلغ الطول الموجي في داخل حبة العنب 12 سنتيمتر في الجو – ولكن معامل الانكسار للمادة المثالية يجب ان يقارب 1.33
– نعم الطول الموجي المرئي اقل بكثير ولكن في موجة المايكروويف الطول الموجي يقارب ال10 ولهذا سيكون فيه معامل انكسار كبير – اذاً سرعة موجات المايكروويف في العنب تكون 10 مرات ابطأ مما عليه في الجو
– نعم وهذا يعني ان الطول الموجي سيكون عُشر طوله الحقيقي في الجو اي بدلاً من 12 سنتيمتر سيكون 1.2 سنتيمتر وهو بطول حبة العنب والآن اذا وضعت حبة واحدة من العنب في المايكروويف من دون قطعها من النصف ستجد ان موجات المايكروويف ستعلق في داخل حبة العنب وهذا بسبب حجمها ومعامل الانكسار العالي فيها لان ما تبين انه اذا كان لديك جسم كروي عندما يكون قطره تقريباً يساوي الطول الموجي لموجة المايكروويف داخل الجسم تبين انه يمكن لها ان تعلق داخله انها نوعاً ما تصطدم بجدران الجسم الكروي وترتد فلا تستطيع الخروج منه – هل يكون الانعكاس داخلي تماماً
– نعم تماماً هذا ممتع جداً لم افكر بالامر بهذا الشكل اذاً موجات المايكروويف تصبح عالقة داخل حبة العنب وفي الواقع تشكل الموجات الكهرومغناطيسية وسائط الرنين هذه
يمكنك ان تفكر فيها كموجات ثابتة انها فقط طرق تحب الموجات الكهرومغناطيسية ان تتذبذب فيها داخل حبة العنب بحيث يكون الحقل الموجي الاقوى للموجات الكهرومغناطيسية في منتصف الحبة عندما تضعها في المايكروويف تجد ان الحرارة تنبع من الداخل وصولاً الى الخارج وليس العكس كما تتوقع اذا وضعت حبة ثانية من العنب داخل المايكروويف ستجد ان الشيء نفسه سيحصل ستعلق موجات المايكروويف داخل الحبة الثانية ايضاً وان اعلى سعة للموجات هي في منتصف حبة العنب والذي ستحدث اغلب الحرارة فيه ولكن اذا قمت بتقريب حبات العنب هذه واحدة من الاخرى بحيث يكون البعد بينهم اقل من الطول الموجي سيحدث بعد ذلك تداخل بين الموجات المغناطيسية في الحبتين في الواقع اذا قمت بملامسة الحبتينن سيكون مركز الحقل الموجي الاعلى في نقطة التقاء الحبتين وهذا المكان الذي سيحصل فيه اعلى الذبذبات للموجات الكهرومغناطيسية والذي سيكون اعلى نقاط الحرارة للحبتين من الممتع ايضاً انك لا حاجة لك بقطع الحبتين من المنتصف ستصنع حبتين موضوعتين حنباً الى حنب نفس الظاهرة طالما ان الحبتين متلامستين ولهذا السبب يضعون في اغلب الفيديوهات زجاجة لساعة اليد تحت الحبتين وسبب الزجاجة هذه لابقاء الحبنتين متلاصقتين مع الحقل الموجي الكهرومغناطيسي القوي في نقطة تلامس الحبتين ستحصل على بعضاً من الشرارة بحيث ان الحقل الكهرومغناطيسي قوي كفاية لتأيين الجو المحاط به صانعاً هذه الشرارة وهذا الذي يؤدي الى البلازما التي تصنع هذه الايونات التي بوسعها بعد ذلك باستلام طاقة اكثر من موجات المايكروويف يمكنك رؤيتها هنا تومض عند 120 هرتز وهذا هو ضعف 60 هرتز الذي يُجهز به المايكروويف من الطاقة الكهربائية وهذا يوضح ان المايكروويف يومض ضعف التردد الذي تجهزه به الطاقة الكهربائية ومن ماذا صُنعت هذه البلازما؟ حسناً, نظر العلماء الى الطيف المغناطيسي الذي خرج من حبة العنب ووجدوا طيف انبعاث شديد للبوتاسيوم والصوديوم ومن الواضح ان هذه الايونات هي متواجدة في حبة العنب وعندما تم انشاء البلازما لهذه الايونات التي انتشرت في الجو وهذا الذي نراه والآن علم العنب هو مهم جداً وبالتأكيد توقعت هذا الامر لانك لا ترى نفس الظاهرة تحصل في عدد من الفواكه الاسفنجية الاخرى ولكنك لا يشترط بك ان تستعمل حجم مثالي للحبة وهذا لان الماء يمتص موجات المايكروويف وجد العلماء تفسيراً لبعضاً من هذه الناحية اذا كانت لديك مادة داخل العنب لا تمتص موجات المايكروويف سترى عندما تصل الى احجام معينة ستحصل على توسع عالي من الحقل الكهرومغناطيسي وهو ببساطة حجم واحد عليك الوصول اليه للحصول على هذا التوسع ولكن عند وجود مادة ممتصة للموجات مثل الماء ستزيد من احتمالية التوسع ستحصل على على توسع اقل للحقل ولكن بحجام كثيرة مختلقة وهذا سبب نجاح كثيراً من حبات العنب بعمل هذه الظاهرة برغم اختلاف احجامهم ماذا تعتقد من ناحية التطبيقات لهذا البحث من الواضح ان أُناساً مثلي متحمسين جداً لان هذه خدعة مسلية ولكن غير هذا ماذا تظن من ناحية التطبيقات العملية التطبيق العملي الرئيسي هو صناعة الرقائق الصغيرة والتوجه الى الطباعة الحجرية توضح هذه الظاهرة كرتين بالحجم ومعامل الانكسار المناسبين ان تركز الطاقة الكهرومغناطيسية الى نقطة التقاء صغيرة جداً بينهم في هذه الحالة حجم الاشعاع 1 مليمتر مع طول موجي قدر 12 سنتيمتر اذا تمكن الحصول على نفس تركيز في الضوء سيحصل تطور كبير في تقنيات الطباعة الحجرية اذا تمكنا بطريقة ما من تحويل هذه الظاهرة الى تقنية الطباعة الحجرية سنتمكن من طبعة اشياء صغيرة جداً يمكنك في الواقع استعمال الضوء لصنع مميزات دقيقة جداً يمكنك من طباعة علامات يصل حجمها الى 2 نانومتر بدقة 2 نانومتر ساعد من اكمال قانون مور بالفعل ستساعد هذه من تطوير قانون مور مثل وضع اشياء صغيرة جداً في الرقاقة الواحدة انا مسرور جدأ اخيراً من تمكني من شرح هذه الظاهرة هل استمتعت به؟ هل تشعر بانك ادركته؟ ضع اي سؤال لديك في التعليقات في الاسفل انا احب هذا الفيديو ايضاً الذي صنعته بنفسي مؤخراً, اذا لم تشاهده الى الآن اذهب وتحقق منه وسارفق ايضاً بالفيديو العظيم الاصلي والذي من الممكن ان لا يكون جيد جداً لانه كان قبل ثمانِ سنوات ولكن على اي حال, شكراً للمشاهدة

How Large is the Universe?



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The universe has long captivated us with its immense scales of distance and time. How far does it stretch? Where does it end, and what lies beyond its star fields and streams of galaxies extending as far as telescopes can see?

These questions are beginning to yield to a series of extraordinary new lines of investigation and technologies that are letting us to peer into the most distant realms of the cosmos. But also at the behavior of matter and energy on the smallest of scales. Remarkably, our growing understanding of this kingdom of the ultra-tiny, inside the nuclei of atoms, permits us to glimpse the largest vistas of space and time. In ancient times, most observers saw the stars as a sphere surrounding the earth, often the home of deities. The Greeks were the first to see celestial events as phenomena, subject to human investigation rather than the fickle whims of the Gods.

One sky-watcher, for example, suggested that meteors are made of materials found on Earth… and might have even come from the Earth. Those early astronomers built the foundations of modern science. But they would be shocked to see the discoveries made by their counterparts today. The stars and planets that once harbored the gods are now seen as infinitesimal parts of a vast scaffolding of matter and energy extending far out into space.

Just how far began to emerge in the 1920s. Working at the huge new 100-inch Hooker Telescope on California’s Mt. Wilson, astronomer Edwin Hubble, along with his assistant named Milt Humason, analyzed the light of fuzzy patches of sky… known then as nebulae.

They showed that these were actually distant galaxies far beyond our own. Hubble and Humason discovered that most of them are moving away from us. The farther out they looked, the faster they were receding. This fact, now known as Hubble’s law, suggests that there must have been a time when the matter in all these galaxies was together in one place.

That time, when our universe sprung forth, has come to be called the Big Bang. How large the cosmos has gotten since then depends on how long its been growing and its expansion rate. Recent precision measurements gathered by the Hubble space telescope and other instruments have brought a consensus…

That the universe dates back 13.7 billion years. Its radius, then, is the distance a beam of light would have traveled in that time … 13.7 billion light years. That works out to about 1.3 quadrillion kilometers. In fact, it’s even bigger…. Much bigger. How it got so large, so fast, was until recently a deep mystery.

That the universe could expand had been predicted back in 1917 by Albert Einstein, except that Einstein himself didn’t believe it until he saw Hubble and Humason’s evidence. Einstein’s general theory of relativity suggested that galaxies could be moving apart because space itself is expanding.

So when a photon gets blasted out from a distant star, it moves through a cosmic landscape that is getting larger and larger, increasing the distance it must travel to reach us. In 1995, the orbiting telescope named for Edwin Hubble began to take the measure of the universe… by looking for the most distant galaxies it could see.

Taking the expansion of the universe into account, the space telescope found galaxies that are now almost 46 billion light years away from us in each direction… and almost 92 billion light years from each other. And that would be the whole universe… according to a straightforward model of the big bang. But remarkably, that might be a mere speck within the universe as a whole, according to a dramatic new theory that describes the origins of the cosmos.

the universe has long captivated us with its immense scales of distance and time how far out does it stretch where does it end and what lies beyond the star fields and the streams of galaxies that extend as far as telescopes can see these questions are beginning to yield to a series of extraordinary new lines of Investigation and to technologies that are letting us peer not only into the most distant realms of the cosmos but at the behavior of matter and energy on the smallest of scales remarkably our growing understanding of this kingdom of the ultra tiny inside the nuclei of atoms is now enabling us to glimpse the answer to the ancient question how large is the universe in ancient times most observers saw the stars as a sphere surrounding the earth and as the home of deities the Greeks were the first to see celestial events as phenomena subject to human investigation rather than the fickle whims of the gods one philosopher and skywatcher named an ex a giris suggested that meteors are made of materials found on earth and therefore might have even come from the earth those early astronomers built the foundations of modern science but they would be shocked to see the discoveries being made by their counterparts today the stars and planets that once harbored the gods are now seen as infinitesimal parts of a vast scaffolding of matter and energy that extends far out into space just how far began to emerge in the 1920s working at the huge new 100 inch hooker telescope on California's Mount Wilson astronomer Edwin Hubble along with an assistance named Milt Humason analyzed the light of fuzzy patches of sky known then as nebulae they showed that these were actually distant galaxies located far beyond our own Hubble and Humason discovered that most of them are moving away from us the farther out they looked the faster these objects are receding this fact now known as Hubble's law suggests that there must have been a time when the matter in all these galaxies was together in one place everything that astronomers saw in their increasingly large telescopes would have dated back to a singular beginning now called the Big Bang that the universe could expand had been predicted back in 1917 by Albert Einstein except that Einstein himself didn't believe it until he saw Hubble and humans evidence Einstein's general theory of relativity suggested that galaxies could be moving apart because space itself is expanding so when a photon gets blasted out from a distant star it moves through a cosmic landscape that is getting larger and larger increasing the distance it must travel to reach s so how large the cosmos has gotten since the Big Bang depends on how long it's been growing in addition to its expansion rate recent precision measurements gathered by the Hubble Space Telescope and other instruments have brought a consensus that the universe dates back 13.7 billion years in that time a beam of light would have traveled 13.7 light years or about 1.3 quadrillion kilometers but taking into account the expansion of the universe the most distant galaxies discovered by the hubble space telescope are actually 46 billion light-years away from us in each direction and almost 92 billion light-years from each other so is that the size of the universe it's not according to a dramatic new theory that describes the origins of the cosmos it holds that our 92 billion light year patch is a mere speck within the universe as a whole the theory is based on the discovery that energy is constantly welling up from the vacuum of space in the form of particles of opposite charge matter and antimatter back in the 1980s the physicist Alan Guth proposed that energy fields embedded in the vacuum of space had suddenly tipped into a higher energy state causing space and time to literally inflate the universe went from atomic size to cosmological size within an infinitesimally short time as a result according to Guth's calculation the universe as a whole would have grown to some 10 billion trillion times the size of the observable universe that's a 10 followed by 24 zeroes put another way the whole universe is to the observable universe as the observable universe is to an atom you the incredible fury of cosmic inflation helps explain the immense size and smoothness of the universe but to succeed the theory must also account for how the universe produced what we see around us all those stars and galaxies and clusters of galaxies and ultimately us scientists are now attempting to piece together the chain of events that launched our universe in its earliest moments by generating what you might call a little bang at the Brookhaven National Lab in New York State they are blasting gold atoms in opposite directions down tunnels almost two and a half miles long when these atoms reach velocities just short of the speed of light they are sent into a violent collision a fireball erupts reaching the temperature exceeding two trillion degrees centigrade as far as we know the last time anything in our universe was that hard was about a millionth of a second after its birth what interests the scientists is the splatter of subatomic particles a super hot soup of quarks and gluons that theory says gave rise to matter as we know it in initial tests this quark gluon plasma has shown a crucial property extremely low viscosity or resistance to flow scientists call it a perfect liquid to grasp it importance we go back to those primordial energy fields that the theory says spawned the Big Bang the thinking is that those fields contain tiny fluctuations that were blown up to huge size during inflation in the ultra-dense quark-gluon mix these fluctuations generated pressure waves or ripples as the universe evolved these ripples gave rise to variations in the density of matter amazingly the imprint of those primordial ripples is out there today in a faint signal discovered accidentally back in the 1960s working for the Bell Telephone Company physicists Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson had built a giant horn shaped antenna but wherever they pointed the contraption picked up excessive noise in the microwave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that noise turned out to match a prediction made years earlier that in the wake of the Big Bang the universe was filled with a cloud of extremely hot gas that scattered all light as the universe cooled the cloud dissipated light then shone through over time the spectral signature of this light would have shifted as the universe expanded and cooled to what Penzias and Wilson detected what they'd heard was the echo of the Big Bang this image shows the smooth contours of the light recorded by the bell team scientists would have to look closer to find the imprint of cosmic inflation the space shuttle discovery lifted the hubble space telescope into orbit on April 24th 1990 in one of the most important scientific milestones of our time another launch arguably just as important took place five months earlier the cosmic observation background explored Kobe for short was set up to take a harder look at the microwave radiation discovered by Penzias and Wilson the results came out two and a half years later the light of the early universe contained a pattern of hot and cold spots in this image was nothing less than the origin of all we see around us today smooth on a large scale but with significant clumps from which gravity would form gas clouds then stars and galaxies with this cosmic template in hand astronomers set out to discover how the patterns and dimensions of the universe evolved over time in an age of computer-controlled telescopes and automated observing astronomers could now launch huge international collaborations with the goal of mapping a large fraction of the universe in three dimensions at Apache point in New Mexico the Sloan Digital Sky Survey set the standard for mass production astronomy a series of steel plates are drilled with holes that exactly match the location of galaxies in the night sky after plugging fiber optic sensors into the holes the plates capture the light of hundreds of galaxies per night from that light the astronomers calculate their distances from Earth another survey is named the 2 micron all-sky survey or 2 mass after the frequency of infrared light its detectors are tuned to capture in this image the two mass data covers a region 16 million light years across the Local Group of galaxies including the Milky Way are in the center this is our intergalactic neighborhood jump further out to a region about 200 million light years across our location is linked to the densely packed Virgo supercluster the nearest intergalactic city you can see the full breadth of our local region of the universe galaxies line up in walls and arcs beyond them are sparsely populated voids the rural cosmic countryside moving out with the data this region is over 650 million light years across then almost 2 billion 3.2 billion and finally out to a region 6.5 billion light-years from end to end the cosmic continent in the middle of it all our galaxy so immense from our earthly perspective is less than a speck the 2mass study the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the two-degree field in Australia have extended our maps to a quarter of the way back to the beginning of the universe they have laid out a grand cosmic roadmap coby's successor the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe or w map was launched to scan the early universe for the fine-scale origins of this cosmic atlas w map travelled beyond any interference from earth to a position balanced between the Earth and the Sun there for two years its detectors took in the pristine light of deep space this is what W map saw tiny scale structures that inflation would have laid out at the very birth of the cosmos and a pattern consistent with the filaments and voids that had evolved in the universe at large scientists are poring over the W map data for clues to the true dimensions of the universe one group for example looked for repeating patterns that could be evidence of pressure waves that ricocheted through the hot gas of early times they saw none which implies that the universe had grown so large during inflation that such waves could not cross it then they did the math and reported that the entire universe must have a minimum diameter of 78 billion light years so what is its maximum size and what's beyond that we will never know for sure what lies beyond our visual horizon but astronomers are turning up some surprising hints in the universe they can see to ancient observers the universe was made of five classical elements earth water err fire and a fifth quintessence or space Aristotle believed the Stars unchanging and incorruptible were made of this fifth element today we are finding that space in fact has a character of its own astronomers have calculated the gravitational pull needed to bind stars as they orbit a galaxy or galaxies as they orbit a cluster of galaxies they have found that there is simply nowhere near enough visible matter of air to hold these structures together the missing ingredient its identity still unknown they call dark matter in supercomputer simulations of cosmic evolution Dark Matter is added in to supply the gravitational tug needed to form the web pattern of filaments and walls voids and dense clusters we see in the universe at large but something else appears to be happening on these large scales astronomers have been making refined measurements of the cosmic expansion rate they wanted to know if gravity was slowing down the pace at which the universe is growing the markers they used type 1a supernovae are thought to burn at uniform intensity x' throughout the universe by measuring changes in the brightness of these so called standard candles at various distances the researchers can spot changes in the cosmic expansion rate to their surprise the data showed that the universe as a whole is not only expanding it's actually accelerating outward the culprit is thought to be energy welling up from the vacuum of space similar to what occurred in the early moments of the Big Bang causing cosmic inflation by emerging in minut quantities everywhere it is pushing space outward across the whole universe over time this so-called dark energy has grown to an astonishing 3/4 of all the matter and energy in the universe with data like this pointing to an underlying dynamic within our universe some scientists are thinking of the cosmos in far broader terms than ever before there is a version of inflationary theory for example that suggests we live in one of many universes that may coexist side-by-side but do not touch one another like bubbles they are continually rising up and expanding across the oceans of infinity just 500 years ago in Galileo's time many people looked out into space and saw a universe of Lights centered on the earth the invention of the telescope revealed Stars fire from our planet then galaxies clusters of galaxies and beyond them vast walls and filaments of matter newer ideas about the size of the universe amount to a quantum leap in our sense of scale by extending these structures far far beyond our horizon do these discoveries push us on our tiny out-of-the-way planet into a smaller and smaller corner of creation or does our ability to comprehend and imagine the far limits of time at space somehow expand our importance in the grand scheme of things

Light



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Relativity is not physics but “metaphysics”, or maybe metaphysics, but then it should not present itself as presenting the scientific method.

Speed has technological [and legal :)] limits but not a scientific, logical limit. Relativity depends on the allegation that there is a scientific, logical limit to speed. From there it proceeds logically to absurdities, falsehoods.

1. I’ve heard it said that Relativity says a person could travel to yesterday and replace himself there. But there should be two of them there, unless he displaces himself.

And I’ve heard it said that Relativity says that that person however cannot change history, meaning the subject matter of the field of knowledge known as History. But in the field of knowledge known as Science, everything in the past is history, and there is no distinction for the history subset that is the subject of the field of knowledge known as History. Relativity takes the truth that we cannot change history and arbitrarily gives it a limited meaning, unscientifically.

Just by travelling to the past, a person already changes history by displacing molecules. Further interactions there are further changes to history.

If after a day he returns again to yesterday, would there be two of them there?, or three? But Relativity says time is the fourth dimension needed to identify a unique point in space-time.

And in fact if a person travels to yesterday, it wouldn’t be yesterday because someone from today would be there. In the first place, molecules would have been displaced; it wouldn’t be yesterday.

2. From the allegation that there is a scientific, logical limit to speed, Relativity says that in a situation wherein a person A is moving relative to a person B, time would be moving slower for A relative to B, and faster for B relative to A. For a footnote to this, watch and see the description below that video and my pinned comment below that description.

This applies to everything in the universe, so that for each unit of matter in the universe of relative motions, each of the rest would potentially have its own unique time relative to it.

3. From the allegation that there is a scientific, logical limit to speed, Relativity proceeds logically to an internal contradiction.

It says that in a situation where a person A is moving relative to a person B, time would be moving slower for A relative to B, and faster for B relative to A.

But A moving relative to B is equivalent to B moving relative to A. This is a principle of Relativity itself, and a valid principle by the way.

With B moving relative to A, time would be moving slower for B relative to A, and faster for A relative to B.

This would be a contradiction; time could not be moving slower and faster at the same time for A relative to B, and faster and slower at the same time for B relative to A.

And in fact the mathematics returns us to the truth. Slower by a certain magnitude + faster by the same magnitude equals there is no difference in the way time moves for A and B.

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Light ☀



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Relativity is not physics but “metaphysics”, or maybe metaphysics, but then it should not present itself as presenting the scientific method.

Speed has technological [and legal :)] limits but not a scientific, logical limit. Relativity depends on the allegation that there is a scientific, logical limit to speed. From there it proceeds logically to absurdities, falsehoods.

1. I’ve heard it said that Relativity says a person could travel to yesterday and replace himself there. But there should be two of them there, unless he displaces himself.

And I’ve heard it said that Relativity says that that person however cannot change history, meaning the subject matter of the discipline known as History. But in the discipline known as Science, everything in the past is history, and there is no discrimination against the history subset that is outside the subject of the field of knowledge known as History. Relativity takes the truth that we cannot change history and arbitrarily gives it a limited meaning, unscientifically.

Just by travelling to the past, a person already changes history by displacing molecules. Further interactions there are further changes to history.

If after a day he returns again to yesterday, would there be two of them there?, or three? But Relativity says time is the fourth dimension needed to identify a unique point in space-time.

And in fact if a person travels to yesterday, it wouldn’t be yesterday because someone from today would be there. In the first place, molecules would have been displaced; it wouldn’t be yesterday.

2. From the allegation that there is a scientific, logical limit to speed, Relativity says that in a situation wherein a person A is moving relative to a person B, time would be moving slower for A relative to B, and faster for B relative to A. For a footnote to this, watch  and see the description below that video and my pinned comment below that description.

This applies to everything in the universe, so that for each unit of matter in the universe of relative motions, each of the rest would potentially have its own unique time relative to it.

3. From the allegation that there is a scientific, logical limit to speed, Relativity proceeds logically to an internal contradiction.

It says that in a situation where a person A is moving relative to a person B, time would be moving slower for A relative to B, and faster for B relative to A.

But A moving relative to B is equivalent to B moving relative to A. This is a principle of Relativity itself, and a valid principle by the way.

With B moving relative to A, time would be moving slower for B relative to A, and faster for A relative to B.

This would be a contradiction; time could not be moving slower and faster at the same time for A relative to B, and faster and slower at the same time for B relative to A.

And in fact the mathematics returns us to the truth. Slower by a certain magnitude + faster by the same magnitude equals there is no difference in the way time moves for A and B.

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The Transcendental Object At The End Of Time (Terence McKenna Movie) FULL HD



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Terence Kemp McKenna was an author, lecturer, philosopher and shamanic explorer of the realm of psychedelic states. He spoke and wrote about a variety of subjects, including metaphysics, alchemy, language, culture, technology, and the theoretical origins of human consciousness. He has been described by some as being “so far out, nobody knows what he’s talking about”, and by others as “the most innovative thinker of our times”.
To shake us out of our perceptual torpor, McKenna played the holy fool, the crazy wisdom sage. He pushed our faces in the most exotic, lurid inventions of modern science and technology. What elevated him above most other prophets was that he delivered his prophesies with a wink, an implicit acknowledgement that ultimately reality is stranger than we CAN suppose.
McKenna’s métier was the spoken word — stand-up philosophy that meme-splices Alfred North Whitehead, Marshall McLuhan, James Joyce, William Blake and many others, delivered in a reedy, insinuating voice. Available throughout the Internet with titles like “Having Archaic and Eating it Too” and “Shedding the Monkey,” his lectures are tours de force of verbal virtuosity and pack-rat polymathy, leaping trippingly (in both senses of the word) from quantum mechanics to medieval alchemy, from the chaos theory of Ilya Prigogine to the neo-Platonism of Philo Judaeus.
This movie was created to present and collect (some of) his most profound thoughts, and to possibly show glimpses of the alchemical angel that Terence pursued throughout his life. It does not serve as a biography, (at least) three very important themes were left out for the simple reason that they take hours to unfold themselves: the experiment at La Chorrera, the relationship between the McKenna brothers, and the Trialogues with Rupert Sheldrake and Ralph Abraham. And so, three books are essential to anyone who’d like to dive deeper into the life and mind of Terence McKenna:
True Hallucinations by Terence McKenna
The Brotherhood of the Screaming Abyss by Dennis McKenna
Chaos, Creativity, and Cosmic Consciousness by Rupert Sheldrake, Terence McKenna, and Ralph Abraham

Created by Peter Bergmann, this is a movie/documentary/project/amalgamation made from everything Terence McKenna left us with, mixed with the music of We Plants Are Happy Plants.

From Terence McKenna’s Eulogy to Leo Zeff:
Sometimes when Leo would sit with people, they would come out of their reveries and want to talk with him about what they were learning and seeing. And Leo would listen for a few minutes. But he then would always say: “That’s fine, that’s good, now return to the music.” And I think that.. I like to think that Leo has now returned to the music. And some day so shall we. And to whatever degree we follow his example life here, the passage to whatever lies beyond will be made much easier.
Leo showed the way, because Leo knew the way. And I salute him for that, I say for all of us who were his tribe: Goodbye to the secret chief, goodbye to the man who saw most deeply. It’s now for us to do as he would have had us do.

The Transcendental Object At The End Of Time

Part 1: Introduction 2:32
Part 2: Human Evolution 10:10
Part 3: Alchemy 15:02
Part 4: Plants 28:26
Part 5: Psychedelics 30:33
Part 6: Culture 34:25
Part 7: Psilocybin 39:48
Part 8: Leaving History 45:16
Part 9: How do you communicate with the mushroom? 51:23
Part 10: What is the voice? 54:18
Part 11: Conversation with Ram Dass 57:51
Part 12: DMT 1:09:46
Part 13: The DMT Experience 1:12:42
Part 14: Rupert Sheldrake and Ralph Abraham 1:26:46
Part 15: Rap, Rant, Rave 1:38:38
Part 16: The Big Bang 1:52:35
Part 17: Humanity 1:57:07
Part 18: “Why is it important for you to do this?” 2:02:38
Part 19: The Good, The True, and The Beautiful 2:12:30
Part 20: Kathleen Harrison 2:15:10
Part 21: Bad Trip 2:17:34
Part 22: High Water Weirdness Event 2:20:57
Part 23: The Promise Of Art 2:26:00
Part 24: Cannabis 2:35:45
Part 25: From Monkeydom To Starshiphood 2:41:41
Part 26: The Transcendental Object At The End Of Time 2:47:10
Part 27: Last Thoughts 2:51:12
Epilogue 3:10:20

Ever-expanding list of contributors, whose work is featured:
(please mention it in the comments if you run into your art/footage)

Videos and audio recordings

SOUND PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Mike Kawitzky
Lorenzo Hagerty/Matrix Masters

VISUALS:
TAS
DMTRMX
Ben Ridgway
Simon Haiduk
Wanderweird
The Art Of Salvia Droid

Ken Adams, Bruce Damer, Sacred Mysteries, Rupert Sheldrake, Ralph Abraham, London Real

Support this movie:
Buy or stream my music
iTunes:

Stream the soundtrack on Spotify:

Or just like, comment, share, subscribe!

Thanks for watching
– Peter Bergmann/We Plants Are Happy Plants

Terence McKenna on Facebook

basically the idea is to push people toward imagining what they've never imagined and feeling what they've never felt before he's an old friend of all of ours, so I'd like you all to welcome.. Timothy Leary yeah yeah I for one, am overjoyed to be here this is one of those special, special evenings that we will all treasure Terence McKenna means a great deal to me I would say he's one of the 5 or 6 most important people on the planet I can't even think of any others.. short term memory loss, but.. Terence and I keep meeting in the most wonderful, mythic, adventurous places I was doing a wild tour through Germany about a year ago we came to Heidelberg and we were being guested by some people that came right out of Hermann Hesse.. I mean wizards and gnomes and you know that sort of thing, Heidelberg! and there was Terence McKenna and it was just so perfectly Hesse, Journey To The East, yeah.. and so we meet again here tonight you know.. I was talking to Terence backstage before we began and we both agree that what he'll be saying tonight has been said over and over again at all those high moments in human history when those who have gone within and understood about the brain and the inner treasures we all come back and pretty much say the same thing but the problem is though that once you say it, you know you can't go on saying it and saying it and saying it and when Terence came along a few years ago and was saying what I've been trying to say but naturally better, upgraded, up to date I was so overwhelmed with gratitude and I publicly thank you for that, Terence by the way the role that Terence is playing right now is one that takes not only vision, but it also takes fucking courage we were saying backstage that that Terence and I are a small group of philosophers who make our living not in the Ivory Tower -to call it living, but uh..- just speaking it chatting it, raving it.. ranting it and no one has ever done it with more poetry and elegance than the speaker tonight I'm gonna say one more thing and then we will have what we've all been waiting for Terence reminds us that all human wisdom, all energy comes from our beloved synergetic partners the vegetable queendom it all comes from the plants now a round of applause to the vegetables! now we all know that the human body, we have to have food it comes from vegetables we've used vegetables over the years the essence of vegetables in the form of wood to develop fire, gas, oil, so forth but what we forget and what we look to Terence for tonight is to be reminded that plants have given us an even more important gift they give us the gift of vision they give us the illumination and throughout human history they're at the ease and the pandoras usually it's a woman who takes this wonderful vegetable and gives it to humanity and says be illuminated and now for our illumination and our pleasure please join me in welcoming Terence McKenna well I wanna thank Tim that was a wonderful introduction I'm sure I wouldn't, I know I wouldn't be here tonight if it weren't for Tim Leary he was the pathfinder he cut the way through the woods he gave us all permission to be very much the people that we are tonight and it's wonderful that one Irishman can hand it on to another and that we can keep it in the bardic tradition wonderful I can hardly believe I'm here I made it past the Camaro Raffle I survived the offer for reconstructive cosmetic surgery and I've had my smart drugs for this evening, so.. glad to be here! well until a few minutes ago I thought that this was a 45 minute gig, so.. you get to see grace under pressure this evening naturally I'm kidding, it doesn't matter how long it goes we could never get to the bottom of this stuff nor would we wish to, I think by coincidence merely, I became 45 yesterday so.. sort of a good moment to do some summing up so in thinking about this talk and knowing as I did who would be here I thought that I would sort of orient the theme toward distilling the psychedelic mind which is a way of talking about the psychedelic mind but also trying to, uh.. considering the amount of money you paid for this session give you the entire shtick in one fell swoop so that you would never have to attend a Terence McKenna lecture or workshop again you can just move past that turn the page on that kind of thing in your life with me in the studio is Terence McKenna author, lecturer, explorer and philosopher Terence is the co-author with his brother Dennis McKenna of a book called 'The Invisible Landscape: Mind, Hallucinogens, and the I Ching' he is also the co-author of 'Psilocybin: Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide' he is the author of a computer program called Timewave Zero and he is the co-founder and president of an organisation called Botanical Dimensions which devotes itself to saving botanical plants used in shamanistic traditions throughout the world welcome Terence it's a pleasure to be here it's a pleasure to have you here well I think the most profound cultural development it is possible to make the case that language itself is an ability, that was coaxed out of an evolving primate species by virtue of the fact that there were hallucinogenic plants in the diet of that creature you see, psilocybin has been shown in low doses to actually increase visual acuity well at the stage of evolution where human beings encountered psilocybin mushrooms we were essentially, baboon-like, pack-hunting, hoards of velt-living creatures in Africa in that situation, a compound which increases visual acuity will give a tremendous adaptive advantage to the animals that are including it in their diet and those animals not including it in their diet will be quickly eliminated by the process of natural selection from the evolutionary scenario so it's possible to argue that this mind manifesting quality of the psychedelics actually conferred an evolutionary advantage on certain primates who then were able to bootstrap themselves to higher and higher states of reflective self awareness this may lie behind the very early coincidence of cattle, goddesses and mushrooms in the apparent obsessions of early man as reflected by the cave paintings on the Algerian plateau and in southern France and Spain we always find the notion of the mystery circa 18 thousand years ago connected with the idea of cattle and we always find the cattle connected with the notion of the Great Goddess now it may be that the hidden and third member of this trinity was a hallucinogenic mushroom of some sort we've got only about 2 minutes left but I wonder what the connection, I don't quite see it between the mushroom, the cattle and the Goddess the mushrooms grow in the manure of the cattle when the hunting packs of early primates followed along behind the cattle, they inevitably encountered the mushroom ate it, had their visual skills thereby increased, bred more readily therefore and survived more easily than their non-mushroom eating cousins and so the eating of mushrooms and the development of higher aspects of consciousness including self-reflection, were thereby enforced leading to the conclusion that it was actually a symbiotic relationship between early primates and these hallucinogenic plants that laid the basis for the appearance of what we call human beings well Terence McKenna, this is a very interesting discussion you seem to be suggesting that our evolution, I suppose from the animal kingdom into the human kingdom itself was catalysed or triggered by our encounter with these hallucinogenics yes, we are an ape with a symbiotic relationship to a mushroom and that has given us self-reflection, language, religion and all the spectrum of effects that flow from these things and one can only wonder how these hallucinogens might affect our future evolution as well they've brought us to this point, and as we make our relationship to them conscious we may be able to take control of our future evolutionary path in the 120 years from 1500 to the beginning of the 30 years war Europe was caught in a number of conspiracies and political intrigues directed toward moving Europe toward a magical and alchemicly based society the protestant princes of the northern league of Germany especially Frederick the Elector Palatine came to culminate this movement but its roots lie further back in the 1580s of the 16th century it was in this period that the english astrologer, astronomer, mathematician, navigator and expert of espionage, John Dee launched his famous and mysterious mission to Bohemia a little-known incident in european history which holds clues to understanding the faith and evolution of modern science and the nature of a lost world of magical and alchemical thinking that once claimed the attention of the european imagination John Dee the greatest mind of the Elizabethan era friend of Queen Elizabeth colleague of Sir Philip Sidney converser with angels mathematician par excellence determined under the influence of the mysterious Edward Kelley that he was to be the center of an alchemical renaissance and a secret society that would lay the groundwork for the continuation of the dream of Austria the dream built around the Elizabethan Queen, Elizabeth I he associated himself intensely with the Arthurian mythical and mystical side of the Elizabethan idea of British Empire he was a Welshman, like the Queen, he was so intensely devoted too and like her, he shared the renaissance mood of saturnian melancholy a collector of books, a builder of scientific instruments, a composer of codes and cyphers fascinated with alchemy Dee was both the figure of the introspective melancholic and the world-planning, empire-building political visionary Dee was under the patrionage of the Earl of Northtumberland and it was Northtumberland who looted the catholic monestaries at the time of Henry VIII we have reason to believe that John Dee had virtual Carte Blanche in selecting manuscripts from those libraries that interested him not only was Dee a scholar of the classics and the magical past but he was an intimate friend with some of the great movers and shakers of his own time particularly Sir Philip Sidney and the entire catorioue of poets and artists who had gathered themselves around Elizabeth, Austria to celebrate her reign and to make of her, the paradigmatic sovereign of Europe that Dee believed led the way toward the establishing of a universal alchemical monarchy it was essentially a poetic enterprise as alchemy always is Merlin in the Arthurian legends has come down to us basically disguised as John Dee the image we have of Merlin is Dee's image So, Dee possessed an enormous power over the imagination of his contemporaries they were in awe of his learning perhaps we are the naive ones perhaps we too quickly assumed that we had understood all there was to know about matter after all, even to this moment we cannot locate the seat of the imagination in matter we cannot trace the evolution of a human thought or hope in matter it's almost as though the alchemists through their humility, had a deeper insight into the workings of the world than we have achieved today this is ground zero for the Rosicrucian Enlightenment standing here, in the alchemical laboratory of the palace in Heidelberg we are essentially at the center of the alchemical hopes of the Rosicrucian Enlightenment it was here in the years before the adventure in Bohemia, that Frederick's alchemists, astrologers and suit-sayers toiled directly under the King's observation and control here came Michael Maier Heinrich Khunrath the great names of alchemy it's entirely possible that John Dee was in this room it's entirely possible that Edward Kelley stood were I am standing now it's almost impossible to conceive of the hopes and the fantasies and the labours and the dreams that have been generated by and are centered on this room and the objects in it this is the last alchemical laboratory in the world to fully function before the rise of modern science and these tools in many ways reflect the internal cosmology of the man and woman who used them this, for example, a typical alchemical distillery is called the pelican another example of the colourful nature of alchemical vocabulary it's called the pelican because it is associated with the myth of a bird which plucks blood from its own breast the prima materia feces, black coal, charcoal, salt nitrate heated in here brought to a high temperature, a fevered colouric state rises into the higher emporium of the vessel and there, rarified, it condenses liquifies and flows down into the cooler domain of the child of the pelican here the essence is collected, the quint-essence and always the hope was that the next experiment, the next combination of materials would yield the elixir vitae the lapis philosophorum the completion that the alchemists sought and so all this fantastic apparatus that we see around us is really not so much in the service of channeling liquids, gasses but in the service of channeling spirit out of matter and into the higher realms where it then can be refluxed, recondensed and the lapis philosophorum the stone of the philosophers the central mystery brought to completion the transformation of matter into a universal panacea for the redemption of mankind this was Dee's great passion this was the overarching theme of his life a deep, deep commitment to the reformation of society and a deep, deep exhaustion and rejection of the values of Christendom that he saw betrayed all about him and then by distillation and then by coagulation and then by concentration through firing the alchemical body is brought to completion these are processes that go on both within the chemical retort, the alembic, in the alchemist's laboratory and they're processes which go on in the heart and mind of the alchemist one process dissolves another process separates the dross, the gross matter from the precious another concentrates the subtle essence another raises the subtle essence to another level of refinement and over time the great friend of the alchemist this process of rarifaction and growth both metallic and psychological both internal and external both personal and impersonal proceeds and feeds upon itself and eventually, not through an illogic discernable to the scientific mind there is a kind of miracle the production of the stone the union of spirit and matter the fusion of these two contradictory aspects of the universe into a new and third thing the quintessence the rubedo the lapis philosophorum the aqua vitae the nostre lapis philosophorum devici one of the most famous of all alchemical axioms is as above, so below meaning always that in every small part of reality there is a tiny reflection of the great over structure of reality and in the larger structures are hidden the secrets of the smallest and vice versa we have unconsciously imbibed the ontology of science where we have mind firmly separated out from the world but in an earlier age mind and matter were seem to be out loyed together throughout nature and I think it's very interesting that at this very high-tech moment in our adventure the plants return and almost stand before us as a beacon and a promise they stand for absolute Tao they stand for the correct way for life to relate to its environment this is one of the most interesting new psychedelics in the world this is salvia divinorum and it is definitely one of the plants which will shape the next few decades of the new millenium this is a coleus it's ironic that these plants which have been in our kitchens and in our windowsill flowerbeds for generations turn out to contain psycho-active compounds as powerful as any known to science these are not particularly interesting in terms of drugs but they're certainly bizarre climb up here, with me this is one of the most interesting plants in the garden this is Psychotria viridis this is the plant which causes the vision when taken with Ayahuasca when taken as a liquid the experience lasts about 4-6 hours it's not as intense as smoking it smoking it is the most intense experience this side of the yawning grave when I take psychedelics I always do it in a shamanic style usually at night usually alone in nature, if possible and then I watch I pay very close attention I use my mind as an alchemical vessel for carrying out observations on the union of spirit my spirit, my personality and matter the physical matter of the substance that I'm ingesting building on western psychotherapy as elaborated by Freud and Jung one view of what psychedelics are is, it's the part of your mind that you'd rather not do business with it's the memories of childhood neglect or abuse, it's uh, repressed kinky fantasies in other words, the Freudian idea of the unconscious that somehow these are drugs which dissolve the boundary between conscious and unconscious mind and then you can do excellerated psychotherapy cause resistances have been pharmacologically overcome that's one model it's good as far as it goes, it just doesn't go far enough then there's another model which I would call the traditional or shamanic model and it says the cosmos is a series of levels and these levels are connected by vertical routes of access which can be thought of as simply flights through space, or magical trees, or magical ladders, anyway, there's an image of ascent and ordinary people exist on only one of these levels but a shaman is not an ordinary person, a shaman is a superhuman person who has the power of animal allies behind them and they can go up and down in these elevators that move between levels and they can therefore recover lost souls, see social hanky panky, theft and adultery, see the causes behind that, see the causes behind disease so forth and so on that would be the traditional one well, thinking about this from a mathematicians' point of view an all-encompassing explanation that would explain how all these magical feats are done is simply to suppose that the shaman is somehow able to project his consciousness, his or her consciousness, into a higher dimension not metaphorically, as in 'Sylvester Stallone has many dimensions' not metaphorically but literally, as in 'One dimension, two dimensions, three dimensions and four.. then I have noticed that all of biology not simply shamanism within the context of human society but all of biology is, in a sense, a conquest of dimensionality that, as we ascend the phylogeny of organic life, what animals are, are a strategy for conquering space-time and complex animals do it better than simpler animals and we do it better than any complex animal, and we, 20th-century people do it better than any people in any previous century because we combined data in so many ways that they couldn't: electronically, on film, on tape, so forth and so on

Pepperdine Bible Lectures 2016 – Leonard Allen & Dave Clayton (Part 1)



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The Cruciform Church (Part 1)

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good afternoon we'll get started this session can you hear me yet are we on ok welcome I realized some of you here probably just got so mesmerised by the previous class you haven't left yet and others of you are maybe if you're honest here because you want to seat for the next class so here we are in between glad you're here and we're going to get started yeah I want to just kind of pray over us as we get ready to jump into our time and I'm so glad that you're here and it's fun to get a little bit of time gifts i'll pray over us and we'll jump in and talk time together father thank you for these men and women thank you for who you are God and what you're doing thank you that we get to be gathered in such an amazing place unlike this for several days to just disconnect from all that's normal the distractions and the joys of home even to just disconnect father I love you I thank you for who you are Jesus we love you Holy Spirit we love you thank you for being here would you open our hearts and our minds would you fill us with your presence today would you encourage us and strengthen its would you make us more like your son Jesus God would you open our ears and our eyes to whatever it is that you'd have us here and to see and to think about today it's in any of I pray amen so so glad that you're here my name is Dave and I want to take just a minute I had to kind of introduce my buddy Leonard here and come to class that we're going to be doing today is the first part of a three-day class that we're going to be doing and Mike cope had called us in the fall and said or called me in the phone he said Dave I want you to spend a few days with Leonard and honestly is one of the invitations that are so excited about because up until two years ago Leonard was not a guy that knew I knew of him many of you may be no of Leonard maybe you've read his books maybe you've heard his teachings but he's one of those guys that I had admired from a distance and about two years ago he and his wife Holly moved to Nashville Tennessee where I live and serve as a church planter in downtown Nashville and and Leonard showed up and I remember the first Sunday I saw him sitting out in the audience and I don't know if you've ever tried preaching to someone that is exponentially smarter than you but but it is horrible and i looked out i thought oh no there's Leonard Allen and and I just thought I'll just pray and sit down will take communion and and he came up afterwards and said hey I want to take you to breakfast I thought I'll know in a little bit and so we went to breakfast and I don't know if you've ever been around Leonard but one of the things that I love about him is he's one of those guys the closer you get the better he is and you can't say that about a lot of people I remember sitting down at breakfast with him and you know he's probably embarrassed that I'm saying all this but every was sitting down at breakfast with him I thought this guy has more vision in his pinky than most of us have in our entire lives I just remember seeing the glory of God upon his life and his heart and passion for jesus and the passion for the kingdom and remember just thinking thank God that you've come to our city you make you Lord that you've put him in our church family and he's written an amazing book some of you have actually read it I'm just going to kind of give a plug here so he doesn't have to but if you never read this book cruciform church it actually came out a while ago there's a new addition to it I'm with some new content it'd be really helpful in light of the conversation that we're having this week but I'm honored to just get a hang with you for the next few days and I'm excited that you all will be here Leonard will be here to deliver the content and I will be here just to say amen to that and what he's doing so there you go this is this is an exciting opportunity for us to partner here and let me say a few words about dave dave is a millennial i'm one of the one they call the boom a Boomer an aging boomer and here we are together teaching this and that's kind of the way it should be I think more often because they thinks differently about a lot of things then I do and many of us do and thank God for that and some of the battles and struggles that I've had to deal with in my journey in Christ he's not had to deal with in the same way and he sees some things differently and freshly and boy what a blessing to be around the aura of that my wife and I are members at the ethos Church in Nashville and dave was the one to whom God gave the vision for that church eight or nine years ago and the church now is about seven and a half years old and it began in his home and from there it moved to a park near downtown for a few months and from there moved into a place near downtown Nashville called the cannery which is an old cannery that was turned into a big nightclub and now is a thriving venue on Sundays for ethos church they now have three campuses around downtown Nashville and it's been an amazing and blessed experience for me to witness and participate in what's happening there and we hope that in these three days you'll get some windows and glimpses into the experience of one church planter in an urban city in the Bible Belt to reach out but to me being there on a Sunday one of the three services at the cannery among hundreds and hundreds of young people college students young professionals young families a few older folks like me and others I can't tell you how how exciting and encouraging it has been for me to see so many young people being turned on to Jesus to the opportunities to serve in a city at the ground level and this was the vision that God laid on Dave's mind and heart about eight or so years ago and so what we're doing here these three days kind of comes out of that friendship out of our experience and from two different generations so here we go yeah so I want to start just kind of asking you a question and let you speak into this you know the theme of this week is cruciform and if you're like me it's like what does that word mean and I know I know we're not supposed to ask that question because it's a you know supposed to be smarter than that but i would love you kind of made that word popular amongst our tribe and i would love to just for you to kind of explain on the front end why that word so significant to you but even more importantly why do you think that works so significant to us as a tribe especially in this season of life and mission okay yes if you look up cruciform and say Webster's it simply says shaped or arranged in a cross and so it's kind of a simple definition but a strange word and back in nineteen ninety 25 years ago when I shared my proposed book title with a bunch of friends most of them encouraged me to omit the word cruciform from this title they said it was unfamiliar people wouldn't get it it was just strange but I kept it and as I said in the original preface to that 1990 first edition I said I kept it in hope that this image might become a dominant image by which Churches of Christ speak of identifying the New Testament church and in recent years as some of you have probably noticed the word has become a cool word I mean I mean making it into the title of several books like Michael Gorman and and now even into the title of a major lectureship here this week but let me say that cruciform as I originally intended it as I think it's often used today is it is a shorthand word it's kind of like the word Trinity in the Christian vocabulary Trinity is not a word you find in the Bible and some restoration ax Stephen today object to that word because it's not in the Bible and Alexander Campbell taught us that we must purify our speech and have every word to be a biblical word but this word Trinity became a fundamental Christian word over the centuries because it serves as a useful shorthand for a central biblical truth a complex biblical truth what it refers to what we know about God now that Jesus Christ has come as the Messiah and after the Holy Spirit has been poured out at Pentecost because in the story of salvation we've experienced God is the creator father and as the faithful save your son and as the comforting and empowering Holy Spirit so the word Trinity catches up all of that in one word so with cruciform I think it's a shorthand that captures the rich cluster of New Testament ideas surrounding the cross of Jesus Christ and how that cross impacts how that cross shapes the life of us who are Jesus followers and that's how I used it so when Paul says I determined to know nothing among you except Jesus Christ and him crucified why what a rich set of few words that is how do we unpack what that means for the life of the Christian community for the life of disciples like you and me that's that's the cruciform NT we're getting at and I think of this this line by the very influential recent theologian John Yoder who said i quote people who carry crosses are working with the grain of the universe there's a deep insight coming out of this cruciform of tea at the heart of the Christian faith so when we take up our crosses with Jesus whatever that may be we he says are with the grain of this universe that God has made so cruciform calls up as a shorthand this rich cluster of ideas characterizing the nature of discipleship after we have experienced and now proclaim a crucified and resurrected Lord Jesus Christ earlier this fall I was actually here on campus or this past fall I was on campus and I got here Leonard talking this idea of cruciform is this is amazing talk but one of the things that I loved in the context of your talk was you gave this image and you're talking about the journey that our fellowship our tribe has gone on over the years the journey that some of us have taken the journey that some of us will take the journey that some of us are resisting and you gave us this metaphor remember you talking about an island in a mainland and I thought it's one of the most brilliant kind of kind of pictures of kind of where we find ourselves come in the midst of our tribe and so I'd love it if you just kind of share a little bit about the island and the mainland and where this idea of cruciform midi kind of works into that is all of us are seeking to be disciples because we don't want to just study the cruciform life or celebrate the cruciform life who actually want to surrender to it you know to kind of step into it figure out how we live this out so if you could kind of give us that picture I think it'd be helpful well yes the the island i was born on the island many of you were i'm using this as a metaphor you understand actually i was born in florida it's a peninsula but but squarely on that island out some miles off the mainland I was reared in a small city in Central Florida where my parents were stalwarts in the little church of christ in that town in central florida i was baptized at age 11 and still remember how grateful I felt indeed how fortunate I felt to be a member of the one true church but by age 16 or so I began to sense some cracks and fissures in that to church at edifice that that in my family was the center of its world became the center of my world for many of you the center of your world and my questions there in my mid-teens launched me on a long shall we say at one level intellectual quest through my college years and questions that eventually propelled me almost wouldn't let me stop this study into a sort of theological career because I needed to know where the type of Christianity that was so deeply instilled in me had come from I sensed that it came from somewhere I'd been told since early childhood that it came simply from the Bible and through eight years of seminary and PhD work and Bible and historical theology I learned that there was much more to that story a whole lot more and the quest for that bigger story was exciting and and it was challenging but also for me troubling emotionally unsettling and so on this journey eventually I wrote and co-wrote several so over the next 15 years that sort of mapped out this journey for me these what books I hope I think were calm and measured and understated but they marked out this journey and it turned out to my considerable surprised that that same journey my journey spoke strongly to many thousands of people I suspect some of you may have been among them so so when they begin these books begin to appear about the late 80s and one of them was discovering our roots and then 1990 the cruciform church there was lots of controversy to be sure but there was an amazing explosion of interest I hadn't predicted people throughout Churches of Christ themselves seem to be on a journey and over the years since that time I've continued to hear from these people that and i eventually recently realized what those books provided and not just for them for me and this this metaphor came to me they formed it seemed to me for me and for others a kind of bridge a bridge from where a bridge from this island back to what we could call a christian mainland a bigger christian world many other christian traditions that had their own integrity their own history and so i i'm pretty sure that a good many of you have been on that journey something like that you may have begun on an island and that journey may have been a scary and halting journey sometimes an angry journey sometimes exhilarate but but then I realized you know I've gotten to know people over the years like Dave um who really I thought I sense we're not born on the island like me that's offensive and they know that I don't know where he was born but it wasn't just there and maybe I'm talking about Millennials no here who I'm just messing with you who may be many of them born on the mainland they didn't have to make the same journey um they interact easily with brothers and sisters from other Christian traditions they don't carry a load of guilt because you've stepped over old boundaries that were set so deeply and firmly and they tend to wonder is I talked with guys like Dave why do I have to keep hearing these old Island stories amen well why can't we just move on to more important things these great and new challenges that are before us now and I would grant you it is time to move on though I would I like to respectfully point out that those of us today who minister among Churches of Christ must still deal one way or another with the legacy of the island heritage because the past is the past and we can't just walk away that easily from it and we indeed have responsibilities it seems to me so for these past 35 years I've been immersed in the task of understanding this particular heritage of faith and helping insiders come to terms with it insiders like me islanders like me come to terms with it and then outsiders to better understand where we've come from and why we sometimes are viewed as a little weird so i want to turn the question around 2 to Dave here and say what was it Island or mainland for you it's so interesting really the first time you're telling that story is trying to figure it out and I don't know where you kind of fallen in the metaphor where you find yourself in that story but for me i don't know if i was born on the island or the mainland maybe a boat in between the two and you know maybe maybe that's my story i grew up i am a fourth generation church of christ preacher which is I don't know what that tells you but they taught you something and I remember you know one point my dad's one of five boys and at one point all five of them were Church of Christ preachers and so I remember thinking I'm never going to be a preacher that's not going to be it's not gonna be my story I don't know what I thought I was going to do but I remember kind of this in-between place you know I grew up in churches of christ I grew up in an amazing church of christ with parents who i love and who have just been honestly to my biggest heroes in my if I love them that shaped me they formed me and yet at the same time that there was something about the way that they raised us that shielded us from some of the maybe from some of the negative realities of the island and so I felt like I grew up and there was something about our kind of CFC heritage that at the same time it gave me roots and my parents also gave me wings and I don't know if that that sticks with any of you at all but kind of in the context of our fellowship my parents gave me some some big places to be rooted into you know that we are simply christian you know we are not the only Christians I remember I remember one time hearing you know I've moved away from home and someone had said you know how do you handle growing up and people saying that we're the only Christians and I said what I is that a real thing and they're like yeah that's kind of who we are and it's one of those moments where I realized oh they they shielded me from that part of the island i didn't i didn't know that or every now and then we'll do something in our context of etho some people say how did you ever get past all of our baggage to do something like that and I think what baggage I didn't I didn't know we were getting past something because the reality is a lot of kind of what we've experienced and I believe it's just been the grace of God and the love of parents and a community around me but a lot of what we've experienced has not been us running from the island it's just been us running to the vision that God has put before us in the season and I believe there's a big difference between running from something and running to something and so I think a lot of times people are so surprised to hear just how much i love our fellowship how much I I love our tribe and our churches and because I go man that was the place I came to know Jesus those were those are the people that loved me and showed me the beauty of Christ and taught me about the power of the Holy Spirit and taught me about the the potency of the local church and so I had all of these amazing experiences that came out of our background and yet I never felt like they were the fence kept us from running into the kingdom of God and there have been times when I talked to people that maybe felt like they're born on the island and they speak of our heritage and it's almost as if our heritage is the fence that keeps us from playing in the wild adventure of God and for whatever reason just by the grace of God I never really felt that tension I felt like our heritage actually gave me permission to play in the broader kind of Kingdom kind of Kingdom stream could you let me extend that just a little bit Dave and talk about maybe how that particular spirit has played out some in the church that you lead now I think kind of in the core of who we are is a fellowship you know you go back to our restoration roots we've always been pioneering people and pioneering people aren't scared of the unknown and it's it's just the sense of man there is there is something beyond in the something beyond whatever price we have to pay to get there it's worth it for the pleasure that lies beyond right that's just that's who pioneers art and that's in the spirit of our heritage but somewhere along the way I think that kind of got trampled out of us I don't know I mean you're the theologian or the historian you can tell us where that happened but I think that was one of I think that's one of the graces remember even with my parents I mean it's very simply being raised as a kid and them saying things like hey whatever you see Jesus doing in the scriptures you can be a part of I'm like that's really great news I mean he's doing some really awesome things in the in the scriptures and so there's kind of this open-handed permission to be a part of anywhere where God was at work because if God's at work it surely can't be bad right I'll say that again if God's at work it can be bad like I'm like if he's there we could we can get in on that and and so there was this there was kind of this this this freedom this this joy that I grew up with in our tribe and I didn't realize that that was kind of a maybe some of you that wasn't your experience but I grew up with this sense of wow man we can do anything with God because God is here and he is real and he is awesome and so just kind of permission when I found myself stepping kind of into adulthood they gave me the permission to to interact with and live in the kingdom in ways that some of my friends didn't feel they had the they actually felt like they were betraying the route they feel like they were betraying sometimes even the Word of God or you know kind of Arc the call of God on our life to do that so so let's stay with me on that metaphor here a little more this week metaphors have their have limited usefulness but maybe they have some this has some usefulness for a good many of you so so here here we are on a larger Christian mainland and here we are in a culture that is i would say increasingly certainly post chris and dumb and even maybe moving more into a post post Christian kind of setting at least Christians are being marginalized culturally more than we have been used to for a long time so there's a new kind of challenge in this this land this larger land you might say that we many of us feel like we where we live and we're faced with the challenge of living out the mission of God in this place let me let me repeat something here just for a moment as we move into that the more on that conversation that many of you heard me say before over the years our task it seems to me as Christians who become increasingly aware of our own heritage our own tradition is not a kind of vain avoidance of tradition we tended to think the tradition is mostly a bad thing we just want the New Testament but we've learned i think are learning that tradition is unavoidable I mean you have one like you have a family whether you really like it or not you have a family and the challenge in is what what how can we maintain a dynamic and healthy tradition going forward and there are two key things here and this is the course the trick one is to maintain some kind of connectivity to the past not try to disallow it off as a waste but to say yeah I there's some things here whose shoulders are people I shoulders I stand on there are some ideals and some vision here that I want to take forward but not slavishly bound to it enable experiencing in a sense the freedom to face a new world a new landscape with new kinds of challenges that maybe our forebears didn't face in quite the same way and that is the trick appreciative connectivity on the one hand and a kind of bold adventure with God toward the new on the other that's sort of where we are I think here it's a good place to be and I want to ask Dave to reflect a little more on the living out of that mission as he has helped lead and experience it in inner-city Nashville if you would bit yeah you know I think one of the things that I just want to speak this as a word of encouragement over you I don't know where you can iron your story where you even find yourself kind of in the midst this narrative but I think at the heart of this we have to we have to start with this understanding that we are loved by God do you know that I mean like you're loved by God you were the beloved of God and we were loved by God and that by His grace and his power we have something to offer the kingdom we have we have something to offer the world that there are things to kind of leave into and I love that idea that you talk about connectivity to the past because I think sometimes there's this sense of man let's just forget it let's start new or let's hold on tightly and we tend to find ourselves and one of those kind of two extremes one of the things that we've really tried to kind of do is we've stepped into this you know whatever is next is to ask God okay how do we hold on to the blessings of of our heritage and and live into the fullness of whatever it is that you have before us and so kind of in our context for us it's meant that we have to be okay as we engage kind of dislike post Chris in the world we have to be okay with people finding a sense of belonging in our midst long before they believe the things we believe and behave the way that we behave and for us it's it's been a really central kind of shift in in the heart of who we are going okay how do we how to create a a church culture if we're going to be a cruciform lot people if we can be a cruciform church then it means that our lives are going to be formed into the very image of Jesus and and here's kind of one of the ways that we say it kind of it in our midst is is we want to be about making disciples that was the primary mission of Jesus and a disciple is someone who can do what Jesus did the way that Jesus did it for the motives that Jesus did those things within the presence of Jesus like you know if you are being an apprentice of an electrician what are you learning how to do you're learning how to do the work of electrician not just learning the intellectual skills electricity you are learning how to do it so Jesus says I'm raising me up to be my apprentices I'm raising you up to be my disciples I want you to do the things that I've done and so it we've kind of embraced this reality okay if we are going to be disciples of Jesus if we're going to do the things that Jesus did part of that means us engaging people the way that Jesus engage people having a a cruciform life a cross-shaped life means we find ourselves in the homes of Zacchaeus is we find our selves in the homes of of people who may be in years past went of found room to play and so real practical I'll try to just ring this down to ground for you we're always looking for ways to bring Outsiders around the table like how do we how do we bring them into our midst and allow them to to contribute insignificant in meaningful ways long before and they believe in Jesus so this past week I was hanging out the good friend of mine some of you may be heard me tell this story before when we started the church seven years ago his name's Cody and we needed a sound guy and I'm thinking okay how can we find somebody to run sound who doesn't love Jesus you know because you don't have to love Jesus to run sound and so I'm trying to figure out who can we find to do this I'm going to trick him into the kingdom of God he'll have to sit behind the soundboard and you know hear my sermons week after week after week and so Cody shows up and he's there helping us in the park and remember that first day were there in the park he's running the sound board and and he's smoking and and you know no big deal a few weeks later we moved from the park into the space that were currently in into this nightclub and he's sitting there and the first night we're in this nightclub getting ready have church he said hey my lad to smoke in here can i smoke in his room and I said it's a nightclub I guess you can't I hadn't really thought about that no one had ever asked me if I could smoke inside a church and so I said I said sure sure go for it so he he lights up and he smokes all through church and then the next week you know were small church at this time like 40 or 50 people the next week there's like five people smoking and then the next week you know 10 people smoking and and people started smoking I think just so they could smoke a church in and he was there I remembered this this one evening in particular this this couple came up and and I said they say Dave we love what's going on here we love the church but me and the smoking is terrible and like I agree with you I hate it like it is is the worst thing ever and and they said okay well we got a choice to make like what are we going to do they said I said either he goes or we go but we just can't handle anymore and remember finding ourselves in this place okay I thought here this couple they tie they served love us they're amazing they're stable like it's great we don't have anybody like them in our church hardly but I thought man if they leave they're going to go to another Church they're fine they're saved I thought that if if Healy he's not going to another church and there's this moment that we had to make a decision and you know he had to say goodbye to the family you know that that was tithing and serving and in bought into who we were and I tell that story many of you probably heard me tell us where many times it's been a real touch point for us is a church family because several years later you know I got to watch Cody come to Jesus and I got to do his wedding as he married an amazing godly woman and now he's on staff at a church up in Brooklyn New York and he was in Nashville this past week and I thought okay so how do you evangelize in a post Christendom world you smoke cigarettes and church and in the you do not really but um you you create spaces for people to come as they are but with an understanding that Jesus transforms them and so you know one of the things that we tell our people is everybody can come as they are but no one is free to stay there like you come as you are but but you don't come to Jesus with conditions you know like if you've come to Jesus with a set of conditions you haven't actually come to Jesus and and and that's for those of us that grew up in church and those of us that didn't and so I think one of the ways that we've kind of tried to to navigate having lives and ministry that's being formed by the very nature of Jesus himself was to say hey how do we how do we enter an how do we create space for people who it's really participate who maybe you wouldn't have otherwise when let me just say it when my wife and I came to ethos less than two years ago I would testify that what Dave's talking about was was palpable and I was just struck I mean maybe you know you coming in from something different into that I was just struck so there's a really really low bar here I mean I mean almost anybody can just walk right in and you'll hear the Welcome that says come join us and serving the city and the assumption is that little behind the scene that when you do that with these other these sold out disciples you're going to be changed you're gonna you're going to experience something that may just lead to belief and commitment to Jesus Christ it's think it's turned around and in the sense yeah you know cuz and I actually think that's the shape of Jesus's ministry you know when did the disciples become Christians right when was that moment what I love about the the cross-shaped life that the cruciform life is the disciples they were preaching sermons healing the sick raising the dead before they even confessed Jesus is Lord I mean you know i mean that's like varsity level Christianity I mean they were they were on this journey with Jesus he said hey he said come in and you think about even kind of that path of formation that Jesus had with the disciples remember how it starts in John chapter 1 they're like hey Jesus where are you going and what's he say just okay come and see like that's the initial call right like hey come and see and then you get a few chapters later hey Jesus where he going he's like come and die and I'm like whoa like come again like the the the Ark of that journey got a little more intense right but isn't that the way that the journey of Jesus works he he says he says he says come into the kingdom and as we as we come into the kingdom he keeps inviting us into this this level of intensity and I think that's one of the things that we've tried to embrace I think that's maybe ministry on the mainland or mission on the mainland is I think as a fellowship we have to we have to embrace the come and see aspect of Jesus's ministry without letting go of the come and die because I think sometimes there's this fear of if we hold on to the come and see we'll never get to the come and die and I go know if when Jesus becomes your Christ he always shows you your cross like you don't have to worry about finding the cross like if he's your Christ there will be across so so if we can show them they use the Christ if they can walk and journey with this i think i think that the other piece comes as well so maybe we have just three or four minutes left in our in our time maybe tell us what that looks like someone just comes as it were but there's no no bar to jump over and they maybe find some friends they find that you're going to go out and serve with what is a room in the end or some other Nashville downtown ministry and you say come with us tell us a little more about that journey as you've witnessed it over these years at ethos you know so one of things that yeah we do this throughout the year in a variety of ways but I think one story that just came to my mind is on Easter Sunday every year will take up a huge collection and we'll raise a lot of money and the next week we'll give a hundred percent of that money away to bless the city and will cancel our church services the sunday after easter and people go out in the city and they'll serve all over the city together and so what we always tell our people is hey invite your friends to come be a part of easter sunday they're going to hear about the resurrected Jesus and then the next week they're going to get a go experience the resurrection of Jesus as you got in the city and as you serve and and we found that non-christians love doing that as well and so a few years ago only to come up with this idea we thought okay we're trying to raise a hundred and sixty-five thousand dollars on one Sunday which free you may not seem like a lot our first years of church we gave seventy two thousand dollars the whole year so for us 165,000 dollars on one sunday is a ton of money and so we thought okay we've got to raise more money than we've ever raised and we're given a hundred percent of it away how should we do this and so we have this atheist who is a part of our church and he's a brilliant guy and I thought what if we let him head up our capital campaign and I thought it makes sense right you know he's a smartest guy in our church and and I thought let's let's let this guy head up or capital campaign and he blew the roof off of it this guy and so he's like researching and I'm like okay I'm like hey I want you to just kind of get in there and I know you don't believe in Jesus but would you mind just like it kind of getting your mind around why Jesus would care that we do something like this and so you know he's not stupid he knew what I was doing he's like he's like Dave just told me to read the Bible I'm like okay would you read the poem so but but but he went after it and he got after and he got a church and all these people kind of into this idea and so we've been on this amazing journey so he leads our capital campaign he starts bringing in non-believers and different groups and companies to match this Christian gift for the city and he helped us mobilize all these Christians and non-christians to go out in the city and to serve and I go I think that's the I think that's the sort of thing that we try to do is we go on this journey saying hey how do we meet them where they are invite them all the way in let them participate in significant ways and in what we found is you know the way he's growing in Jesus is is phenomenal he just got done co leading a mission trip to Kenya over Christmas he's still not a Christian and I go I go but he is a disciple he's being discipled I mean that looks a lot like Peter Andrew James and John getting out of the boat doesn't it like and he's like I haven't confessed Jesus get his Lord but I'm hanging out them every day Gunners going i'm doing i'm like 'i'm like–that's that that's the essence of then what i know is man when he becomes i thought when he becomes a full-fledged follower of jesus holy smokes he is going to blow the doors off the kingdom of god it's going to be amazing and i can't wait to watch it so we're just committed to that journey in him okay a little secret here first let me say I love this man and admire him enormously and it's a privilege to get to stand alongside and we do a little theology my real goal here he hadn't heard me say this is to get him to tell you some of these stories and give you some windows into how the mission of Christ is unfolding in some new ways here in the inner city in the buckle of the Bible Belt and you'll hear some more of those stories tomorrow I guarantee because I'm going to tease them out of him but that that's really what I'm about here and tomorrow our focus is going to be on the word of the cross and the way of the cross and what that means for the mission of God it this strange and important juncture in our western journey so thank you and God bless and enjoy the riches of the you