Lecture 1 | Modern Physics: Special Relativity (Stanford)

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Lecture 1 of Leonard Susskind’s Modern Physics course concentrating on Special Relativity. Recorded April 14, 2008 at Stanford University.

This Stanford Continuing Studies course is the third of a six-quarter sequence of classes exploring the essential theoretical foundations of modern physics. The topics covered in this course focus on classical mechanics. Leonard Susskind is the Felix Bloch Professor of Physics at Stanford University.

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this program is brought to you by Stanford University please visit us at stanford.edu this quarter we're going to learn about field theory classical field theory fields such as the electromagnetic field gravitational field other fields in nature which I won't name right now propagate which means they change according to rules which give them a wave-like character moving through space and one of the fundamental principles of field theory in fact more broadly nature in general is the principle of relativity the principle the special printless the the principle of special relativity in this particular case the principle of special relativity well let's just call it the principle of relativity goes way back there was not an invention of Einstein's I'm not absolutely sure when it was first announced or articulated in the form which I'll spell it out I don't know whether it was Galileo or Newton or those who came after them but those early pioneers certainly had the right idea it begins with the idea of an inertial reference frame now inertia reference frame this is something a bit tautological about an inertial reference frame Newton's equations F equals MA are satisfied in an inertial reference frame what is an inertial reference frame it's a frame of reference in which Newton's equations are satisfied I'm not going to explain any further what an inertial reference frame is except to say that the idea of an inertial reference frame is by no means unique a reference frame first of all was a reference frame in tale of a reference frame first of all entails a set of coordinate axes in ordinary space X Y & Z and you know how to think about those but it also entails the idea that the coordinate system may be moving or not moving relative to whom relative to whomever we sitting here or you sitting here in this classroom here define a frame of reference we can pick the vertical direction to be the z axis the horizontal direction along my arms here to be the x axis X plus that way X my X is minus in that direction and which one have I left out I've left out the y axis which points toward you from me so there are some coordinate axes for space XY and Z and I didn't this in addition to specify a frame of reference one also imagines that this entire coordinate system is moving in some way relative to you sitting there presumably with a uniform velocity in a definite direction if your frame of reference is an inertial frame of reference in other words if when you throw balls around or juggle or do whatever is supposed to do in an inertial frame of reference if you find yourself in an inertial frame of reference then every other frame of reference that's moving with uniform velocity relative to you now remember what uniform velocity means it doesn't just mean with uniform speed it means with uniform speed in an unchanging direction such a frame of reference is also inertial if it's accelerated or if it starts standing still and then suddenly picks up some speed then it's not an inertial frame of reference all inertial frames of reference according to Newton and also I think also Galileo Galileo was often credited with the idea but I never read enough of Galileo to know whether he actually had it or not neither did I read enough of Newtons they both wrote in languages that I don't understand what was I saying oh yes right according to both Newton and anybody else who thought about it very hard the laws of physics are the same in all inertial reference frames laws of physics meaning F equals MA the forces between objects all the things that we would normally call laws of nature or laws of physics don't distinguish between one frame of reference of and another if you want a kind of pictorial example that I like to use a lot when I'm explaining this to the children or to grownups I like to think about the laws of juggling there are very definite procedures that you train your body to do uh in order to be able to juggle balls correctly now you can imagine yourself being in a railroad car moving with perfectly uniform velocity down the x axis and trying to juggle do you have to compensate for the fact that the train is moving and for particular when you throw a ball up into the air that you have to reach over to the right to compensate for the fact that the train is moving to the left my left your right the answer is no you don't the laws of juggling are the same in every reference frame and every inertial reference frame whatever you do in one reference frame you do exactly the same thing and you'll succeed or fail depending on whether you're a good juggler or not but it will not depend on whether you're moving with uniform velocity so the laws of juggling are the same in every inertial reference frame the laws of mechanics are the same in every inertial reference frame the laws Newtonian laws of gravity are the same in every inertial frame according to Newton what about the laws of electrical phenomena well there there was a clash the clash had to do with Maxwell's equations Maxwell's equations were the field equations the field theory that governed the electromagnetic field and the way that it propagated and sent waves electromagnetic waves that we ordinarily call light or radio waves or so forth and the fundamental dilemma as you all know I'm sure you all know the fundamental dilemma was both according to well here was the dilemma Maxwell's equations said light moves with a certain velocity if you take the various constants that appear in Maxwell's equations and put them together in the right way you get the velocity of waves moving down an axis and that velocity comes out to be a certain number out of Maxwell's equations you have two choices one is to believe that Maxwell's equations are true laws of nature as good as any other laws of nature in which case the principle of relativity says they should be the same in every reference frame but if it follows from Maxwell's equations that the speed of light is three times ten to the eighth meters per second which is about what it is if it follows from Maxwell's equations that light moves that fast and if Maxwell's equations are laws of physics fundamental laws of physics and if the laws of physics are the same in every reference frame then the speed of light must be the same in every reference frame but that was very hard to swallow because if a light beam is going down that axis and you chase it and run along with it that lets say three-quarters of the speed of light then you want to see that light ray moving much more slowly than three times ten to the eighth meters per second relative to you on the other hand the light ray going in the other direction since you're sort of running into it you should see going even faster so all these possibilities could not simultaneously be correct that the laws of nature are the same in every reference frame and that Maxwell's equations are laws of physics in the same sense that Newton's laws of physics namely the same in every reference frame something had to give well the point was of course that they were good laws of nature and that they were the same in every reference frame the thing that had to give is our concepts of velocity space and time and how we measure velocity especially velocities were up which are up near the speed of light now I'm not going to spend the full amount of time that I did previously on the special theory of relativity that can be found on lectures from how long ago and there on the Internet I believe relativity and electromagnetism I think that was maybe about three quarters ago I've lost track yeah they're up there they're on the net and they're the lectures on relativity special relativity and electromagnetic theory we're just going to cut through it real fast we're going to cut through the basic ideas of relativity a little more mathematically than I would do if I were teaching it for the first time I teach it the first time I tend to teach it the way Einstein first conceived of it how do you measure distances how do you measure velocities how do how does the propagation of light influence these things instead I'm going to take a more mathematical view of it and think about the properties of various kinds of coordinate transformations coordinates now consists not only of XY and Z but also time T so imagine every event in the world is characterized by just like every particle would be characterized by a position x y&z every event taking place in space-time is characterized by four coordinates X Y Z and T let's suppress for the moment y&z let's just forget I forget them for the moment and concentrate on X and T that would be appropriate if we were mainly interested in motion along one axis let's focus on that motion along the x axis let's suppose there is no motion along y&z then we can forget y&z for the moment momentarily we'll come back to them and think of motion along X and T and the various reference frames that might be moving along the x axis alright here's here's time vertically is space horizontally physicists always draw space horizontally and time vertically I found out that mathematicians are at least certain computer scientists always draw time going horizontally I didn't know that and I got into an enormous argument with a quantum computer scientist which was ultimately resolved by the fact that he had time going horizontally and I had it going vertically these are traditions I guess traditions grow up around subjects but time is north and X is east I guess or at least time is upward yeah yeah yeah that's what that that that's the point that is the point yes they're thinking of time is the independent variable and everybody knows that it's a law of nature that the independent variable should be horizontal ok all right now let's in let's imagine a moving observer moving down the x axis with a velocity V let's take his origin of spatial coordinates his origin of spatial coordinates at time T equals zero is just the same let's assume that my I'll be the moving observer I move down the x-axis I am my own origin there's nobody who was your origin that seat is vacant over there so that absent a human over there is the center of the x-coordinates in your frame I'm the X prime coordinates and of course I being very egocentric will take my x-acto is origin to be where I am there I do I move down the x-axis we pass each other our origins pass each other at t equals 0 so that means at T equals 0 your axis and my axes are the same or your origin in my origin is the same but then as I move down the x axis my core my coordinate center moves to the right most of the right that's supposed to be a straight line that's as good as I can do under the circumstances that's a straight line and it's moving with velocity V which means it's X prime equals SR it means x equals VT but it's also that's the way you describe it in terms of your coordinates my centre you described by saying x equals VT how do I describe it I just say X prime my coordinate X prime is 0 X prime equals 0 is the same as x equals VT all right what's the relationship between X Prime and X and T well it's easy to work out if you believe this picture the X prime coordinate is the distance from my origin the x coordinate is the distance from your origin so one of these is X the other is X prime the upper one here is X prime the low and here is X and the relationship between them is that they differ by an amount VT in particular X is equal to X prime minus VT or X prime is equal to X plus VT will have it wrong yes I do X prime is X minus BT and X is X prime plus VT yeah I think I have that's correct now all right what about time itself well according to Newton and according to Galileo and according to everybody who came afterward up until Einstein time is just time is just time is just time there was no notion that time might be different in different reference frames Newton had the idea of a universal time sort of God's time God upon his cloud ticking off with his with his super accurate watch and that time was universal for everybody no matter how they were moving and so everybody would agree on what on the time of any given event in this map of space and time here and so the other equation that went with this is that T prime is equal to T let's forget the top equation here let's just forget it one might say that this was the Newtonian or the Galilean transformation properties between X and T your coordinates and the coordinates that I ascribe to a point in space-time now let's examine a light ray moving down the plus x axis if it starts at the origin here then it moves along a trajectory which is x equals CT C being the speed of light now shortly I'm going to set C equal to 1 we're going to work in units in which C is equal to 1 but not quite yet incidentally once you understand a bit of relativity working in coordinates in which C is not equal to 1 is about as stupid as using different units for x and y are if we used yards for x and feet for y then we will have all kinds of funny factors in our equations which would be conversion factors from X which is measured in feet to Y which is measured in our yards the cycle has its uses log scale has its uses no long skilling long scale well let common interest yep I'm not sure we good but okay I'm just saying it is quite often in practical circumstances that one uses different scales yeah you sometimes you might there might be a good reason I mean um it wouldn't be totally unreasonable for a sailor to use different units for horizontal direction and vertical direction hmm I mean he's used to moving around horizontally he might use what miles miles versus fathoms or something nautical miles versus paddles yeah Persian is relative but um when you talk about a frame of reference you need to specify a period of time because obviously goes that 15 billion years there is no yeah we're ignoring now the fact that the universe began at some time and we're imagining now as Newton did and as the early Einstein did that the universe has just been here forever and ever and ever unchanging totally static and space and time have properties which don't change with time now of course that's incorrect in the real world and at some point we will take up the subject of cosmology and find that's not right but as long as we're interested in time intervals which are not I suspect this is what you're getting at as long as we're interested in time intervals which are not too long in particular time intervals over which the universe doesn't expand very much and so forth we can mainly say the properties of space don't change over a period of time and so everything just stays the same as always was is that what you're asking it seems that that this assumption if it is made it needs to what you're describing so well so the question is without imagining to some point as it doesn't lead it doesn't lead to what I'm describing where is this this room for different formulas here this is a formula which is based on an assumption the assumption being that time is universal that's what Einstein found was wrong basically what he found is that when you're in a moving frame of reference to different the observers will not agree about what time a particular event takes place this is the culprit here this one and some modifications to this one but in any case to see what's wrong let's go to Maxwell's equations Maxwell's equations say that light always moves with this velocity C being some numbers in meters per second okay 3 times 10 to the 8th meters per second we will later as I said say C equals 1 let's imagine a light beam moving down the x axis let's describe how X prime sees it in other words you see the light move this way to the right how do I see the light well let's see what I see let's just work it out X prime will be X which is CT for that light ray minus VT which is the same as C minus VT all this says is that I see the light moving with a diminished velocity a velocity C minus V why is that because I'm moving along with the light so naturally I see it move slowly the slow compared to what you see it what about the light going in the other direction supposing it was a light beam going in the other direction then how would you describe it you would describe it as x equals minus CT and if I do exactly the same thing I will find that X prime is equal to X that's minus CT – VT which is the same as minus C plus V times T so what this says is that I will see the light moving also in the negative direction that's the minus sign but I'll see it moving with an enhanced velocity C plus V if this were the right story and if these were the right transformation laws for space and time then it could not be the case that Maxwell's equations are laws of physics or laws of nature in the sense that they were true in every reference frame they would have to be corrected in moving frames just like the juggler who had to reach to the right who didn't actually but who thought he had to reach to the right to collect the ball when train is moving the physicist interested in light beams would have to correct things for the motion of his reference frame now it's an experimental fact that this is not the case that you don't have to correct for motion was the famous Michelson Morley experiment Einstein he just rejected he just felt this can't be right Maxwell's equations were much too beautiful to be relegated to the approximate or to the contingent on which reference frame and so he said about to find a framework in which the speed of light would be the same in every reference frame and he basically focused on these equations and after various very very beautiful Gedanken experiments thought experiments about light and about measuring and so forth he came to a set of formulas called the Lorentz transformations I'm going to explain them the Lorentz transformations in a more mathematical way not fancy mathematics but just get we want to get right to the heart of it and not spend the three weeks doing it the best way is to a mathematical problem but before I do let me set up a different mathematical problem which is for most of you you've seen me do this before but nonetheless let's go through it again the problem of rotation of coordinates we're going to do this quickly let's just take spatial coordinates now for the moment two dimensional spatial coordinates let's forget X and T and just concentrate on X&Y two coordinates in space instead of events in space-time concentrate on a point in space a point in space has coordinates and we can determine those coordinates the x and y coordinates just by dropping perpendicular to the x axis in the y axis and we would describe this point as the point at position let's just call it X Y now there's nothing sacred about horizontal and vertical so somebody else may come along some crazy mathematician a really nutty one who wants to use coordinates which are at an angle relative to the vertical maybe a couple of beers and you don't know the difference between vertical and worth worth worth we should give this direction a name oblique yeah all right the oblique observer the blue observer can blue be seen everybody can see blue okay good ah the blue observer also characterizes points by coordinates which he calls X Prime and Y Prime the X Prime and the Y prime coordinates are found by dropping perpendicular to the X Prime and the Y prime axis so here's X prime is y prime and given a point X Y there's a role it must be a role if you know the value of x and y you should be able to deduce the value of X I'm in y-prime if you know the angle between the two coordinates between the x coordinate and the X prime coordinate and the formulas simple we've used it least in these classes many times I'll just remind you what it is that's X prime is equal to x times cosine of the angle between the two frames between the two coordinate systems minus y times sine of the angle and Y prime is equal to minus plus I think X sine of theta plus y cosine theta I just want to remind you about a little bit of trigonometry all of trigonometry is encoded in two very simple formulas I've used them this signs on these signs of are on the right let's Ella and X prime is bigger than X for small theta since ours here are all so it's Auto Expo Rhine is bigger than it is is it yeah let's see if you rotate it to the next so that y is y prime is zero it's further out X prime rook will have it backward yeah what's your gift I'm not gonna fit nobody so let's say just make sure the links take survive is the little perpendicular there no my life primary so that's y prime y prime is this is why I'm here right right that's why I'm in X prime is bigger than X so there has to be a plus sign on the second you know its prime is bigger than X let's see um yeah X prime is bigger than X yeah X prime is bigger than X looks like that's probably right probably sign but then this one must be man negative yeah okay there's an easy way to correct for it another way to correct for it just call this angle minus theta that would also do the trick because cosine of minus theta is the same as cosine of theta and sine changes sign when you change theta 2 minus theta so if instead of calling this angle theta I called it minus theta then my previous formulas would be right it's true true but the it's an excuse all right what do we know about sine and cosine it's important to understand sine and cosine everything you ever learned about trigonometry can be codified in two very simple formulas if you know about complex numbers the two very simple formulas are that cosine of theta is e to the I theta plus e to the minus I theta over 2 and sine of theta is e to the I theta minus e to the minus I theta over 2i those two formulas contain everything about trigonometry you don't have to know any other formulas other than these for example I will assign you the homework problem of using these two formulas to find cosine of the sum of two angles but the way you would do it is just write the sum of two angles in here and then reexpress the Exponential's in terms of cosine and sine that's easy to do e to the I theta is equal to cosine of theta plus I sine theta and e to the minus I theta is cosine of theta minus I sine theta so work through these formulas get familiar with them they're extremely useful formulas once you know them you will never have to remember any trigonometric formulas again the other thing to know is that e to the I theta times e to the minus I theta is 1 all right e to the anything times e to the minus the same thing is one those things characterize all trigonometric formulas in particular as was explained to me by Michael a number of times if we multiply e to the I theta times e to the minus I theta we will get one on this side but on this side we will get cosine squared of theta plus sine squared of theta naught minus sine squared but plus sine squared cosine squared and then ice minus I squared sine squared that gives us cosine squared plus sine squared cosine squared theta plus sine squared theta so that's equivalent to the fact that e to the I theta times e to the minus I theta is 1 all right now the most important fact that again follows from the simple trigonometry is that when you make the change of coordinates from XY to X prime Y prime something is left unchanged namely the distance from the origin to the point XY that's something which is you know you count the number of the molecules along the blackboard from here to here and that doesn't change when I change coordinates so the distance from the origin to the point XY has to be the same independent of which coordinate axes we use well let's take the square of that distance the square of that distance we know what it is let's call it s squared I'm not sure why I use s but s for distance s s for distance s for space I think it must be for space that I'm using it for the spaces for the spatial distance from the origin to the point XY we know what that is it's Pythagoras theorem x squared plus y squared but as I said there's nothing special about the XY axes we also ought to be able to calculate it as X prime squared plus y prime squared well it's not too hard to work out that X prime squared plus y prime squared is x squared plus y squared it's easy to use do X prime squared plus y prime squared will have x squared cosine squared theta it will also have x squared sine squared theta when you add them you'll get x squared plus y squared you know you know the rigmarole so it follows from cosine squared plus sine squared equals 1 that X prime squared plus y prime squared equals also equal is equal to x squared plus y squared work that out make sure that you have this on the control that you understand why from the trigonometry not from the the basic physics of it or the basic geometry of it is clear make sure that you understand that you can see that from the trigonometry okay one last thing about sines and cosines if I plot on the blackboard for every angle if I plot sine or cosine along the horizontal axis supposing I plot cosine of theta along the horizontal axis and sine of theta along the vertical axis then if I plot all possible angles they will correspond to a bunch of points that lie on a unit circle Y on a unit circle because sine squared plus cosine squared equals 1 so one might call the properties of sine and cosine the properties of circular functions circular in that they're convenient for rotating they're convenient for describing unit circles points on unit circles are described in terms of coordinates which are cosines and sines of angles and so forth it's natural to call them circular functions these are these are not the functions that come in to the transformation the new transformation properties first of all these are wrong and I don't want to use X what's X ya ya now just wrong Newton had it wrong Newton or Galileo however it was postulated who postulated it Einstein modified it now we're going to have to make sure that Einstein's modification doesn't change things in situations where Newton knew where Newton's equations were good approximations the situations where I'm Stan's modifications are important is when we're talking about frames of reference moving very rapidly up near the speed of light before the 20th century nobody or nothing had ever moved faster than a hundred miles an hour probably well of course some things did light did but for all practical purposes light didn't travel at all it's just when you turned on the switch the light just went on so light didn't travel nothing and anybody's experienced direct experience traveled faster than 100 or 200 miles an hour and well I should say nothing travels faster than 100 miles an hour and then live to tell about it so all of experience was about very slow velocities on the scale of the speed of light on the scale of such velocities newton's formulas must be correct they work they're they're very useful they work Nutan got away with it so there must be good approximations it better be that whatever einstein did to the equations in particular to these two equations here had been a reduced to newton's equations in the appropriate limit okay let's come back now to light light according to the Newton formulas doesn't always move with the speed of light but let's let's try to figure out what it would mean of a better formula of a replacement for this but light always moves with the speed of light first of all let's set the speed of light equal to one that's a choice of units in particular it's a choice of the relation between space units and time units if we work in our light years for spent for a distance and years for time then light moves one light year per year the speed of light is one if we use seconds and light seconds it's also one whatever whatever scale we use for space if we use for time the time that it takes light to go that distance one unit of space if we use that for time units then the speed of light is equal to one now from the ordinary point of view of very slowly moving things those are odd units but if we were electrons with neutrinos and whizzing around like photons they would be the natural units for us speed of light equals one so let's set the speed of light equal to one as I said it's just the choice of units and then a light ray moving to the right just moves along a trajectory x equals T C is just equal to one a light ray moving to the left is x equals minus T how can we take both of these equations and put them together sorry x equals minus T can I write a single equation which if it's satisfied is a light ray either moving to the left or to the right yes here's an equation x squared equals T squared it has two solutions x equals T and X equals minus T the two square roots or x squared equals T squared is equivalent to either x equals T or x equals minus T in other words this equation here has the necessary and sufficient condition for describing the motion of a light ray either to the right or to the left supposing we found a replacement for this equation which had the following interesting property that whenever let's let's write it this way X square minus T squared equals 0 this is even better for our purposes x squared minus T squared equals 0 that's the necessary and sufficient condition to describe the motion of a light ray supposing we found a new set of rules a new set of transformation properties which which um had the property that if x squared minus T squared is equal to 0 then we will find that X prime squared minus T prime squared is equal to 0 in other words supposing this implied this and vice-versa then it would follow that what the unprimed observer you and your seats see is a light ray the primed observer me moving along also see as a light ray both of us agreeing that light rays move with unit velocity now this doesn't work for Newton's formula here it just doesn't work if X is equal to T it does not follow that X prime is equal to the T prime in fact it says something quite different okay so the form of these equations must be wrong let's look for some better equations now at this point let's in fact let's even be a little bit more ambitious it turns out being a little bit more ambitious actually simplifies things let's not only say that when X square minus T squared is equal to zero then X prime squared minus T prime squared is equal to zero let's say something even bolder let's say the relation between XT and X prime T prime is such that x squared minus T squared is equal to X prime squared minus T prime squared in other words pick any X and any T and calculate X square minus T squared then take the same point except reckoned in the primed coordinates in other words we take a certain event a light bulb goes off someplace you say that corresponds to X and T I say it corresponds to X Prime and T Prime but let's require just to try it out see if we can do it let's look for transformations so that X square minus T squared will always be equal to X prime squared minus T's prime squared that would be enough to ensure that everybody will agree about the speed of light why if x squared minus T squared equals X prime minus T prime squared for all X and T and so forth then when X square minus T squared equals zero X prime minus T prime squared will be zero and then if this is a light ray so is this a light ready everybody get the logic ok good so let's assume now that let's ask can we find transformations which have this particular property now it's not so different from looking for transformations which preserve x squared plus y squared equals x prime squared plus y prime squared it's just a little minus sign other than a minus sign here X square minus T squared look of these two is very similar and the mathematics is quite similar here are the transformations which preserve x squared plus y squared what are the transformations which preserve x squared minus T squared well they are the Lorentz transformations they are the fundamental transformations of the special theory of relativity they're not this but they're closely related or perhaps one should say closely analogous to these equations here but we have to substitute for circular trigonometry hyperbolic trigonometry so let's go back and remember a little bit about hyperbolic functions instead of circular functions well I didn't want to erase that all right these are the basic rules governing circular functions cosine theta this sine theta is equal to this and the e to the I theta in terms of cosine and sine all right let's see if we have a yeah we do have a blank blackboard here let me write whoops what did I do here I erased something I didn't mean to erase incidentally does everybody see how I got this side from the side you just add and subtract the equations appropriately and you isolate it to the I theta e to the minus R theta that's elementary exercise alright hyperbolic functions what are hyperbolic functions alright those are functions of the form hyperbolic cosine cosh hyperbolic cosine first of all the angle theta is replaced by a variable called Omega which I will call Omega Omega is called a hyperbolic angle it doesn't go from zero to two pi and then wind around on a circle it goes from minus infinity to infinity goes from minus infinity to infinity so it's a variable that just extends over the entire real axis but it's defined in a manner fairly similar to cosine and sine cosh Omega is by definition you're not allowed to ask why this is definition e to the Omega plus e to the minus Omega over 2 all we do is substitute for theta or for Omega theta I theta substitute Omega and that gives you hyperbolic functions likewise or similarly there's the hyperbolic sine and that's given by e to the Omega minus e to the minus Omega over 2 essentially you throw away all eyes out of that formula out of the top formulas just throw away all Sun all eyes the equations on the right-hand side become e to the Omega equals hyperbolic cosh Omega plus sin Chi Omega and e to the minus Omega equals cosh so mega- cinch Omega I think that's right is it right gosh – cinch it is yeah it is right okay now what about the analog of cosine squared plus sine squared equals one that simply came by multiplying this one by this one so let's do the same operation multiplying e to the Omega by each by e to the minus Omega gives one and now that gives cosh squared minus cinch squared you see we're getting a minus what we want we want that minus the minus is important we want the well somewhere is under here was a formula with a minus sign yeah we want to get that – into play here that's cos Omega squared knockouts Prakash squared Omega minus sin squared Omega so it's very similar everything you want to know about hyperbolic trigonometry and the theory of these functions is called hyperbolic trigonometry everything you ever want to know is codified in these simple formulas these in these and they're more or less definitions but there are the useful definitions now yeah go ahead yeah not only is it worth mentioning I was just about to mention it so I squared minus y squared is what hyperbola yeah right exactly so if I were to play the same game that I did here namely plot on the horizontal and vertical axis the values not of cosine of theta and sine of theta but cosine cosine cosh of that of Omega and since Omega what's in other words on the x-axis now we're going to plot cos Omega and on the y-axis cinch Omega then this is a hyperbola not a circle but a hyperbola and it's a hyperbola with asymptotes that are at 45 degrees you can see let me show you why why the asymptotes are at 45 degrees when Omega is very large when Omega is very large then e to the minus Omega is very small right when Omega is very large e to the minus Omega is very small and that means both cosh and cinch are both essentially equal to e to the plus Omega in other words when Omega gets very big cosh and cinch become equal to each other and that's this line here cash equals cinch along this line here so when Omega gets very large the curve asymptotes to to a curve which is a 45 degrees it's not hard to see that in the other direction when Omega is very negative that that it asymptotes to the other asymptotic line here so that's why it's called hyperbolic geometry it the hyperbolic angle the hyperbolic angles the caches the cinches play the same role relative to hyperbolas as sines and cosines do two circles any questions No so cosh Omega equals zero how would you plot that hi purple okay show me hmm Oh cos squared minus sin squared equals zero no that's no no cos squared minus sin squared equals one in the same sense that sine squared plus cosine square it never equals zero I think what I think you want to ask a different question I think oh well since Omega equals zero is the horizontal axis the costume a equals zero is the vertical eyebrows right okay well this is the x-intercept yeah it's it's the vertex I just think here's one point on a minute oh man the x-intercept there is one yeah because Kostroma cost of zero is one to see that just plug one r 0 in here 1 plus 1 divided by 2 is 1 at least it was yesterday yeah stores okay so now we we're sort of starting to cook a little bit we're starting to see something that has that nice minus sign in it but what's it got to do with X and T and X Prime and T prime we're now set up to make let's call it a guess but it's a guess which is based on the extreme similarity between hyperbolas and circles cautions and cosines and so forth he is the guess I'm going to make and then we'll check it we'll see if it does the thing we wanted to do my formula instead of being this has gotten with and we're now going to have instead of x and y we're going to have x and t time and x later on we'll put back y&z we're going to have to put back y&z but they're very easy okay so let's start with X prime X prime is the coordinate given to a point of space-time by the moving observer namely me and I'm going to guess that it's some combination of X and T not too different but not the same as where is it X prime equals X minus VT I'm going to try cosh Omega X let's write X cos Omega minus T sin Omega sort of in parallel with this I could put a plus sign here but you can go back and forth between the plus and the minus by changing the sign of Omega just as you did here so this let's do it this way X cos Omega minus T sin Omega and T prime going to look similar but without the extra minus sign here this you know the relation between sines cosines and cautious and cinches is one of just leaving out an eye you go from sines and cosines the clashes and cinches by leaving out the I well if you track it through carefully you'll find that this minus sign was really an I squared it's not going to matter much I will just tell you it was really came from some I squared and if you leave out I I squared just becomes one squared is no minus sign so here's the guess for the formula connecting X prime T Prime with X and T it equals let's say X since Omega – no – plus T cos Omega in this case there are two minus signs in this case there was only one minus sign okay but but let's check what do we want to check we want to check that X prime squared minus T prime squared is equal to x squared minus T squared your ask you're probably asking yourself what is this Omega what does it have to do with moving reference frames I'll tell you right now what Omega is it's a stand-in for the velocity between the frames we're going to find the relationship between Omega and the relative velocity of the reference frames in a moment there has to be a parameter in the lower end these are the lines in these are the Lorentz transformations connecting two frames of reference in the Lorentz transformations as a parameter it's the velocity the relative velocity that parameter has been replaced by Omega it's a kind of angle relating the two frames a hyperbolic angle but we'll we'll come back to that for the moment let's prove that with this transformation law here that X prime squared minus T prime squared is equal to zero ah is equal to X square minus T squared I'm getting to that point in the evening where I'm going to make mistakes all right this is easy you just work it out you use all you have to use is that cosine squared minus sine squared is 1 you can work that out by yourself but we can just see little pieces of it here X prime squared will have x squared cos squared Omega t prime squared will have x squared sin squared Omega if I take the difference between them I'll get a term with an x squared times cos squared minus sin squared but cos squared minus sin squared is one fine so we'll find the term with an x squared when we square take the square of the difference between the squares of this and this and likewise will also find the T squared the cross term when you square X Prime you'll have XT cost cinch when you square T Prime you'll have XT costs inch when you subtract them it'll cancel and it's easy to check that's our basically one liner to show that with this transformation here x prime squared minus T's prime squared is x squared minus T squared which is exactly what we're looking for let me remind you why are we looking for it if we find the transformation for which the left-hand side and the right-hand side are equal then if x squared equals T squared in other words if the right-hand side is 0 the left-hand side will also be 0 but x squared but x equals T that's the same as something moving with the speed of light in the X frame of reference if this being 0 is equivalent to the left hand side being 0 it says that in both frames of reference the light rays move with the same velocity so that's the basic that's the basic tool that we're using here X prime squared minus T prime squared is equal to x squared minus T squared all right that does follow by a couple of lines using cos squared minus N squared equals 1 but what I want to do let's take another couple of minutes now let's take a break for five minutes and then come back and connect these variables Omega with the velocity of the moving frame of reference somebody asked me a question about the ether and what it was that people were thinking somehow Einstein never got trapped into this mode of thinking um well what were they thinking about when they were thinking about the ether what exactly was the michelson-morley experiment well I'll just spend the minute or two mentioning it certainly Maxwell understood that his equations were not consistent with with Newtonian relativity he understood that but his image of what was going on is that the propagation of light was very similar to the propagation of sound in a material or water waves propagating on water and of course it is true that if you move relative to the atmosphere or move relative to the substance that sound is propagating in you'll see sound move with different velocities depending on your motion if you're at rest in a gas of material isn't there's a natural sense in which is a particular rest frame the rest frame is the frame in which on the average the molecules have zero velocity if you're in that reference frame then first of all light has the same velocity that way as that way number one and it has a velocity that's determined by the properties of the fluid that the sound is moving in okay Maxwell more or less thought that light was the same kind of thing that there was a material and the material had a rest frame and that particular rest frame was the frame in which light would move with the same velocity to the left as to the right and he thought that he was working out the mechanics or the behavior of this particular material and that we were pretty much at rest relative to this material and that's why we saw light moving the same way to the left of the right one would have to say then that Maxwell did not believe that his equations were a universal set of laws of physics but that they would change when you moved from frame to frame just happened by some luck we happen to be more or less at rest relative to the ether to this strange material um of course you could do an experiment with sound if you're moving through the sound you can check that the velocity in different directions is different you do let's not worry exactly how you do that that's what the Michelson Morley experiment was Michelson and Morley I suppose said look the earth is going around in an orbit maybe at one season of the year we just happen to be at rest relative to the ether by accident and some other season six months later we're going to be moving in the opposite direction and we won't well we won't be at rest only at one point in the orbit could we be at rest relative the–this or at any other point in the orbit we wouldn't be so if we measure in November that light moves the same than all possible directions then in what's what's the opposite of November May then in May we should find that light is moving with great with the different velocities in different directions and he tried it and a very fancy and sophisticated way of measuring the relative velocity in different directions but he found that there was no discrepancy that the light traveled the same velocity in every direction at every time of year there were all sorts of ways to try to rescue the ether but none of them worked none of them work and the result was one had to somehow get into the heart of space and time and velocity and mid distance and all those things in a much deeper way in a way that didn't involve the idea of a material at rest in some frame of reference that that propagated the light okay oh where are we I forgotten where we were when we stopped somebody remind me whoo-hah Omega yeah what is Omega forgotten Omega Oh how Omega is really metal speed of light but to the velocity of the moving reference frame here we have two reference frames X T and X Prime and T prime what's the relationship between them well the whole goal here was to understand the relationship between frames of reference moving with relative velocity between them Omega is not exactly the relative velocity but it is closely related to it okay let's say let's see if we can work out the relationship we know enough to do it let's see if we can work out the relationship between Omega and the velocity of the moving frame all right again let's go back to this picture there's a frame of reference moving let's redraw it here's my origin moving along okay what does it mean to say that from your perspective my frame of reference so my origin is moving with velocity V well by definition this is not a law now this is a definition and says that this line here has the equation x equals VT that's the definition of this V here my origin moves relative to your origin it moves with a uniform constant velocity that's an assumption that we're talking about two inertial frames of reference and you in your frame of reference will write x equals VT that's the definition of V if you like what will I call it I will call it X prime equals zero all along there I will say X prime is equal to zero it's my origin of coordinates okay now let's come to this transformation law here and see if we can spot how to identify V well X prime equals zero that's this trajectory moving at an angle with a velocity V X prime equals zero is the same as saying X cos Omega equals T sin Omega X prime equals zero set this side equal to zero and that says that X cos Omega equals T sin Omega all right so whatever the connection between velocity and Omega is it must be such that when X prime is equal to zero X cos Omega equals T sin Omega well let's look at that equation it also says that X is equal to sin CH Omega over cos Omega times T well that's interesting because it's also supposed to be equivalent to x equals VT now I know exactly how to identify what the velocity is as a function of Omega the velocity of the moving transformation the moving coordinate system must just be sin Chi Omega over cos Omega that's the only way these two equations can be the same x equals VT x equals sin Chi Omega over cos Omega times T so now we know it we know what the relationship between velocity and Omega is write it down the velocity of the moving frame now this is not the velocity of light it's just the velocity of the moving frame must just be cinch Omega over cos omega well actually i want to invert this relationship i want to find sin and cos omega in terms of the velocity i want to rewrite these Lorentz transformations where are they i want to rewrite these Lorentz transformations in terms of the velocity that's the familiar form in which you learn about it in in elementary relativity books X prime is equal to something with velocities in it to exhibit that all we have to do is to find Cinch and cosh Omega in terms of the velocity that's not very hard let's let's work it out the first step is to square it and to write V squared is equal to cinch Omega squared over cosh Omega squared that was easy next I'm going to get rid of since Omega squared and substitute where is it I lost it one is equal to cos Omega squared minus cinch Omega squared alright so wherever I see cinch Omega squared I can substitute from here namely cosh squared Omega minus one is equal to sine squared Omega so here we are this is just equal to hash of Omega squared minus one divided by cost of Omega squared or let's multiply by what I want to do is solve for cost Omega in terms of velocity I want to get rid of all these cautions and cinches of Omega and rewrite it in terms of velocity so first x cost Omega squared we have cosh squared Omega times V squared equals cosh squared Omega minus one or it looks to me like this is cosh squared Omega times one minus V squared equals one what I've done is transpose yeah cos squared times V squared minus cos squared itself that gives you cos squared 1 minus V squared equals 1 change the sign can everybody see that the second line follows from the first I'll give you a second yeah yeah yeah it's clear ok finally we get that cos Omega is equal to 1 divided by 1 minus V squared but now I have to take the square root cos Omega / one minus V squared and then take the square root and that gives you cos Omega now we've all seen these square roots of 1 minus V squared in relativity formulas here's where it begins the kayne we begin to see it materializing what about sin Chi Omega let's also write down sin Chi Omega well from here we see that sin Chi Omega is just equal to V times cos Omega this is easy since Omega equals V times cos Omega sorrow sin Chi Omega is V divided by square root of 1 minus V squared let's go back to these Lorentz transformations over here and write them getting rid of the trigonometric functions the hyperbolic trigonometric functions and substituting good old familiar velocities let's get rid of this and substitute the good old ordinary velocities ok so we have here X prime equals x times cos Omega and that's divided by square root of 1 minus V squared then this minus T times sin Omega which is V over the square root of 1 minus V squared or if I put the two of them together and combine them over the same denominator it's just X minus VT divided by square root of 1 minus V squared I think most of you have probably seen that before maybe slightly different let's let's clean it up a little bit X prime equals X minus VT divided by the square root of 1 minus V squared what about T prime T Prime is equal to t minus V X over square root of 1 minus V squared T prime is equal to T times cos cost is just 1 over square root and then x times sin CH that gives us the extra V in other words the formulas are more or less symmetrical and those are all good old Lorentz transformations now what's missing is the speed of light let's put back the speed of light the put back the speed of light is an exercise in dimensional analysis there's only one possible way the speed of light can fit into these equations they have to be modified so that they're dimensionally correct first of all one is dimensionless has no dimensions it's just one velocity is not dimensionless unless of course we use dimensionless notation for it but if velocity is measured in meters per second then it's not dimensionless how do we make V squared dimensionless we divide it by the square of the speed of light in other words this V squared which is here which has been defined in units in which the speed of light is 1 has to be replaced by V squared over C squared likewise over here V squared over C squared now velocity times time does have notice first of all the left hand side has units of length the right hand side this is dimensionless X has units of length but so does velocity times time so this is okay this is dimensionally consistent as it is but over here it's not the left hand side has dimensions of time that's all right 1 minus V squared over C square that's dimensionless this has units of time but what about velocity times X velocity times X does not have units of time in order the given units of time you have to divide it by C square okay let's check that velocity is length all the time times length divided by C squared that's length square R which gets correct but it's correct all right this is probably familiar to most of you who've seen relativity once or twice before these are the equations relating to different moving coordinate systems moving relative to the x axis but you see the deep mathematics or the mathematical structure of it in many ways is best reflected by this kind of hyperbolic geometry here and you know most physicists by now never write down the Lorentz transformations in this form much more likely to write them in this form easier to manipulate easier to use trigonometry or or hyperbolic trigonometry it's a little exercise it's a nice little exercise to use this the hyperbolic trigonometry to compute their to compute the compounding of two Lorentz transformations if frame two is moving relative to frame one with velocity V and frame three Israel moving relative to two with velocity V Prime how is three moving relative to one the answer is very simple in terms of hyperbolic angles you add the hyperbolic angles not the velocities but the hyperbolic angles the hyperbolic angle of three moving relative to one is the hyperbolic angle of three moving relative to two plus two moving relative to one and then you use a bit of trigonometry or hyperbolic trigonometry to figure out how you do the inches and kosh's of the sum of 2 hyperbolic angles very straightforward and I'll leave it as an exercise to see if you can work that out much easier than anything else ok so there there we have the Lorentz transformations yeah oh oh absolutely yes that's that's that's a good point yeah when we that's right if we have frame 1 let's call this x1 and y1 x2 and y2 and finally x3 and y3 well then the angle of – let's call F of 3 relative to 1 let's call it theta 1 3 is just equal to theta 1 2 plus theta 2 3 the angle connecting frame one with frame 3 is just the sum of the angle theta 1 2 plus theta 2 3 so in that respect the Lorentz transformations are much simpler in terms of the Omegas it's the Omegas which combined together to add when you add velocities now how different is omega from the velocity let's work in units in which the speed of light is equal to 1 where is our formula for velocity all right let's take this formula over here what a cinch Omega 4 small Omega let's put the C squared there a let's not put the C square there or not put the C square there since Omega is essentially Omega when Omega is small just like sine is omega where is theta when theta is small the cinch function the cost function looks like like this the cinch function looks like this but it but it crosses the axis with a slope of 1 for small Omega cinch Omega is proportional to Omega for small velocity one minus V squared is very close to 1 if the velocity is a hundredth of the speed of light then this to within one ten-thousandth is just 1 if we're talking about velocities a millionth of the speed of light then this is very close to 1 and so since Omega and velocity are very close to each other it's what's going on here Thanks okay so for small velocities Omega and velocity are the same the actual correct statement is that V over C is like Omega the dimensionless velocity over the speed of light is like Omega for small Omega and small velocity so for small velocity adding velocities and adding omegas are the same things but when the velocities get large the right way to combine them to find relationships between different frames is by adding Omega and not adding velocities when you add Omega like compounding velocities as you've got it there I guess you won't go greater than 45 degrees that guess because that would be faster than light no but Omega no more you see this bit the speed of light is V equals one that corresponds to Omega equals infinity yeah yeah so Omega Omega runs over the whole range from minus infinity to infinity but when it does V goes from minus the speed of light to the speed of light so you can add any omegas and still add any omegas Omega that's right there's no there's no speed limit on Omega is this like we just go on that diagram it looks like it's greater than 45 degrees if here where where I make a and I guess they use the definition of state along the hyperbola yeah that's right sorry where are we right there today I guess that's theta though isn't it this is Theta that's a good oh god yeah right right yeah Omega is the distance along hyperbola that's right distances that's right Omega is a kind of distance along the hyperbola all right now let's let's talk about that a little bit all right now that we've established the basic mathematics structure of the transformations I think we should go back and talk about some simple relativity phenomena and derive them oh one thing which is important which I yeah well let's see we're here are my Lorentz transformations over here I said we should we ought to at the end make sure that our transformations are not too dissimilar from Newton's in particular when the velocities are small they should reduce to Newton that's all we really know that's or at least that's all that Newton really had a right to assume that when the velocities are smaller than something or other that his equations should be good approximations isn't adding velocity good enough isn't velocities adding good enough in fact you're right in fact you're right but let's just look at the transformations themselves all right as long as the velocity is a small percentage of the speed of light an ordinary velocities are what a hundred miles an hour versus 186,000 miles an hour what is that it's small right and it's doubly small when you square it so for typical ordinary velocities even the velocities of the earth around the Sun and so forth fairly large velocities what 60 kilometers per second or something like that 60 kilometers per second is pretty fast that's the that's the orbital earth around the Sun it's pretty fast but it's nowhere near 300,000 kilometers per No yeah looks here on a thousand meters per second we're I'm sorry three times ten to the eighth no three times three hundred thousand kilometers per second right 60 kilometers per second three hundred thousand kilometers per second small fraction and then square it so for ordinary motions this is so close to one that the deviation from one is negligible so let's start with the top equation for the top equation this is negligible and it's just x prime equals X minus VT the bottom equation here you have a C squared in the denominator whenever you have a C squared in the denominator that's a very very large thing in the denominator this is negligible compared to T so here the speed of light is also in the denominator just forget this and it's just T but it's just T prime equals T it's just D prime equals T so in fact Newton's formulas are essentially correct for slow velocities no no significant departure from Newton until the velocities get up to be some some appreciable fraction of the speed of light okay let's talk about proper time proper time and then let's do a couple of relativity examples yeah question the bottom equation when X is very large yes that's right when X is exceedingly large you get a correction but that correction that X has to be very large look let's let's discuss before we do anything else let's let's let's talk about that a little bit X minus VT one minus V squared over C squared yeah let's alright in my drawings I'm going to sitt C equal to one but in the equations you can leave the C there okay this equation we understand apart from this one minus V squared over C squared in the denominator it's just this x equals V T or X minus V X minus X minus VT that's Newton let's look at this one over here okay let's look at the surface T prime equals zero T prime equals zero is the set of points that I in my moving reference frame call T call time equals zero it's what I call the set of points which are all simultaneous with the origin T prime equals zero is just everyplace in space-time which has exactly the same time according to my frame of reference and I will therefore call all those points synchronous at the same time what do you say about them if T prime is equal to zero that says that T is equal to V over C squared X now let's set C equal to one for the purpose of drawing just for the purpose of drawing I don't want this huge number C squared to distort my drawings too much it says the T equals V X what does the surface T equals V X look like it looks like this T equals V X which is also X is equal to 1 over V T so it's just a uniform line like that all of these points are at different times from your reckoning this ones later this ones later this ones later and so forth according to my reckoning all these points are at the same time so we disagree about what's simultaneous this was this was the hang-up incidentally this was the basic hang-up that took so long to overcome that took Einstein to overcome it the idea that simultaneity was the same in every reference frame nobody in fact it was so obvious that nobody even thought to ask a question is simultaneous does it mean the same thing in every reference frame no it doesn't in more in your reference frame the horizontal points are all simultaneous with respect to each other in my reference frame what I call horizontal what I call simultaneous you do not okay so simultaneity had to go let me point out one more thing about these equations I'm not going to solve them for you but I will tell you the solution anyway how do you solve for X and T in terms of X Prime and T Prime well think about it in the case of angles supposing I have a relationship like X prime is equal to X cosine theta what is it plus plus y sine theta and y prime is equal to X minus X sine theta plus or Y cosine theta and supposing I want to solve for x and y in terms of X Prime and Y Prime you know what the solution is just change theta 2 minus theta and write that X is equal to X prime cosine of minus theta but what's cosine of minus theta right cosine theta plus y sine of minus theta what's sine of minus theta minus sine theta times y and likewise for y prime Y prime is equal to minus x times sine of minus theta so that becomes plus X sine theta plus y cosine of minus theta which is cosine theta you don't have to go through the business of solving the equations you know that if one set of axes is related to the other by rotation by angle theta the second one is related to the first one or vice versa the first one is related to the second one by the negative of the angle if to go from one frame to another you rotate by angle theta and to go from the second frame back to the first you rotate by angle minus theta so you just write down exactly the same equations interchange Prime and unprimed and substitute for theta minus theta same thing for the Lorentz transformations exactly the same thing if you want to solve these for X and T write down the same equations replace primed by unprimed and change the sign of omegas to minus the sines of omegas change sinus rgn of all the sign all the cinches okay in other words just send Omega 2 minus Omega and that will solve the equations in the other direction yeah yes it's also the same as changing V 2 minus V yes the way to see that is to go right what was it what do we have cosh Omega yep yeah that's right via sign yes that was correct yeah you just well you change Omega 2 minus Omega it has the action of changing V 2 minus V you can just check that from the equations good alright let's let's talk about proper time a little bit proper time if you're doing ordinary geometry you can measure the length along a curve for example and the way you do it is you take a tape measure and you you know sort of take off you take off equal intervals equal equal little separations you can think of these separations as differential distances DS squared small little differential distances and that differential distance is d x squared plus dy squared with the x squared and the y squared are just the differential increments in x and y DX and dy this is d s alright so that's the way and you add them up you add them up that's the way you compute distances along curves it's quite obvious that if you take two points the distance between those two points depends on what curve not the same for every curve so I'll measure the longer curve you have to know not only the two points but you have to know the curve in order to say what the distance between those points are of course the distance between its longer straight line that's that's well-defined but the distance along a curve depends on the curve in any case D s squared equals the x squared plus dy squared is the basic defining notion of distance between two neighboring points if you know the distance between any two neighboring points in a geometry you basically know that geometry almost essentially completely so given this formula for the distance between two points you can compute if you like the distance along a curve because you've got to take the square root of this and then add them up don't anhedonia the squares add the differential distances all right the important thing is here that square root of DX squared plus dy squared which is the distance between neighboring points doesn't depend on your choice of axes I could choose X Y axes I could choose X prime y prime axes if I take a little differential displacement the X and the y or I just take two points two neighboring points don't even give them labels and measure the distance between them the distance between them should not depend on conventions such as which axes are used and so when I make rotational transformations the X square plus dy squared doesn't change the X and the y may change but the x squared plus dy squared does not change the same thing is true in relativity or the analogous thing we don't measure distances along the paths of particles let's say now that this curve here is the path of a particle moving through space-time there's a particle moving through space-time and we want some notion of the distance along it the notion of distance along it another example would just be a particle standing still as a particle standing still particle standing still is still in some sense moving in time I wouldn't want to say that the distance between these two points and space-time is zero they're not the same point I wouldn't like to say it's zero I would like to say there's some kind of notion of distance between them but it's quite clear that that distance is not measured with a tape measure this point and this point are the same point of space boom here at this point of space and that at a later time boom again at the same point of space two events at the same point of space how do I characterize and some nice way the distance between those two events that occurred in the same place you don't do it with a tape measure all right what do you do with a clock a clock you take a clock and you start it at this point tic tic tic tic tic tic tic a stopwatch you press it at this point tic tic tic tic tic it picks off intervals and then you stop it at that point and you see how much time has evolved that's a notion of distance along a particle trajectory it's not the distance the particle moves in space it's a kind of distance that it's moved through space-time and it's not zero even if the particle is moving standing perfectly still in fact what it is is it's the time along the trajectory what about a moving particle well you can imagine that a moving particle carries a clock with it of course not all particles carry clocks but we can imagine they carry clocks with them as they move and we can start the clock over here and then the clock over here what is the time read off by this moving clock the time read off by a moving clock is much like the distance along a curve measured by a tape measure in particular it should not depend on the choice of coordinates why not this is a question that has nothing to do with coordinates I have a clock made in the standard clock Factory the standard clock Factory and I don't know we're in Switzerland someplace makes a certain kind of clock that clock gets carried along with a particle and we ask how much time evolves or how much time elapses or how much the clock changes between here and here that should not depend on a choice of coordinates it shouldn't depend on a choice of coordinates because it's a physical question that only involves looking at the hands of the clock in fact we can ask it for little intervals along along the trajectory we could ask how much time elapses according to the clock between here and here well the answer again should not depend on what coordinates you use which Lorentz frame you use and there's only one invariant quantity that you can make out of the D X's and DTS describing this point describing these two points there's a little interval DT and there's a little interval DX now we're in space and time not ordinary not ordinary space and the quantity which is invariant there's really only one invariant quantity that you can make out of it it is DT squared minus DX squared it's the same quantity x squared minus T squared for a whole you know for a whole interval the T squared minus DX squared that's the quantity which is invariant it's minus D it's the negative of what I wrote over here x squared minus T squared okay this quantity is equal to the X prime squared minus DT power sorry DT prime squared minus the X prime squared the same algebra goes into this as goes into showing that X prime squared minus T prime squared equals x squared minus T squared incidentally this is the same as saying T prime squared minus X prime squared equals T squared minus x squared doesn't matter which way you write it all right so that suggests that suggests that the time read off the invariant time read off along a trajectory between two points separated by DX and DT is just the square root of DT squared minus DX squared why the square-root incidentally okay you're going to integrate in detail I can integrate DT yeah well alright why not just DT square minus the x squared for the time between here and here is it here's an answer supposing we go to you two intervals exactly the same as the first one we go an interval over here DX and DT and then we go another DX in DT what happens when we double the interval to DT squared minus DX squared it gets multiplied by four because everything is squared well I wouldn't expect a clock when it goes along you know when it goes along a trajectory for twice the the interval here to measure four times the the time I expected to measure twice the time so for that reason the square root is the appropriate thing here okay that's called D tau squared the tau squared the proper time along the trajectory of an object you're right that's just the towel or D tau squared being the x squared minus DT squared the Tau is called the proper time let's go I think we'll let's see the towel is called the proper time and it is the time read by a clock moving along a trajectory it's not just DT that's the important thing it's not just DT the T squared minus the x squared let's do one last thing let's just do the twin paradox in this language I think I think I've had it I'm going to finish you can do the twin paradox in this language all you have to do is to compute the proper time along two trajectories one that goes out with a uniform velocity turns around and comes back with the same uniform velocity versa a trajectory which just goes from one point to the st. the another point along a straight line and it's no more weird it's no weirder really from this perspective than saying the distance from one point to another along two different curves do not have to agree the proper time along two different curves in general will not agree what is a little bit weird is that because of this minus sign the proper time this way is less than the proper time this way that's the consequence of this minus sign here moving with some DX decreases the proper time all right we'll do a little bit more next time but then I want to get to the principles of field theory and and connect some of this with field equations for interesting wave fields the preceding program is copyrighted by Stanford University please visit us at stanford.edu

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How Hard Can You Hit a Golf Ball? (at 100,000 FPS) – Smarter Every Day 216

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Ancient Maya 101 | National Geographic

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With their impressive city structures and advanced astronomical understanding, the Maya civilization once dominated Mesoamerica. Learn about the Maya’s influence in mathematics, how their cosmic calendars advised agricultural matters, and how the legacy of this ancient civilization endures through Maya people today.
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Morgan Freeman Decodes the Mark of the Beast | The Story of God

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Host Morgan Freeman examines both the past and the future to determine what various faith traditions predict about the End of Days. His journey takes him to the desert, where he pores over the Dead Sea Scrolls, and to Rome to decode the enigmatic Mark of the Beast: 666.
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Today, for better or worse, the power of religion touches all of our lives, no matter what our faith. This is Morgan Freeman’s journey to discover how our beliefs connect us all. This is the quest of our generation. This is the Story of God.

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National Geographic is the world’s premium destination for science, exploration, and adventure. Through their world-class scientists, photographers, journalists, and filmmakers, Nat Geo gets you closer to the stories that matter and past the edge of what’s possible.

Morgan Freeman Decodes the Mark of the Beast | The Story of God

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Quantum Physics and Universal Beauty – with Frank Wilczek

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How simple questions inspired Nobel laureate Frank Wilczek’s groundbreaking work in quantum physics.
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Nobel laureate, Frank Wilczek’s groundbreaking work in quantum physics was inspired by his intuition to look for a deeper order of beauty in the universe, using simple questions in an attempt to see the whole answer.

Wilczek explores how this quest has also guided the work of all great scientific thinkers in the Western world, from Plato to Einstein, and shows us just how deeply intertwined our ideas about perception, beauty and art are with our scientific understanding of the cosmos.

Frank Wilczek is an American theoretical physicist and mathematician. He is currently Professor of Physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Professor Wilczek shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2004 for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction. As well as his academic work, he has written popular science books and is on the board for Society for Science & the Public.

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What's hidden under the Greenland ice sheet? | Kristin Poinar

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The Greenland ice sheet is massive, mysterious — and melting. Using advanced technology, scientists are revealing its secrets for the first time, and what they’ve found is amazing: hidden under the ice sheet is a vast aquifer that holds a Lake Tahoe-sized volume of water from the summer melt. Does this water stay there, or does it find its way out to the ocean and contribute to global sea level rise? Join glaciologist Kristin Poinar for a trip to this frozen, forgotten land to find out.

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Lecture 3. The Hebrew Bible in Its Ancient Near Eastern Setting: Genesis 1-4 in Context

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Introduction to the Old Testament (Hebrew Bible) (RLST 145) with Christine Hayes

In the first of a series of lectures on the book of Genesis, the basic elements of biblical monotheism are compared with Ancient Near Eastern texts to show a non-mythological, non-theogonic conception of the deity, a new conception of the purpose and meaning of human life, nature, magic and myth, sin and evil, ethics (including the universal moral law) and history. The two creation stories are explored and the work of Nahum Sarna is introduced.

00:00 – Chapter 1. The Creation Story in “Enuma Elish”
12:44 – Chapter 2. The Creation Stories in Genesis
28:30 – Chapter 3. Creation as God Imposing Order on the World
38:17 – Allusion to and Resonances of Ancient Near Eastern Themes

Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website:

This course was recorded in Fall 2006.

today what I'd like to do is begin our survey of Genesis 1 through 11 in order to illustrate the way that biblical writers and precisely who we think they were and when they lived is something we'll talk about later but the way biblical writers drew upon the cultural and religious legacy of the ancient Near East that we've been talking about it's stories and its imagery even as they transformed it in order to conform to a new vision of a non mythological God we're going to be looking at some of Calvin's ideas as we read some of these texts now one of the scholars who's written quite extensively and eloquently on the adaptation of ancient Near Eastern motifs in biblical literature Kimani you can is a scholar by the name of Nahum Sarna I highly recommend his book it appears on your optional reading list and I'll be drawing very heavily on sarna's work as well as the work of some other scholars who have spent a great deal of time comparing Israelite and ancient Near Eastern stories particularly these opening chapters in order to see the features that they share and to wonder if perhaps there isn't after all a chasm that divides them quite deeply in our consideration of Genesis 1 and 2 we first need to consider a Babylonian epoch an epoch that is known by its opening words the top of the column over there a new my a leash which means when on high the opening words of this epic and the epic opens before the formation of heaven and earth nothing existed except water and water existed in two forms there's the primeval fresh water fresh water ocean which is identified with a male Divine Principle a male God OPSEU you have a primeval saltwater ocean which is identified with a female Divine Principle Tiamat Tiamat appears as this watery ocean but also as a very fierce dragon like monster I will be reading sections from Spicer's translation of Enuma Elish part of the anthology put together by Pritchard it begins when on high the heaven had not been named firm ground below had not been called by name not but primordial OPSEU their begetter and MooMoo Tiamat she who bore them all their waters commingling as a single body no read Hut had been matted no marshland had appeared when no gods whatever had been brought into being uncalled by name their destiny is undetermined then it was that the gods were formed within them so there's some sort of commingling or union of this male and female divine these male and female divine principles a sexual union of absolute and Tiamat that begins a process of generation and it produces first demons and monsters eventually gods will begin to emerge now in time Tiamat and OPSEU are disturbed by the din and the tumult of these younger gods the divine brothers banded together they disturbed Tiamat as they surged back and forth yeah they troubled the mood of Tiamat by their hilarity in the abode of heaven OPSEU opening his mouth said unto resplendent Tiamat their ways are verily loathsome unto me by day I find no relief nor repose by night I will destroy I will wreck their ways that quiet may be restored let us have rest then answered moo moomoomoo Tiamat giving counsel to OPSEU ill wishing and ungracious was mu Mo's advice do destroy my father the mutinous ways then shalt thou have relief by day and rest by night when absolute or this his face grew radiant because of the evil he planned against the gods his son so he decides to destroy the gods he is thwarted by a water god named iya and earth earth water God sorry he's a combination earth water god named EF and Absa was killed Tiamat now is enraged and she's bent on revenge she makes plans to attack all of the gods with her assembled forces the gods are terrified and they need a leader to lead them against her army and they turn to Marduk Marduk we used to lead them in battle against Tiamat and her assembled forces her forces are under the I guess generalship of Kingu and he agrees to lead them against Tiamat and Kingu on condition that he be granted sovereignty right and he sets terms his heart exulting he said creator of the gods destiny of the great gods if indeed I as your Avenger am to vanquish Tiamat and save your lives and set up the assembly proclaim supreme my destiny let my word instead of you determine the fates unalterable shall be what I may bring into being neither recalled nor changed shall be the command of my lips and the agreement is struck and Marduk fells Tiamat in battle it's a fierce battle and there is in fact a memorable passage that details her demise in fury Tiamat cried out allied to the roots her legs shook both together and then joined issue Tiamat and Marduk they strove in single combat locked in battle the Lord Marduk spread out his net to enfold her the evil wind which followed behind he let loose in her face when Tiamat opened her mouth to consume him he drove in the evil wind that she closed not her lips nest the fierce winds charged her belly her body was distended and her mouth was wide open he released the arrow it tore her belly it cut through her insides splitting the heart having thus subdued her he extinguished her life he cast down her carcass to stand upon it well what do you do with the carcass of a ferocious monster you build a world and that's what Marduk did he takes the carcass he slices it into two halves rather like a clamshell and out of the top half he creates the firmament the heaven with the other half he creates the land the earth he split her like a shellfish into two parts half of her he set up and sealed as a sky pulled down the bar and posted guards he bade them to allow not her waters to escape right so he has used her body to press back her waters and that's what the sealing is the firm meant a firm beatin up a sheet or a structure that's holding back waters when little holes come along that's rain coming through and the bottom part is the land which is pressing down waters below they come up every now and then in Springs and rivers and seas and lakes and things that is the created word but world but he doesn't stop there and he creates various heavenly bodies at this point he constructed stations for the great gods heavenly bodies are understood as stations for the great God's fixing their astral likenesses as constellations he determined the year by designating the zones he set up three constellations for each of the 12 months the moon he caused to shine the night to him and trusting and then the complaints begin to roll in the gods are very unhappy because they have now been assigned specific duties in the maintenance of the cosmos you know the moon God has to come up at night and hang around for a while and go back down and the Sun has to trundle across the sky and they're pretty unhappy about this and they want relief from working and laboring at their assigned stations and so Marduk seeds to this demand he takes blood from the slain general Kingu the leader of Tiamat s– Army the rebels and he fashions a human being with the express purpose of freeing the gods from menial labor blood I will mass and cause bones to be I will establish establish a savage man shall be his name verily savage man I will create he shall be charged with the service of the gods that they might be at ease it was King gu who contrived the uprising and made Tiamat rebel and joined battle so they bound him holding him before eeeh and out of King goos blood they fashioned mankind eeeh imposed the service and let free the gods so the grateful gods now recognize the sovereignty of Marduk and they build him a magnificent shrine or temple in Babylon pronounced Bob L which simply a gateway of the god the gate of the god Babylon means the city that is the gateway of the God and a big banquet follows and mardukas prays for all that he's accomplished in his kingship is confirmed and anima Ailish ends it was the great national epic of the city of Babel or Babylon it was recited during the New Year Festival which was the most important festival on the cultic calendar and Malcolm Sarna points out that it had four main functions which I've listed over here the first of those functions is the agonic it tells us a story of the birth of the gods where they came from its second function is cosmological it's explaining cosmic phenomena the land the sky the the heavenly bodies and so on and and their origins it also serves a social and political function because the portrait or picture of the universe or the world and its structure corresponds to and legitimates the structure of Babylonian society the position and the function of the humans in the scheme of creation corresponds or parallels precisely the position of slaves in Mesopotamian society the position and function of Marduk at the top of the hierarchy of authority parallels and legitimates the Babylonian king and with others are you know arranged within this pyramid that falls below it also the epic also explains and mirrors the rise of Babel is one of the great cities in the ancient Near East it explains its rise to power and Marduk's rise from being a city god to being at the head of the pantheon of of a large Empire this also had a cultic function as well according to Sarna and some other scholars the conflict that battle scene between Tiamat and Marduk which is described at some length symbolizes the the conflict or the battle between the forces of chaos and the forces of of cosmos or cosmic order and that's a perpetual conflict each year it's dramatized by the cycle of the seasons and at a certain time of the year it seems that the forces of darkness and chaos are prevailing but each spring once again cosmic order and life return so the epic served as a kind of script for the reenactment of the primeval battle in a cultic or temple setting and that reenactment helped to ensure the victory of the forces of cosmos and life each year over the forces of chaos and so if we recall now some of the things we were talking about last time in the series of Kaufman we might describe the worldview that's expressed by an Ummah a leash in the following way and this is certainly what Sarna does we're going to consider first of all the view of the gods the view of humans and the view of the world three distinct categories first of all the gods the gods are clearly limited right a god to make a plan and therefore did by another god who then murders that that God they are amoral some of them are nicer and better than others but they're not necessarily morally good or or righteous they emerge from this indifferent primal realm these this a mixture of salt and sea waters that is the source of all being and the source of ultimate power but they age and they mature and they fight and they die they're not wholly good not wholly evil and no one's got one no one God's will is absolute a portrait of humans that emerges is that humans are unimportant menials they are the slaves of the gods the gods have little reciprocal interest in or concern for them and they create human beings to do the work of running the world to some degree they look upon them as slaves or pawns the picture of the world that would seem to emerge from this story is that it is a morally neutral place that means that for humans it can be a difficult and hostile place the best bet perhaps is to serve the God of the day whatever God might be ascendant to earn his favor and perhaps his protection but even that God will have limited powers and abilities and may in fact be defeated or may turn on his devotees now if we turn to the creation story the first of the two creation stories that are in the Bible because in fact there are two creation stories with quite a few contradictions between them but if we turn to the first creation story in Genesis 1 it concludes in Genesis 2 verse 4 and not for nothing but everyone understands the function of the colon right so if we say Genesis 1:1 I mean chapter 1 verse 1 and then it goes to Genesis 2 chapter 2 verse 4 left side of the colon is chapter right side of the colon is verse and every sentence has a verse number in the Bible approximately sentence if we look now we'll see a different picture emerging the biblical God in this story which I hope you have read it's presented as being supreme and unlimited that's connected with the lack of mythology in Genesis one or rather the suppression of mythology okay there's a distinction between the two and we'll have to talk about that and hope that you'll get into some of that section as well I'm using the term mythology now the way we used it in the last lecture when we were talking about Kaufman's work mythology is used to describe stories that deal with the the birth the life events of gods and demigods sometimes legendary heroes but narrating a sequence of events the biblical creation account is non mythological because there is no biography of God in here God simply is there's no Theogony no account of his birth there's no story out of through by means of which he emerges from some other realm in the Mesopotamian account the gods themselves are created and they're not even created first actually the first generation of beings creates these odd demons and monsters and gods only are created after several generations and the god of creation Marduk is actually kind of a late comer in the picture and this is also a good time for us to draw a distinction between mythology and myth Kaufman and others have claimed that mythology is not in certainly this biblical story or if it's not there it's at least depressed but in contrast myth is not mythology myth is a term we use to refer to a traditional story it's often fanciful it relates imaginatively events which it it claims happen in historical time not in a primordial realm before time and a myth is designed to explain some kind of practice or ritual or custom or natural phenomenon and that is why to this day you know there I don't know maybe some myth that we all know of you know of Paul Bunyan's axe or handle is some something in American nature which I now no longer remember but myths or fanciful imaginative tales that are trying to explain the existence of either a thing or a practice or even a belief sometimes it's a story that's a veiled explanation of a truth we think of parables perhaps or allegories and so the claim that's often made is that the Bible doesn't have full-blown mythology it doesn't focus on stories about the lives and deaths and interactions of gods but it does certainly contain myths it has traditional stories and legends some quite fanciful whose goal it is to explain how and why something is what it is so returning to Genesis 1 we have an absence of Theogony and mythology in the sense of a biography of God in this opening chapter and that means the absence of a meta divine realm if you remember nothing else from this course and certainly for the midterm exam you should remember the words met a divine realm if there's a little hint for you there okay it's an important concept don't have to buy and do it you just have to know it okay but there is an absence of what kalman we call this meta divine realm this primordial realm from which the gods emerge we also therefore have no sense that God is immanent in nature or tied to natural substances or for not or phenomena so the biblical gods powers and knowledge do not appear to be limited by the prior existence of any other substance or power nature also is not divine it's D mythologize D divinized if that's a word the created world is not divine it is not the physical manifestation of various deities and earth God or water God and so on the line of demarcation therefore between the divine and the natural and human worlds would appear to be clear so to summarize in Genesis 1 the view of God is that there is one supreme god who is creator and sovereign of the world who simply exists who appears to be incorporeal and who and for whom the the realm of nature is is separate and subservient he has no life story no mythology and his will is absolute indeed creation takes place through the simple expression of his will when God began to create heaven and earth then there's a parenthetical clause God said let there be light and there was light willed expressed his will that there be light and there was light and that's very different from many ancient near-eastern cosmogony in which there's always a sexual principle at work in creation creation is always a result of procreation and some way male and female principles combining there's a very similar Egyptian creation story actually in which the God protect just wills let this be let's very reads very much like Genesis 1 and yet even so there's still a sexual act that follows the expression of those wills so it is still different consider now the portrait of humans humankind that emerges from the biblical creation story in contrast to anima Ailish in genesis humans are important Genesis 1 humans are important and in fact the biblical view of humans really emerges from both of the creation stories if they're when they're read together the story here in Genesis 1 and then the creation story that occupies much of 2 & 3 the two accounts are extremely different but they both signal the unique position and dignity of the human being in the first account in Genesis 1 the creation of the human is clearly the climactic divine act after this God can rest and a sign of the humans importance is the fact that humans are said to be created in the image of God this occurs in Genesis 1 verse 26 let us make man in our image after our likeness what might that mean looking at the continuation of the verse of the passage we have some idea because humans we see are going to be charged with specific duties towards and rights over the created world and it seems therefore that the idea of being created in the image of God is connected with those special rights and duties a creature is required who is distinguished in certain ways from other animals how our humans distinguished from other animals you could make a long list but it might include things like the capacity for language and higher thought or abstract thought conscience self-control freewill so if those are the distinctive characteristics that earn the human being certain rights over creation but also give them duties towards creation and the human is distinct from animals and being created in the image of God there's perhaps a connection to be godlike is to perhaps possess some of these characteristics being created in the image of God carries a further implication it implies that human life is somehow sacred and deserving of special care and protection and that's why in Genesis 9 verse 6 we read whoever sheds the blood of man in exchange for that man shall his blood be shed for in the image of God was man created invoke that rationale from Genesis 1 in the absolute prohibition on unmerge there is no way to compensate or punish someone for murder it simply means forfeiture of one's own life that's how sacred human life is that's the biblical view so the concept of the divine image in humans right that's a powerful idea that there is a divine image in humans and that breaks with other ancient conceptions of the human Genesis one humans are not the menials of God and in fact Genesis expresses the antithesis of this we're in an Ummah Ailish service was imposed upon the god on the humans so the gods were free you have to worry about anything the humans would take care of gods in we have the reverse it's almost like a polemical inversion in Genesis 1 the very first communication of God to the human that's created is concern for that creatures physical needs and welfare he says in Genesis 1 verses 28 and 29 he blesses them God blessed them and God said to them be fertile and increase fill the earth master it rule the fish of the sea the birds of the sky and all the living things that creep on earth in Genesis 2 verse 16 after the creation story there and the Lord God commanded the man saying of every tree of the garden you are free to eat his first thought is what are you going to eat I want you to be fruitful and multiply and so on so humans and Genesis are not presented as the helpless victims of blind forces of nature they're not the menials and servants of capricious gods they are creatures of majesty and dignity and they are of importance to objects of concern for the God who has created them at the same time and I think very much in line with the assertion that humans are created in the image of God humans are not in fact gods they are still creatures in the sense of create things and they are dependent on a higher power so in the second creation story beginning in Genesis 2:4 we read that the first human is formed when God fashions it from the dust of the earth or clay there are lots of ancient near-eastern stories of God's fashioning humans from clay we have depictions of gods as potters at a potter's wheel just turning out lots of little humans but the biblical account as much as it borrows from that motif again takes pains to distinguish the and elevate the human first the fashioning of the human from clay is again in that story it's the climactic or well not quite climactic it's the penultimate I suppose moment in the story the final climactic act of creation is the creation of the female from the male that is actually the peak of creation what can I say second and significantly not an afterthought it's the peak accrete second and significantly God Himself blows the breath of life into Adam's nostrils so while he fashions this clay figure all right this was carcass actually and then breathes life his own life into it so in the second creation story just as in the first there's a secret imprint of some kind that distinguishes the human creation from the other creatures so this idea that the human being is a mixture of of clay he's molded from clay but enlivened by the breath of God it captures that paradoxical mix of earthly and divine elements dependence and freedom that marks the human as unique it should further be noted that in the creation first creation account there's no implication that man and woman are in any kind of unequal relationship before God the Hebrew word that designates the creature created by God is the word a dumb it's actually not a proper name small a it is a dumb it's a generic term it simply means human or more precisely earthling because it comes from the word Adam AB which means ground or earth so this is an atom and earthling a thing that has been taken from the earth Genesis one states that God created the Adam with a definite article this is not a proper name God created via dumb the earthling male and female created he them that's a line that's vexed commentators for centuries and has spawned many very fascinating interpretations and you will be reading some of those in the readings that are assigned for section discussion next week and I think having a great deal of fun with them moreover this this earthling seemed that seems to include both male and female is then said to be in the in the image of God so that suggests that the ancient Israelites didn't conceive of God is gendered or necessarily gendered the Adam the earthling male and female was made in the image of God even in the second creation account it's not clear that the woman is subordinate to the man many medieval Jewish commentators enjoy pointing out that she was not made from his head so that she not rule over him but she wasn't made from his foot so that she would be subservient to him she was made from his side so that she would be a companion to him and the creation of woman as I said is in fact the climactic creative act in the second Genesis account with her formation creation is now complete so the biblical creation story is individually and jointly present a portrait of the human as the pinnacle and purpose of creation godlike in some way in possession of distinctive faculties and characteristics that equip them for stewardship over the world that God has created finally let's talk about the image of the world that emerges from the creation story in Genesis 1 in these stories there is a very strong emphasis on the essential goodness of the world recall some of Kaufman's ideas or categories again one of the things he claims is that in a polytheistic system which is morally neutral where you have some primordial realm that spawns demons monsters gods evil is a permanent necessity it's just built into the structure of the cosmos because of the fact that all kinds of divine beings good and bad are generated and locked and conflict so the world isn't you essentially good in its nature or essentially bad note the difference in genesis after each act of creation what does God say it is good right Genesis 1 verse 4 verse 10 verse 12 verse 18 verse 21 verse 25 and after the creation of living things the text states that God found all that he made to be very good so there are seven occurrences of the word good in Genesis that's something you want to watch for if you're reading a passage of the Bible you're noticing a word coming up a lot count'em it's probably going to be seven or ten they love doing that the seven fold or the ten fold repetition of a word such a word is called a light word a recurring word lettuce becomes thematic that's a favorite literary technique of the biblical author so we read Genesis 1 and we hear this recurring and it was good and he looked and it was good and he looked and it was good and we have this tremendous rush of optimism the world is good humans are important they have purpose and dignity the biblical writer is rejecting the concept of a primordial evil a concept found in the literature of the ancient Near East so for the biblical writer of this story it would seem that evil is not a metaphysical reality built into the structure of the universe so all signs of a cosmic battle or some primordial act of violence between the forces of chaos and evil and the forces of cosmos and good are eliminated in a new mihaela Sh cosmic order is achieved only after a violent struggle with very hostile forces but in Genesis creation is not the result of a struggle between divine antagonists God imposes order on the DeMuth ologist elements that he finds water but it's just water let's look a little bit more closely at Genesis 1 to make this case the chapter begins with a temporal clause which is unfortunately often translated in the beginning which implies that what follows is going to give you an ultimate account of the origins of the universe you sort of expect something like in the beginning God created heaven and earth like this was the first thing to happen in right so that translation causes people to believe that the story is giving me an account of the first event in time forward but it's actually a bad translation the Hebrew phrase that starts the book of Genesis is pretty much exactly like the phrase that starts a meme on a leash when on hi there was a whole bunch of water and stuff then suddenly this happened very similar in the Hebrew it's better translated this way when God began creating the heavens and the earth he said let there be light and there was light and that translation suggests that the story isn't concerned to depict the ultimate origins of the universe it's interested in explaining how and why the world got the way it is when God began this process of creating the heaven and the earth and the earth was unformed and void and you know his wind was on the surface of the deep and so on he said let there be light and there was light so we find that in fact something exists it has no shape so creation and Genesis 1 is not described as a process of making something out of nothing that's a notion referred to as creation ex nihilo creation of something out of utter nothing it's instead a process of organizing pre-existing materials and imposing order on those chaotic materials so we begin with this chaotic mass and then there's the rule of God now sometimes this word Rua is kind of anachronistically translated as spirit really doesn't mean that in the Hebrew Bible and later levels of Hebrew it will start to mean that but it is really wind Rua is wind so when God began to create heaven and earth the earth being unformed and void the wind of God sweeping over the deep remember the cosmic battle between Marduk and Tiamat Marduk the storm God who released his wind against Tiamat the primeval primeval deep the primeval water representing the forces of chaos and you should immediately hear the great similarities our story opens with a temporal clause when on high when God began creating we have a wind that sweeps over chaotic waters just like the wind of Marduk released into the face of Tiamat and the Hebrew term is particularly fascinating in fact the text says and there is darkness on the face of deep no definite article the word deep is a proper name perhaps the Hebrew word is – home means deep and etymologically it's exactly the same word as Tiamat the attending is just feminine so TM home it's the same word it's a related word so the wind over the face of deep and how this DeMuth ology so it's as if they're invoking the story that would have been familiar and yet changing it so the storyteller has actually set the stage for retelling the cosmic battle story that everyone knew that was a story that surely was near and dear to the hearts of many ancient Israelites and ancient Near Eastern listeners so all the elements are there for the retelling of that story we've got wind we've got a primeval chaotic watery mass or deep and then surprised there's no battle there's just a word let there be light and the ancient near-eastern listener would prick up their ears where's the battle where's the violence where's the gore I thought I knew this story so something new something different was being communicated in this story and don't think the biblical writers didn't know this motif of creation following upon a huge cosmic battle particularly a battle with a a watery dragon like monster there are many poetic passages in poetic sections of the Bible that contain very clear and explicit allusions to that myth it was certainly known and told Israelite children and part of the culture we have it mentioned in Joe we haven't mentioned in the following Psalm Psalm 74 verses 12 to 17 oh God my king from of old who brings deliverance throughout the land it was you who drove back the sea with your might who smashed the heads of the monsters in the waters it was you who crushed the heads of Leviathan a sea monster other Psalms also contains similar lines Isaiah 51 verses 9 through 10 it was you that hacked Rahab this is another name of a primeval water monster in pieces it was you that pierced the dragon it was you that dried up the sea the waters of the great deep these were familiar stories they were known in Israel they were counted in Israel there were stories of a God who violently slaves the forces of chaos represented as watery dragons as a prelude to creation and the rejection of this motif or this idea in Genesis one is pointed and purposeful it's D mythologize ation its removal of the creation account from the realm in the world of mythology is pointed and purposeful it wants us to to conceive of God as an uncontested God who through the power of his word or will creates the cosmos and he follows that initial ordering by setting up celestial bodies just as Marduk did they're not in themselves however divinities they are merely God's creations in the biblical text the firmament appears to be a beaten the word in Hebrew is something that's been beaten out like a metalworker would hammer out a thin sheet of metal and that's what the firmament this by the way is the portrait of the world looks a lot like my map of the ancient Near East but it's not so you have this firmament which is beaten back to hold back primeval waters that are pressing in you have land which is holding down the waters here we inhabit the bubble that's created in that way that's the image in any of my alien it's the image of Genesis 1 and later on when God gets mad he's going to open up some windows up here right and it's all going to the flood that's what's going to happen in the flood that's the image of the world that you're working with so the firmament is sort of like an inverted Bowl a beaten out sheet of metal that's an inverted Bowl and again as I said echoes of a numa a leash where you have Marduk dividing the carcass of Tiamat like a shellfish he separates the waters above and the waters below and creates this this space that will become the inhabited world ok now the story of creation in Genesis 1 takes place over seven days and there's a certain logic and parallelism to the six days of creating and I've written those parallels here there's a parallel between day 1 day 4 day 2 and 5 day 3 and 6 on day 1 light and dark are separated on day 4 the heavenly bodies that give off light by day or night are created on day 2 the firmament is established that water is separated that bubble is opened up so we've got the sky created and we've got the waters collected in certain areas down here right water down here and we've got sky on day 5 the inhabitants of the skies and the waters are created birds and fish on day 3 land is formed to make dry spots from the waters below so you have land being formed on day 3 it's separated out from the sea and on day 6 you have the creation of land animals but days 3 and 6 each have an extra element and the fact that the first elements here pair up nicely with each other suggests that the extra element on day 3 and the extra element on day 6 might also be paired in some important way on day 3 vegetation is produced is created and on day 6 humans are created after the creation of the land animals so the implication is that the vegetation is for the humans and indeed it's expressly stated by God that humans are to be given every fruit bearing tree and seed-bearing plant fruits and grains for food that's in Genesis 1:29 that's what you are going to eat there's no mention of chicken or beef it's no mention made of animals for food in Genesis 1 verse 30 God says that the animals are being given the green plants the grass and herbs for food in other words it should be no competition for food humans have fruit and grain bearing vegetation animals have the herbage and the grasses there is no excuse to live in anything but a peaceful coexistence therefore humans according to Genesis 1 were created vegetarian and in every respect the original creation is imagined as free of bloodshed and violence of every kind and God saw that it was very good so on the seventh day God rested from his labors and for this reason he blessed the seventh day and declared it holy this is a word we'll be coming back to in about five or six lectures talking about what it is to be holy but right now it essentially means it belongs to God some holy doesn't belong to you it belongs to God okay and part of the purpose of this story is to explain the origin of the observance of the Sabbath Sabbath the seventh day is a holy day so this is a myth in that sense that it's explaining some customer ritual among the people so Israelite accounts of creation contain clear allusions to and resonances of ancient near-eastern cuz manganese but perhaps Genesis one can best be described as D mythologizing what was a common cultural heritage there's a clear tendency in this story towards monotheism in the abstract terms that Kaufman described a transformation of widely known stories to express a monotheistic worldview is clearly important to these particularly cool writers and we'll be talking later about who these writers were who wrote Genesis one as opposed to Genesis two and three but these stories rival and implicitly pull em asides against the myths or mythologies of Israel's neighbors they reject certain elements but they almost reject them by incorporating them right they incorporate and modify them so one of the things I've tried to claim in describing Genesis one is that in this story evil is represented not as a physical reality it's not built into the structure of the world right when God rests he's looking at the whole thing it's very good it's set up very well and yet we know that evil is a condition of human existence it's a it's a reality of life so how do we account for it and the Garden of Eden story I think seeks to answer that question actually does a whole bunch of things but one thing it does I think is is try to answer that question and to assert that evil stems from human behavior God created a good world but humans in the exercise of their moral autonomy they have the power to corrupt the good so the Garden of Eden story communicates what Kaufman would identify as a basic idea of Amana theist worldview that evil isn't a metaphysical reality it's a moral reality what that means ultimately is that evil lacks inevitability depending on your theory of human nature I suppose but it also in and it also means that that evil lies within the realm of human responsibility and control knock'em Sarna the scholar whose work I referred to earlier he points out that there's a very important distinction between the Garden of Eden story and its ancient near-eastern parallels he says the motif of a tree of life or a plant of life or a plant of eternal youth that's the motif that we do find in other ancient Near Eastern literature's in ancient Near Eastern myth and ritual and iconography and the quest for such a plant or the quest for immortality that the plant promises that these were primary themes in in the Mesopotamian Epic of Gilgamesh we'll have occasion to talk in great depth about this story next time but by contrast Sarna says we haven't as yet uncovered a parallel in ancient Near Eastern literature to the biblical tree of the knowledge of good and evil it's not the tree of knowledge it's a tree of the knowledge of good and evil the longer phrase what is the significance of the fact that the Bible mentions both of these trees it mentions a tree of life and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil and then goes on to just focus on the tree of the knowledge of good and evil it virtually ignores the Tree of Life until we get to the end of the story and that's important but this tree of life which seems to be central to many other myths of this time and this part of the world Sarna argues that the subordinate role of the Tree of Life signals the biblical writers dissociation from a preoccupation with immortality the biblical writer insists that the central concern of life is not mortality but morality and the drama of human life should revolve not around the search for eternal life but around the moral conflict and tension between a good God's design for creation and the free will of human beings that can corrupt that good design the serpent tells Eve that if she eats the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil she will become like God and he's really not telling a lie in a certain respect and God knows that the human beings will become like gods knowing good and evil it's one of the things about about God knows good and evil and has chosen the good right the Israelite the biblical writer it starts of this God that he is absolutely good the humans will become like God's knowing good and evil not because of some magical property in this fruit and it's not an apple by the way that's based on an interesting mistranslation do we know what the fruit is nobody I don't think we really know but it's definitely not an apple that comes from the Latin word which sounds like Apple that word malum for evil is close to the Latin word for Apple which if anybody knows whatever right and and so for the history you know re iconography began to represent this tree as an apple tree and so on but it's not an apple tree I don't know if they had apple trees back then there but it's not because of some magical property in the fruit itself but because of the action of disobedience itself by choosing to eat of the fruit and defiance of God right this is one thing God says you know don't do this you can have everything else in this garden presumably even you can eat of the Tree of Life right doesn't say you can't eat of that who's to say they couldn't eat of that and just live forever don't eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil God says you can't eat of this tree when he's given all of the fruit trees there have been about how many thousands of years of speculation on what's going on and you're going to be reading a wonderful and interesting gnostic interpretation so yep there have been there's been lots of interesting and this is all in the realm of literary interpretation read the story closely see if you can figure out what's going on here why does God do this why you know isn't this in a way putting an obstacle in front of someone almost ensuring they're going to trip over it that's been an argument that some commentators have made others see it differently so keep that thought take it to section and read Elaine Pagels work and some of the other interpretations that's something people have struggled with for centuries all right where does this come from who's the serpent what's he doing there they're all very important it is true and maybe this will go a little bit of the distance towards answering it it's by eating of the fruit in defiance of God human beings learn that they were able to do that that they are free moral agents they find that out they're able to choose their actions in conformity with God's will or in defiance of God's will so paradoxically they learn that they have moral autonomy remember they were made in the image of God and they learn that they have moral autonomy by making the defiant choice right the choice for disobedience the argument could be made that until they once disobeyed how would they ever know that and then you might raise all sorts of questions about well was this part of God's plan that they ought to know this and should know this so that their choice for good actually becomes meaningful is it meaningful to choose to do the good when you have no choice to do otherwise or aren't aware that you have a choice to do otherwise so it's a wonderful 13th century commentator that says that God needed creatures who could choose to obey Him and therefore it was important for for Adam and Eve to do what they did and to learn that they have the choice not to obey God so that their choice for God would become endowed with meaning that's one line of interpretation that's gone through many theological systems for hundreds of years so the very action that brought them a god-like awareness of their moral autonomy was an action that was taken in opposition to God so we see then that having knowledge of good and evil is no guarantee that one will choose or incline towards the good that's what the serpent omitted in his speech right he said if you eat of that fruit of that tree of the knowledge of good and evil you'll become like God it's true in one sense but it's false in another he's sort of omitted to point out he implies that it's the power of moral choice alone that is godlike but the biblical writer will claim in many places that true godliness isn't simply power the power to do it one wishes true godliness means imitation of God the exercise of one's power in a manner that is god-like good life-affirming and so on so it's the biblical writers contention that the God of Israel is not only all-powerful but is essentially and necessarily good those two elements cannot become disjoint they must always be conjoined in the biblical writers view and finally humans will learn that the concomitant of their freedom is responsibility their first act of defiance is punished harshly so they learn in the story that the moral choices and actions of humans have consequences that have to be borne by the perpetrator so just to sum up Sarna sees in the Garden of Eden story as I've just explained it a message that's in line with Kaufman's thesis about the monotheistic worldview he says the story conveys the idea that quote evil is a product of human behavior not a principle inherent in the cosmos man's disobedience is the cause of the human predicament human freedom can be at one in the same time an omen of disaster and a challenge and opportunity we've looked at Genesis two and three a little bit as an attempt to account for the problematic and paradoxical existence of evil and suffering in a world created by a good God and that's a problem monotheism really never completely conquers but other perspectives on this story are possible and when we come back on Monday we're going to look at it from an entirely different point of view and compare it with the Epic of Gilgamesh

The New 7 Wonders of the World

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The New Seven Wonders of the World:
-Great Wall of China – China – 0:01
-Petra – Jordan – 1:05
-The Colosseum – Italy – 2:42
-Chichén Itzá – Mexico – 4:40
-Machu Picchu – Peru – 5:45
-Taj Mahal – India – 7:04
-Christ the Redeemer – Brazil – 8:29

C.G. Jung Concepts: The Ego, The Shadow, The Anima/Animus

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D. Stephenson Bond is a practicing Jungian analyst who has lectured widely on the topics of myth and creativity. He graduated with an M.Div. from Vanderbilt in 1981 and from the C. G. Jung Institute, Boston, in 1997, where he teaches. A native West Virginian, he is the author of four books, including Living Myth: Personal Meaning As a Way of Life (Shambhala, 2001) and The Archetype of Renewal (Inner City, 2003). Fiction is his lifelong passion, with short stories including “The Mountain Song” appearing in The Mountain Review and “An Evening at the Symphony” in Scribner. Healing Lily is his debut novel.
In a recent interview he noted: “I think I was looking for a way to understand the deeper images and experiences of my own life and I didn’t find that until I found Carl Jung,” he said in a recent interview. “I still interpret dreams for a living, in a way, and people remain curious about dreams and the inner life, but all of that seems a long time ago now. Something has changed. I feel it, other people feel it. It’s in the air, as Jung used to say. So you have to write about that now, if you’re an artist feeling your way through the life of our times as well as your own life. The artist voices the changes in the collective unconscious. That’s the Jungian view. And I try to do that, or rather that’s what seems to be happening when I sit down to write whether I want to or not. It appears as something dark, this change of the times, and yet I suppose creative destruction always feels like that. Perhaps it is only the way the night feels to us in some instinctual way, and when the morning finally arrives we re-orient ourselves and start again.”

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one of the key things that realize something kind of amazing too I guess all of us walking around the streets all the times is even I don't think about this turn during my actual day when I go to an office and I work but the reality that we perceive out here in front of us even my own hands in this case the chairs in the room Steve's sitting here Steve happens to be an image in my head he's Steve is out there and the image in your head that you carry around of your mother your sister your brother aunt uncles they're all what in psychology cost complexes there any emotions and thoughts and intuitions and feelings around a given person so the important thing to that for me is for all of us to remember we'll be discussing psychology is that the world that we're talking about Steve and I the world in our heads your head as well it's not the objective reality out there what you're doing is you're taking it in from the outside through the five senses and you've been you have those natural as natural genetic equipment but then the world gets at you and your mother and your father and your school and your college and all the rest of the corporation all make demands on your personality so that the world that you perceive is a very personal world it's been conditioned positively and negatively and Jung has a major theme about positive and negative well I think this whole part about the inner subjective reality or the reality of the psyche just means that your your inner subjective experiences are just as real as the outer experiences now that you have and I think that's the way that many people connect with young is through reading about an inner experience that young had had or young describes and then you could you put your finger on it and say well you know I've had an experience like like that – at least that that was my experience that's that's how i started when i first read young's autobiography i read about these experiences inner experiences that a person had that I wasn't sure other people ever even had those experiences and so lo and behold come to find out the most intensely personal and subjective can sometimes be also the most universally human experiences so from the inside and a key a key element in all that inner experience which I'm with your fears your tires your believes everything sees all those inner experiences as well as physical needs are deeply personal and that is what psychology comes to interpret and to study how we do how we do that interpretation and how do you change that interpretation so that you can adapt to the world which is already made demands on you in adapting the outer outer world is sort of like a Western trail of from the Roman Empire the Roman emperors the church the Middle Ages higher authorities telling you who you are etc and you're in their experience is equal if not more important except that we live in a culture that values outer Authority more more than inner it's alright so people find it difficult to really make claims based on some kind of of inner authority whether it's a gut feeling that you have or whether it's a dream that you have or whether it's something that's intensely meaningful to you this whole outer and inner problem gets really complicated yes ago but I think part of what happens with maturity your part of being mature is more and more that inner voice becomes something that you listen to but now we'll talk about a structure of personality that's another foreign term to most people but starting with Freud's we all know the term ego egocentricity we hear all this stuff going around in that daily lives all over the place on media television films it's probably a universally known term that you have an ego a person has an ego that doesn't mean you have a Fathead Steve what the ego is the ego is the individual your own my own Steve's own Center of conscious awareness and it's the internal eye when you talk about eye or when you talk about me I did that this is this belongs to me the eye and me words are an internal about side expression of an internal fact that you have a center of personality called the ego that organizes perceptions from both the external worlds I see I can see television cameras around me and all that stuff and the inner world and I'm screening lots of things out right now including the touch of the seat that I'm sitting on on my rear end and upper legs the back of Apple its we all screen out stimulus and it's the ego therefore is the internal irony which organizes perceptions from the external and internal world and idea what you like well the ad the personality needs a way to mediate this experience of inner and outer like we were talking about just a minute ago and it's not actually an easy thing it's a very difficult thing because sort of as you just talked about all of these experiences are coming from the outer world and all of these impressions and reactions and things are coming from the inner world and here's the poor ego kind of sandwiched in between the inner and outer world and trying to find some way to to mediate or be conscious to be aware of that experience so the ego is the part of us that is able to be aware and conscious of something by definition if you know it if you're aware of your of experiencing it then you're having an ego experience as opposed to other kinds of experiences and that gets as simple is I'm hungry as I'm hungry that's an is well Librarian hunger starts right as an instinct that's right as a physical sensation and you know there are people who are not aware that they're hungry at all or even when you're doing something and you're really busy during the day or like that your ego is not aware that you're under it you know it only comes later right the enemy or you have a feeling you have to go to the bathroom or you have a bad emotion like well yeah or feelings all right there are people who well all of us at some time or another are absolutely unaware of what we're feeling in a given situation right that's because it's not connected to to the ego and then we'll go home in three or four hours later all of a sudden we realize hey I'm angry about that that now it's just hit the ego yeah now it's just come into consciousness right right Oh ego is also the decision-maker so I mean we all have to make decisions about things that's this whole thing about Jung's perception and judgment that's that's in in the typology it's one thing to have all these perceptions and if you're a perceptive person you have a million perceptions yet every moment you have my every moment you have to do something about that at some point and that the ego is the one that makes the conscious decisions that we make in the world our other parts of our so now they make decisions for us time but that then that feels like something unexpected happened or it feels like what I just said I wasn't going to do it and I just did it or you're in an addiction situation and the ego wants you know you want to stop you want to not do right something destructive that's the ego I want not to do it and I would like also to make a distinction between a decision and a value judgment because when you when you actually talks about the feeling function while feelings beings is a real tough word in English because it means everything it means intuitions like it means I've got a hunch it means I can feel this chair that I'm sitting in I can I can I can feel my physical body being sick or whatever I feel sick or well young said that the way to think about feeling is in something agreeable or not agree about if for being cold or warm is is that something yes I needed this no I'm not not into the stove's are all feeling kind of thing about the decision of the ego is okay I know that I'm not into this right now do I go on with us do I not right go on with us I think thank you many judgments about backing right into the pleasure pain principle complete I like it I don't like it yeah I accepted I don't accept them i but you see how that goes on by itself they're people and there are times in all of our lives when we don't know if we like it or don't like it that's because it hasn't been connected to to the ego okay great and it makes it a lot harder to make a decision but yeah this pinched and Twiggy Tweety tag that has just come up under my 1956 yearbook photograph is not the opinion of the people of the control behind the cameras it's my own description of my own personality in the adolescent years and is adapted this is an adaptation to a lot of pressures that I felt that I was wrong I have once said to somebody that I wasn't born guilty I was born wrong I had a lot of personal really bad experiences that shut me down and closed me in myself within myself and the high school photograph you see really reflects something amazing to me I would that time in 1956 I never would have told you I was angry I was furious I was enraged with life and I was fixing this photograph up this morning to bring over here to the studio and I suddenly remembered this and then this is the unconscious and this is how psychology works I remember my mother saying to me you always look angry and that was very true at the time but I can only see that now in retrospect as an adult and when I closed up this deep deep anger that I felt came out in the photograph if you if you can zoom in on the eyes of the photograph right close-up on the eyes right into the ice that's it well especially especially the left I dismiss I overhear that there's there's such rage in those eyes that it shocked me I thought the yearbook picture when I got it and was deciding between the smiling running all the usual high school thing you do but there was something wrong with your photographs I didn't know what it was it was in 1997 that I realized that I was furious with life I was furious in high school I was furious with what was going on around me I was a furious two people had hurt me and the reason that this is here Pynchon tweety is because that was my persona and it's a Jungian term it's Jung's term and what he means by that is he took the word from the Latin for mask which was wrong worn by Roman actors on stage in ancient Rome to specify the character they were playing in Yugi in terms the persona is the individuals outward behavior physical appearance even clothing in short it's part of personality which others see it is an adaptive compromise between the individual and society the role played and the facade presented to the world the precise facade that I was presenting to the world was the good Catholic boy the perfectionist he's everything right he didn't displease anybody and that's what you see reflected here mr. perfection mister you know the real me is hidden behind this outer mask and only that my fury at the world was showing through actually well that's my story of my persona and how it developed and Steve will have some commentary on that I'm sure well you know high school is is an exciting time for everybody I think like we were talking about at one time high school is a time when when you define yourself I mean that's the time when the personality and especially that persona part of the personality how I will be with people how I will be in the world gets to find and when when you're in high school and you've never done this before that's how you end up trying Ballou here and one day and then and then we down align you you want to do the flat hair thing and you try these different masks and that's where it where the roles and roles in life to see what fits both with you and how it feels to you and then what happens with you and and other people I did this intellectual thing I don't know if it was because I was good at it was just that if people responded to it you see what I mean is so something in a high school boy said oh well people seem to like that let's do that and that's how it's sort of early on I think we build the public face of our personality that lasts us for the first half of life but that doesn't mean that all of those other possibilities have gone anywhere in fact you know when people start analysis or things like that one of the things you see people have dreams about being in high school it's a very common dream going back into high school certain things happening what it means is that all of those roads not taken you know just because you went the pinched & tweety route right kidding I did well that doesn't mean that and in some people it's it's as close as the left hand in the right hand you could just have easily have been agree there that's right it was right there and there's only one little tweak of fate that puts you down one road or the other but both of those still live in you even though the one is the one that was lived and then as we all get older in the first half of life it's over these are the things that start coming back to us which actually brings us to the illness third part of personality called the shadow and I had to shadow figures developed they were what humans call ego related complexes the shadow develops unconsciously in conjunction with the development of the persona so that you have that the ball the exits on the screen showing the shadow is the personal unconscious you repressed and suppressed things that are not acceptable to the cultural surround outside of you and you develop a shadow and the shadow is the personal unconscious as I mentioned a minute ago and contains repressed qualities felt as negative face-to-face with the self-esteem of the ego the shadow is the inferior uncomfortable not me portion of personality which develops in opposition to and along with the identity put forward by the truly in the objective world by the eagle and Cressona so the union persona is facing the world and behind the ego is developing the shadow figure which young this is Jim's own words everyone character shadow and the less embodied in the individuals conscious life like my anger in that photograph the black our end lesson is embodied in the individual's conscious life the blacker and denser it is look at those eyes iris my god if the repressed tendencies the shadow as I call them we're obviously evil there would be no problem whatever but the shadow is merely somewhat inferior primitive unadapted awkward not wholly bad it even contains childish and primitive qualities which would in a way vitalize and embellish human existence well of course I mean it's it's the high school part we were just talking about the one part develops is what is put into the world right and it develops because if that's what you're living you're well-practiced at it so you didn't have a lot of practice being aggressive you see but it was just as real and just as live in you as the other it's I think it feels like it feels frightening it feels scary it feels dark to the ego only because it represents that other path not only because it represents other possibilities and the ego sometimes is more like a little a little brick house but then then the wolf comes and starts blowing on the house of straw or brick it depends on what I always draw your ego is that the button is the wind is going to blow the wind is going to blow if these other things come back and and that's that's part of the point of maturity too is that you don't want to be who you were in high school your whole life no you want these other things to come in and that I think is what Young meant a little bit by assimilating the shadow right like for me I'm from West Virginia okay so my my shadow is the hick you know oh I hate those Hicks you know I hate those Hicks that's right that's right and I developed a clown but I am a head well and I developed and this is part while assimilating the the shadow that you know you have to ride in the pickup truck and drink beer and wear wear your hat and there's a part of me that loves that yeah if you see me too and for me to find that though I had to accept the thickness of West Virginia you could say in myself that lives in me and for me that happened I had to go there's an exhibition coal mine in Beckley West Virginia I think it's the only one in the whole country you can actually go into a coal mine it's a state park and I actually mined a piece of coal myself see that's that shadow part that's that black underground hidden that you know that that's the coal if I left it in there right another million years people have been the diamond and that's that's what happens in this material that is pushed down under is actually part of wholeness as our personality can expand to include a wider and wider range of functioning okay so let me talk about my shadows okay like to my to shadow figures literally a shadow figure I developed because I was so pinched in 3d and perfect and striving and angry the anger got pushed down into the unconscious and I one afternoon I think 1952-53 and around that time I saw a trampoline clown on television and this was a guy who came who they announced the grape phone so I was going to do a trampoline act and then this guy got out of the audience and he was related to him and he would any weapon coming and he's going to do it for him because he had the overcoat on and the hat and everything else and he got up there on the stage and he was doing it all wrong he got up the ladder he flipped down the ladder he got his legs caught between the runs of the ladder and I started imitating that guy and this is the guy I became dumb see the clown was my first ego related compact complex he gets around poor gums he can't stand up very well he could be in fact can't do much of anything that the world demands that went very well Mel Brooks once said that all comedy is rooted in anger and I think that's quite true especially when you see the anger in my eyes with which I was unconscious which I was unconscious the the clown falls down he loses his pants he gets pies all over and below in other words the clown could do everything everybody your teachers your parents etc make big messes like that and get a laugh out of it and have a function for it and this just fascinated me well what you see I mean all of us would like to have a place in our lives a function in our lives where we can throw pies and fall down and and do those things that that we can't do in other in other situations we have these things in us that need to be lived out somehow and it sounds like in you it came out through the clown yep at first in secret and then I helped found the Greater Boston Ally of clowns of America e54 and performed a little bit there and that didn't work out as a long-term effort but I'm hoping to produce some clown videos under Renaissance of Somerville so that that part of my personality definitely has come through I mean I can clown around I can be relaxed I could be easy with people I can make jokes I can be funny myself I can sing a dancing little rupture when the office the shadow figures that appear in each person's life are actually very personal I mean they emerge it's a kind of a compensation for whatever the ego adapted or the persona that's put before the world so for each person it can really be be different you know for some people being the really straight guy is what's been repressed yes right exactly and you get and you get the hoodlums and you know the antisocial personality has a decent good helpful loyal kind and brave shadow okay and it's quite a mix going on that you really have to stop and think when you're dealing with individuals as to what their shadow personalities may be I developed a when when puberty and sexuality came along I developed a second Rigo related complex shadow that contained that sexuality because of mainly because of the teachings of the church at that time my I was in parochial school and we got a very heavy dose of negativity surrounding sexuality or at least I did in my own perceptions so I develop this character called stud and that's one of my drawings right there it was done in probably early 1970s this kind of person could express everything that I couldn't in that pinched in 3d mode and he's the opposite of pinched in 3d he's the opposite of pinched in 3d he's out there he's doing things he's in fact I thought this kind of guy had a maze off with all my life until recently so well go ahead in people's dreams you see these kind of figures clowns stud guy very common thing and so Young said that the shadow of course initially everything is in shadow all this consciousness and not aware of these other things going on inside yourself as time develops though the sort of the description of the shadow would be whenever you dream of a figure of the same gender so for you'd be a band the same sex figure all that's the same same generation the same age that you are so it's not a it's not a young person that you're dreaming of it's not an old person but you're dreaming of a person in your your generation then we would start off in the dream thinking about what that has to do with the shadow in a person well I now know I was liberated both of these personalities and I'm more aggressive and I'm more you can't do this to me you're not going to get away with us or more I I'm not aggressive when I'm aggressive of a person but I know now know enough to draw the line well that's I mean it and that's part of this is what you meant when he said it contains good qualities right well that's the integrated Lee expressed the integration of the shadow I mean the loss not integrating it right right means that for a person to live those qualities if they have to be split off someplace else they have to be secret like you said that you know your when your system reduce your clown that's the great loss because you're always in the stray to know you're always doing the thing that you learned to do at a certain age integrating the shadow means instead of splitting it off and doing it secretly somehow you find a way for because that is you it is your personality yes these are definitely my personality it's in a way always my ego judge it right negative the ego pushed it out and so the integration that occurs can occur later in life is for those qualities to come through right in everyday life right inside that I can be funny without having to put on my clown makeup I could sit here tonight without the clown makeup ah and and talk to you and being performed photo television cameras and it's okay for the first time in my life so it was a big deal going on here above and beyond the the the this is sort of a synthesis of about the performer of the clown yeah etc when I did a connection a investment of psychological energy in that trampoline clown and then began to imitate the process in human psychology is called projection and the process of projection is really quite simple in my estimation you your body and physical senses are the slide projector as a regular slide projector well maybe we don't do slide projectors anymore in 1990 but anyway we did when I was a kid and the slide the slide projector is your body okay and the fly is a physical quality which are quality and physical mental emotional otherwise that you deny in yourself and what happens is you see it out there and other people like I saw my sexuality outings out there in clown in this type of I mean in dumb clown but instead I saw my was water Viva my lot of life out there in the clown and the persona I was putting forward is pinched in 3d was very enclosing so that these energies had to come out somewhere like him the love of life came out in clown and the here and now sexuality sensation this kind of sensation touching things okay Mountain stud and you have a violet to make I could tell projection is it's like the water that we live in I mean it is everything we do that's right in a sense because something that is unconscious something that you're unaware of and then II just not related to the ego like we were talking to for you can't experience it as being all this is something that I am having this is something that is happening to me you experience it as your your reactions and relationships to things outside in other words if I can't feel my own anger right plus things I couldn't but I can't feel feel it at all right all right I'll I'll say boy you know look at that guy over there being angry you know and there might be 20 guys on the street yeah but that's the guy that that I'll focus on and will draw my attention and my interest in psychic energy but like you and Jareau and talking about before because yes because something in me recognizes that anger unconsciously but that's that's the projection exactly it happens between men and women all the time it happens at work happens at school and that very cleverly brings us to the next part of personality which is the anima in a man and the anima in a woman will work with the anima tonight and it's the Latin word for soul and replaces woman in women woman a woman in that category in a man it stands behind the shadow to be the first figure of the collective unconscious which we won't get into tonight in a later episode the anima is the female nature of a man standing on one chromosome I think you was the first one to say that too by the way it was the first one to talk about something feminine in men that's right and something masculine in women I mean that was a very unheard-of concept nowadays and if we talk about the law and we were just discussing during the break that we took you guys don't know about that that I would I have a very different time frame for being adolescent growing into young adulthood and we were discussing who would be an anima figure now and cameraperson back here said let me hear it again anymore Demi Moore anymore okay I could go downie my figure for the memo in the mid 90s anima is one of those concepts I I think when you first come across it in Jung you've had an experience and you get it the first time he talks about it or if you haven't quite had that experience then it's a complete mystery to you you know they have no idea what's being talked about so that you know later in life when I when I came and read young talk talking about the the anima it's being the siren the call that comes to a man I do exactly what he was talking about because I can still hear her singing that's right that's right and in the 1950s we had a very anima figures to choose throne there was Marilyn Monroe Jane Russell Doris Day was to goody two-shoes for my taste always and in my own particular case I I projected my female nature might my anima on to Grace Kelly who was a 1950s movie star at the time and she means a great deal to me she's embodied my anima throughout my life I'm still interested in more or less fascinated by the history of Monaco and all that sort of thing but in opposition to Marilyn Monroe Jane Russell and the other actresses who portrayed kind of a a teasing sexuality in her roles for Hitchcock Grace Kelly portrayed the open available sexually available woman particularly rear window where she bought the overnight case with her lingerie it was obvious she was going to stay and have a nice time with Jimmy Stewart and in to catch a thief she played Tracey Stephens and this is my real anima figures the woman who lived the character in the film to catch a thief and she was very sexually open she has a scene with Cary Grant where she's teasing him with a necklace that's around her neck and Hitchcock has a scene lighted so that you can't tell whether she's talking about the necklace or about her breasts which are lighted in this sort of bright light and she's holding the necklace out to Cary Grant who's portraying a jewel thief and saying take it don't you want it this is what you came for and finally Cary Grant she takes Skye Graham's hands and kisses all the fingers and puts the hand under the necklace and says to him take it and he says to her you know very well that this necklace is imitation and she says well I'm not and she kisses him and then Hitchcock's gets this burst of fireworks off in the background up with French windows and and that's about as racy as it gets for the fifties and it was racy but it took reading her biographies and other authors to make me realize that you did indeed portray this actually opens available woman which is counted with the grain in my own experience the good Catholic girl and or the other options that we had right so you see how personal that is to to your own experience absolutely I mean you can't predict beforehand people people always wonder about why they're attracted to the kinds of people that they're attracted to right you know that's a common question that that people have and I think part of the idea is that it's kind of a psychological chemistry we all have a jigsaw kind of a pattern that's our psyche that's that's all around us and we bump into other people and they're jigsaw patterns and every now and then we bump into someone and our different holes and things all also together and we know it is I mean that's love at first sight right now that's when two people psychological makeup locks together in less than a second and so that that's a part of depth psychology I mean that's a part of the inner world of those two people and their history their personal history what they've lived and what they've been through linking up together even though they don't know a thing about each other you see that and that's but that's back back to the to the projection and that that projection kind of thing even young talks about as being you Mary you have children you have your family you do and then things start going wrong and the reason things start going wrong is because you start withdrawing your projections on the other part well projection works best on an empty screen right like like in the movies is right the screen is empty and you know that's what the following in love is is is all about I mean the screen is empty you don't know the person it's just a wide open area for all of this stuff to come pouring out of you and that's it that's kind of the positive aspect of it all of the stuff that comes pouring out as you onto the screen so to speak death death very important but then when you've lived with that screen for five years in other words you start to know there's a person under there I mean that that can because it was an anima that I was relating to not not the person and I think that's that's part of maturity in a relationship that as the projection resolved then there's a whole other interesting problem that emerges and who is this person right now that I'm with and in the long run that person is probably more fascinating than your own projections and then in some cases not at all so but the anima is is like a smoke and that's that's an image you know it dreams sometimes you have smoky things foggy things white kind of things there's the haze you know or and there's a glaze that comes over a man's eyes that I would you know that you're in you're in this anima mediating territory everything is not quite what it seems the edema in a man and the Animus in a woman have a very specific function through the process of projection you are drawn away from your own egotism in your own self absorption and out into the social world a function very much projected laughs a lot of men on the woman in their life who runs the social side of things the function of the anima is to draw a man into the water the waters of the wider world if you will into the water waters of the icon over is in yeah that's dependently yes yes challenges she challenges a man and asks the best of them and you might like to comment on the drawing out process but well comes without objection back to the teenage years and we were talking about onion you live in your family you live as a family unit and you think a person you know your parents are your world when you're a child when you really stop and think about it that's an incredibly powerful force you know how could a person in fact ever leave the circle of the sphere in which they were born right when you really stop and think about it and the only way for that to ever happen is for a more powerful force to pull or coax or lure or push a person out of that original circle of their known world into life really to be drawn into life so that is again this mediating function of the anima animus that there has to be something that gets you so fascinated with something that you'll leave home and go to college start a career find a person get married start a family that kind of of energy so it's fascination to you know what is if it really interests you so much and that's a problem that's right for many people I mean you find that you're not interested in the things you think you ought to be interested in or the things that you used to be interested in are things that really don't do anything for you anymore and you wish it were cause you've just spent a lot of money buying this hope Homer said I know and you don't care about it anymore that's the anima to see that's the anima moving through life moving to different things definitely moving to life one of the interesting things a great colleagues and a great fascination of mine she became a princess she became unreachable there's a whole thing that goes with that but it's been a lifelong interest and I'm very much sort of at the coming together point of a over a decade of work with Nina DeMuth was a Boston you know be an analyst and I very much dedicate this program to her by the way anyway I Jeff dreamt about Grace Kelly had a very personal dream about Grace Kelly and I won't get into it here but young also has a concept called synchronicity those things have a personal intense personal meaning to the individual because they're happening now and with this coming together of my life and my personality I was working this afternoon setting up a set for this program and the gentleman who is very much the force behind this program he said dick if you will do a program on young I'll help you put it together his name is Akira Kamiya and he is working on the what we call computer graphics tonight in the control room he walked over to me very quietly this afternoon while I was hanging the Grace Kelly so that it could be photographed and shot puts a nice program and said that's my godmother well I looked at him and said really and he said yes my mother knew Grace Kelly so there's a whole well synchronicity is it's quite a concept it's later a lot of people are are confused about that the technical definition of synchronicity is a meaningful occurrence if in time of an inner and an outer event that's right and so your experience actually is very much fits fits the definition because the inner event is your preoccupation with Grace Kelly that's right and the experience that that you had when when you were young the outer event is what happened today here we have a guy whose godmother is Grace Kelly just at the time when you're doing a creative project together together right and so synchronicity is a part of that mediating function to how the inner and the outer world the microcosm and the macrocosm are related to to each other that's a part of the mediating function of of the anima and and in your life too yes I've had dozens of events that happen this year like this one because I'm a young guy and I code them used to it but I just took this afternoon I thought wow you know look at this what's going on here well it's creative so the anima animus function is also involved in the creative aspect of a person you know the poet talks about the muse someone says they've been inspired that feeling that something larger than yourself has somehow moved or done something right in your life that's the item of function to that that creativity but as we all know I mean if you're going to do something new different if you're going to take a chance if you're going to get passionate about something there's going to be pain I mean that's a part of the anima getting you into the world everyone so we would all rather just stay home and not have anything happens or I know you know when I think about my kids and what I have you know fantasies about what their life will be or what I want for my kids exactly my fantasy it's a life where nothing ever happens and what kind of a life is that but you know that that's what I want want for my kids now this is this is animating that getting polled means getting all tangled up in life like I am like ABS light like you are that's right and to hold back from that because I don't want to go there III don't want to be hurt to hold back from life but why else are we here right I mean I think it's a good point to emphasize it this is the man's mic a friend drama Grace Kelly my inner Ani my figure eight which is very much in simply being embodied by this woman who was so sexually open sexually confident willing and able who lady became a princess this character she played I'm Grace Kelly I don't know at all Grace Kelly is indeed an unknown quantity in my life that's right because it's not really Grace Kelly we're talking about with my image right my inner Ani my figure

A healthy economy should be designed to thrive, not grow | Kate Raworth

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What would a sustainable, universally beneficial economy look like? “Like a doughnut,” says Oxford economist Kate Raworth. In a stellar, eye-opening talk, she explains how we can move countries out of the hole — where people are falling short on life’s essentials — and create regenerative, distributive economies that work within the planet’s ecological limits.

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المترجم: Omar Saadi
المدقّق: Riyad Almubarak هل راقبت يومًا رضيعًا يتعلم الحبو؟ لأنّه وكما يعلم جميع الآباء،
هو أمر مثير جدًا للانتباه. في البداية، يزحفون على الأرض، وعادةً، إلى الوراء، لكنهم سرعان ما يبدؤون بسحب جسمهم للأمام، وبعدها يقومون بشدّ أجسامهم
لكي يستطيعوا الوقوف، وسوف نصفق لهم. وحركة السير للأمام والنهوض البسيطة تلك، وهذا هو الاتجاه الأساسي للتقدم
كما نفهمه نحن البشر. ونحن نروي ذلك في قصتنا عن التطور
كذلك الأمر، من أسلافنا الذين مشوا بوثبات غير منسجمة
حتى نصل إلى الإنسان المنتصب، وصولًا للإنسان العاقل، ودومًا في صورة رجل يهم بأخذ خطوة إلى الأمام. لذا، لا عجب من أننا نؤمن وبسهولة بأن التقدم الاقتصادي سيأخذ ذات المنحنى، هذا الخط المتصاعد للنمو. قد حان الوقت لنعيد التفكير، لكي نعيد تصور شكل التقدم، لأنّ اليوم، لدينا اقتصادات بحاجة أن تنمو،
بغض النظر فيما إذا جعلنا ذلك نزدهر أم لا، وما نحتاجه، وخصوصًا في الدول الأكثر ثراءً، هي الاقتصادات التي تجعلنا نزدهر بغض النظر عما إذا كانت تنمو أم لا. نعم! إنها كلمة وقحة قليلًا تخفي تحولًا عميقًا في العقلية، ولكنّني أعتقد أن هذا هو التغيير
الذي نحتاج أن نصنعه إذا نحن – البشرية – سنزدهر معًا هنا
في هذا القرن إذا، من أين أتى هذا الهوس بالنمو؟ حسنا، إجمالي الناتج المحلي، هو فقط التكلفة الكلية للبضائع والخدمات التي بيعت في اقتصاد
من الاقتصادات في السنة. تم اختراعه في الثلاثينيات ولكن قريبا جدًا أصبح الهدف المهيمن
في صنع السياسات، لدرجة أنه حتّى اليوم، في أغنى الدول، الحكومات تعتقد أن الحل لمشاكلهم الاقتصادية يكمن في المزيد من النمو. كيف حصل ذلك بالضبط؟ الأفضل هو ما قاله دبليو.دبليو. روستو
خلال ستينيات القرن الماضي. أنا أحب هذا كثيرًا،
لدي نسخة من الطبعة الأولى "مراحل النمو الاقتصادي:
البيان غير الشيوعي" (ضحك) تستطيع أن تشم رائحة السياسة، صحيح؟ ويخبرنا روستو أن كل الاقتصادات تحتاج أن تمر خلال خمس مراحل من النمو: أولًا: المجتمع التقليدي،
حيث إنتاج الأمّة محدد بتقنيتها ومؤسساتها وعقليتها، ولكن بعد ذلك الشروط المسبقة للانطلاق، حيث نصل لبدايات الصناعة المصرفية، ميكنة العمل والإيمان بأنّ النمو ضروري لما بعده، مثل كرامة الأمة، أو حياة أفضل للأطفال، بعد ذلك ننطلق، حيث المصلحة المشتركة
في بناء المؤسسات الاقتصادية ويصبح النمو الحالة العادية. ورابعًا، التحرك إلى النضج
حيث تستطيع أن تمتلك أي صناعة تريدها، بغص النظر عن قاعدة مواردك الطبيعية. والمرحلة الخامسة والأخيرة،
عصر الاستهلاك الكبير حيث يستطيع الناس
شراء كل ما يرغبون به من سلع مثل الدراجات وآلات الخياطة هذه كانت الستينيات، تذكّروا. حسنا، أنت تستطيع أن تسمع تضمين استعارة
طائرة في هذه القصة، ولكن هذه الطائرة ليست مثل غيرها، لأنه لا يسمح لها أبدا بالهبوط. روستو تركنا نحلق إلى غروب شمس
النزعة الاستهلاكية الجماعية، وهو عرفها. وكما كتب، "ثم السؤال وراء ذلك، حين لا يقدّم لنا التاريخ سوى الفتات. ماذا نفعل عندما تفقد الزيادة
في الدخل الحقيقي سحرها؟" هو سأل هذا السؤال، ولكنّه لم
يجب عليه أبدًا، وهذا هو السبب: السنة كانت 1960، كان مستشارًا للمرشّح الرئاسي
جون اف كيندي، الذي كان يخوض سباق الانتخابات،
بوعدٍ بمعدل نمو 5%، فكانت وظيفة روستو أن
يحافظ على طيران الطائرة، وليس سؤال إذا، أو كيف، أو متى،
يمكنها الهبوط. لذلك نحن هنا، نطير حتّى غروب
النزعة الاستهلاكيّة الجماعيّة لأكثر من نصف قرن، مع الاقتصادات التي تقوم
وتعتمد على التوقعات بنمو لا نهاية له، لأننا ماليًّا وسياسيًّا واجتماعيًّا
مدمنون عليه. نحن ماليًّا مدمنون على النمو،
لأنّ النظام المالي اليوم تم تصميمه لتحقيق
أعلى معدّل من العائد النقدي، واضعًا شركات التداول العام
تحت ضغط مستمر لتحقيق زيادة في المبيعات، وزيادة
في الحصّة السوقيّة والأرباح ولأن البنوك تصنع النقود
من الفائدة على الديون التي تسدد بأكثر من قيمتها. نحن سياسيًا مدمنون على النمو؛ لأن السياسيين يريدون رفع عائدات الضرائب يبدو وكأنه وسيلة مؤكدة للقيام بذلك ولا يريد أي سياسي أن يخسر
مكانه في صورة عائلة قمة الـ 20. (ضـحك) ولكن إذا توقف اقتصادهم عن النمو
بينما يستمر البقية بالنمو، حسناً، سوف يُدفعون خارجًا
من خلال القوة الناشئة القادمة. ونحن مدمنون اجتماعيًا على النمو، لأنه وبفضل قرنٍ من الدعاية الاستهلاكيّة والتي خلقها وبشكل رائع "ادوارد برنايس"، ابن أخت سيغموند فرويد، الذي اكتشف أن علاج خاله النفسي يمكن تحويله إلى علاج
ناجح في تجارة التجزئة إذا تم إقناعنا بتصديق أنّنا
نحول أنفسنا في كل مرة نشتري فيها أشياء أكثر. لا شيء من هذا الإدمان لا يمكن قهره، لكنهم يستحقون اهتمامًا أكبر بكثير
مما يحصلون عليه حاليًا، انظروا إلى أين تأخذنا هذه الرحلة. الناتج المحلي العالمي هو أكبر 10 أضعاف
من قيمته في عام 1950 وهذه الزيادة قد جلبت الكثير من الرخاء
لمليارات الناس، ولكن الاقتصاد العالمي أصبح
منقسمًا بطريقة لا تصدق، مع الحصة الهائلة من عائدات الثروة التي تتراكم الآن لدى واحد في المائة
من سكان العالم. وقد أصبح الاقتصاد العالمي انتكاسيا
بطريقة لا تصدق، زعزة استقرار هذا الكوكب المتوازن بدقة والتي تعتمد عليه حياتنا جميعًا. يعلم سياسيّونا ذلك، ولذلك يعرضون
مقاصد جديدة للنمو. يمكن أن تحقق النمو الأخضر،
النمو الشامل، النمو الذكي والمرن والمتوازن. اختر أيّ مستقبلٍ تريده
طالما أنك تختار النمو. أعتقد انّه حان الوقت لتختاروا طموحًا أعلى،
طموحًا أكبر بكثير، لأنّ التحدي الذي تواجهه البشرية
في القرن الواحد والعشرون واضح: لملاقاة احتياجات جميع البشر من خلال موارد هذا الكوكب الحي
والفريد والاستثنائي بحيث نستطيع نحن وباقي الطبيعة أن نزدهر. التقدم باتجاه هذا الهدف
لا يمكن أن يقاس بمقياس المال. نحن نحتاج لوحة قيادة المؤشرات. وعندما أجلس لكي أحاول رسم صورة
لكيف يمكن أن يبدو ذلك، على الرغم من أن ذلك سوف يبدو غريبًا، كأنه شيء يشبه كعكة (دونات). أعلم ، انا أسفة، ولكنْ دعوني أُعرفُكم بواحدة من هذه الكعكات التي ربما تتحول بالفعل لتكون جيدة لنا. لذلك تخيل استخدام موارد بشرية
تشع من الوسط القتحة في المنتصف هي المكان الذي تفتقد فيه حياة البشر للأساسيات ليس لديهم طعام، ولا رعاية صحيّة،
ولا تعليم، ولا صوت سياسي، ولا منزل والتي يحتاجها أي شخص لحياة كريمة مناسبة. نحن نريد أن نخرج كل الناس من الثقب،
على الأساس الاجتماعي وندخلهم في الكعكة الخضراء نفسها. لكن، إنها "لكن" كبيرة لا نستطيع أن نسمح لاستخدام مواردنا
المشتركة بأن يتخطى الدائرة الخارجية، السقف البيئي، لأننا بهذا نضع ضغطًا كبيرًا جدًا
على هذا الكوكب غير العادي الذي بدأنا بركله بعيدًا عن الحالة الجيدة نحن نتسبب بانهيار المناخ،
نحن نرفع حموضة المحيطات، ثقب في طبقة الأوزون، ندفع أنفسنا ما بعد تخوم أنظمة دعم الحياة على الكوكب، والتي
امتلكناها في الأحد عشرة ألف سنة الاخيرة والتي جعلت الأرض مثل
هذا الوطن الخيّر للبشرية لذلك فهذا التحدي المزدوج
في أن نغطي حاجات الجميع في حدود إمكانيات الكوكب، يستدعي نوعًا جديدًا من التقدم، لا مزيد من هذا الخط الصاعد دائمًا للنمو، لكن مكان جميل للبشرية، والازدهار في توازن ديناميكي
بين الأساس والسقف. وقد صدمت حقًا
ما إن رسمت هذه الصورة لإدراك أن رمز الرفاه الشخصي
في العديد من الثقافات القديمة يعكس هذا المعنى ذاته للتوازن الديناميكي، من رمز "الماوري تاكارانجي" إلى رمز الين يانج الطاوي،
والوثاق الأبدي البوذي، ورمز الدوامة المزدوجة الكيلتي. إذًا هل يمكن أن نجد هذا التوازن
في القرن الحادي والعشرين؟ وهو سؤال محوري، فتلك المقاطع الحمراء تظهر،
بأننا الآن أبعد ما نكون عن التوازن، سقطنا دون الحد الأدنى وجاوزنا
الحد الأقصى في الوقت ذاته. انظروا إلى تلك الهُوَّة وإلى ملايين
بل مليارات البشر حول العالم غير القادرين على الوصول
لاحتياجاتهم الأساسية. ورغم ذلك فقد جاوزنا الحد في أربعة
حدود بيئية على أقل تقدير. مخاطرين بإحداث تأثيرات مدمرة
لا يمكن إزالتها على المناخ والتسبب في انهيار النظام البيئي. هذا واقع البشرية وحال موطنها اليوم. ونحن اليوم في القرن الحادي والعشرين هذه هي صورتنا "السيلفي". لم يطّلع علماء الاقتصاد في القرن الماضي
على هذه الصورة، ما الذي يجعلنا إذًا نعتقد أن نظرياتهم ستساعدنا على تخطي تلك التحديات؟ نحتاج إلى أفكارنا نحن، لأننا أول جيل يتمكن من رؤية هذا وعلى الأرجح، آخر جيل ستتاح له فرصة
تغيير مسار أحداث هذه القصة. طمأنتنا المناهج الاقتصادية في القرن الـ20
بأنه حتى لو أدى النمو إلى عدم المساواة، فلا تقم بإعادة التوزيع، لأن المزيد من النمو سيعادل
الأمور من جديد. وإذا أدى النمو إلى تلوث، فلا تقم بالتقنين، لأن المزيد من النمو
سيتكفل بإزالة ذلك التلوث. إلا أنه اتضح، في نهاية المطاف
أنه لم يفعلها، ولن يفعلها. نحتاج اقتصادًا يعالج كلًا من أوجه القصور
والإسراف في الوقت ذاته، وعن تصميم. نحن بحاجة اقتصادات متجددة
ومتوزعة وعن تصميم. فقد ورثنا صناعات غير متجددة. فنحن نأخذ مواد الأرض،
ونشكلها كيفما نشاء، ونستخدمها لبعض الوقت، في الغالب
لمرّة واحدة، ثم نرمي بها، وهذا السلوك يحمل الكوكب ما لا طاقة له به، لذا نحن نحتاج إلى ثني تلك الأسهم، خلق اقتصادات تعمل مع وداخل
دوائر العالم الحي، وبذلك فإن تلك الموارد لا تستنفذ
لكن تسخدم مرارًا وتكرارًا، اقتصادات تعتمد على ضوء الشمس، حيث نفايات عمليّة من العمليات
هي غذاء للعملية التالية. وهذا النوع من التصميم المتجدد
يظهر في كل مكان. أكثر من مائة مدينة حول
العالم من كيتو إلى أوسلو، ومرورًا بهراري حتى هوبارت، يولدون فعليًا 70% من استهلاكهم من الكهرباء من الشمس والرياح والأمواج. بينما مدن مثل لندن وغلاسكو وأمستردام
رائدة في تصميم المدن الدائرية، لإيجاد طرق لتحويل مخلفات نشاط حضري إلى غذاء للنشاط التالي. وفي تغراي-إثيوبيا وكوينزلاند-أستراليا، يعمل المزارعون وعمال الغابات
على إحياء الطبيعة الجرداء، ويحولونها إلى مناطق تعج بالحياة مرة أخرى. وبالإضافة إلى كونها متجددة بطبيعتها، يجب أن يكون الاقتصاد متوزّعًا بطبيعته، ولدينا في هذا الصدد فرصٌ
غير مسبوقة لإحداث ذلك، بسبب أن التكنولوجيات المركزية
في القرن العشرين، والمؤسسات، ركّزت المعرفة والسلطة في أيدي قلة. في القرن الحالي،
نستطيع تصميم تكنولوجياتنا ومؤسساتنا لتوزيع الثروة، والمعرفة وتمكين الكثيرين. وعوضًا عن الوقود الإحفوري
والصناعات العملاقة، لدينا شبكات للطاقة المتجددة،
ومنصات إلكترونية، وطباعة ثلاثية الأبعاد. و 200 سنة من وصاية الشركات
على الملكية الفردية يتم رفعها بشكل متصاعد، من خلال المصادر المفتوحة،
ومشاعات المعرفة الند للند. والشركات التي لا تزال تسعى
لتحقيق أعلى عائدات لمساهميها، ستصبح فجأةً غير صالحة لهذا العصر مقارنة بالمؤسسات الاجتماعية المصممة لتوليد أشكال مختلفة من القيمة ومشاركتها
مع هؤلاء عبر شبكاتهم. إذا استطعنا تسخير تقنيات اليوم، من الذكاء الاصطناعي و"البلوك تشين" إلى إنترنت الأشياء وعلم المادة، إذا استطعنا تسخير كل ذلك لأجل
التصميم المتوزع، نستطيع ضمان أنّ الرعاية الصحية والتعليم
والأموال والصوت السياسي تصل أو تمكِّن من هم بأشد الحاجة إليها. أنتم ترون، التصميم المتجدد والمتوزع يخلق فرصًا استثنائية لاقتصاد القرن 21. كيف يؤثر ذلك على ركوب طائرة روستو؟ حسنًا، البعض ما زال لديهم الأمل
بالنمو الأخضر الذي لا نهاية له، وبفضل فكرة االاستغناء عن المواد، النمو يمكن أن يستمر إلى الأبد بينما استخدام الموارد يستمر بالانخفاض. لكن انظر إلى البيانات.
هذه رحلة خيالية. لا خلاف على حاجتنا إلى جعل اقتصادنا
أقل اعتمادًا على المواد، لكن اعتمادنا على النمو الدائم لا يمكن
فصله عن استخدام الموارد على أي شيء يتطلبه المقياس ليعود بنا بأمان ضمن الحدود البيئية. أعلم أن التفكير بالنمو
بهذه الطريقة غير مألوف، لأن النمو شيء جيد، أليس كذلك؟ نريد لأطفالنا أن ينمو، ولحدائقنا أن تنمو. نعم، انظر إلى الطبيعة والنمو
شيء رائع، ومصدر صحي للحياة. إنها مرحلة، لكن العديد من الاقتصادات
مثل إثيبويا ونيبال لا يزالون في هذه المرحلة على الأرجح. فاقتصاداتهم تنمو 7% سنويًا. لكني أريدكم أن تنظروا للطبيعة مرة أخرى، لأنه ومن قدم طفلك إلى غابات الأمازون، لا شيء في الطبيعة يستمر بالنمو إلى الأبد. الأشياء تنمو، تنمو وتنضج، ومن خلال القيام بذلك فقط يمكنهم الازدهار لفترة طويلة جدا. وجميعنا يعلم ذلك سلفًا، فإذا أخبرتكم أن صديقتي ذهبت للطبيب وأخبرها أن لديها نموًّا ذلك يبدو مختلفًا إلى حد بعيد، ذلك لأننا نفهم بالحدس أنّه عندما
يحاول شيء النمو للأبد ضمن نظام صحي ومعيشيّ مزدهر، فإنه يهدد صحة النظام بأسره. لماذا إذًا نتصور أن اقتصاداتنا ستكون النظام الوحيد الذي
يمكن أن يكسر القاعدة والنجاح بالنمو إلى الأبد؟ نحن بحاجة ماسة لابتكارات
مالية، وسياسية، واجتماعية التي تمكّننا من تجاوز هذه البنية
المعتمدة على النمو، بالتالي وبدلًا من ذلك نركز
على الازدهار والتوازن ضمن الحدود البيئية والاجتماعية للكعكة. وإذا كانت مجرد فكرة الحدود
تجعلك تشعر بالمحدودية، فكّر مرة أخرى، لأن أكثر الناس براعةً في العالم يحولون الحدود إلى موارد لإبداعاتهم. من بيانو موتسارت ذو الخمسة جوابات وجيمي هندريكس وجيتاره ذو الست أوتار، سيرينا ويليامز في ملعب التنس، إنها الحدود
التي تطلق العنان لقدراتنا. وحدود تلك الكعكة الدائرية تطلق قدرة
البشرية الكامنة للازدهار بإبداع لا حدود له،
والمشاركة، والانتماء، والمعنى. سنحتاج كل ما لدينا من الإبداع لتحقيق ذلك، فلنحشد تلك الطاقات. شكرًا. (تصفيق)

The Riddle of AntiMatter

Views:1502929|Rating:4.81|View Time:24:3Minutes|Likes:9141|Dislikes:360
Explore one of the deepest mysteries about the origin of our universe. According to standard theory, the early moments of the universe were marked by the explosive contact between subatomic particles of opposite charge. Featuring short interviews with Masaki Hori, Tokyo University and Jeffrey Hangst, Aarhus University.

Scientists are now focusing their most powerful technologies on an effort to figure out exactly what happened. Our understanding of cosmic history hangs on the question: how did matter as we know it survive? And what happened to its birth twin, its opposite, a mysterious substance known as antimatter?

A crew of astronauts is making its way to a launch pad at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Little noticed in the publicity surrounding the close of this storied program is the cargo bolted into Endeavor’s hold. It’s a science instrument that some hope will become one of the most important scientific contributions of human space flight.

It’s a kind of telescope, though it will not return dazzling images of cosmic realms long hidden from view, the distant corners of the universe, or the hidden structure of black holes and exploding stars.

Unlike the great observatories that were launched aboard the shuttle, it was not named for a famous astronomer, like Hubble, or the Chandra X-ray observatory.

The instrument, called the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, or AMS. The promise surrounding this device is that it will enable scientists to look at the universe in a completely new way.

Most telescopes are designed to capture photons, so-called neutral particles reflected or emitted by objects such as stars or galaxies. AMS will capture something different: exotic particles and atoms that are endowed with an electrical charge. The instrument is tuned to capture “cosmic rays” at high energy hurled out by supernova explosions or the turbulent regions surrounding black holes. And there are high hopes that it will capture particles of antimatter from a very early time that remains shrouded in mystery.

The chain of events that gave rise to the universe is described by what’s known as the Standard model. It’s a theory in the scientific sense, in that it combines a body of observations, experimental evidence, and mathematical models into a consistent overall picture. But this picture is not necessarily complete.

The universe began hot. After about a billionth of a second, it had cooled down enough for fundamental particles to emerge in pairs of opposite charge, known as quarks and antiquarks. After that came leptons and antileptons, such as electrons and positrons. These pairs began annihilating each other.

Most quark pairs were gone by the time the universe was a second old, with most leptons gone a few seconds later. When the dust settled, so to speak, a tiny amount of matter, about one particle in a billion, managed to survive the mass annihilation.

That tiny amount went on to form the universe we can know – all the light emitting gas, dust, stars, galaxies, and planets. To be sure, antimatter does exist in our universe today. The Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope spotted a giant plume of antimatter extending out from the center of our galaxy, most likely created by the acceleration of particles around a supermassive black hole.

The same telescope picked up signs of antimatter created by lightning strikes in giant thunderstorms in Earth’s atmosphere. Scientists have long known how to create antimatter artificially in physics labs – in the superhot environments created by crashing atoms together at nearly the speed of light.

Here is one of the biggest and most enduring mysteries in science: why do we live in a matter-dominated universe? What process caused matter to survive and antimatter to all but disappear? One possibility: that large amounts of antimatter have survived down the eons alongside matter.

In 1928, a young physicist, Paul Dirac, wrote equations that predicted the existence of antimatter. Dirac showed that every type of particle has a twin, exactly identical but of opposite charge. As Dirac saw it, the electron and the positron are mirror images of each other. With all the same properties, they would behave in exactly the same way whether in realms of matter or antimatter. It became clear, though, that ours is a matter universe. The Apollo astronauts went to the moon and back, never once getting annihilated. Solar cosmic rays proved to be matter, not antimatter.

It stands to reason that when the universe was more tightly packed, that it would have experienced an “annihilation catastrophe” that cleared the universe of large chunks of the stuff. Unless antimatter somehow became separated from its twin at birth and exists beyond our field of view, scientists are left to wonder: why do we live in a matter-dominated universe?

an international race is picking up speed to see our universe for what it really is and how it came to be according to the standard theory that describes the origins of the universe it's early moments were marked by the explosive contact between subatomic particles of opposite charge scientists are now focusing their most powerful technologies on an effort to figure out exactly what happened our understanding of cosmic history hangs on the question how did matter as we know it survived and what happened to its birth to him it's opposite a mysterious substance known as antimatter a crew of astronauts is making its way to a launch pad at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida they'll enter the space shuttle Endeavour for the 134th and second to the last flight of the space shuttle little noticed in the publicity surrounding the close of this storage program is the cargo bolted into endeavours hole it's a science instrument that some hope will become one of the most important scientific contributions of human spaceflight it's a kind of telescope though it will not return dazzling images of cosmic realms long hidden from view the distant corners of the universe or the hidden structure of black holes and exploding stars unlike the Great observatories that were launched aboard the shuttle it was not named for a famous astronomer like Hubble or the Chandra x-ray Observatory the instrument called the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer or AMS is the brainchild of this man Samuel ting from Massachusetts Institute of Technology at the heart of the AMS is a large superconducting magnet and designed to operate in the pristine environment of space of which is the with its intensive power requirements the final version was attached to the International Space Station ation inside the cupola on the International Space Station being maneuvered into the promised surrounding this device II is that it will enable scientists to look at the universe in a completely new way you guys go as far as release never most telescopes are designed to capture photons so-called neutral particles reflected or emitted by objects such as stars or galaxies AMS will capture something different exotic particles and atoms that are endowed with an electrical charge among these are a theoretical Dark Matter particle called a neutrally no then there are the strangelets a type of quark that could amount to a whole new form of matter the instrument is tuned to capture cosmic rays at high energy hurled out by supernova explosions for the turbulent regions surrounding black holes and there are high hopes that it will capture particles of antimatter from a very early time that remains shrouded in mystery the chain of events that gave rise to the universe is described by what's known as the standard model it's a theory in the scientific sense in that it combines a body of observations experimental evidence and physical laws into a consistent overall picture but this picture is not necessarily complete the universe began hot after about a billionth of a second it had cooled down enough for fundamental particles to emerge in pairs of opposite charge known as quarks and antiquarks after that came leptons and anti leptons such as electrons and positrons these pairs began annihilating each other most pork pairs had annihilated by the time the universe was a second old with most leptons gone a few seconds later when the dust settled so to speak a tiny amount of matter about one particle in a billion managed to survive the mass annihilation that tiny amount went on to form the universe we know all the light emitting gas dust stars galaxies and planets to be sure antimatter does exist in our universe today the Fermi gamma-ray Space Telescope spotted a giant plume of antimatter extending out from the center of our galaxy most likely created by the acceleration of particles around a supermassive black hole the same telescope picked up signs of antimatter created by lightning strikes in giant thunderstorms in Earth's atmosphere a European cosmic ray satellite called pamela detected a huge store of anti protons in orbit around the earth created by high-energy particles striking the upper atmosphere then held there by magnetic fields that ringed the planet scientists have long known how to create antimatter artificially in physics labs in the superhot environments created by crashing atoms together at nearly the speed of light here is one of the biggest and most enduring mysteries in science why do we live in a matter-dominated universe what process caused matter to survive and antimatter to all but disappear one possibility that large amounts of antimatter have survived down the eons alongside matter that was the view of the german-born physicist Arthur Schuster who appears to have coined the term antimatter in 1898 he imagined that its opposite charge would allow it to act as a counter to gravity large tracts of space he wrote might thus be filled unknown to us with a substance in which gravity is practically non-existent until by some accidental cause such as a meteorite flying through it unstable equilibrium is established the matter collecting on one side the antimatter on the other until two worlds are formed separating from each other never to unite again the issue gathered dust until 1928 when a young physicist Paul Dirac wrote equations that predicted the existence of antimatter Dirac showed that every type of particle has a twin exactly identical but of opposite charge so for every proton there's an antiproton for every electron there's a positron for every neutron and antineutron within them are quarks and they're twins the anti quarks as Dirac saw it the electron and the positron are mirror images of each other with all the same properties they would behave in exactly the same way whether in realms of matter or antimatter in his Nobel Prize lecture in 1933 Dirac pondered a larger reality for antimatter if we accept he said the view of complete symmetry between positive and negative electric charge so far as concerns the fundamental laws of nature we must regard it rather as an accident that the earth and presumably the whole solar system contains a preponderance of negative electrons and positive protons it is quite possible that for some of the stars it is the other way about these stars being built up mainly of positrons and negative protons just the year before the physicist Karl Anderson had confirmed the existence of antimatter by shooting gamma rays at atoms creating electron positron pairs it became clear though that ours is a matter universe the Apollo astronauts went to the moon and back never once getting annihilated solar cosmic rays proved to be matter not antimatter traveling to every corner of the solar system our probes have not encountered any objects made of antimatter cosmic rays from the Milky Way are overwhelmingly matter if there are any large concentrations in nearby galaxies or galaxy clusters we should see gamma rays produced when particles and antiparticles find each other it stands to reason too that when the universe was more tightly packed that it would have experienced an annihilation catastrophe that cleared the universe of large chunks understand unless antimatter somehow became separated from its twin at birth and exists beyond our field of view scientists are left to wonder why do we live in a matter-dominated universe Dirac's symmetrical view of matter and antimatter which saw them as equivalent collapsed three decades later in 1964 the American physicists James Cronin and Val Fitch examined the decay of a particle called a k on to its antiparticle twin they found that the trance nation back to normal matter did not occur with the same probability that would suggest there must be small differences in the physical laws that govern matter and anti-matter to find out exactly what makes them different or asymmetrical would be a big step toward understanding how our universe took the shape that it did that's why physicists are hot on the trail of antimatter with new technologies designed to give them a closer look at this strange substance in nature and in the lab but if there is some antimatter out there escapees from the mass annihilation of the Big Bang still fleeing through the emptiness of space the crew of endeavor placed the AMS instrument on the International Space Station in May 2011 since then scientists have been combing the data for the signatures of antimatter particles striking its detector if they managed to detect heavier elements such as anti helium or anti carbon that would point to concentrations of antimatter in space large enough to a form stars where those elements are created and suggest that symmetry may not have been broken after all such heavier anti-atoms can exist at Brookhaven National Lab in New York scientists recently smashed gold atoms together at nearly the speed of light from about a billion individual collisions its detectors recorded the presence of 18 anti helium atoms atoms with two anti protons and two Aten neutrons the explosive potential of antimatter in this universe has long animated the voyages of science fiction it's the fuel of choice for getting beyond our solar system and out to the stars just to get into orbit the Space Shuttle had to be loaded up with some 15 times its weight in conventional rocket fuel the energy contained in antimatter is orders of magnitude greater in fact it would take just a coin sized portion to propel the shuttle into orbit because antimatter is so volatile with our matter filled universe the challenge for scientists is first to create it then to hold it for enough time to study it before it simply vanishes even as the shuttle Endeavour glided on to land for the last time AMS scientists were beginning to filter through the rush of charged particles in space meanwhile scientists on the ground were beginning their own intensive efforts to corral antimatter in their labs they are trying to do this at the giant European physics lab CERN in a little-known corner the antiproton deceleration lab a group of scientists is showing that you can actually trap and hold antimatter long enough to study the anti protons from the antiproton decelerator that's the machine that we need here at CERN come down this pipe right here and they come into our apparatus which is inside this large magnets this is a very strong magnetic field to help to confine the charged particles that make anti hydrogen we mix the anti protons with positrons inside this magnet trap and that's where we capture them inside the Alpha chamber the magnetic field holds the particles in place and isolates them from one another an electric field separates the electrons and positrons they are then carefully brought into contact when two positrons collide one falls into orbit around an antiproton forming anti hydrogen then the molecule is trapped by magnetic fields like a marble rolling around in a bathtub now remove the bathtub the magnetic fields the anti molecule smacks up against the wall of the detector and annihilates emitting a shower of particles so what we do is hold on to them for a thousand seconds and then release them to make sure they were there that's how you do this measurement that 1,000 seconds almost 17 minutes is a major accomplishment on the atomic life scale a thousand seconds is forever things on the atomic life scale are measured in nanoseconds or smaller perhaps so this is forever for an atom to be trapped the next step and that's what we're reporting now is to hold on to it see how long can we keep it around so that we can study it after all that's what we want to do we want to study the antimatter compare it to matter and see if they're the same and by study we mean interact with lasers or with microwave radiation to see what their structure is inside how do they behave do they behave exactly like hydrogen within the same lab the effort to pinpoint differences is already underway scientists working with the Asakusa detector are trying to measure the precise weight of an antiproton these oddball molecules contain one antiproton which would normally inhabit the atomic nucleus instead it orbits the nucleus in place of an electron it survives microseconds in the detector but that's enough for the scientists to hit it with a pair of lasers the molecule blows apart on impact and that enables them to calculate the weight of its components we've measured through a precision of nine digits and we found that the antimatter the antiproton mass is exactly the same as a proton mass 2 therefore our nine digits of precision if they find there is a difference it's bound to be subtle will it be enough to shed light on why matter survived and antimatter did not the differences may lie much deeper in the structure of matter that we've so far been able to go scientists are now preparing to throw a new generation of powerful technologies at the problem at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN they can send atoms whipping around a 27 kilometer tunnel and into ultra high-energy collisions looking at the zoo of particles that splatter onto the walls of the detectors they are hoping to find differences between quarks and their anti quark counterparts one recent computer calculation performed at Columbia University unveiled differences between quarks and antiquarks when it was assumed that these particles interact with dimensions beyond the four that define the universe we experience still its authors wondered whether the differences are enough to account for our matter filled universe understanding the asymmetry between matter and antimatter is one of the most important quests in modern cosmology because it would help expand or perhaps even challenge aspects of the standard model the clash of these opposite forms in the early universe parks back to William Blake's poem what's immortal hand or eye could frame thy fearful symmetry we now ask what in the chaotic birth of time and space could break nature's symmetry and set our universe in motion

Microbiome: Gut Bugs and You | Warren Peters | TEDxLaSierraUniversity

Views:242308|Rating:4.85|View Time:17:16Minutes|Likes:3261|Dislikes:99
Can gut bugs change the world? Join Warren Peters on a journey into understanding your microbiome and the new discoveries changing the way we understand diabetes, obesity, Alzheimer’s disease, autism, and our everyday health and wellness.

If asked, he will tell you that the first part of his medical career was in general surgery, where “if something is wrong with you, I will cut it out.” The next was dedicated to lifestyle and natural medicines, where “if something is wrong with you, just try harder.” And finally, the last part is dedicated to the molecular and genetic basis of obesity, where “if something is wrong with you, it is the fault of your parents and the changing environment.” Within these three perspectives, reside the virtues of common sense and wisdom.

He obtained his medical degree from Loma Linda University, his surgical training at the Mason Clinic in Seattle Washington, and, his Master’s degree in biostatistics and epidemiology from Loma Linda University. He is privileged to travel and lecture nationally and internationally on topics of nutrition, wholeness, and wellness. He has practiced surgical care, wholistic care, and, primary care in Washington, Maryland, Virginia, and California.

This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community. Learn more at

when I was just a little boy when I used the toilet my mother taught me to wash my hands and when I flushed and I looked at what was going down I go boy you better wash your hands you know and that I had this little puppy you know it's a little dog and when I saw what came out of his body and if I stepped in it I go boy I better wash my hands and my mother taught me all about germs and how bad they were and you should always wash your hands and I believed her and then I grew up and I went to medical school and we had the microscope and we looked at these bacteria and we heard these stories about how they caused these epidemics and people dying all over the place and then antibiotics came aboard and now we could actually stamp out these epidemics of these bad germs and then all of a sudden I started hearing about the good bugs and I go what's that and as we begin to look at the actual genetics this was the breakthrough that allowed us to actually understand our microbiome particularly in our GI tract because when I was just looking at him through a microscope it was very limiting you could only see just certain kinds but now would that we could actually genetically look at this this all started about 10 years ago and many of you are familiar with this when they started looking at the genetics of the human what are the genes how many genes what are the genes that we have through incredible research it became apparent that we actually had like 26 thousand genes and I thought wow that's really cool and everybody was studying the genes and this was really wonderful until they started studying the genes of a rice plant the rice plant had 46,000 genes what's that you know I mean we're only 26 and they're 46 and so this was very humbling to say that the rice plant was more sophisticated than humans so then about five years ago everybody got busy and they started to do the genome of the bacteria that resides inside of our body guess how many genes there are there 100,000 genes and so we begin to go look at it what are these bugs who are these what are these so there's like a hundred trillion of them when we think of cells of our body are our biome describes 90 percent of all the cells we're only ten percent so we just heard how wonderful it is to look at the astronomy and be humbled well I would suggest we probably just need to look inside of us and really get humble because the other is way beyond this so these genes are incredible there's about a thousand different varieties and then when we look at the species and sort of like that it's incredible how diverse this whole environment this whole biome is and just resides in some just humble you and me well okay let's team up with our bugs so we're twenty six thousand and they're a hundred thousand Wow now we can Trump the rice clan so we better stay join with them so we begin to do what actually does this biome do for us so we first think of fermentation talk about a microbrewery you know right here in our right colon right here these bugs are actually fermenting because this does a lot of good things and they produce about the equivalent of a can of beer every day and oh yeah that's the truth and so of course we handle it quite nicely and so on we don't get tipsy with that much and so so in this process of fermentation some very important things are created they're called short chain fatty-acids these short chain fatty-acids are critical to our immune system so if you breed a little mouse that has no biome this little creature is very vulnerable to infections and so on and so in many ways this is quite dramatic and we wonder where does this biome come from because the little the little human when he's just inside the uterus he doesn't have a lot of bugs this is kind of incoming in question here like right now but so far we've always thought of it being kind of sterile inside there but when this little child goes through the birth canal and is breastfed that is where the microbiome starts this is critical to the life of this child and our c-section babies and our babies that don't get breastfed this is very difficult so now in modern places and hospitals that understand this if the little child has to be born by c-section a vaginal swab is actually taken and placed in the in the child's face and mouth so that it can actually become a microbiome positive creature otherwise the immune system would not develop so this is very very vital so that's kind of the positive side of the fermentation but there's a negative side to this and this is where remember all these these cells these thousands of different kinds of bacteria like most of life it's about a balance and when they do not get are not balanced we call it a dysbiosis when that begins to happen we find that it starts causing diseases do you know the word erupt old bowel syndrome some of you may actually have it you know diarrhea constipation abdominal cramps all these kind of things you know about colitis you've heard of people that have colitis these kinds of things are when there is a dysbiosis there's an imbalance between the good bugs and the bad bugs also we're beginning to understand that a lot of the what is called autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis multiple sclerosis these kind of things may indeed be associated with an imbalance in our microbiome so another thing that our bugs do is they harvest calories now if you're starving to death and you're having to eat a lot of grasses and grains and things that have a lot of fiber your body can only absorb a certain number of calories and we can't absorb normally any calories from fiber fiber is just goes down to the biome and the biome actually will harvest from the fiber will actually harvest an extra ten to fifteen percent of the calories from that food we've eaten this is how humanity has survived very very severe circumstances but just as there's a positive there's also a negative and we find when we look at this whole obese area this people are overweight anybody have any deficit of calories lunch looked pretty good didn't it so so we're not living in a cave anymore and we're not we're not starving so this good thing can then become a bad thing particularly if we tend towards these particular kind of bugs they're called Formica teas it's a big family group and they harvest extra calories so when we actually look at the biome of people who are overweight or people who have diabetes they tend to have a lot more of this for milites family are you following me do you see where this is starting to lead what if we begin to change the biome to a more balanced biome for people that were overweight ha you know how this is going to go don't you and the studies are already being done in mice but you know there's there's there's a lot to this so this study came out about two years ago as a fascinating study because they took these skinny little mice and they just gave them an artificial sweetener and sure enough the little skinny mice became fat and became diabetic so then the obvious scientific question is did the artificial sweetener change the metabolism of this little mouse or did it change the microbiome guess what so they did this elegant study if you think of fecal transplant as elegant and they took other little skinny mice and they just did a fecal transplant from the heavy mouse that had diabetes no artificial sweeteners and that little thin Mouse became obese and overweight and diabetic so you begin to see how this science is beginning to progress and a third area that I think is very critical is what we call the gut brain access and when you look at animal studies you can take again these little germ-free mice and when you when they're born they're kind of autistic you know they don't kind of hang out with their puppy brothers and sisters and they don't eat well and they don't do things well and they're kind of autistic and but if you then transplant normal Mouse biome into these little guys they become normal they just kind of hang out with each other and so on you can see where this is going cancer and sure enough it's already happening so in Europe there's some beautiful studies that are being done on humans here in America there's some people that on the side are just giving probiotics you know probiotics have the microbiome in them probiotic enemas – autistic children and actually seeing some development I have not seen good randomized controlled trials but where there's a little smoke there definitely can be some fire now in the human studies one of the things that we wanted so we already know that the gut affects the brain what we also want to know does the brain affect the gut and sure enough when we find people that are under high stress of course nobody here in the audience I'm sure and it was high stress you know that must be someplace someplace else but under high stress the biome actually changes and what we find is that there's a breakdown so inside the gut there's a nice little layer of mucus so you have all this bacteria and here you have your gut wall and then you this first layer of mucus there's a no bacteria it's a barrier the next layer is another layer of mucus that does have bacteria in it and under stress those mucus layers begin to break down and antigens from the bacteria actually penetrate into the muscle wall and therefore into our circulation so this barrier is broken down and there's a great deal of study that's going on now to even look at microbiome and Alzheimer's Alzheimer's is now being called diabetes type 3 because we know that those high insulin levels of high sugar levels all these things may well be contributing so at first I thought well this is a little fringy but when I begin to see that we have neuroscientists that have linked together 30 neuroscientists and Scientific American just published an editorial saying we need to take another look at Alzheimer's disease in relationship to the biome so let's kind of think about how we can feed this biome what are the nutritional features that we can do to help our own biome so first of all we have the refined carbohydrates and the processed foods you're probably aware that of the 600,000 foods that are manufactured in America today 72% of them had added sugar that did not happen by accident sugar is addicting that that processed food is beginning to actually alter our biome to make us less and less healthy so obviously I teach my patients to just when they go to a grocery store just shop around the periphery where they have real food well at least for the except for the deli maybe but real food don't go into that sinister middle section unless you need toilet paper or something but that's where the real food is is there eat real food because that's what our body is set up for and then eating our vegetables and a lot of the fermented vegetables so your kimchi and your sauerkraut and your kefir and your yogurt all of these natural biome foods should be part of our everyday diet and when we think about eating some healthy fats like avocados and walnuts and these kind of things that's very important to create a healthy biome so and the biome needs protein so good quality protein can be a very important feature well I like to think about the lifestyles in addition to nutrition that could help our biome and believe it or not our gut bugs have a circadian rhythm they have a night-and-day rhythm just like we do and there's there's scientists that are doing research on the circadian rhythms of bacteria and so when you don't sleep your bugs don't sleep and they need sleep so it's really important to have that kind of lifestyle where you get sleep and believe it or not exercise also stimulates a healthy balance of the microbiome you begin to see a trend here don't you so then the one that I thought was just scary horrible is that our use in antibiotics in America seventy percent of all the antibiotics that are you in America are used to feed the animals from which we get our eggs and milk and meat and so on 70% of all in why do they do that because you give antibiotics to an animal and it gets fat faster and it goes to market quicker so 70% ever wonder why we're getting more bacteria resistance and think of all of you you know the first time you get a sniffle and all I got a cold well I'm going to get rid of this a lot better call my doctor and ask for a z-pack or something you know quick a z-pack every time you treat your viral infections with a antibiotic as in bacterial it changes your biome so if you do need antibiotics be sure and follow up with your probiotics your key for your sauerkraut your kimchi whatever you prefer you've got to repopulate your bowel if indeed you have to use antibiotics so gut bug cultivation you know we should start a primer on this you know there should be something like gut bugs for dummies or something like that you know so first of all we have to respect them you know they're 90% of who we are all of our cells they're there and certainly we want to take good care of them we want to make sure that they get the proper sleep the proper exercise and if you have happy bugs you're going to be a healthy person thank you very much you

How to take a picture of a black hole | Katie Bouman

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At the heart of the Milky Way, there’s a supermassive black hole that feeds off a spinning disk of hot gas, sucking up anything that ventures too close — even light. We can’t see it, but its event horizon casts a shadow, and an image of that shadow could help answer some important questions about the universe. Scientists used to think that making such an image would require a telescope the size of Earth — until Katie Bouman and a team of astronomers came up with a clever alternative. Bouman explains how we can take a picture of the ultimate dark using the Event Horizon Telescope.

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المترجم: Hani Eldalees
المدقّق: Mahmoud Magdy في الفيلم (إنترستلر)، نشاهد نظرة عن قرب لثقب أسود ضخم. في الخلفية يوجد غاز متوهج، قوة الجاذبية الهائلة لهذا الثقب الأسود تشكل الضوء على شكل حلقة. ولكن هذه الصورة غير حقيقية، بل رسماً تقريبياً
باستخدام الكمبيوتر تعبير فني عمّا قد يكون
شكّل الثقب الأسود في الواقع. قبل 100 عام، نشر ألبرت آينشتاين
نظريته عن النسبية العامة. وخلال السنوات التي تلت، قدم العلماء العديد
من البراهين المؤيدة لهذه النظرية. ولكن أحد الأمور الواضحة من تلك النظرية
وهي الثقوب السوداء، لم تتم رؤيتها بشكل مباشر بعد. وبالرغم من أنه يوجد تصور عما يمكن
أن يكون عليه شكل الثقب الأسود، إلا أننا لم نلتقط صورة لأحدها حتى الآن. ولكن، لربما تتفاجأون إن عرفتم
أن هذا سيتغير قريبًا. هناك احتمال أن نشاهد أول صورة
لثقب أسود خلال السنوات القليلة المقبلة. ستكون مسؤولية التقاط الصورة
موكلة لفريق دولي من العلماء، تيليسكوب بحجم الأرض تقريبًا وخوارزمية تعمل على
وضع أجزاء الصورة النهائية معًا. وبالرغم من أنني لن أتمكن
من عرض صورة حقيقة لكم اليوم، إلا أنني أود أن أعرض لكم
جزءًا بسيطًا من الجهد المبذول لالتقاط أول صورة. اسمي كيتي بومان، وأنا طالبة دكتوراه في
معهد ماساتشوستس للتكنولوجيا. أجري أبحاثي في مختبر علوم كمبيوتر وهي تهدف لجعل الكمبيوتر يبصر
من خلال الصور والفيديو. وبالرغم من أنني لست عالمة فلك، أود أن أعرض لكم اليوم كيف تمكنت من المساهمة
في هذا المشروع المثير. إن غادرت المدينة هذه الليلة
بعيدًا عن الأضواء، فلربما يحالفك الحظ
وتستطيع أن تشاهد منظرًا رائعًا لمجرة درب التبانة. وإن استطعت أن تقرب الصورة
متجاوزًا ملايين النجوم 26 ألف سنة ضوئية باتجاه
مركز درب التبانة المتلألئ سنصل في نهاية المطاف
إلى مجموعة من النجوم في المركز تمامًا. وبإستخدام تيليسكوبات بالأشعة
تحت الحمراء لكي تخترق الغبار الكوني، تمكن علماء الفلك
من مراقبة تلك النجوم طوال 16 عامًا. ولكن الأكثر دهشة
هو ما لا يقدرون على رؤيته. يبدو أن هذه النجوم تدور حول جسم خفي. بتتبع مسار هذه النجوم، توصل علماء الفلك لنتيجة أن الشيء الوحيد الصغير والثقيل
القادر على التسبب في هذه الحركة هو ثقب أسود هائل جداً وهو شيء كثيف جدًا لدرجة
أنه يمتص أي شيء يقترب منه حتى الضوء. لكن ماذا يحدث إن تمكنّا
من تقريب الصورة أكثر؟ هل من الممكن أن نشاهد شيئًا،
يفيد تعريفه بعدم القدرة على رؤيته؟ حسنا، تبين لنا أنه في حال كبرنا الصورة
على مستوى موجات الراديو، نتوقع أن نرى
حلقة مكونة من الضوء ناتجة عن الجاذبية الكبيرة
للبلازما الساخنة التي تدور حول الثقب الأسود. بمعنى آخر، يلقى الثقب الأسود بظله
على هذه الخلفية من المواد المشعة، ناحتة بذلك كرة من الظلام. تكشف هذه الحلقة المشعة أفق الثقب الأسود، حيث تكون قوى الجاذبية كبيرة للغاية لدرجة أن حتى الضوء
لا يستطيع الفرار. تنبأت معادلات آينشتاين
بحجم وشكل تلك الحلقات، لذا التقاط صور لها لن يكون مذهلًا فقط، لكن سيكون برهاناً على أنّ
تلك المعادلات صحيحة حتى في الظروف المتطرفة
التي توجد بقرب الثقب الأسود. إلا أنّ الثقب الأسود
على بعد كبير من مكاننا، فمن الأرض تبدو تلك الحلقات صغيرة جداً كحجم ثمرة برتقال على سطح القمر. هذا ما يجعل مهمة
التقاط صورة لها شاقة للغاية. لكن لماذا؟ يعتمد الأمر بمجمله على معادلة بسيطة. هذا سببه ظاهرة تسمى انحراف الضوء، توجد حدود أساسية لأصغر الأشياء التي يمكن أن نراها. المعادلة القاعدة تنص أنّه
إذا رغبنا في رؤية أشياء أصغر وأصغر، فيجب أن يكون حجم التيليسكوبات أكبر وأكبر. ولكن حتى باستخدام
أقوى التيليسكوبات البصرية هنا على الأرض، لا يمكننا أن نصل إلى الدقة المطلوبة لصورة جسم ما على سطح القمر. في الواقع، أعرض لكم هنا أحد أكثر الصور
دقةً والتي تم التقاطها من قبل لسطح القمر من الأرض. تحتوي على 13 ألف بيكسل تقريبًا، بالرغم من ذلك، يمكن أن يحتوي
كل بيكسل على 1.5 مليون برتقالة. بالتالي كيف يجب أن يكون
حجم التليسكوب لكي نتمكن من رؤية البرتقالة على سطح القمر وثقب أسود في ذات الوقت؟ بإجراء الحسابات الضرورية يتضح لنا، أنّنا سنكون بحاجة إلى تليسكوب بحجم كوكب الأرض. (ضحك) إن تمكنّا من بناء هذا التليسكوب
بحجم الأرض، فسنتمكن من أن نبدأ
في ملاحظة حلقة الضوء المميزة تلك التي تدل على حدوث ثقب أسود في الأفق. بالرغم من أن هذه الصورة
لن تحتوي على كافة التفاصيل التي نراها في رسوم الكمبيوتر التقريبية، ستتيح لنا أن نلقي أول نظرة ممكنة بكل أمان على البيئة المحيطة بالثقب الأسود. ولكن كما يمكنكم أن تتصوروا، فإن بناء تيليسكوب بطبق واحد
كبير بحجم الأرض هو أمر مستحيل. ولكن بتعبير ميك جاغر الشهير، "لا يمكنك دوماً الحصول على ما تريد، ولكن إن حاولت أحيانًا، فلربما تجد وتحصل على ما تحتاجه". وبإيصال تليسكوبات من جميع أنحاء العالم، فإن تعاون دولي يسمى تليسكوب أحداث الأفق يعمل على إيجاد تليسكوب
يدار بالكمبيوتر بحجم الأرض، قادر على تحليل تركيبة حدث بحجم أفق الثقب الأسود. هذه الشبكة من التليسكوبات
من المقرر أن تلتقط أول صورة لثقب أسود العام المقبل. جميع هذه التليسكوبات
في الشبكة العالمية تعمل معًا. وبربطها معًا من خلال توقيت دقيق
باستخدام الساعات الذرية، تقوم فرق من الخبراء
في كل موقع بتجميد الضوء عن طريق تجميع
آلاف (التيرابايت) من البيانات. ثم تتم معالجة هذه البيانات
في مختبر هنا في (ماساتشوتس). ولكن كيف يمكن لهذا كله أن ينجح؟ هل تذكرون أنه إن أردنا
رؤية ثقب أسود في وسط مجرتنا، فإنه يتوجب علينا بناء تليسكوب بحجم الأرض؟ لنتظاهر لثانية واحدة أنه بمقدورنا بناء تليسكوب بحجم الأرض. سيكون الأمر مشابهًا لتحويل الأرض لكرة كبيرة لامعة في نادي للديسكو. ستلتقط كل من هذه المرايا الضوء ويمكننا بعد ذلك تجميعه لكي نكون صورة. ولكن لنفترض أننا أزلنا معظم هذه المرايا وتبقى القليل منها. يمكننا الاستمرار في محاولة
جمع هذه المعلومات معًا، ولكن الآن نجد الكثير من الفراغات بها. هذه المرايا المتبقية تمثل المواقع
التي تتواجد بها التليسكوبات. وهذه أعداد صغيرة جدًا من القياسات
التي تمكننا من إنشاء صورة منها. ولكن بالرغم من أننا نجمع الضوء
من مواقع تليسكوبات قليلة، فإن دوران الأرض يمكننا
من رؤية حسابات أخرى جديدة. بمعنى آخر، أثناء دورانها،
كما كرة الديسكو، تغير المرايا موقعها ونتمكن من رؤية أجزاء أخرى من الصورة. خوارزمية الصور التي طورناها تُمكننا
من تعويض النقص في كرة الديسكو لكي نتمكن من صنع صورة للثقب الأسود. لو توافر لنا تليسكوبات
في جميع أنحاء العالم– — بمعنى آخر، في جميع أنحاء كرة الديسكو سيكون هذا قليل الأهمية. ولكننا نقدر أن نرى بعض النماذج ولهذا السبب يوجد عدد غير محدود من الصور المحتملة التي يمكن أن تكون متوافقة تمامًا
مع قياسات التليسكوبات لدينا. لكن ليست كل الصور متماثلة، بعض هذه الصور تتطابق مع تصورنا
لما يمكن أن تكون الصور عليه أكثر من غيرها. ولذا، فإن مهمتي للمساعدة
والحصول على أول صورة للثقب الأسود هي تصميم خوارزمية
تعمل على إيجاد أكثر الصور منطقية وتتطابق مع مقاسات التليسكوب كذلك. وبصورة مشابهة لكيفية عمل رسام الطب الشرعي
حيث يستخدم أوصاف محددة لتركيب صورةٍ ما
مستخدمين معرفتهم بتركيب الوجه، فإن خوارزمية الصور التي طورتها
تستخدم بيانات التليسكوب المحدودة لكي تدلنا على الصورة
التي تطابق ما هو موجود في كوننا. باستخدام هذه الخوارزميات،
تمكنّا من أن نجمع معًا قطع صور من ضوضاء البيانات هذه وصخبها. أعرض هنا مثال لإعادة بناء صورة
مستخدمين بيانات المحاكاة، عندما نتظاهر بتوجيه التيليسكوبات باتجاه الثقب الأسود في منتصف مجرتنا. بالرغم من أنّ هذه محاكاة
لإعادة البناء إلا أنها تعطينا الأمل أننا سنتمكن قريبًا من
التقاط الصورة الأولى لثقب أسود ونقدر من خلالها
على تقدير حجم الدوائر حولها. بالرغم من أنني أود الاسترسال
في شرح هذه الخوارزمية، إلا أنّه لحسن حظكم، ليس لدي الوقت الكافي. ولكنني أرغب في أن أعطيكم فكرة مبسطة عن كيفية تعريفنا لمظهر الكون، وكيف يمكن أن نستخدم ذلك
لإعادة تركيب والتأكد من نتائجنا. بما أنه يوجد عدد غير محدود
من الصور الممكنة التي يمكن أن تشرح بامتياز
قياسات التيليسكوبات، إلا أننا يجب أن نختار من بينها بطريقة ما. نقوم بذلك عن طريق ترتيب الصور بناءً على احتمالية
أنها تكوّن صورة لثقب أسود، ومن ثم اختيار الصورة الأكثر احتمالية. ما الذي أعنيه بذلك بالضبط؟ لنفترض أننا نحاول أن نصنع نموذجًا يمكن أن يخبرنا عن مدى احتمالية
ظهور صورةٍ ما على الفيسبوك. غالبًا سنرغب
في أن يخبرنا النموذج أنه من المستبعد أن يقوم شخص بنشر
الصورة غير واضحة إلي ناحية اليسار، لكن من المحتمل جداً أن ينشر صورة شخصية له كالصورة الموجودة على اليمين. الصورة التي في الوسط هي ضبابية، وبالرغم من أنّ
حتمالية رؤيتها على الفيسبوك أعلى مقارنة بالصورة غير واضحة، وهي أقل احتمالية أن نشاهدها
مقارنة بالصورة الشخصية. لكن عندما يتعلق الأمر بصور لثقب أسود، فإننا نواجه معضلة حقيقية: لم يسبق
وأن شاهدنا ثقباً أسوداً حقيقياً من قبل. في هذه الحالة،
ما هي الصورة الأقرب للثقب الأسود، وما هي الافتراضات التي يجب أن تكون لدينا
عن بنية الثقب الأسود؟ يمكن أن نحاول استخدام صور
ناتجة عن محاكاة أجريت سابقًا، كما الصورة في الفيلم (انترستلر)، لكن يمكن حدوث مشاكل حقيقية
في حال قمنا بهذا. ما الذي يمكن أن يحدث
إن لم تثبت نظريات (آينشتاين) صحتها؟ رغبتنا ستستمر
في إنشاء صورة دقيقة عمّا يجري. إن قمنا بإضافة معادلات (آينشتاين)
بشكل جيد إلى خوارزمياتنا، فسينتهي بنا المطاف لرؤية ما نتوقع أن نراه. بكلام آخر، نحن نرغب في جعل الخيار متاحًا لإمكانية وجود فيل ضخم في مركز مجرتنا. (ضحك) لكل نوع من الصور خصائص تنفرد بها. يمكننا بكل سهولة أن نميز
بين صور محاكاة الثقب الأسود والصور التي نلتقطها يوميًا هنا على الأرض. نحن بحاجة إلى أن تكون الخوارزميات قادرة
على معرفة خصائص الصور دون أن تطغى خصائص
نوع معين من الصور على الأنواع الأخرى. إحدى الطرق للتغلب على هذا، هي بفرض خصائص أنواع مختلفة من الصور ومن ثم نشاهد كيف يمكن أن تؤثر
على الصور التي يتم تكوينها. في حال كانت الصور الناتجة
من مختلف الخصائص متشابهه فيما بينها، عندها يمكننا أن نكون أكثر ثقة أن الافتراضات التي نكونها للصورة
لن تكون منحازة لخصائص نوع محدد. الأمر مشابهة لإعطائنا وصفاً واحداً لثلاثة رسامين مختلفين
في جميع أنحاء العالم. إن قام الجميع بتقديم صورة مشابهة للوجه، فإننا سنكون أكثر ثقة أنهم لم يقوموا بعكس أنماطهم المجتمعية
في رسوماتهم التي رسموها. إحدى الطرق لفرض خصائص صور مختلفة هي باستخدام أجزاءٍ من صور موجودة لدينا. نقوم بأخذ عدد كبير من الصور، ونقوم بتحويلها إلى قطع صغيرة جدًا
من الصور المتجاورة. ومن ثم نقوم بالتعامل مع كل مجموعة
من الصور الصغيرة كما قطع الأحاجي المتفرقة. ونقوم باستخدام أجزاء
الأحجية الصغيرة لدينا لكي نكون صورة تتوافق مع قياسات التليسكوب لدينا. والأنواع المختلفة من الصور
لديها قطع مختلفة تمامًا عن الأخرى. إذا ما الذي يحدث عندما نستخدم ذات البيانات ولكن نستخدم أجزاءً مختلفة من الأحاجي
لإعادة بناء الصورة؟ لنبدأ أولًا مع قطع أحجية
محاكاة صورة الثقب الأسود. حسنًا، هذا يبدو منطقيًا. هذا ما نتوقع أن يبدو عليه
منظر الثقب الأسود. لكن هل حصلنا على هذا لأننا قمنا باستخدام قطع صغيرة
من صور محاكاة الثقب الأسود؟ لنستخدم أجزاء أحجية أخرى لأجسام فلكية مختلفة عن الثقب الأسود. حسنًا، حصلنا على صورة مشابهة ثم ماذا عن قطع من صور يومية، مثل الصور التي تلتقطها بكاميرتك الخاصة؟ رائع، نحن نرى صورة مماثلة. عندما نحصل على ذات الصورة بعد استخدام
أجزاء أحاجي من مجموعات مختلفة، عندها يمكننا أن نكون أكثر ثقة أن افتراضات الصور التي لدينا لن تكون منحازة للصور النهائية بشكل كبير. شيء آخر يمكننا القيام به
وهو أخذ أجزاء الأحجية ذاتها مثل الأجزاء من الصور الملتقطة يوميًا، ونستخدمها لإعادة تركيب
العديد من الصور الأصلية المختلفة. لذا في محاكاتنا، نتظاهر أن الثقب الأسود
يبدو كجسم فلكي مختلف عن الثقوب السوداء، كما الصور اليومية
كالفيل الموجود في وسط مجرتنا. عندما تبدو النتائج
من الخوارزمية في الأسفل مشابهة لنتائج المحاكاة التي تظهر في الأعلى، عندها نبدأ في اكتساب ثقة أكبر
في الخوارزمية. وأود أن اؤكد هنا أنّ جميع هذه الصور تم صنعها بجمع قطع صغيرة من صور ملتقطة يوميًا، كالتي تلتقطونها باستخدام كاميراتكم الخاصة. لذا صورة الثقب الأسود التي لم نرها من قبل ربما نتمكن من صناعتها في نهاية المطاف
من صور نراها يوميًا للناس أو المباني
أو الأشجار أو القطط والكلاب. تخيل مثل هذه الأفكار سيتيح لنا أن نلتقط أول صورة للثقب الأسود، ونأمل أن نتمكن من التأكد
من صحة هذه النظريات الشهيرة التي يعتمد عليها العلماء يوميًا. لكن بالطبع، تخيُّل أن أفكار كهذه قد تنجح لم يكن ليكون متاحًا
دون فريقٍ مذهلٍ من الخبراء ولدي الحظ الكبير للعمل معهم. ما زال الأمر يدهشني أنه بالرغم من أنني بدأت هذا المشروع
دون أي خبرة بعلم الفلك، ما تمكنّا من تحقيقه من خلال تعاوننا الفريد قد ينتج عنه أول صورة للثقب الأسود. لكن مشاريع كبيرة مثل تليسكوب الآفاق هي ناجحة بسبب الخبرات
التي تنتمي للعديد من التخصصات التي يتشارك بها
العديد من الناس نحن مجموعة كبيرة من علماء الفلك، الفيزيائيين وخبراء الرياضيات والمهندسين. هذا سيجعلنا قريبًا قادرين على تحقيق شيءٍ كنّا نظنه مستحيلًا. أود أن أشجعكم جميعًا للخروج ومساعدتنا على توسيع حدود العلم، حتى وإن كانت تبدو في البداية غامضة
كما يبدو الثقب الأسود. شكرًا جزيلًا. (تصفيق)

A Philosophical Head Trip with Alan Watts

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” The mystery of life is not a problem to be solved but a reality to be experienced. ”

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tonight at any rate we've got to go through some theoretical materials so we're on a head trip I don't know where the trip will end up it depends on you but in order to lay the foundation for this we've got to examine ideas that are basic to our common sense ideas are very powerful it's not only emotions that are powerful in human life psychoanalysis has of course examined the emotional basis of human opinions and beliefs but one should also examine the intellectual basis of psychological principles or theories or therapies because everybody who speaks a language at all has underneath the surface of the language or the figuring that he uses certain basic assumptions which are usually unexamined and these unexamined systems of belief are extremely powerful in their influence over our lives we'll begin with one very common idea that's built into our common sense which is that the world the physical world consists of two aspects respectively form and matter this was Forrest Adonis by Aristotle and also by the Bible because it is said that God created man out of the dust of the earth and as it were made a figurine in his own image and then breathed the breath of life into its nostrils so that this form of clay became a living B and so underneath that lies the notion that everything material is made of some sort of basic stuff like clay is the basis of pots and for centuries scientists philosophers wanted to know what is that stuff what are we made of now look here a carpenter makes tables out of wood and a Potter makes pots out of clay but I ask you is a tree made of wood obviously not a tree is wood it's not made of it is a mountain made of rock obviously not it is rock see our language contains innumerable ghosts supposing I say the lightning flashes surely the flashing is the same as the lightning there is not one thing called lightning and another called flashing the lightning is the flashing it is raining what is this it that is raining the raining I could make a noun out of a verb anytime by turning it into a gerund so we populate the world with ghosts which arise out of the structure of our language and thus therefore of the structure of our thinking because we think in language or in figuring and numbers and so it's a Vin tensely fascinating investigation to find out what are the hidden assumptions that underlie language and figuring in other words language and mathematics and here is this basic assumption you see that is almost with us all it comes again and again into our everyday speech that form pattern organization organisms are made of something as if there was some inert primordial and of course stupid stuff which had to be put into shape by an energy and an intelligence other than the stuff like the intelligence of the Potter shapes the clay so therefore we have a basic picture of the world in which everything is being pushed around there's a boss there's somebody in charge who is different from what that somebody is in charge of and puts everything into shape because our common sense does not allow that things shape themselves very odd in Chinese the word for nature is sarong which is that which is so of itself the spontaneous the Chinese have no difficulty in thinking about nature as self shaping a Chinese child would not ask its mother how was I made it would ask its mother how did I grow which would be quite different to say so to be made is to be commanded and therefore every good being obeys whether you obey God or whether you obey the laws of nature you obey and the an analogue therefore of the world that has been put into our common sense is one of military command note that because the image of God I would go further and say the idolatrous image of God which has been handed down to us is one of the beneficent parent the boss Big Poppa so then when our physicists started to find out what stuff was they went into it and into it and examined it with evermore minut instruments they first started cutting up things with knives and cutting them smaller and smaller and smaller until they particle that they wanted to dissect was exactly the same width as the edge of the knife and so they got an atom and that word in Greek Hamas means the non cuttable ah non Thomas cuttable that's the basic atom what you can't cut anymore because you got down to the end well they weren't satisfied with that so they got an auto mas in other words a particle of something or other that was just the same width as the blade of the end of the knife edge and they looked at it under a microscope and they saw that it was seemed to be composed of more small particles so they found out means of working those out and then they found out extraordinary means of investigating the properties of matter then they reached a point where they couldn't decide whether it was particles or whether it was waves so they called them wavicles they thought they had come to certain ultimate wavicles called electrons but then unfortunately everything fall fell apart and they found protons masons and many other extraordinary things because of course what they didn't realize was that as you make more and more powerful microscopic instruments the universe has to get smaller and in order to escape the investigation just as when the telescope's become more and more powerful the galaxies have to recede in order to get away from the telescope's because what is happening in all these investigations is through us and through our eyes and senses the universe is looking at itself and when you try to turn around to see your own head what happens see it runs away you never get at it you can't bite your own teeth you can't touch the tip of this finger with the tip of this finger this is the principle Shankara explains it beautifully in his commentary on the cane of Upanishad where he says that that which is the knower the ground of all knowledge is never itself an object of knowledge just as fire doesn't burn itself so there's always that profound mystery that you are never going to be in absolute control of what goes on because if you were to be like making love to a plastic woman who wants that there always is the mystery the thing we don't know as a Vanderloo put it the mystery of life is not a problem to be solved but a reality to be experienced if there were not that you see there would be no life the reason why certain people turn to philosophy but I became a philosopher was that since I was a little boy I always felt that existence as such was weird I mean here we are and in that odd course it's odd what do you think what do you mean by odd well that's what's different from even I mean what's odd stands out what's even lies flat but you can't see the outstanding without the flat background here's the thing standing out that's odd each one of you was odd strange unique particular different how do we know what we mean by that except against the background of something even that is not differentiated like space and so you get this philosophical itch you begin to scratch your head and think about why is that so well after a while you realize that's a meaningless question and you asked how is it so well that leads you into science and other investigations so you wonder what is it I mean this is this happening this thing called existence what is it you ask that question long enough and that suddenly hits you that if you could answer it you wouldn't know what terms to put the answer in I mean when we investigate the properties of nature and we do get some answers all the answers are in terms of particular structures forms patterns and these can be measured and their behavior can be predicted but when I want to ask the question what are the forms made of I mean what is it really we can't think of any way in which we could answer the question because we would have to have a class of all classes when you ask the question what it's like saying is you is or is you ain't is you animal is you vegetable is you mineral are you Republican or Democrat are you male or female are you Christian or a Jew or Hindu or what-have-you we classify always to give an answer to the question what is it and when you classify you distinguish an inside group from an outside group all right so what we want to know is what is the group of all groups well we can't imagine what the outside would be so we can't answer the question what is it so the physicists finally abandoned the quest for stuff and they gave us a description of the universe entirely in terms of form the pattern not the stuff when people ask what's the web yeah but you can't do that once the pattern made of surely it mustn't there be an answer to that see what happens is when you turn up the microscope all stuff turns into form it becomes articulate you know the carpet looks like some sort of stuff but when you look at it under a microscope you will see the crystalline structure of the nylon or whatever it's made of see they wonder what are those crystals made of all right turn up the volume and you'll find molecules turn up the volume you find wavicles but we think the wavicles must be of something but of course they're not we find substance or stuff totally vanishes and we left with form Sanskrit doesn't really have a word for matter it has nama Rupa which means named form it's the form that matters or let's put it in another way everything is a matter of form this is fascinating it doesn't matter what does that mean does it matter is it important in other words does it measure up to anything all right let's go back to the indo-european roots of the language Natha comes from a Sanskrit root mantra which means to measure lay out the foundation say for a building so from this root Matra we get going on into sense we get the word Maya and Maya is generally translated illusion although it also means magic creative power the word illusion switch over we get that from Latin and that comes from the Latin lewd area to play let's pretend that we matter and so also from the root mothra see you get meter that is also to measure you get meteor in Greek Mata and Latin which means mama mother the mother of Buddha was called Maya Mary ma again is the mother of Jesus ma ma ma ma ma but ma you see is a matter of form pattern the Chinese called the basic principle of nature Li and the character for Li means the markings in Jade the fiber in must the grain in wood so joseph needham translates it organic pattern that's what's going on there isn't any stuff involved what stuff is it is a pattern seen out of focus where it becomes fuzzy like kapok see we say kapok is the stuffing of a cushion and that's stuff you see how some kind of goop but when we examine the kpop closely we find structure and that's what you will find and there never will be anything else crazy because it completely flouts our common sense we say but surely and philosophers beat tables that are in front of them and you know they say it is there because bang you know there must be something that is stuff that is substantial but the only reason why you can't pass your hammer through a table is the tables moving too fast it's like try to put your finger through an electric fan only it's going much faster than an electric fan anything solid is going so fast that there's no way to get this through it that's all so we say what is it that is going so fast well that question is based on a grammatical illusion the grammatical illusion is that all verbs have to have subjects can you imagine anything more weird than the idea that a verb or an action or event must be set into motion by a noun that is to say a non-event or thing now what's the difference between a thing and an event I can't for the life of me tell we say this is a fist that's a now what happens to it when I open my hand this thing's unaccountably disappeared so I should have called this a fisting and this is a handing it may also be a pointing so we could devise the language such as that of the Nootka Indians where there are no nouns are only verbs Chinese is very close to that I think the super imposition of the idea of noun and verb on the Chinese language is a Western invention I can't think of any Chinese word for a noun but the all those languages of indo-european origin have nouns and verbs in them they have agents and operations and that's one of the basic snags when we divide the world into operations and agents doers and doings then we ask such silly questions as who knows who does it what does it when the what that is supposed to do it is the same as the doing and you could very easily see that the whole process of the universe may be understood as process nobody's doing it because when you go back to doing it you go back to the military analogy the chain of command the bus who goes bang and the object obeys it's a very crude idea very unsophisticated so if you can bear it we have suddenly eliminated I spook and the spook was called stuff so we are now more at ease with ourselves in a world of form nama Rupa named forms with no cost get rid of the names we can go further and try the experiment of not calling the forms by any names just observing the forms although when we've got rid of the names we can't even call them forms because that's a name and as the the the bazaars going on which Buddhists call Cassata and that means suchness all dustless actually Tata is da da da because when a baby first talks it says da da and father's flatter themselves that it's saying Dada daddy it isn't saying da and so the Upanishads say that the VAR ma si you're it the basic stop but that doesn't mean anything da is like everything else see the world is a musical phenomenon good music never refers to anything except the music itself you don't ask mr. boss mr. Ravi Shankar what do you mean by this music what is it intended to express that music always expresses something other than itself like the 1812 overture or the sunken Cathedral good music never talks about anything other than the music if you are Spock what is your meaning you say listen that's the meat giraffes a giraffe in trees a tree in stars the starring clouds the clouding rain is raining and if you don't understand look at it again and people are people

Seeing Beauty to Save Our Global Garden | Paul B. Redman | TEDxWilmington

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Everybody needs beauty, especially now when we humans decide what parts of nature to keep and what parts to destroy. Once we learn to see – and feel – the beauty that surrounds us we’ll better understand what’s worth saving and why.

Paul B. Redman is an award-winning leader of public gardens, known for his dedication to the beauty and sustainability of gardens and to the training of future generations of horticulture professionals. For the last 13 years, he has led one of the great gardens of world to record-setting attendance, revenue, and horticultural and artistic excellence. This has resulted in Longwood Gardens becoming the most visited public garden in North America and the most visited cultural attraction in Philadelphia, outside of the many free attractions. Paul has been working and studying in the field of public horticulture for more than 25 years. He received his Bachelor of Science Degree and Master of Science Degree in Horticulture from Oklahoma State University. This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community. Learn more at

everybody needs Beauty the early 20th century writer conservationist environmental philosopher John Muir he was right Muir's beauty was wild in nature it's what I call the global garden we need beauty we need it now and we're losing it fast the warning signals are real and they're getting louder but here's what's different today almost every inch of our global garden is impacted by our activities that wasn't the case in the days when Muir wrote in those days wild nature still included what was truly wild it was beyond our control we've reached this really crazy strange moment in history of both power and weakness that Muir could have never imagined for the first time what used to be wild is now under our control we have a name for this era it's called the Anthropocene which basically means world made by man until now we lived in the world we were a part of the world now we are the ones making the world you have to think about this we now decide which parts of nature are going to stay and what's going to go away what do we keep what are we going to destroy that's our call now could you imagine telling Muir that someday that we would be the ones to be able to look at our skies or out at our oceans or down from our mountains and that we we would be the ones deciding what's going to stay and what's going to go away that's amazing crazy power isn't it well with this amazing power comes amazing weakness because if we blow it we are doomed we seem to know the stakes but we can't decide what to do about them and that's where we're weak our power is greater than ever but what about our will our moral economic and social sense of responsibility tells us that if there ever was a day for decisive action it is today it's right now so if we understand it why aren't we doing anything about it well maybe our approach has been all wrong maybe my profession and the environmental movement has been delivering the wrong message a message that has been filled with fear and complexity about the doom of co2 emissions of dying polar bears and melting ice caps all of these things are very real and they're alarming but they block us from seeing what could be best described with just one word beauty and I am talking about the most important beauty of all and no I am NOT talking about having fabulous shiny hair or impressive six-pack abs because I don't have either it's not about the beauty that's inside us it's about the beauty that we are born into it's in my DNA and I'm pretty certain that it's in your DNA too it's what makes us us and it's what makes our global garden worth saving I'm really lucky I learned to see the beauty of our global garden as a child and the person who showed me was my grandmother Madeline or Mimi as she was known to my family she loved to garden she lived in this really small town on the plains of North Central Texas called Saint Joe and that's Joe without an e look it up it's real and whenever I was with my grandmother it was always gardening and plant ID 101 I can hear her voice now let's divide these lilies let's plant these geraniums what tree is this what shrub is this what flower is this and when ever she would see an iris or a Gerber Daisy her very favorite flowers she would always stop and she would say isn't that the most incredible thing you have ever seen and then there were always pecans never ever did we dare say pecan I connected beauty with caring for the global garden while I was working at my first real job at one of the most extraordinary public gardens in the world the National Tropical Botanical Garden in Hawaii a garden that is dedicated to saving our basic beauty and where what I call nature's ninjas are doing the saving yeah nature's ninjas these natured ninjas they risk their lives to save plants did you know that people risk their lives to save plants that's true well like any gorilla force these nature ninjas they move fast in they travel light and more importantly they are on a mission to save tropical plants from peril even from extinction they rappel down cliffs they hang by ropes thousands of feet above the ocean all just to hand pollinate rare Hawaiian plants I mean it's really funny because they were using the exact same gardening techniques that my grandmother was using back in Texas to hybridize her day lilies but there was one big difference the repelling part and I would never ever dare to call my grandmother my nature ninja granny but you know what my grandmother would get it because she was on the exact same mission as they were it was just a different scale and that's when the light bulb went on for me because in those days when I worked at the garden in Hawaii hardly anybody knew the story of the death-defying natured ninjas and that was by design local island residents didn't even know what was happening in their own backyard because they were only invited inside the garden one day every year only one day to enjoy all that beauty that was just inside the gates thankfully that system has changed and those garden gates in Hawaii had been blown wide open now but you know what that experience in my early 20s it was transformational for me because that's when I observed and I learned that whenever I would take anyone into that garden they would immediately see and feel the impact of that Gardens beauty all I had to do was open the gate and welcomed him inside and I would just sit back and watch first would come aw and then joy as we would descend down into the garden I would reveal the story of the death-defying nature's ninjas but actually really didn't call them that at the time but I did want our guests to understand the story of the beauty that was capturing their hearts now here it is almost 30 years later and I still see those exact same reactions of awe and joy happen every day my grandmother showed me how to see beauty and I want you to see it too because when you connect with beauty you connect with joy it's true it's just as simple as a smile and what about the opposite it can be true what happens when we're blind to beauty or even worse what happens when we can actually see it and it's right in front of us but we're the ones choosing to ignore it just because we're so overwhelmed with our lives and that news cycle that we can never ever turn off too often the results can be stark lost Beauty can equal lost joy even sadness worse we forget that to keep beauty we must care for it not them we must care for it that could mean caring for something small like your very own garden or it could mean caring for something far grander and more eternal like our global garden I mean after all we all came from a garden right it all began with a garden the Garden of Eden we need Beauty we need it now and we're losing it fast it's a crazy busy frantic time isn't it the information never stops and we never manage to turn off what's making us busy frantic and crazy we are so wrapped up in our electronic worlds looking at sunsets and flowers that are screen savers instead of the real thing when it's just right outside we're losing sight of what's real I mean I get it I'm just as overwhelmed with life as anybody else is but you know what for me the irony is striking because I work and one of the most beautiful gardens in the world my job requires me to travel I mean I am required to travel to some of the most beautiful places in the world and even I can sometimes miss the point when I fail to see it does that ever happen to you so what can we do about it well I know what I do I take my dog for a walk my walks with Olli are like strolling through a living Andrew Wyeth painting and for me the canvas is the real deal my walks with oli give me these small moments to recapture the beauty that recharges my life okay I can see you I know what you're thinking you're thinking Paul I am so happy for you you're out there strolling and you're Andrew Weis painting with your dog then you have discovered all the secrets of the universe well it isn't like that and I think you know that my walks with Olly remind me of something that can either help us or hurt us if we do not feed our need for beauty by seeing it and feeling its joy how in the world are we ever going to care for the very thing that we all ultimately depend upon for survival could you imagine New York without central park is there a word for being without beauty there are over 700 public gardens in North America 625 right here in the United States each one of these Gardens is a microcosm of this great global garden that I've been talking about and there's one thing that is common and connects them all together in its beauty as soon as you walk through those gates you are surrounded by flowers and trees and landscape that's so beautiful it makes your heart smile it's true you can make your heart can smile I see it happen every day you just have to walk through the gate at Longwood Gardens where I work we really wanted to understand the kind of impact that we were having on our guests and this was far beyond wanting to know if they would recommend Longwood to a friend or not and guess what we learned over 92% of our guests feel joy when they visit our Gardens we have over 1.5 million visitors and they're feeling joy in that exact same study we looked at over 600,000 online social media posts about Yellowstone National Park and guess what we learned over two-thirds of the people expressed joy when they shared their photos and story about Yellowstone National Park feelings of joy just by looking at a photo or sharing a story no wonder we're jazzing up our screen savers like we are so again what's the problem what aren't we getting why aren't we harnessing the power of beauty and joy that surrounds us we need Beauty we need it now and we're losing it fast to be without Beauty to be beauty las' and without joy what are we well I can find hope like mirror and I do have hope maybe it's that eternal gardener and me because you know we gardeners were planners and we live on nothing but hope and by sharing why do you think that we plant trees trees aren't about today trees or a promise that we're making to the future my grandmother showed me how to see beauty maybe she was my nature ninja after all more of us need to see what my grandmother saw and what I now get to show others that all you have to do is walk through the gate the garden gate so now I have something I want you to do I want you to take my garden gate challenge remember that and this is what you have to do go outside go to a public garden go to a park but you've got to open your eyes and you've got to see it and feel it and breathe it so that you too can get to know the ultimate source of our joy and of life itself and remember we're reached this really crazy strange moment in history of both power and weakness we are now the ones deciding which parts of nature we're going to keep and what we're going to destroy that's our call now so it's not too late you too can become your own nature ninja but you've got to go outside first you've got to open your eyes you've got to see it you've got to feel it you've got to open your minds so that you too will know not just what we need to save but you'll know why we need to save it thank you [Applause] you

City of the Future: Singapore – Full Episode | National Geographic

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City of the Future: Singapore – Full Episode | National Geographic

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the paradigm has shifted the world is accelerating the science fiction of yesterday is rapidly becoming the science fiction's of right now how do we withstand the tectonic shifts in the world around us how does a society thrive where the world economy is undergoing constant disruption when information is moving at the speed of light there are places that are ahead of the curve city is building the tools for tomorrow we want to create innovations that have a real way impact one day single pole can be self-sustained in food production you are looking at the development of Singapore 40 years ahead of time this city could be a model that wants to come this is the city of the future Singapore the future of the world lies in its urban environments more than half the world's population live in cities and that number is growing this rapid influx of people creates possibility but it also creates challenges how can the cities of today grow and thrive to become the places we want to live in tomorrow creating sustainable manageable human spaces in the world's ever-expanding cities is a challenge facing governments across the globe and no one understands the complexity of this challenge better than the planners at Singapore's Housing and Development board the agency in charge of creating living spaces for about 80% of the resident households in one of the most densely populated cities I'm an architect by training and I also have a master's degree in planning so I'm an architect planner since 2010 dr. Chang's vision and guidance has helped usher in a new era of smart public housing for the HDB allowing the city she loves to grow and thrive despite significant challenges as an island city state were only about half the size of metropolitan London we have to house 5.7 million people and we have caused very land and resource constrained so that is the big challenge but having said that over the years we have managed to develop Singapore in a pretty sustainable way and we are one of the most livable cities in Asia dr. Cheung was a little girl Singapore was a vastly different City it had 1/3 of today's population less than 1% of the current GDP and little to no infrastructure in just over five decades though this tiny city-state has undergone a remarkable transformation Singapore's HDB has built a million flats creating one of the most successful public housing programs in the world HDB is now looking to high-tech innovative solutions to not only provide enough living spaces for Singapore citizens but also improved quality of life for decades to come we have very sophisticated computer models that help the architect planner to improve the environmental quality in the town so for example the Singapore is in the tropics so we want to encourage the breezes to come true through computer simulation you can actually position the blocks and the public spaces in the parks in such a way to help you achieve this Cinco does very long-term comprehensive planning and that is very important you are looking at the development of Singapore 40 years ahead of time and this is important because it ensures that we have sufficient land safeguarded to meet all our development needs Singapore is planning decades ahead in such a land scarce nation the question is often not what to build but where to build Singapore's Urban Redevelopment Authority is in charge of identifying the future needs of all Singapore's land it's the kind of challenge that draws in the adventurous and the curious I'm very much an urban person the city is close to my heart and even more so having worked in detail on the plans over the last 2000 years for Andrew and the URA sometimes that work means creating land from nothing a process known as land reclamation since independence in 1965 Singapore has used reclamation to increase its land mass by about 23 percent one of the most striking examples of this and perhaps a vision that cities across the world may adopt is Singapore's Marina Bay a vast engineering project that has been decades in the making when I first started work with you RA Marina Bay was just a vacant tract of land it was only maybe 10 to 15 years ago too we actively started development of the area Andrew was part of the team that drew up the plan from Marina Bay and translated it into reality it's a betterment dramatically increased the footprint of Singapore but it was designed with the needs of its citizens in mind the traditional central business district just comprises as office space then is only used nine to five five days a week so as we planned Marina Bay we've always so looked to bring in complementary uses so the idea here is you create a mixed-use precinct there the activities carry off 24/7 seven days a week to make the round-the-clock Marina Bay model work the you are a needed infrastructure in land scarce Singapore that meant going underground using precision designed layers of essential services including water and electrical tunnels pedestrian and commercial spaces transportation infrastructure like highways and subways and even telecommunications super highways these hidden underground systems have been designed to meet the needs of Singapore for the next 50 years but some in Singapore are looking beyond that already imagining the cities of the far future I actually think that the future of Singapore is not just about increasing the density around transportation nodes of activity I actually think it's about exploring air rights as well Jason Pomeroy has grand visions for his city the award-winning architect of Singapore's first zero-carbon house the B house his designs are pushing the boundaries of how Singapore might look more than 50 years from now think about creating structures over roads over motorways topping up above existing structures the rooftops today might be sky court sky gardens of recreation if cities expand upwards into the skies conventional methods of Road transportation may no longer be effective perhaps the future of urban transportation will play a major part in shaping the way we live but then all of a sudden you're going to need to think about how to get people up there you know if you were to fast-forward 50 years from now we already see drone technology becoming so advanced why are we not sticking people into those drones again a bit like Blade Runner all of a sudden your sky courts your sky guards even your private terraces to your condo is actually a landing platform for your own personalized drone though the idea of its flying to work may be decades away drone technology is advancing rapidly and could become integral to the evolution of transportation in the cities of tomorrow in Singapore the government has thrown its support behind an advanced program to test the limits of drone capabilities in the world's rapidly expanding urban environments skyways is Airbus's project that is exploring this urban air delivery domain or basically cargo delivery with drones project the drone that we're using is actually fully customized were fully designed by our team here in Singapore to ensure maximum safety in the air the drones have multiple aerospace-grade navigation systems so that if one system malfunctions you can rely on others to fly to its destination the packages that we can deliver by design today is up to four kilograms what we understand is that four kilograms would cover perhaps about 80 85 percent of all the packages that are a parcel deliveries that are done today once the package has been delivered to its slot the mailbox automatically sends a personalized code to the customer so they can pick up the package 24/7 just like that also comes back in Airbus one of our visions is what we call urban air mobility so flying taxis for example the skyways is about enabling the technology it's about looking and moving towards a future where we have then a flying transportation means in an urban setting Singapore innovators are imagining and experimenting the what's next for urban travel drone technology may be the next revolution liberating commuters from their 2-dimensional travel but the challenges facing all of our cities may be more elemental than where we will build and how to get around providing food and water for the millions of people that will pack into our urban environments could be the biggest challenge yet as urban populations rise the world will face unprecedented challenges how to house transport and most importantly feed its people in the future as rural populations decrease ensuring food stability will be key and land scarce Singapore it's a challenge that is already being confronted right now 93% of produce is imported in to Singapore and that's because there just simply is enough land to do farming practices Benjamin Swan came to Singapore as an engineer on the Marina Bay Sands project but having fallen in love with the city he recognized a challenge and an opportunity to help the nation towards its goal of food sustainability Ben is developing a new way to grow food not just in Singapore but in any urban environment sussan air is a controlled environment agriculture farm we effectively replicate what's happening outside in nature to grow impossible products in impossible places Singapore is a trailblazer in this technology having opened the world's first commercial vertical farm in 2012 now sustained air through their patented processes are able to grow produce indoors without sunlight and without soil what we actually have done is we've come up with our own system here to introduce the Seas directly into the firm cues so what that does is ensures we have 100% germination success this broom has been specially designed to take the plant from its initial germination through to a mature state where we can introduce into the mangrove rooms these large-scale growing rooms are astonishing feats of agricultural technology the precision calibration of the growing environment allows these new-age farmers to optimize cultivation at every stage in the plant's growth we control the air temperature the humidity the light durations the light wavelength we control the dissolved oxygen in the water as well as a carbon dioxide saturation there in these closely monitored growing rooms sustained air is creating food history first ever Singaporean grown strawberries actually growing three varieties in this room what we've learned through controlled environment agriculture we can actually emphasize certain characteristics to plants so without using GMO we can make our kale softer we can actually make it sweet a lot of the Singaporeans don't like their products to be bitter so we took it into our R&D lab and what we found was by manipulating the air temperature and humidity in the rest of the wavelength of light and the growth cycles we were able to create a spray product of a growing scale not only is this farm able to produce vegetables perfectly calibrated for Singaporeans but techniques could provide vital farming areas for the densely populated cities of the future traditional land farming grows produce outside on a flat linear area sicinius system grows food inside in any building expanding Agriculture's footprint up into the sky so what vertical farming means for places like Singapore that has very little or has land scarcity is that we can leverage buildings to grow products and with the efficiency that we have within our footprint we believe one day that we could actually produce enough produce indoors to stay in Singapore's map fresh available food will be a necessity in our cities not only to feed citizens but also to keep them healthy as populations age and the incidence of diabetes continues to rise across the developed world Singapore like all cities needs to encourage its citizens to eat smart and well we wanted to deploy food and beverages okay as a tool to manage it could be health it could be wellness it could be performance and of course also for fitness as well believe it or not these colorful sculptures are edible they are the creations of dr. Lehmann why a scientists at Singapore polytechnics food innovation and resource center using the latest breakthroughs in technology she is creating food tailored to the exact calorie and nutrition needs of Singapore's senior citizens we wanted to look at personalized nutrition for a target group to pull so what we started off is basically looking at people with different lifestyles or otherwise looking at people with different health conditions to realize her vision dr. Lee collaborated with bioengineer mark Wang to build a piece of wearable tech that can monitor a person's nutritional requirements Orion developed here at Sonoma Polytechnic is what we call the inter sent system is a no-fun factor for watch the app it's pulling data from the from the wearable so this data can be fed to algorithms to compute specialized individual nutrients that are customized for the individual so a 3d printer could then use this data and print out the appropriate nutrient values suitable for the individual dr. Lee's system is one of the first of its kind in Singapore perhaps the world 2 pair wearable tech with 3d printing to create food with personalized nutritional values this particular printer actually has a beautiful way of allowing us to customize nutrition so there should be probably a chicken rice that is actually high in calcium some de is actually good for potassium and different types of vitamins and minerals there is a custom while still an experimental prototype the potential is staggering this jelly packs a punch with the necessary nutrients for optimizing health and even preventing diseases with greater sets of data from each individual we can now create a whole library or database and identify trends by using machine learning or using AI so that is extremely powerful in the near future to be able to predict potential health issues and mitigate those health issues in population centers before events through imaginative planning and technological innovation Singapore is finding new ways to house and feed its growing population by perhaps one of the biggest challenges facing any global city will be ensuring a constant safe supply of that most precious of resources water Singapore currently uses 2 billion litres of water a day the most efficient source of fresh water is rain and to capitalize on this resource the nation is criss-crossed with an extensive network of rivers and canals the channel every last precious drop of rain into 17 storage reservoirs about two-thirds of Singapore is what the catchment area that's about 400 plus square kilometers so water that falls on a catchment area we will find its way in to our drains and canals which linked to one of our reservoirs Singapore's catchment system is extensive and efficient but to collect rainwater you need land and lots of it Singapore is a small island so we are limited in terms of the catchment area that we have and also now with the changing weather patterns the quarter coming from rain it's a bit unpredictable so we've moved on to more weather is zilean water sources like this alienation as the world warms every city will need to find fresh solutions to provide their citizens with clean water in Singapore the Public Utilities Board is already looking to the future experimenting with new techniques to push the water potential of the little red dot looking ahead our cities need to overcome a variety of challenges rapid urbanization will present problems of growth housing and food sustainability but none may be more crucial than the access to fresh water Singapore currently imports about half of its daily water requirement in the next three decades though the aim is to ensure water sustainability to do so planners are looking to a resource the island nation has in abundance see what I was called this a new toy really it's kind of a toy for us but seriously it's a plan that's designed with robustness reliability is fully automated you kid son oversaw the construction of a brand new state-of-the-art water facility the twice desalination plant we've been working on this project for the last just over two years to get it from a green field and up to the state that you see right behind me a functional 13 million gallons per day desalination plant the twice desalination plant is a modern marvel of precision engineering in land scarce Singapore its footprint is a mere 100 meters by 300 meters that's roughly the size of three football fields this may seem large but it is a relatively small footprint compared to plants of its kind around the world when we did the design in the construction it was quite a challenge that you got to make sure that they are all stacked and arranged in a like a Lego manner that it all fits nicely into a puzzle and and if it forms the plant what you see today despite its small footprint the twice desalination plant houses one of the world's most powerful technologies for producing fresh water from the sea reverse osmosis filters that's actually the heart of the plan where the salt in the seawater gets separated or removed from the water the white tubes in there is the reverse osmosis membrane where Hilda water will be pushed through the membrane this high-tech process is a key part of preparing Singapore for the future a conventional water desalination is energy intensive the electricity you would need to disallow Nate enough water for just one day of Singapore's needs could power a Singaporean household for a thousand years to save energy and reduce the cost of water desalination the pob is now investing in new research Evoque WA is a company working on the desalination process of tomorrow we are demonstrating our next IDI technology for seawater desalination electrodialysis uses electricity to remove salt from seawater pairs of electrodes are placed in a stream of salt water with one positive electrode and one negative the positively charged sodium ions are attracted to the negative electrode and the negatively charged chlorine ions are attracted to the positive electrode this concentrates the salt around the electrodes the process is repeated until the water is salt free now we are building a demonstration plan with a capacity of 3,800 meter cube per day we have plans to photosphere up this technology with a capacity of 100,000 meter cube per day Singapore's innovations in housing food and water are giving us a glimpse of how a forward-thinking city might solve some of the challenges it faces but these solutions will come at a price fast secure and thriving economies will be essential for facing an uncertain future and perhaps no nation understands this better than Singapore the financial sector is a very very critical sector for Singapore almost 12% of our GDP comes from the sector so you understand how critical for us to ensure that this sector is a vibrant sector it is competitive it attracts the best possible ideas as a chief FinTech officer of the Monetary Authority of Singapore sup Nando mohanty needs to ensure that the nation sets a world standard for the financial sector this boils down to one thing technology innovation most of the services and financial sector are going to be powered by technology in 2016 Singapore announced project Ubben a new FinTech experiment using blockchain technology traditionally banks keep a record of all transactions on their own centralized ledger which is susceptible to manipulation by hackers but project kuben keeps all records on a blockchain this means that identical copies of the ledger are kept on a distributed network of computers around the world these computers check in with each other to ensure that their copy of the ledger is correct and if one of the copies does not match the others it is rejected and replaced with a copy that the majority of Ledger's agree is correct it's a tamper with the blockchain to steal money a hacker would need to hack a majority of the computers on the network simultaneously a virtual impossibility the real killer use case is cross border transfer today text two to three days to move money between two countries the whole overseas transfer so if we can apply a technology like blockchain it may give us that opportunity to reduce that time to do cross border transfer and may also reduce the expensive way we move money from a country to be contributing Singapore has long been known as a financial hub home to major banks from around the world the project urban Singapore has ensured that it will stay ahead of the pack when it comes to FinTech in a country short on natural resources the motto is innovate or die and Singapore has taken up that challenge with a startup culture catapulting the nation into the future you [Applause] ideas are one of the intangible resources at power cities Singapore is capitalized on the nation's creative DNA to support and usher in a new wave of innovative companies one of the biggest startup hubs is st engineering tech incubator in O sparks we are focused on solving salty urban challenges particularly solutions in spa cities as far as health tech medical technology is a three hundred and fifty billion dollar global industry one that thrives on the latest ideas like Allen goes revolutionary automated needle targeting system with end system we are able to automate the entire needle alignment process making it very stressful for the doctors we can align the needle to the target at a fraction of the time it is more accurate more than just a surgical assistant Allen's robot can actually help train the next generation of surgeons difficult for surges to be expert in terms of puncture he has to function more than 150 times while such a device which is smart automated junior surgeons probably just required about 40 to 50 puncture and they could be an expert in a few of puncture I know Sparks has also been key in developing life-saving technologies to solve global health problems my name is Jerome I'm the head of engineering at Ennis parks and I'm also the lead engineer for a plasma mask so we actually started the project development into zero one three when Singapore was hit with severe haste during the 2013 Southeast Asian haze crisis large-scale wildfires blanketed the region in impenetrable smog shattering all records and pollution indexes stores sold out of high quality air filtration masks worse yet parents with this main to learn that all masks on the market were built for adults we actually went to do a 3d facial scanning of more than 850 children and adults and then using an algorithm that we developed in-house proprietary we came up with three sizes of master fits children adults to the elderly using thermal imaging the benefits of these masks leap into focus we can see that actually the mass itself stays pretty much purple this is a quick way to show that the ventilator is actually effective in venting heat from the mask while a vital part of Singapore's economy the tech scene is not just about software or hardware at its core it is about hardware providing for its citizens we want to create innovations that have a real way impact so we take a very user centered approach Singapore's digital economy is providing real tangible benefits to people and some of its brightest inventors are focusing on the far future local startup transfer Phi has developed a technology that could change the way we think about electricity – power transfer is inherently being able to transfer power wirelessly we using radiofrequency to be able to transfer power in terms of the construct behind it is electromagnetic waves essentially our within a wave form the custom-built transmitter converts electrical current into electromagnetic waves using a complex algorithm this wave is modulated and focused into a tight beam transmitted to an array of antennas using radio frequency the receiver harvests the radio frequency waves and converts them to direct current which is able to power electrical devices the system is ready now so the signal is now generating I think now we are ready to switch on the power amplifier ta da ba da is on now I switch is on without any any wires that it to it no battery is nothing it's all power through air this simple demonstration gives a hint of the enormous potential of the system as the technology is scaled up to further distances it could revolutionize every industry that relies on electricity creating the world's first long-range safe and efficient wireless power networks there's a lot of uses I mean it's ubiquitous technology I mean you can use wireless power transfer distribution for almost anything from consumer electronics to medical devices to offshore renewables to sensors you know for automation Singapore's digital startups are dreaming up ingenious new technology proving that perhaps the greatest resource will need in the future is imagination in tomorrow's super connected smart cities every aspect of our lives could be affected by the constantly changing world of digital technology preparing the next generation for this future is top of mind for most educators of today in Singapore that preparation starts early using tech tools to teach children the building blocks of a digital mindset including the most basic skill needed for coding sequential learning sequential learning it seems easy for us doubts but it's actually not easy for them at all to know who comes first and who comes next all right children we're going to move over there and then we're gonna find your trial ease then are we gonna put them in your basket I feel that there's a lot of skills that they can gain from having the tech toys as well Melanie problem solving skills communication skills language skills as well and also they learn how to problem-solve sequential as well the play maker program there are three tech toys the B board is something that is very friendly and very easy to operate because there's only a few buttons for the children to use so for example we have the forward and backward 10 11 10 right button people I would say it's a little bit high-end order thinking whereby children will have to sequence the blocks as pretty in order and they have to scan the barcode so for kibo it won't function if they don't start with a begin block and any with the end block so during that time children actually get to do a trial and error to see whether it works or not these tech toys introduce children to advanced learning concepts in doing so they are arming future generations of Singaporeans with the skills necessary for computer programming and literacy without exposing them to too much screen time this dynamic new approach to education is of critical importance for parents helping to prepare their children for the workplaces of the future I've got three boys they are 12 Levin and youngest Paul since I'm in the finance line the current way to go is the FinTech the concern for how my kids are going to cope with the new change India Korea Falls has always been there definitely I feel these tools will actually help children to prepare the workforce in the future because we actually building the foundation for example the foundation of language the foundation of problem-solving the foundation of communicating with people tech literacy is not just a challenge for newer generations as populations around the world image that need to become digitally literate cuts across all age brackets Singapore is tackling this problem head-on with proactive efforts to provide tech education to all of its citizens ensuring none are left offline was any cookie father as a woman loudly Bader Lana Lana is she nice actually so campus an Indian War Isaac awaiting at sinasu tea or tea person who you just a Diwali mr. towns journey to digital fluency came at a clinic held by Singapore's info-communications Media Development Authority no boat on the reservation simply retract ow take a bow Iowa Jessica Whitman mission FH analytical vasectomy wait at a tea party for while companion Aryan using the network a McCoy t new continuity which decision today mama you same tag we wrestled signal I want to saw do we develop our chicken de Caen her much chairman missions I even as generosity even toe-to-toe colleano lesson you have learned her income continued since we can differ by her tenacity Tahoe Singapore's focus on training all of its citizens for the future is nurturing a highly educated versatile and connected population connectivity and community will shape the world of tomorrow and in Singapore that sense of community is already revealing itself in new and surprising ways we are racing towards a future that will be dominated by technology in the decades to come dedicated citizens will find ways to harness that technology to make a positive impact enhancing lives through creative innovation in Singapore technology is already being created that will care for the nation's most vulnerable we try to provide sleep wellness for newborn babies and also premature babies so what you do is that you actually put a baby on it and after you sleep for about minute we can give you the breath calm and know how well your baby is sleeping when a baby sleep they have a lot of periodic breathing that means they breathe and they be stopped debrief and stop now this happened to 2% of the newborn baby but it happened to 60% for premature babies periodic breathing dramatically reduces oxygen flow which can have a detrimental effect on a baby's growth and even their cognitive development the breath optic system uses fiber-optic technology to help monitor this or Frank this project is personal I think one of the driving force of us inventing this product but we cost 24 years ago I had a premature son at a point in time I bought whatever is available to try to monitor a baby and I Chi for for one month me and my wife didn't sleep in the same room because we took Chow our ship to stay at a baby so we took turns to do look after my son for fall for a while so when we were able to use the optic technology optic fiber technology to create such a sensor we really know what we want because I was in that position with you when your son is okay now oh my sighs perfecto hmm this life and kicking in well the spirit of using technological ingenuity to improve lives has been built into the city itself with green corridors and protected parkland keep in Singapore from becoming a concrete jungle in its efforts conserve and protected status as a city in a garden and Parks is employing the power of technology so one of the tools that we use is called the SU by OLS app it's a free citizen science base at where everybody can download and you could make hot boy outside things that you see in Singapore it could be at your park it could be in a forest in Singapore and using this data you can develop some conservation or management strategies where we could consider them heavy threats are for Texas and green spaces the app is empowering Singapore citizens to play a meaningful role in the conservation and protection of the city's incredible biodiversity those of us over there the other junk awful and they're like chickens about yeah technically not chickens right walking home in the daytime whether you should be working by the nighttime I'll be probably down on my couch and watching television I spend most of my time on the phone watching YouTube playing games not only is the citizen science program healthy and parks maintain Singapore's rich ecosystem but also helping people build connections with green spaces and each other Singapore is our schedule and so what we need is to preserve what we have now and using the technology we are able to provide feedback to national paper on the species that we still have a cell phone as the modern world rapidly marches towards urbanization our future cities will face unprecedented pressures innovation and technological advancements will help bring pork down to how we move how we work and how we learn in Singapore that change is already underway it feels like we are part of building and creating a Singapore that is vibrant safe and also sustainable for the people now and also for the future if we can do it here in Singapore we can literally do it anywhere in the world and we are excited almost on a everyday basis we are motivated by the fact that we can make a difference I heard from one Nobel Prize winner only a prepared mind can see opportunity and we are using this opportunity by getting us who prepared you seem a ho guys look kikuchi vermin come father Logan is objective term has a tsunami it intended even funny

Greece देश के बारे में जानिये – Know everything about Greece , The Cradle of Western Civilization

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Alternative lectures: What is Humanism? (Part 1)

Views:5217|Rating:4.71|View Time:18:18Minutes|Likes:33|Dislikes:2
Professor of Sociology Frank Furedi answers the question ‘What is Humanism?’ in this short lecture filmed in the WORLDbytes studio. Whilst humanist ideas have been around for a long time, he observes, they have never been more weakly affirmed than at present. In ancient as well as renaissance times thinkers struggled with questions around what forces determine our destiny and began to formulate ideas that human beings themselves, rather than God or nature had a responsibility for making the world. Humanism, we learn, begins to flourish in renaissance Italy and finds more mature expression in the 17th and 18th centuries. Modern determinisms such as 19th century economic determinism or today’s eco-determinism, biological determinism or psychological determinism are all really evasions or excuses that diminish our own sense of taking responsibility for what happens. A Humanist outlook should equip us with an orientation towards reason, problem-solving and a healthy scepticism towards determinisms (or the fates) in the present day. Professor Furedi doesn’t overcomplicate the issue or use mystifying jargon in this refreshing and enlightening lecture.

so what is humanism humanism is a body of ideas that's been around for a very very long period of time it usually existed in a very unsystematic fragmented way because it was simply an attempt to answer some very basic questions that people have been asking for example for thousands of years we've been asking the question who determines our fate who determines our future we've been asking questions about just how much of our life is shaped and influenced by forces outside of our control how much of our life is the result or freewill and these were very difficult questions that people were looking at because they all knew there very often what they intended to do with their lives didn't actually occur and very often they realized that a lot of the issues that they were confronted with were the result of chance they were the result of circumstance that they had no control over and it wasn't really always the case that they were able to accomplish what they set out to do what's interesting is that a very early stage in human development already with the ancient Greeks back 5,000 years ago people were already grappling with the idea that possibly it is humans themselves who shaped their destiny the destiny wasn't something that was external to themselves this was a very radical idea at the time because you have to remember that until modern times people used to think that whatever happened to them whatever happened that our family was the result to a god or a group of divinities who decided their faith that they as people could more or less suffer the dictates of gods rather than accomplish anything on their own accord and yet already at a very early stage people are beginning to say well maybe we do have some degree of control over our lives you have a man like the Greek philosopher Pythagoras who argued the man is the measure of all things a very radical idea but obviously at that time this was very much a minority opinion it wasn't something that the vast majority of society could accept as we move along in historical time you know we find for example in ancient Rome a beginning of a discussion about what they called Fortuna or fortune the god of fortune and the kind of questions that they were discussing was to what extent is fortune something that totally decides our destiny to what extent are we powerless to make our own way in the world or is there a bit of latitude a bit of scope for us to decide you know what the future brings and in the Roman days they began to say well alright maybe our destiny is beyond our control but if we exercise a bit of virtue a bit of courage a bit of reasoning it is possible to sort of decide for ourselves some of the outcomes that were alive and in Rome already of this beginning of an attempt to understand that here's a human individual and as part of a community are able to make decisions about what happens to you in the long run thousands of years after that in the medieval ages all the way to the fifteen sixteenth century that idea of of human agency of people making their own circumstances their people making history tended to be very marginal and very limited within culture Western culture and also Eastern culture however what happened in the 15th and the 16th century is that in a number of Italian city-states Italian Republic's like Venice Milan Siena people began to rethink the whole idea of Fortuna of destiny and in the Renaissance what we called the Renaissance period you do have the beginning of what we call humanism the idea that human beings in some shape or form can determine their future that in some sense they're responsible for the outcomes of their action and they responsible for what happens to their communities she said very radical I did because for the first time people begin to understand that a lot of what happens in the world is actually the consequence of human actions it is not God it is not nature it is not some mystic mystical and mysterious force that kind of is responsible for the building of Venice or the reason why you have palaces in Rome these are human accomplishment these are the outcome of human activity especially in the Renaissance period in the 15th early 16th century that you have the beginnings of what we call humanism take shape acquire a real form and a real character to it at that time and for some centuries to come humanism would be again as still a minority opinion still on the relative margins of society but he began to have an increasing amount of influence on the way people thought you have as a result of that the growing influence of science the growing influence of what we call secular thought where it's no longer religion that is seen as the main form of explanation of the world around us but rather we have secular knowledge that is meant to be doing that and gradually as we get into the 18th century we do begin to develop and evolve a human centered conception of the world for the first time in the 17th and 18th century we began to have decide they're very radical idea that you and I as people are not simply subjected to the power of these divinities we're not simply subjected to forces beyond our control gradually we begin to realize that actually we are the authors of our destiny we're not the objects of history with the subjects of history a very radical idea begins to evolve at that particular stage in time and it's really at this point in the 18th century humanism begins to gray maturity it becomes a mature doctrine that gained strength it gains confidence and I think what has really helped it's quite a it was that alongside is more mature form of humanism we have the ascendancy of science you have just Senden see enlightenment thought and at creasing belief that the world that we live is made by ourselves the world including nature including the history of communities is really very much subject to the influence of what people do in their everyday lives and what they do when they begin to mobilize and act in relation to specific problems that they're confronted with so we have now a very new way of looking at the world we kind of move away from the old idea that what happens is God's will we no longer say it's the fates we no longer say its nature or its Gaia what we begin to increasingly say is that what happens it's very much the result of our own sort of struggles it's a result of our own imagination it's the outcome of our creativity we begin to have greater and greater confidence in the collective creative power of humanity now as that occurs we do also run into some problems see one of the problems that we run into is that when you begin to realize that you and I and the communities that we live in are responsible for what goes on in the world it's actually a very scary thing just think about for a while that everything that occurs around almost everything that occurs can be directly attributed to the agency of human beings you do begin to get a bit worried and disoriented because you realize first of all just how much power humans have potentially how much power human beings possess but also you begin to realize that very often when things don't work out the way we anticipated it went in things don't work out well it's still down to human intervention a lot of people myself included often find it very easy to avoid taking responsibility for what occurs in well we often find it much easier to see well actually it wasn't my fault it was it was nature or it wasn't our fault because it was the gods that you know created the circumstances or the reason why we didn't manage to realize our objective is because we didn't get the brakes we didn't have any luck there's always a temptation on the part of human beings to avoid taking responsibility both individually and collectively for the outcomes of their action and to look for other explanations other than a human centered one and that is something that a lot of humanists find it very difficult to grapple with because a lot of human is that I know simply think that the problem is religion that it ashamed that still people that people still believe that it's gods or a God that is responsible for what happens in the community is what happens to their lives but actually it's not just simply religion that can act as a focus for our excuses it's not merely a God that helps are still worth taking responsibility for human behavior there are other ways in which you can do this and in the last two three hundred years what we've begun to do is to develop a lot of arguments a lot of ideas that seek to bypass a humanist explanation what goes on within society I call these excuses determinisms there are different determinism that we use and by what I mean is that we develop philosophies and theories that essentially argue that it's not our subjectivity as individuals but something external to us that determines our fate and our existence so for example in the 19th century it was frequently argued that its economic determinism that shapes what happens to us that there are these economic forces beyond our control and they are totally responsible or largely responsible for just about everything that occurs within our lives you know who we marry you know what kind of food we eat what kind of political cultures we adopt and embrace all these things are still determined by us now we don't use economic deterministic arguments that much anymore but if you go to university if you go at school you will hear still hear people talk about the forces of globalization and the minute you hear the force of globalization that sends the signal that these forces outside of us have the power to capture our imagination and to shape our destiny that's one determinism another determinism that we often use is biological determinism where it's argued that it our biology that shapes our destiny that we are almost the prisoners of our biology today we have a variant of that which is a genetic determinism there are genes in some shape or form make us who we are so some people argue that we have a gay gene the reason why you're homosexual is because a certain gene in your body disposes you in that direction others argue that the reason why you're conservative is because you have a conservative gene and something in your genetic makeup disposed you towards being conservative and we have all kinds of explanations about our behavior about our psychology that rely entirely upon genetics or largely on genetics texplor explain who we are we have for example environmentally determinism where we basically argued that is the environment and its nature that shapes who we are and really human beings are just like more sophisticated animals I don't know if you read books that often argue that if you look at a couple of monkeys hanging out on the trees you can already see that their behavior which is entirely programmed by nature anticipates the way you and I behave and very often people carry out studies amongst chimpanzees or gorillas in an attempt to show that our behavior as men and women is already determined within the natural domain we have today for example neuroscience which is very popular you must have heard of neuroscience literally everything these days whether you are a criminal whether you're a drug addict whether you are a gentle person whether you're a selfish person whether you are a successful person it's all determined by your brains and apparently what neuroscience claims to do is to explain a vast variety or characteristics and finally we have what is in many respects the most powerful determinism wall and that's psychological determinism and what psychological determinism suggests is that our emotional life is predetermined at a very early stage it's already determining childhood and for example if something bad happens to us as a child if we're emotionally traumatized or confused that that explains why later on in life we adopt certain behavioral patterns we even use expressions like scored for life if you've trauma to the child you're scarred for life the implication being that you're always and forever haunted but a very early experience so psychological determinism like neuro determinism like economic determinism all play a very similar role that religion used to play which is to point to the world out there point to some invisible forces out there which in a sense shapes our destiny makes us who we are and what I'm really trying to argue is that with all these influences that are kind of bearing down upon us it is very understandable that people find it very difficult to affirm the humanistic legacy of history and to build on it that's the challenge that humanists face the problem that we face is not religion it's not a specific form of determinism it's the fact that you and I and most of us are very easily swayed towards simplistic dogmatic explanations black-and-white explanations that spares us of the responsibility of working out for ourselves just what it is and that needs to be done just what is the future direction of humanity very difficult for us to genuinely embrace the idea that you and I and our communities are capable of making history and are capable of determining or at least shaping our future why is that well the reason why is because humanism is not a Dogma precisely what is the problem with humanism for many that it's a bit complex it's also what's so wonderful about it the really nice thing about humanism what I love about the idea of humanism as a as an idea is that it's an open-ended orientation to the world humanists do not have the answer before the questions are posed we don't arrive with a little book that says this is the humanists text a manual or a Bible that gives you the answer for all time that's not what human is about what humanism does is it sensitizes people towards problems jean-paul Sartre the existentialist philosopher said humanism doesn't give you the answers it Orient's you the words using your power of reasoning what humanism does is it helps you to solve problems it forces you to be open to new ideas and I think it's that which gives humanism its real edge because what we'll know very very clearly from the humanist experience is that there aren't any absolute truths there aren't any truths that are true for all time which isn't to say that we escape in the refuge of relativism and simply say well anything is possible anything can be true no but it says is that there aren't truths for all times but there are truths to be discovered in relation to the specific problems at the moment and therefore what humanism is is a set of ideas that gives us temporary insights into the problem of the moment but which at at the same time as giving us those insights giving us those answers also sensitize us to the need to begin to know to simply live on that and just simply flatter ourselves that we have the answers but to go on and look at the questions that haven't been asked yet thank you

Geo Bee 2018 – Full Episode | National Geographic

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Watch the final rounds of the National Geographic Bee, as ten bright kids face off with challenging geography questions. Find out who wins!
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Geo Bee 2018 – Full Episode | National Geographic

National Geographic

welcome to the 30th annual National Geographic V let's meet your 10 finalists from Texas thirteen-year-old Neha Jenga is a winner of the 2016 Scripps National Spelling Bee when he's not studying geography he enjoys playing football and video games with friends from California 13-year old van cut Ron Jun plays the piano and has been competing in both his school and state beast since 2015 from Arizona thirteen-year-old gayatri Kimmel has been snorkeling in Hawaii when she's back in the lower 48 she loves listening to music and reading from Ohio thirteen-year-old socket potaraju has won the Ohio State beef three years in a row he's also quite the outdoorsman he loves playing tennis and exploring nature from New Jersey thirteen year old anushka booty coat has been playing violin since the young age of seven she's also an avid reader and plans on writing a novel about an explorer from Massachusetts 11 year old a trio mallanna is an accomplished athlete he plays cricket soccer and swims from Oregon 13-year old Ashwin Sivakumar is a composer and birder he's even spent time bird-watching while traveling through Costa Rica from Georgia fourteen-year-old Vishal surrett II counts Hawaii among his coolest destinations and loves playing basketball and running cross-country from North Carolina 14 year old Jonathan song plays golf and is on a competitive robotics team when he's not tearing it up on the course he loves traveling he's made it all the way to China and finally from New Hampshire 14 year old Sean Chang enjoys speedcubing traveling and fishing a competitor in all areas he also loves to play high-level soccer here they are the 2018 National Geographic Bee finalists and now your host journalist humorist and Emmy award-winning writer mo well hello everyone I am thrilled to be back in Washington DC hosting the National Geographic Bee which turns 30 this year which means it's only two years older than I am this year 2.6 million students competed in their school Geographic bees 54 top geographers from each state and u.s. territory earned the right to compete this week and after a series of preliminary rounds 10 extremely worthy finalists made it to this stage today one of these bright minds will earn a fifty thousand dollar scholarship and the title of National Geographic Bee champion are you ready to begin let's get started the first seven rounds will focus on u.s. geography this first round will require spoken answers only I'm going to ask each of you a question about a capital city in the United States a photo related to your question will appear on your monitor you will be asked to name the city and state that it's in these questions are worth one point you will have 12 seconds to answer students are you ready they're ready here we go Nihar we begin with you here is the first question this state capital on the Pearl River was named after a president of the United States named this city and state Jackson Mississippi that is correct for one point vane cut home to the Mark Twain House and museum this state capitol is north of the Long Island Sound named this city and state Hartford Connecticut that is correct gayatri located in the Central Valley this state capitol was the western terminus for both the Pony Express and the first transcontinental railroad named this city and state Sacramento California you got it socket this state capital is northwest of Daniel Boone National Forest and is located in the bluegrass region named this city and state Frankfort Kentucky that is right a new sky this state capital is located near both the big belt mountains and the source of the Missouri River named this city and state Helena Montana that is correct a TRAI founded by the French this state capital is located 150 miles upstream from the Mississippi River Delta named this city and state Baton Rouge Louisiana that is correct Ashwin located on the Hudson River this state capital was an active trading post in the 1600s named this city and state Albany New York you got it vishal located about 20 miles from the Platte River this state Capitol building is topped by a nearly 20 foot statue of a farmer named this city and state Lincoln Nebraska Lincoln Nebraska is correct Jonathan located on the eastern edge of the Sierra Nevada this State Capitol experienced a silver rush in the 1850s named this city and state Carson City Nevada that is right Sean this state capitol is east of the Ouachita Mountains and is home to the William J Clinton Presidential Library named this city and state Oklahoma City Oklahoma I'm sorry the answer was Little Rock Arkansas and we are off and running at the 2018 National Geographic Bee these ten gifted finalists are competing for $85,000 in college scholarships today's champion will win fifty thousand of it along with a lifetime membership to the National Geographic Society and a Lindblad expedition to the Galapagos Islands aboard the National Geographic endeavor to second place will earn a $25,000 scholarship and $10,000 goes to the third place finisher sounds pretty good right I'd say so for round two you'll use your stylus and tablets everyone answers this next question at the same time this question is worth one point and you'll have 12 seconds to write your answer national parks have been called America's greatest idea and yet these and other public lands face serious threats National Geographic is dedicated to furthering our understanding of these critical ecosystems and inspiring action to protect them take a look at your monitors Yellowstone National Park is a geological and ecological wonder it was the world's first national park and covers nearly 3,500 square miles but it's ecosystem is threatened by activity outside its borders while it is best known for its bison bears and wolves the parks most abundant large mammal is the elk whose migration paths reach well beyond Yellowstone's boundaries and here is your question elk once roamed most to the United States but hunting and loss of habitat reduced to their range to the area of what mountain range that includes Yellowstone National Park and that stretches from New Mexico to British Columbia you will have 12 seconds to write down your answer time's up let's see what you wrote and surprise surprise for one point the correct answer is Rocky Mountains ten for ten nicely done you can now put down your stylus because round three will require spoken answers only I'm going to ask each of you question that will test your knowledge of revered places in the United States when it's your turn a photo related to your question will appear on your monitor Nihar we begin with you here is your question sacred to many Alaskans this mountain was known by the early a sebastian people as the tall one and it may have been central to their creation story named this mountain mount denali or mount mckinley well done denali is correct for one point and mount mckinley was also acceptable thank you van cut Thornhill Chappell blends into the surrounding woods giving visitors a sense that they are seated in the forest itself the chapel is located in what physiographic region that covers much of northern Arkansas and southern Missouri the Ozark plateau the Ozark plateau is correct Gayatri Big Sur a scenic region along the California coast has long attracted Native Americans Hermits and artists this region stretches from carmel-by-the-sea to San Simeon along what mountain range the Sierra Nevada I'm sorry we were looking for Santa Lucia sake the city of Nauvoo attracts visitors due to its historic importance as the home of the Latter day Saints from 1839 to 1846 before they traveled west to the Great Salt Lake neva is located upstream from Quincy on what River the Mississippi River that is correct anooshka this famous gospel choir performs all over the world sharing the joy of faith through music the choir shares its name with a large neighborhood in Upper Manhattan that is a center of african-american culture named this neighborhood Harlem Harlem is correct a TRAI ceremonial chamber is called Kiva's were a feature of pre-columbian structures in North America built by the ancestral Puebloans Kiva's can be found in what Canyon that shares its name with a National Historical Park in northwestern New Mexico Chaco Canyon Chaco Canyon is correct Ashlin each year Mardi Gras celebrations draw thousands of revelers to public spaces throughout New Orleans including Bourbon Street and Jackson Square in what district that is the city's oldest French Quarter French Quarter is correct Mashal formed by the eruption of Mount Mazama some 7,000 years ago this lake in Oregon was held sacred by the local Klamath people and is the main feature of a national park named this Lake Crater Lake Crater Lake is correct johnathan mission concepción built in 1755 was one of several Spanish missions established to protect borders from French encroachment and to convert Native Americans to Catholicism these missions are near what River that shares its name with a large Texas City the San Antonio River that is correct Shawn Native Americans in north-central Wyoming have long used this stone medicine wheel for ceremonies and to predict astronomical events this sacred site is a national landmark in what mountain range that is a source of the Powder River the Absaroka Range I'm sorry we were looking for Bighorn Mountains three rounds down four more to go before we say goodbye to the students with the four lowest scores but with eight points up for grabs it's still anyone's game now before we dive back into the competition let's get to know a little bit more about our ten fine finalists Nihar let's begin with you you are also the winner of the 2016 Scripps National Spelling Bee that is very impressive can you spell my first name in French em oh I'm sorry it's MEA you will settle it later with the score vein cut Ranjan you're from San Ramon California give me sort of a fun fact about San Ramon like maybe a point of interest what's the best thing about it the headquarters of the oil company Chevron that's all we have a little company okay that you plan on taking over maybe once you leave here and it's a great place to live right yeah okay you gonna work for the Chamber of Commerce Gayatri it says here that you went snorkeling in Hawaii and had a family of dolphins swim right next to the boat how could you tell they were a family well that's what the tour guide said so I'm sorry what's that that's what the tour guide said I know but they could have been friends just hanging out was it exciting hmm was it exciting yeah yeah all right excellent sock age you are from Ohio and you won the Ohio State gob three years in a row where all the questions about Ohio no okay right what do you know that old song isn't always it's round on the end and high in the middle oh hi oh you have to be 49 or older to get that oops I gave it away so anushka it says here this is really cool that you enjoy reading fiction and plan on writing a book about an explorer do you know which explorer are you interested in I think everything from the Renaissance and like all the explorers coming to the new world that's something that's really interested me so I think that's an interesting story concept okay Oh interesting alright and and you've played the violin for how long I think six or seven years and how was it balancing studying for this and playing the violin or did one help the other in a way it's a really good break a lot of the time like if I'm studying it I'm just not remembering stuff then it's something I'll just go and do play for an hour and then I'll be able to retain much more information that way right I love that she blows off steam by studying the violin how low do I feel that's it very impressive it's gonna mess around and get off that violin come on you're wasting time so are a trio you are the youngest one here how does it how does that feel I mean you're I mean you're in fifth grade it feels good to be like the youngest one right like I have nothing to lose because you got time I mean you're gonna survive all these people here you've got years ahead of you right you yeah that's a good point because you can just right really sort of just have fun because you got years to go with this eligibility yeah and you really are just 11 this is not a ruse yeah I'm 11 okay our a Schwinn this is the second time I've moderated with you up here you were here two years ago yeah what happened last year no kidding no it's very very impressive that you're here twice okay you were now you were just recently traveling through Costa Rica tell us about that well it was really cool cuz unlike other countries in Latin America Costa Rica has really taken a lot of efforts to preserve its biodiversity so we got to travel through a lot of really pristine rainforests and natural environments that don't really exist anymore anywhere else in Latin America so it's very incredible well that's wonderful and there's I think an election coming up and Costa Rica and he should be on the ballot Vishal you are from Georgia yeah George has a lot of great crops yes so I have to ask you the question peanuts or peaches peaches that is correct for an extra point it's a wonderful state that it's a beautiful state all right Jonathan from North Carolina Jonathan song you were on a robotics team that competes in the first tech challenge what is that well it's like it's like you make these like mini robots it's not the full-size once but they compete on a field and they do missions when you eventually create your own robot what is what is what is your priority what is the one thing you want your robot to be able to do if it could do anything and I'm guessing Jonathan's parents feel the same way all right Sean Chang from New Hampshire your hobbies include speed cubing and at first when I read it I thought it was speed clubbing and I thought you're a little young for that so what is speed cubing it's just solving like Rubik's cubes as fast as you can it specifically Rubik's cubes what calm there's like different sized ones like the traditional ones like a 3×3 but there's different sizes and how fast can you do sort of an old-fashioned rubik's cube um my best competition time is nine point two nine seconds nine point two seconds yeah oh my gosh that's Wow how long it takes me to make the first turn oh and I'm red so it is it do you know what the state fruit of New Hampshire is no all right well it's in the final round no I'm kidding all right it's a pumpkin I thought that that was kind of cute and confusing because I thought a pumpkin was just a decoration or maybe a vegetable all right let's give a shout out at this point to our other 44 finalists these brilliant students and now back to our competition for round four you'll need your stylus again because everyone answers this question at the same time this question is worth one point the National Geographic Society is committed to exploring and protecting our planet and supporting bold individuals who are pushing the boundaries of knowledge take a look at your monitors Daniella kavagi is a biologist and National Geographic young Explorer as a child in Mexico she was attracted to strange and misunderstood animals like spiders and snakes today she is fortunate to work with one of the most mysterious creatures bats Daniella's current project is to identify and preserve bat species in archeological zones so at night she spends time inside pyramids looking for these beautiful animals and here is your question some female lessor long-nosed bats migrate to the United States to roost in a National Monument that borders Mexico these bats are the primary pollinators of a species of cactus that gave its name to the monument what is the name of this cactus you will have 12 seconds to write down your answer time's up let's see what everyone wrote for one point the correct answer is organ pipe okay so let's see how everyone did three of you had the correct answer I was a nail-biter there we've come to the first geo challenge of the competition we'll be testing you not just on what you know but how well you know it each of you will be presented with a different map of the contiguous United States and two choices for what that map is showing you will have ten seconds to tell us your answer if you are correct you will receive one point and the opportunity to explain why for a possible two additional points we will give you a few moments to think about your response and when the bell rings you'll have twenty seconds in which to complete your explanation a panel of judges will determine if your explanation is strong enough to earn the additional two points when it's your turn take a look at your monitor ready me heart take a look at your map does this map show vegetation zones or average wind speeds this map is showing vegetation zones I'm sorry the correct answer is average wind speeds so unfortunately you don't get any points vayne cut take a look at your map does this map show irrigated land or peach production this map shows irrigated land that is correct for one point for two additional points tell us why this answer is correct this map is showing irrigated land because areas that do not naturally receive a lot of water that support farming are shown in the map like the Central Valley of California and the Snake River Valley of Idaho this map cannot be a peach production map because most peaches are grown in the south especially in Georgia all right and we're gonna give the judges a moment to confer and the judges are quite satisfied with your answer so two additional for you Gayatri take a look at your map does this map show percent of federal land or miles driven per capita this map shows miles driven per capita that is correct for one point for two additional points tell us why this answer is correct had this map shown percent of federal land places like Arizona and New Mexico with lots of land owned federally by the government would have had a higher shading this map shows miles driven per capita because open places like Wyoming and Montana have give the judges a moment to confer and you just got those two additional points for your answer for your explanation socket does your map show average minimum wage or ferryboat boardings by state this map shows average minimum wage I'm sorry that is incorrect the correct answer is very boat boardings by state so no points for you anooshka does your map show pesticide use or number of dairy cows its map shows pesticide use pesticide use is correct you're in one point for two additional points tell us why this answer is correct this map shows pesticide use because the highest concentrations are in the Great Plains and along the Mississippi River where a lot of pesticides are used in farming if this map was showing number of dairy cows there would be a much higher concentration in Wisconsin and Texas we'll give the judges a moment to confer and Anushka they like your answers or two additional points for you at Raya take a look at your map and tell us does it show percent homeless or literacy rate what is your rate I'm sorry at Raya the incorrect answer is percent homeless Ashwin does your map show the range of the Blackbear or the range of the ponderosa pine range of the ponderosa pine that is correct and for one point for two additional points tell us why this answer is correct this map shows range of the ponderosa pine because all of the coloring is in the western United States where the range of the ponderosa pine is in the interior West it doesn't show black bear because black bears are also found in the eastern United States judges what say you the judges like that answer two additional points for ashlynn Vishal just your map show number of days with freezing temperatures or average annual snowfall average annual snowfall it is average annual snowfall for one point for two additional points tell us why your answer is correct this map shows average annual snowfall because area such as the Colorado Rockies and the Sierra Nevada have a high concentration in this map and this map does not show freezing temperatures because there would be a higher concentration in areas such as north like Western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee where there would be more freezing temperatures the judge is approve of the shawls explanation for two additional points Jonathan take a look at your map does this map show public libraries or golf courses public libraries public libraries is correct your honor to additional points tell us why this answer is correct this map shows public libraries because the higher concentration on this map is in the cities where the majority of public libraries are located it doesn't show golf courses because golf courses can also be found in rural and silver in areas judges the judges like that answer to additional points to Jonathan Shawn does your map show Superfund hazardous waste sites or four-year colleges four-year colleges I'm sorry the correct answer was Superfund hazardous waste sites and that concludes the first geo challenge round five rounds down and two more to go before our first four eliminations there are four points up for grabs over the next two rounds you'll need your stylus again in round six we'll be hearing from a National Geographic Explorer take a look at your monitors hi I'm Courtney Bergersen I am an anthropologist a conservation biologist and a National Geographic Explorer you'll often find me in Madagascar where I study ecosystem balance and the illegal hunting of endangered lemurs but I'm also passionate about education and I visit classrooms in the u.s. to teach students about scientific inquiry right in their own backyards now here's your question one of my first experiences with science was a school field trip to a u.s. island that is home to the world's longest-running predator-prey study this lake island is now overpopulated with moose and scientists want to bring the island back into ecological balance by repopulating it with wolves named this lake island which is also a national park we'll have 12 seconds to write down your answer time's up let's see what everyone wrote for one point the correct answer is all together now Isle Royale now let's take a moment to review the scores before our next round Ashwin is in front and there is a five-way tie bang cut Gayatri anushka vishal and jonathan right behind there okay after this round the four students with the lowest scores will leave us but there are still three points up for grabs for each student in round seven the aptly named lightning round here's how it works I'll give you each I'll give each of you three questions in a row and you'll have six seconds to answer each one point is awarded for each correct response get ready this one moves like like lightning I'll work on my delivery okay here we go Neha what is the name of the largest swamp on the border of Virginia and North Carolina the Great Dismal Swamp that is correct and again Nihar why'm a a canyon is located on which Hawaiian island Kauai that is correct name the state reptile of Mississippi alligator the American alligator that is correct bang cut name the oldest existing national park east of the Mississippi River Acadia that is correct again been cut name the widest falls section at Niagara Falls Horseshoe Falls Horseshoe Falls is correct settlers in Oklahoma who started the land rush early inspired what nickname for the state the Sooner State that is correct dietary what large city in eastern Tennessee was the state's first capital Memphis I'm sorry the answer is Knoxville again to gayatri Providence Rhode Island is located at the head of what Bay the Narragansett Bay that is correct what is Washington State's most valuable food crop in terms of total revenue apples apples is correct socket name the highest mountain peak in Vermont Mount Mansfield that is correct what is the largest island of American Samoa to to ela to two wheelers correct what fruit is on the standard Florida license plate in orange the orange is correct anooshka named the rift Lake on the San Andreas Fault that is the largest lake in California the Salton Sea Salton Sea is correct name the sub range of the Rocky Mountains that marks the western border of Montana the Bitterroot range that is right what two and a half mile walking route in Boston Massachusetts connects 16 historic sites the Freedom Trail the Freedom Trail is correct a TRAI named the largest city on Colorado's Cache la Poudre River Fort Collins Fort Collins is correct name the group of islands in northern Wisconsin that make up part of a National Lakeshore apostille Islands you got it what gift from France is pictured on the State Quarter of New York Statue of Liberty Statue of Liberty is correct Ashwin named the largest lake in Alaska like Iliamna that is correct what River forms most of the border between Texas and Louisiana the Sabine River the Sabine River is correct what is the official dance of the state of Hawaii who uh who less correct Vishal what Bay is the sunken estuary of the Susquehanna River Chesapeake Bay that's correct name the largest city on the Cuyahoga River Cleveland Cleveland is correct what is the popular name for the group of stars depicted on Alaska State Flag the Big Dipper the Big Dipper is right Jonathan name the highest mountain peak in California Mount Whitney you got it named the capital of Guam could you name the capital of Guam sorry Agana that is acceptable yes forgot huh got Mia Oregon ah that's correct what is the official crustacean of Louisiana the crawfish that is correct Shawn what a North Carolina city is located at the confluence of the Swannanoa River and the French Broad River Charlotte I'm sorry the answer is Asheville named the largest lake in Maine which is the source of a can aback river Meuse head lake that is correct in 1812 soldiers from Tennessee inspired what nickname for the state the Volunteer State the Volunteer State is corrrect that deserves a round of applause I'm winded now we have reached the conclusion of part one of the competition and we now have the tough task of saying goodbye to atreya Nihar stockade and Shawn a huge round of applause valiant competitors here one of these six students will be named the xxx champion of the National Geographic Bee remember there's a lot on the line for these finalists including $85,000 in scholarship money now you may not know this or maybe you do but I love geography and we thought it would be fun to turn the tables and have the students quiz me on their home states so hit me with your best shot we'll start up here Bankhead named the smallest county by area in California you know I bet I bet because their whole lot of people packed in there I bet it's Los Angeles County No okay then I phat was not Orange County I bet it's oh it's San Francisco its own County yes okay so it's it's the San Francisco County at the Concetta what's that good job okay all right well I sort of got that how small is it I don't know just well we're even that Gayatri what is the Indian Reservation located inside an Indian Reservation an Indian Reservation inside of an Indian Reservation it's an Indian Reservation side of oh it's the turducken nation and you don't say I'm wrong that I'm right what is it called do you want the answer well I mean at this point I think we might as well resolve that okay it's the Hopi or the Hopi what are they inside of the Navajo oh my god that must be so suffocating well we learn something every day you moderate the National Geographic Bee Anushka I Love New Jersey and I just before you ask me anything I just want everyone to know that New Jersey has the most diners in America and that is true this one's really hard okay okay what's the highest point in New Jersey what's the highest point in what's the highest the highest point in New Jersey and it's not Trenton it's a New York is there there's got to be a mountain in New Jersey Mount Soprano what is it it's called High Point [Applause] that is such a dad joke after the explorer book you got to write a book of one-liners that's great I like that I Love New Jersey New Jersey also has the most scientists and engineers per square mile okay Ashwin name the westernmost point in Oregon the what the westernmost point oh the Pacific Ocean I know the westernmost point is there I once went to Pacific City Oregon oh I'm sure there's some dude in Portland that has a houseboat that's sort of like drifted out to sea so far he forgot where he was and I was thinking of Cape Blanco but you were actually correct with the Pacific Ocean I know how to game the system I should be there vishal asked me about georgia the University of Georgia's look in which city north east of Atlanta Athens yeah that was this this is the way it should go every time Jonathan let's ask me about North I love North Carolina I'd spent two summers in winston-salem what city was created in 1913 by the merging of two major tobacco towns Oh winston-salem and now back to the game from this part of the competition on we're going global questions are now worth two points and after six more rounds the three remaining students with the lowest scores will be eliminated let's move on to round eight this round will require spoken answers only I'm going to give you each a question to test your knowledge and recognition of national capitals when it's your turn a photo related to your question will appear on your monitor you will have 12 seconds to answer I'm beginning with venca once a Viking settlement this capital city is located on the east coast of an island where the River Liffey enters the sea named this city Dublin Dublin is correct dietary this capital city is home to the Grand Palace which was once the official residence of the kings of Siam named this city bangkok bangkok is correct Anushka in 2011 Tahrir Square was the focal point of a revolution in a capital city named this city which is located between the ruins of the ancient city of Memphis and one of the world's major river deltas Cairo Cairo is correct Ashlin southwest of the highest point in the Andes Mountains this capital city is located on the Maputo River in a geological zone prone to earthquakes name this city Santiago Santiago is correct Vishal founded by the Spanish this capital city was supported by Soviet subsidies for much of the second half of the 20th century named this city located along the Straits of Florida Havana's correct Jonathan this capital city is located northwest of the Cyclades on a peninsula that borders the Aegean Sea named this city which was once a powerful city-state Athens Athens is correct no time to waste let's get right to round nine for this next question you'll need your stylus once again we another special guests take a look at your monitors hi I'm grace kahlert young an ocean engineer Aquanaut and National Geographic the emerging Explorer I've lived at the bottom of the ocean in the Florida Keys sailed across the Atlantic Ocean and I've worked with NASA to create 3d maps of asteroids right now I'm working to refurbish a submarine in Kansas of all places my great passion though is connecting art with science for example by creating 3d maps of coral reefs and dancing underwater now here's your question my research has taken me to the coral reefs off the island of Utila utila is the westernmost island of what archipelago off the coast of Honduras we'll have 12 seconds to write down your answer time's up let's see what everyone wrote for two points the correct answer is Bay Islands let's see how you did three of you had the correct answer students please keep your stylus out for this next video question this year National Geographic the Audubon Society birdlife international and Cornell Lab of Ornithology are joining with nature lovers around the world to celebrate the year of the bird birds symbolize nature's interconnectedness and our next special guest is raising awareness of the importance of protecting birds in a changing world once again take a look at your monitors hi i'm washington wa Shira my life conservationist in a National Geographic Explorer I study African ground eagles in urban environments I found them nesting near buildings but they prefer forested parks with indigenous trees unfortunately many facts are threatened by human activity and development so I work to increase public awareness on ways people and birds can share urban spaces now here's your question African crown Eagles can be found in forests in a capital city near the at the river named this city which is sometimes called the green city in the Sun we'll have 12 seconds to write down your answer time's up let's see what everyone wrote for another two points the correct answer is Nairobi back row there all had it correct in this next round I'm going to give each of you a question inspired by the National Geographic Channel series called one strange rock which explores a fragility and wonder of planet Earth a photo related to your question will appear on your monitor you will have 12 seconds to answer Bank cut in northern Quebec the penguin crater is an example of how meteorites have shaped our planet pink Willick crater is located on what large Peninsula south of the Hudson Strait the Ungava Peninsula the Ungava peninsula is correct Gayatri the convergence of three tectonic plates created this depression where the ground spits acid located in the northern part of the afar region on the Horn of Africa what is the name of this feature the Danakil depression the Donna kill depression is correct anooshka around the world water is temporarily harnessed by tens of thousands of large dams such as the shall Lang D dam in Henan Province the shall lanky dam is located on what river north of the Qinling mountains the Yellow River is correct Ashwin millions of years ago super volcanoes set off an instinctive en't that killed most of life on earth protected in its underground burrows a reptile called throne accident survived fossils of this species have been found near what river that rises in the Lesotho Highlands and flows through uppington the orange river the orange rivers correct the shawl covering over 5% of Earth's landmass lichens such as these on islands and Ontario break down rocks generate oxygen and absorb pollute these islands can be found in what Bay east of the Bruce Peninsula Georgian Bay the Georgian Bay is correct Jonathan on the tow jian islands in the gulf of tomini most children learn to swim before they can walk the gulf of tomini is one of three gulfs that define the unique shape of which of the greater sunda islands Sulawesi Sulawesi is correct for this next question you'll need your stylus again for a question from a special repeat guest who visited us last year from Kazakhstan take a look at your monitors hello my name is Paul Salopek and I'm a journalist in National Geographic fellow and I'm 1,500 miles further along on my 21,000 mile out of Eden walk I'm following the pathways of our ancestors who migrated Africa 60,000 years ago writing about topics such as climate change – migration – technological innovation and you can follow along on this 10-year journey at w WAW my walk will take me to a city in India renowned for its architecture and urban design it was declared a Union Territory in 1966 and serves as the joint capital of two neighboring states named this city you will have 12 seconds to write down your answer time's up let's see what everyone wrote for two points the correct answer is chunda Garr see how you all did four of you had it right 12 rounds down and one more to go before we have to say goodbye to the three students with the lowest scores so let's take a look at the current standings Bank cut and Anushka are tied in first place vishal is not far behind six points though are still up for grabs in our second and final lightning round once again when it's your turn you'll be asked three questions in a row and have six seconds to answer each this time you'll receive two points for each correct response a lot at stake there's a lot of room to make up ground kids okay students are you ready Vanka name the largest of the Balearic Islands Majorca my orcas the Salween River flows into the Gulf of March a van before entering what see this is for you've anchored the Andaman Sea that is correct what religion is practiced by a majority of the people in Mongolia Buddhism Buddhism is correction Gayatri the Far East of Bolivia is part of what large tropical wetland the grand Chaco I'm sorry the answer is the Pantanal name Sweden's largest island Gotland Gotland is correct what is the official working language of the federal government of Ethiopia Amharic Amharic is correct Anushka what channel connects Baffin Bay with the Beaufort Sea the Perry channel Perry channels correct what is the name of the highest mountain peak in Algeria not too hot you've got it what is the predominant religion of Mauritius Hinduism Hinduism is correct Ashwin what large salt water lake is located just west of Tabriz Iran liquor mia lake or Mia's correct name the Gulf on the southern coast of Honduras Gulf of Fonseca the Gulf of Fonseca is correct what is the official language of Mozambique Portuguese Portuguese is correct Vishal name the southernmost state of Mexico Oaxaca the answer I'm sorry is Chiapas what man-made lake spans one-third of the border of Zambia and Zimbabwe Lake Kariba Lake Kariba is correct what is the official currency of Denmark the Krone the krona is correct Jonathan what channel south of the Irish Sea separates Wales from Ireland the answer is st. George's Channel Matsuyama is the largest city on what major Japanese island Shikoku Shikoku is correct what is the official language of an Tora Catalan Catalan is correct all right the time has come to bid farewell to half of the students on stage let's take a look at the scores we must say goodbye now to Gayatri Ashwin and Jonathan here they are the final three each of these three finalists has now won at least a $10,000 scholarship so big congratulations to each of you you've already won big next we get one step closer to crowning our champion as these three students square off in the final geo challenge round to learn more about how your school can participate in the 2019 National Geographic Bee visit our website NatGeo beat org for details and instructions on how to get started maybe we'll see a student from your hometown here next year we're ready to continue with the 30th national geographic be our three finalists are sequestered backstage where they can neither see nor hear anything happening on stage in this next geo challenge round we'll bring them out one by one to test them not just on what they know but how well they can apply and communicate that knowledge each student will answer the same question which poses a real-world scenario and they'll be given three possible answers from which to choose our panel of judges will score their responses based on three criteria accuracy reasoning and presentation each year millions of tons of plastic waste end up in the oceans threatening everything that depends on earth's largest ecosystem National Geographic has begun a multi-year effort to raise awareness and help find solutions to this crisis our three finalists will be asked to identify a location for an ongoing cleanup effort to recover plastics from a local River the goal is to reduce the amount of plastic that reaches the ocean the students must tell us which River is the best location and why the students must focus their effort at the mouth of one of three rivers the nisha River the Rhine River or the Yangtze River they must factor in the area's population plastic consumption and plastic waste management the Yangtze River is the best choice because of the high population and high plastic consumption in the Yangtze River Basin it's also a rapidly growing area with overwhelmed waste management the nisha River would be the second best choice the region has less population and plastic consumption than that of the Yangtze though it's waste management is also strained the Rhine River is the weakest choice for the cleanup effort it has the lowest population and while it has high per capita plastic consumption it has the strongest existing waste management the students must choose the answer that best fits a scenario and explain their reasoning we will give each of them a moment to think about it but once the bell rings they'll have 45 seconds to respond if he or she falls silent for more than five seconds their time will be up this question is worth a whopping 9 points so this is a game making or game breaking moment for our finalists the students have been briefed on these rules but obviously not the question and remember this is not just about right or wrong this is also about reasoning and the quality of presentation we begin with the student currently in third place Vishal please come on out on stage to be the first to answer this geo challenge and that's gonna take right front and center that's perfect right there Vishal here's the question each year millions of tons of plastic debris ends up in the oceans much of it from rivers your goal is to help reduce the amount of plastic that reaches the oceans by organizing a cleanup effort to remove plastic from a major river you can focus your cleanup effort near the mouth of one of three rivers the nisha River the Rhine River or the Yangtze River based on the criteria of population plastic consumption and plastic waste management on which River would your cleanup effort have the greatest impact you will have 15 seconds to think about your answer when the bell rings please begin I would focus my cleanup effort on the Yangtze River because first of all the Yangtze River has a really great population with cities such as Shanghai and Nanjing second of all there's a lot of plastic consumption with China being having one of the most plastic consuming countries in the world and China doesn't have the best plastic waste management so a cleanup would really help clean up the plastic on the Yangtze River the Niger River on the other hand does not have as much plastic consumption as the Yangtze does and the Ryan River is really good with plastic waste management and plot it doesn't consume as much plastic as the Yangtze River for these reasons I would choose the Yangtze River for my cleanup effort thank you round of applause for vishal nicely done to come back here if you would and i'm gonna ask you to stand like right in here Sutter okay all right now let's bring out Anushka okay I know she's got come on out I'm gonna ask you to stand nice from the center there Anushka here's the question each year millions of tons of plastic debris ends up in the oceans much of it from rivers your goal is to help reduce the amount of plastic that reaches the oceans by organizing a cleanup effort to remove plastic from a major river you can focus your cleanup effort near the mouth of one of three rivers the measure the Rhine River or the Yangtze River based on the criteria of population plastic consumption and plastic waste management on which River which are cleanup effort have the greatest impact you will have 15 seconds to think about your answer when the bell rings please begin I would choose the Yangtze River to focus a cleanup effort on the Yangtze River float the mouth of the Yangtze River is at Shanghai which is a major city in China between between the many people in this city there is a lot of plastic waste that occurs and China is often considered one of the most populated places and populated and polluted places in the world on the other hand the Rhine River mouth is in the Netherlands where there is a stable cleanup system already in place and a much smaller population along the Niger River there's also less plastic waste being used for these reasons I would choose the Yangtze River to focus a cleanup effort on thank you if I can ask you to come back here please and stand to the left of a hut perfect all right and now let's bring out vane cuts our bank cut if you want to stand right in front the center there here's the question each year millions of tons of plastic debris ends up in the oceans much of it from rivers your goal is to help reduce the amount of plastic that reaches the oceans by organizing a cleanup effort to remove plastic from a major river you can focus your cleanup effort near the mouth of one of three rivers the Lygia River the Rhine River or the Yangtze River based on the criteria of population plastic consumption and plastic waste management on which River would your cleanup effort have the greatest impact you will have 15 seconds to think about your answer when the bell rings please begin I believe that the Yangtze River is the best river to focus on plastic cleanup effort on this is because tens of millions of people live on think these were very big and they produce a lot of plastic as the as thanks to your Virgin China has a huge manufacturing industry that produced a lot of plastic waste also the China does not have a very good plastic waste management program unlike the Rhine River in Europe and the Rhine River is not a good choice because even though it produces a lot of plastic as I said before it does not has good plastic waste management the Nazir River is not a good choice because not too many people live along its banks and it has very low plastic consumption that is why all right come with me please and if you would bang cut in to the left and vishal all the way on the right and anushka between and the order in which you came out great job by all of our finalists now our judges will take a few moments to confer the judges have tabulated the scores for this geo challenge and are ready to share the results judges will start with Vishal hi Vishal you responded with the Yangtze River which was the best choice you gave great supporting facts for all the criteria we were looking for including mentioning Shanghai and Nanjing your excellent presentation was also very well organized and had an excellent progression as well we gave you eight points okay and that gives Vishal a total now of 30 points and we move on to a new canal Anushka you also mentioned the Yangtze River which was what we were looking for you had good facts to support all of the criteria and contrasted the weaker choices against the best answer your presentation was very very clear but it did feel a little rushed we gave you seven points and that gives Anushka total of 33 points and finally then cut thanked it you also mentioned the Yangtze River you had excellent details and a more complete explanation to support your choice including mentioning the industrial base of the Yangtze Basin your presentation was effective but overall could have been smoother we gave you eight points I guess you think a total of 34 tremendous job by all that was a real nail-biter and after tabulating the scores we must say goodbye to Vishal but don't forget you're still leaving here a winner there's a $10,000 scholarship with your name on it a big congratulations to you for making it this far and then there were two Anushka buddha code from new jersey and bang cut Ranjan from california we are gonna get set up for the final round and when we return one of these gifted students will become the 2018 National Geographic Bee champion there is a lot on the line for these students the champion will receive a fifty thousand dollar scholarship plus a lifetime membership to the National Geographic Society and a Lindblad expedition to the Galapagos Islands aboard the National Geographic endeavor – now back to maraca welcome to the championship round of the 30th the National Geographic Bee out of 2.6 million students 54 the country's brightest young geographers made it here to Washington DC the top ten earned their place to compete today and now we're down to two 13 year-old vane cut Ranjan from California and thirteen-year-old Anushka Buddha Cote from New Jersey congratulations to you both on making it this far so vane cut what would it mean to you to win this thing good be good you're sort of under playing it right now right maybe I get it okay Anushka how long have you prepared for this moment I've been participating in the National Geographic Bee since I was in fourth grade since you were fourth grade about nine or ten years eight or nine years old right you know well excellent okay well you've come a long way both of you and now it's time to get down to business here's how it's going to work you each begin this final round with a clean slate the championship round is single elimination you will both be asked the same question at the same time the contestant who correctly answers a question that the other contestant misses will be named our national champion so watch closely because every question could be the winning question you're gonna need your stylus for this final round I will read each question twice so listen carefully before answering you'll then have 12 seconds to write your responses for the final time students are you ready they're ready here is your question name the small Southeast Asian country that has a northern coastline on the way tar and owned by straits I repeat name the small Southeast Asian country that has a northern coastline on the way tar and owned by straits bang cut what do you have East Timor Yoshika Timor Leste the correct answer is Timor Leste it also East Timor so you are both correct and we like variety okay on to the next question Lebanon has a population most similar to which South American country I repeat Lebanon has a population most similar to which South American country then cut what do you have Paraguay anooshka Guyana do you have two different answers I can tell you now that one is correct so we're about to learn who is the 2018 National Geographic Bee champion the correct answer is Paraguay so Bangkok Ranjan is the 2018 National Geographic Bee [Applause] [Applause] [Applause] a dramatic end to a terrific competition here's how our 10 finalists officially finished and remember each of these students outlasted millions of others around the country to make it to Washington DC and end up on this stage and now to award the medals to our top three finishers please welcome Mike ulica interim president and CEO of the National Geographic Society thank you Mike finishing in third place and winner of a $10,000 scholarship the shawls are ready from Georgia wonderful I will runner-up and winner of a $25,000 scholarship anushka buddha coat from new jersey and the winner of a 50,000 dollar scholarship a lifetime membership to the National Geographic Society in a trip for 2 1 a Lindblad expedition to the lump of those islands aboard the National Geographic endeavor to the 2018 National Geographic champion Venkata Ron John from California thank you Mike and I'm gonna step over here and Van Cod I've got to ask you what was going through your mind on that last question about the population of Lebanon being similar most the most similar to which South American country I don't know this I have to guess something so you kind of winged it kind of right and we're lucky that in the midst of those two minutes Paraguay didn't have a huge baby boom or something now please join me in congratulating Bank OTT our other nine finalists and all 54 of the students who made it here to Washington DC I'm Mo Rocca thanks for watching and remember that science exploration education and storytelling can change the world and I want the parents of our three finalists to come on up on stage let's get the parents come on up [Applause] congratulations love it love it love it [Applause]

Animals in Mirrors Hilarious Reactions

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There can be no better or worse sight than your own reflection, but these vain animals seemed very keen to admire themselves.

Innovative French photographer Xavier Hubert-Brierre travelled to Gabon with his wife and set up a mirror in several locations in order to capture animals walking by.

The results are stunning, with one of the more amusing reactions being from two leopards.

One of them takes several looks at the mirror before it is attacked by a second leopard, who calls off the ambush when he too spots Xavier’s mirror.

Welcome to Storytrender – the home of extraordinary video.

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TAO : Ancient Chinese Religion or Philosophy(B.C.)

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The Center of Traditional Taoist Studies is a non-profit 501(C)(3) religious organization established to promote traditional Taoist studies.

The Center offers classes in Taoist Religion, Philosophy, and Chi Quong. Its campus includes one of the largest private Taoist Temples in the world.

Founded by Master Alex Anatole, The Center of Traditional Taoist Studies is dedicated to the practical application of Taoism. This need was recognized by Master Anatole as he observed pseudo-teachings and false interpretations of Taoism which included inaccurate descriptions of Taoist Philosophy, superficial Chi Quong and ineffective Martial Arts.

The Center’s commitment to classical teachings in an integrated system has been recognized in the US, China and Russia.


Taoist Texts

then we're talking Dow get the truth behind this mysterious religion what do Taoist believe what can they teach the rest of us we get a glimpse inside the world of Taoism and the banth aureus on the eve of its latest CD release performed for you on the Nightbeat stage you'll hear for yourself why there's so much buzz surrounding this band all that and more tonight on Nightbeat now live from CNA the Comcast network this is nightly with Barry Nolan it is part philosophy part religion introduced more than 2,000 years ago Taoism it is widely followed more widely than you might think even so it is largely a mystery and largely misunderstood and that's where Alex Anatole comes in he spent the better part of his life traveling the world teaching people the principles of the Dow and demystifying it his latest book is entitled the truth of Dow and it is he is a leading expert on the subject and a grandmaster please welcome Alex Anatole so you were born in Moscow yes and thank you for the aid and you started studying the the doubt and now I'm pronouncing it to the Dow but it's also pronounced other ways where the other ways well no it is Dow it's just in English for some reasons that's ta all but it's still Dow for another pronunciation color transitions Dow so you started studying at the age of 8 yes and then you went and you studied with a with a grandmaster yeah basically he would call me sage actually heals a more than grandmaster yeah he was very unusual Chinese character with a lineage actually 200 basically – Lao Tzu whose founder of teachings and I was very lucky to meet him and study under him so lousy as I understand it was the keeper of the grand library 2,000 years ago got tired of government bureaucracy and corruption and just said I'm out of here somebody said oh yeah you want to write down do you want to do a book like they say nowadays so he can get on Oprah he wrote a book then disappeared nobody ever saw him again is that right it's a one of the legends it's a one of the most popular legends in reality actually we don't know exactly was the man was it a spirit and how we got actually there's 5000 words which is daodejing because the Bible of Taoism and for hundreds of years thousands of years there is a million so for literally translations of doubt the chink I guess it's a second most widely translated book of the Bible believe it or not so then a grandmaster would be somebody that has carefully read the DAO teaching and gets it well it's very hard to understand and get it without teacher because it's basically coded information the whole idea about Taoist teachings that thou is teaching not for everybody well in your introduction you basically I can sort of sum it up by saying for most people life sucks then you die for all us okay and so the Dow is a way to sort of go with the flow no doubt actually it's a way how to live content life that's an ancient system of teachings we'll teach you how to live content life but again not for everybody basically in a Dow or any we just divided all mankind and two groups it's an individual with a power to understand what's happening and most important quest ask question why and mass mentality we should call herd mentality like herd of cows who fall all over the floor and it'll really care so what's separate herd men from Dow man when person ask question why why is that happening what's happening why I'm suffering to this world and teaching sodadu practical that's a very important thing practical ants on the side well there are also practical things like there's a God of wealth let's talk about explain is that like prosperity theology and the in the Christian religion that to say something right or do something right that it enhances your likelihood of being prosperous Taoism is a teaching of ultimate reality money it's an energy we need money we have to eat well we have mortgages we have two children for education whatever it is now unlike other religious system of philosophical system not running away from this problem we're live in industrial society industrial society we need money even two thousand years ago and dal-su was writing he realized money makes the world go round he always talked about practicality of living in the real world he as long as that's the power of Dao which basically my teaching is to bring as much as I can practical aspect of the Taoism so I can used in everyday life but it's also got these great aphorisms these little succinct bits of wisdom like a journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step just you don't have to do it all today just do something well it's a very basically complex philosophical system but the most important thing Who am I I am translator of cultures I'm basically translate Chinese culture to the average American psyche but again to the special people who are individuals it's not for everybody that's why I put in the beginning of the book unlike most religions there's also a kind of martial arts associated with it which you're a teacher of I've seen pictures of you look quite fearsome and there's a supreme marshal of warlords and celestial dragons talking about well the idea is of because that's a Taoism is a teachings of ultimate reality in a real life we have a body we have to take care of the body so mine has to control the body one of the best thing control the body the fourth body to the certain physical exercise martial art was one of those systems Chi conch is a system of exercise which I introduced actually it's mirror I was introducing the chicken I think in 1979 in the in this country it's also system of physical exercise which she needs a lot of control it's a breathing it's a movement and etc so martial art it's not just art of killing it's a basically most important art of control how your mind control the body and also so defensive so people that have taken other martial arts it's the Chi the G the the energy force that you talk everything will go Chi Chi Kong martial art breathing eating making money everything is a chi Chi tell me about the zodiac gods so they're got okay there is a hotel there is a three guards which is very important they call a three-star guards and that's what we need in life on the left side usually it's a guard with a big bulkhead we call the guard on T V T so what you need you need health on the middle is a guide actually it's a second star got a good counsel so you need honest life you need a teacher on the third side god of luck so what we need in this life we need actually longevity health we need the Good Counsel t-shirt and we need luck if you have these three things you'll be okay tell me about the purification ceremony purification ceremony is basically if that's we're going to make a physical aspect of the DAO but if you interested I can tell you that I'm sure metaphysical aspect that's full of Taoist philosophy and theory theological system the world full of different spirits it's a spirits which you like or like us and spiritually don't like us purification ceremony when you trying to ward off spirits which can bother you or harm you Chinese medicine which built all on a Taoist principle believed that a lot of diseases comes this basically evil spirit possess you I don't want to sounds like a walker because it's kind of little bit will be strange for Western but it's a true because like a lot of diseases soul disease or psychiatric diseases which like schizophrenia for instance can't be explained what Chinese medicine explain it somehow and even deal with those things actually all medicine Chinese medicine built on those principles Taoist alchemy there are not many Taoist temples in the u.s. yours is one here in Boston called what's the name of it again it's a temple of original simplicity simplicity so first how many followers of the Dao are there in the u.s. in the world it's a followers is a lot but really true students only few like I'm very selective with it with with the civil students we have like here and how waiting lists and well maybe only 47 now or 48 people so I very very choosy about that is there a moment where you basically have that thing we see in in some films like you achieve enlightenment where you just sort of suddenly have this this moment of you get it's not it's not enlightenment immediately it's a slow painful process dealing with reality you see well I have a lot of fantasies and in this world and the words think what the hell with the confusion is the worst scene and so confusion comes from something what we expect our expectations that's our biggest enemy if we don't live in a real world that's mere expression unrealistic the man the teacher the grand master is Alex and at OU the book is the truth of the dow thank you very much for clearing up some of that confusion Thank You paragraphs now we make the smooth transition from

Nature of the Mind

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His Holiness the Dalai lama talks on the “Nature of the Mind” at the University of California Santa Barbara Events Center on April 24th, 2009. (www.dalailama.com)

Video courtesy of University of California Santa Barbara

so I guess you and I sit here until my death learn commercially good morning welcome to UC Santa Barbara we are so glad to have you here for this very special event with His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama this morning this morning's lecture on the nature of mind is unique an opportunity for us to expand our knowledge of Buddhist traditions philosophy and a scholarship this is an area of academic strength of UC Santa Barbara our Buddhist Studies program has flourished within the interdisciplinary environment of our campus it draws on the strength of its home department our highly regarded the Department of Religious Studies our Center for interdisciplinary humanities and in many other departments and programs in humanities Fine Arts Social Sciences education engineering environment and the sciences we have with us today many of our community members donors and friends who have helped us build a world-class teaching and research program in this area of study we gratefully acknowledge all of your support there have been so many people who have helped us make today's event possible I'm afraid I simply just don't have enough time to thank everyone who should be thanked but the fact that all tickets were sold out within two hours is testimony to how strongly you support us and I would like to mention that my colleague who invited Dalai Lama he is a former translator translator for Dalai Lama his scholarship is known around the world he is the 14th Dalai Lama endowed chair in Tibetan Buddhism and the cultural studies professor Jose cabeza I would also like to recognize our executive Dean of the College of Letters and science David Marshall Dean Marshall has been a strong promoter for this event every step along the way Dean Marshall and I must also acknowledge the extraordinary efforts of director Celeste Celeste ability and our Arts & Lectures team and Gretchen Falvo nicole inferred and Stacy genic we feel we feel so fortunate to have the opportunity to learn from dalai lama today and to be inspired by his message and scholarship the Dalai Lama is an incomparable Buddhist teacher in every aspect of his life he embodies the principles he teaches perhaps the best way to describe these principles is to remember that he was awarded that the Nobel Peace Prize in 1989 I might take this opportunity to mention that UC Santa Barbara is known for our Nobel laureates among audience today we have Nobel laureates in physics in chemistry and in economics here to welcome His Holiness the Dalai Lama I don't know where you are my colleague just wave your hand to introduce the Dalai Lama we are honored to have with us the chairman of our UC Board of Regents Richard Blum region Blum is the founder and a chairman of the American Himalayan foundation the focus of this nonprofit organization is unprovided education and health care as well as supporting cultural and environmental preservation for the Himalayan region the friendship between the Dalai Lama and region Blum goes back more than three decades I cannot think of anyone better to provide this morning's introduction please welcome chairman Blum your holiness Chancellor yang thank you very much this is a difficult moment for me to express how I feel because the two things I care the most about this holiness the Tibetan people the people of the Himalayas in the University of California have gotten together and I must say as a is chairman the board you're supposed to kind of be equal about the different campuses and having gone to Berkeley spent a lot of time at Berkeley when it comes to Buddhist studies and religious studies jose Cabazon and this campus and your faculty is the best place to go you've gotten so good that Berkeley's a little bit jealous and they're trying to do better and that's okay too the as you know the first professional ship the Dalai Lama Studies chair was started here of that this is a very short trip for His Holiness to the United States and we're honored that he's going to visit two campuses here today and he'll be speaking of the Greek Theatre in Berkeley tomorrow I've been given a ridiculous task here it says relate some personal observations and history of your relationship with His Holiness and you've got two minutes and I've known on 38 years well first let me say that we were reincarnated at about the same time no it's it's true we're only ten days difference in age but we won't I don't know everybody knows when he was born but I don't talk about when I was born except there's ten days difference the only difference is we know who he was in his last life he was a thirteenth Dalai Lama who was a wonderful man and of course he was then reincarnated once again is the Dalai Lama but we don't know is who I was in my last life and I must have done something really bad to be won't reborn an investment banker but I've tried to make up for it since then through our American Himalayan foundation then and in our work with the University as I think many of you know my wife is Senator Dianne Feinstein and Thank You Allah know you cared we we first went to visit his holiness in Dharamsala in 1978 when it wasn't possible for his holiness to visit here I think we had something to do with clearing that up and his first visit to the United States in fact was de San Francisco in 1979 not only is his holiness one of the finest people I've ever met but also the Tibetan people by and large our spiritual and kind and we must help them preserve their tradition and learn from them that's what this is all about contrary to what the Chinese propaganda will let you believe the Tibetans have in exile have developed a democratic government in Dharamsala my wife and I have engaged the leadership in Beijing for a long time trying to help resolve this issue and unfortunately we haven't made much progress but we will never quit because all this is much too important but we have through the International Campaign for Tibet in our American Himalayan foundation which provides humanitarian and educational assistance to well we have a hundred and seventy projects throughout the Himalayan region and I would say probably half of them are for the Tibetans either in Tibet directly or in exile in refugee camps and other centers in Nepal and India it was very easy for me to fall in love with the Tibetans in 1968 the first night out on the trail I stayed in the FET refugee camp and small children sat on your lap they were either born there or carried over the mountains it was amazing they spoke English and I guess those of us who had that kind of introduction were gone for day one so it was through that and my interest that we met His Holiness and of course he will tell you his religion is rather simple it's about kindness and compassion and we've tried to learn a little bit about that and tried to thank his holiness and his people by the projects we've done over the years so I think I've gone way over my three minutes but anyhow thank you your holiness for being here it's it's now your turn and you have way more than three minutes to talk like a shadow of course the Tropic one days of mind and the sources of my talk mainly Buddhist text so therefore at the beginning I want to say recite one xalapa first verse the flirtation to Buddha that was rode by Nagarjuna only to zero near the orders ever measured on the generators bottom down law Charles hello our dear brothers and sisters mashallah and my longtime friend indeed Dean and also not my friend although he no longer as a monk but sometimes I refer still be sure so indeed I feel great wanna talk a large number of people and India University invested so great honor last two days some were called flu or cold so not only could come from here and my voice my voice voice a little bit unusual but okay I think usually my voice I think little better than today's mice now originally lecture about some Buddhist conception they have bit longer so at that time za concerned people arranged is dis text now since the duration of my lecture shackled so now I will not go through that rest now add the Tropic neighs Oh mind although all major is a tradition carry same message message out love compassion with that spirit of forgiveness tolerance and also self discipline out of awareness the negative thing sort of negative consequences so knowing that some I know second split and also in beti really filled more content contentment as it is practiced same in all traditions so now these loving-kindness or compassion these are mental quality and also try to try to reduce and hatred fear suspicion these negative destructive emotions also part of mind and basically the joyfulness pains these two things have experience of freedom of mind so basically all major tradition and of course feint also part of mind so all major tradition is a carrying message or practice of method to improve mind se but among the the cause of differences the tested religion not just religion the theistic religion the emphasis importance of faith faith was creator those bought tensed an anyway for porch non-theistic such as Jainism Buddhism and some other ancient Indian traditions such as Sangha one part of some difficulty there is non tasting so non-justice essential idea is something like self creation and also the concept of law of causality awesome if a cosmic if a cause-effect so therefore they ultimately this something like creator is within ourself so then naturally not this body body also important as a basis of the mind now for example human body is the basis of human mind with this what with the connection with embodying then we can Radha you can you can say is a different mind mind of human being mind of an animal mind of insect like that so that and also the sensorial levels of consciousness entirely based on the part of the body like that but they ultimately pod reaction including voice cause of the verbal action ultimately depend on the motivation so motivation means mind so there according the law of causality things which we want and things in which we do not want or automaticity with our motivation our might so now in order to achieve happy life joyful life we have to take care in what our mind motivation now in order to overcome in order to reduce suffering we have to did with negative emotion or destructive emotion which creates which ultimately bring this on one thing so therefore special emphasis in these tradition about mind they now naturally logically when did with mind we should have thorough knowledge about mind then also they within the alcohol we call mind or consciousness I don't know within that there are so many different color categories types different types of mind thousands thousands thousands then all these destructive emotion they're the only way to deal these destructive emotion only through mind not through matters or injection or surgery not not like that but only through another mind now for example and hatred will not reduce to some drugs or alcohol maybe sometimes sleep maybe even is a lot of anger sound sleep may help reduce the next morning your and a little bit smaller actually other they're basically all this negative emo destructive emotion they the dealing these destructor emotion in order to reduce the only way is opposite mind counter very contradictory mind first realize the contradictory sort of mind then increase that that's the only way to change or to reduce this negative emotion so in other words in order to reduce the rasa the destructive emotion the only way is to increase these constructive emotions that's the only way so therefore again we have to know what kind of mind what kind of thought is ultimately destructive and water kind of mind what emotion ultimately construct so we have to know that then destructive emotion can eliminate or not now this is the question in order to find answer for that question we have to know the ultimate nature of mind and basis of all these destructive emotion then you get some understanding the possibility of elimination is destructive emotion so therefore they in Buddhist texts they write quite a lot of information about emotion in one mind and then also either in particularly in terms of teaching since the terms of teaching also involve some or sedae other physical now soda I usually recall solutely some manipulation and application of physiological forces oh so so so therefore therefore you see it it mentioned that a sort of different level of mind like gross a level of mind and more subtle more subtle more subtle like that dad mentioned only in tons of test tons of teaching roffels ammo just this moment our cell serial consciousness or mind fully functioning active although simultaneously the thought casas thoughts now Todd also go simultaneously but sensorial consciousness much more the turbine a dominant then during Dreamtime the sensorial consciousness no longer function only thought another level then during deep sleep without dreaming another level of deeper deeper level of consciousness of mind so then also when at the time of failed fainting failed feeling even stopped breathing another level of deep level of might then at the time of death all physiology physical things now for example the hard hard bleeding stopped then blood circulation in the brain which is a short moment sees then all the neurons now no longer function so all grows on igano mind then stop I think something like human mind then no longer there stop but the only indication I will be ordinarily we can notice some people after death oh no at at the time of death physical level that clinically recognized or declare that but the body remain very fresh now one example my own senior tutor after death in war next could there thirteen days his physical his body remained very fresh and then recently one senior college is ooh now a Tibetan lama at the former throne holder of garden Oh at last year after he what with trouble over the past uh passed away I think next almost three weeks remain his body remained fresh so fortunately at that time as soon as I heard that in which a body still remained fresh so then I asked one our Medical Center in dance Allah since we already kept some machine to check the person who remained at that state so mission a with some simple mission available so I send a message to them and then they send some people and to carry those simple machine and put some wires but had like that so although the very detail also analyze analysis analysis not yet sort of finalized but seems after a few days clinically dead they some symbols we electrics emotional signals for Sigma and some electrical electrical signals were there o in brain so it is they say very unusual so that we pass a day brother we believe there's still that persons in the most of subtle mind still in the body so some influence in the body so that is we call most subtle consciousness so there are many levels now here one thing now I feel I shifted to the Tibetan marginalia target unless I share it can be humid Inc tratak longevity tidehunter these changes are the pages show medieval cannula de los jelly re Payoneer Mukunda Dalia she's in trouble Nina Lou Medina cherish every she's not Amelie aluminum mother give me the share of that that was charged with distorted or rock I want to say unique in beginner share the terminal one layer is a in gaming she gonna know what the holidays Sheva da knowledge should not share in due season comedy nano the top key garlic of Tori's in each isn't a more meager autonomy to travel a Saturday in do a decal estava me Kiril mutters hid Rosita's you could do or your gin tella me given I'm not young name wrong Shinjuku no Gaza is chella any hmm tomboy she Nicola me give a look at another pageant me give a lot it rubble LuAnn on mata Madoka unique ard numerous edgy give you're not here conical just over so that DK she was the winner shimmer tummy Valley under gave her more time shirasu marina get on like your trash me give a look at your energy kailash temple so talking about the classical buddhist sources for understanding the nature of mind one important sources that i be dominated and in our botamo a text particularly epidemic OSHA which is a treasure of knowledge by Vasu bundu when he talks about the death process and he talks about how the kind of the various moments of consciousness one give rise Donn other consciousness and also the integral the transition from a virtual state of mind to a neutral and to a non virtual state of mind and vice versa when he was explaining this in this context he explains that the the moment of consciousness at the time of death can be depending upon different individuals at that particular situation some of them can be a virtual some of them can be non-virtuous and some of them can be simply a neutral state of mind however in our sanghas Agatha Massimo Jaya another eyebath Amma text compendium of knowledge here he says that if you a kind of you know really analyze the moment of consciousness at the point of death at that very subtle point that the state of mind can neither be virtuous nor non-virtues it is beyond that dichotomy of virtual versus non virtual but rather it is a completely neutral state of mind and then another source for the Tibetan understanding of the subtle we have levels of consciousness is the Vajrayana the tantric teachings and there it is acknowledged that even that subtle moment of consciousness at the point of death for a yogi an experienced meditator it is possible to affect that state of mind from a neutral state to a virtual state so the point here is that you know the destructive states of mind the non-virtuous states of mind they can only operate up to a level of consciousness and beyond which a very subtle conscious the subtle levels of consciousness arises then these non-virtues and destructive emotions and can no longer function so that suggests that the destructive and non-virtuous mental states are dependent upon their being comparatively across a level of consciousness so the so now I feel the complete sort of understanding or explanation about mind I think we should include the tons of tests was Rihanna perspective for now so now the bougie Samantha Tantra not on the text so little you muscles leave on its own you Gianna okay but it's only theoretical a uni uni sheet our talks rock unique in each other you do not assume duties she done that Titian cousin Louie no duh now I fail to recite this text the text I can't ever know randomly she you complete you metal bomb David use you some shell so in one of the Vajrayana text known as the coup has Amarjit entre and there is an explanation of what is meant by the word Tantra and Tantra is explained in terms of continuum so when we say continuum or what kind of continuum there can be so it identifies a continuum in the sense of a basic continuum of consciousness unique is our task unit emotion duty kshitij it I don't have such a hurry she took it which Obama producer so and then it explains the meaning of Tantra the continuum in terms of the basic continuum and the method that one can apply and then the resultant state that one can achieve from that method that actually they are on the consciousness the level of consciousness three categories one basis one the not tackling their killing their mind another level the third level out of dealing with mind finally can be completely purified might so this also can can say the first reality presently reality and explanation about that I consider science and then second detective application that's method that's philosophy or concept the third as a result like for noble truth when Buddha first aid first wheel of Dharma we start the day she mall and ever charlie the Machado village of diverse and diverse society she need she didn't sow any London Joe Torre Charla their long don't you go tell Serena demo then II sever shapes ever showed video show young tree so this is comparable to understanding the Buddha's first public sermon on the Four Noble Truths if you look at the Buddha's actual sermon he presents his teaching from the Four Noble Truths by way of three repetitions in the first stage on the first stage he identifies the specific nature of the truth the truth of suffering its origin cessation and the path that leads to the cessation and then in the second round of explanation of the Four Noble Truths then he talks about the functions of each of these knowledge of each of these truths so the fact that suffering must be recognized the origin of suffering must be removed cessation of the suffering must be actualized and the part must be must be cultivated so this is second around he explains what needs to be done with that understanding and then in the third round of repetition he explains what are the results that one may attain as a result of application of that knowledge so here we can see that even in the first public sermon put the steam of the Four Noble Truths he presents the teachings in the context of understanding the nature of reality the first stage second is the application of that knowledge in one's daily life and practice and then the third is the result one will achieve from that part and implicate so usually I make the three sort of categories distinction distinction of Buddhism but assigns the first part I consider as a Buddhist science second but it's conceptual but it's philosophy with this concept or philosophy come on the basis of the today's reality so that's what the science then what is concept or philosophy then what is religion because of that because of possibility to elimination of all negative emotion then worthwhile start some practice so here in this text also they surely go through a right that they did or shortly to judge just what her that Kiana's render it that's true – um de niro mission assumes simply she said numerous given whatever what an attorney – immature national when IAM not a solomon but Jesus Sheamus at the dari I would be the assembly other attorney she discharged a then a Niva t Tunisia minutes on a lot on photoshops said talent na and in debut novel yeah so in the text that was originally planned to be commented upon in fact we read a similar presentation here so it says that the actual explanation has three sections the first is how to analyze the fundamental ground of the mind and how to identify the innate primordial state so that corresponds to understanding the natural reality and then searching for the hidden dimension of reality by analyzing how the mind arises a bytes and moves on okay sorry a deeper theme to reversal and then the saurian so the second one says having affected the introduction how to implement that into practice and then third one says how the levels arises levels of realization and experiences arises on the basis of that practice oh but issue that question to cassia sorry now in the past I think more than two years you see we had some photo serious discussion or seminar with scientists there is some sort of dialogue or discussion or actually mutual learning of course basically is a four fields cosmology a neurobiology and some atomic physics physics such as quantum physics then psychology so in quantum physics also is in some similar view a cosmology basically same but then some particulars our description about world flat and in the center mountain narrow these are updated so of course the Buddhist chants the different description about cosmology so therefore we also dois so in a sense they're the Buddhist have a Liberty to choose which one they want then some of the condom such as Cano physics all really other great interest what 2,000 years so know what city this concept and modern latest sort of a scientific zone of sightings physicists are finding there are many similarities but then in anyway about the physical part there are many things to learn from modern science to Buddhists so really worthwhile listen or study from them then the neurobiology although the Buddhists particularly in tantrayana say mind and energy so quite interesting you see to to investigate the relation between emotions and and neurons these things but as far as the physical sight the modern science much more advanced so very useful to learn from them but the connection between neurons and their consciousness mind still this is not very clear the modern science of psychology usually call soft science I think very young very very young something about Hindu culture they ensure the Indian sort of science of mind seems is much advanced so a lot of information something useful to modern scientists so therefore they my scientists of a friend they were right that simple equipment to test so all the days since I think almost like 10 years ago some equipment is you put there but then just we wait wait wait someone who should die but then when the equipment available no one died or through such sort of experience hmm then when the ADA passed is a quite number vocation which is such does it happen but then machine not available so now last year our two teams combined now so in any way there so these things really interesting the further sort of investigation or acquiring our knowledge through joint effort it's very good so so now they mind now here since these are meeting with scientists about mind one thing in in India perhaps I think more than 2000 years perhaps around 3000 years this is some knowledge about sensorial consciousness or mind and you look osa a mental sensory versus mental experiences so in this model Science digital Savage II images and I researched water so in the course of our conversations with scientist vis a vie classical Indian thought one thing that seems to be clear is that on the part of the Western science and it's kind of theoretical traditions there isn't seem to be unlike in the classical Indian context a clear distinction drawn between sensory level of experiences versus meant level of experiences oh that's very very important big distinction the sensory or consciousness or mind very much little with the body with the parted posture body element water the mental level as I mentioned earlier the gross 11 very much related with the bodily element but more subtle more subtler more autonomy autonomy and then the motor issues virtually all we should look on page war money and also when we talk about the underlying states of mind that motivate behavior and then it's we're not talking at the level of sensory level of experience it was talking at the level of mental level of experience gazonga penny didn't agree you would talk about the sagittal embouchure Gani dr. gesture to go change the whole shop therefore in order to understand the functions and operations of this mental level of experience which is really what determined a lot of our experience of happiness and unhappiness at harm and an injury and so on simply focusing our another you know observation and study on the sensory level of experience is not going to be adequate now since Tibetan Buddhism actually the pure lineage of Nylander tradition it is very clear that because they inset in eighth century although I think interest about Buddhism since 7th century develop and try to learn already begin I think but more sound basis systematic a systematic systematic sorrow establishment or Buddhist yesterday over this practice eighth century the person who actually is a carrying the main responsibility to teach and also give ordination that's Santa Rita so they on the invitation from Emperor eighth century citizen to Indian order the important gurus come one guru padmasambhava one chanterelle Sita so the main responsibility as I mention earlier and giving ordination and also give study lessons mainly carried the cetera Sita so this chandra sudha very well-known great master one of great master of Nylander and holder of multi mega philosophy and he and also as a day generally the great magician so I think since beginning of our a zero children go through Kaduna agenda what food what so malenda monastic establishment begins towards the beginning of the Common Era the Nagarjuna come from that institution and many other and among them the great philosopher as a resonator logician come from and then lineage so this I shall directed our philosopher multimeter philosopher at the same time great position his sort of writing available in Tibetan translation shows all such a wonderful magician as well as a philosopher so naturally they the main introducer of buddhadharma in tibet one of the top scholar of bread practitioner or bread monk Bishop from Nylander so naturally if the teacher of philosopher or magician and he want his student should be that kind isn't it logically so therefore I think till now the in Tibetan saw an interval in tradition I said they basically did not in efficient very clear I often say telling people I myself when I study there are tradition mainly they didn't at the young age six seven years old then say we have to learn we have broken then already begin learning by heart those roots test so my own case at that time six seven year old no interest about Buddhism no knowledge as of watching scishow no as my injured Asura at Richards problem is it mentioned the reincarnation of $13 Amma I don't think so you see when I was young and start learning by heart these texts or no interest creator Latins my only interest is play so therefore my tutor have to keep one week no good one ah at that time as him myself and my other brother we both monk we both studied together here so my tutor kept two weeks one whip ordinary whip one whip yellow it so that yellow it should be considered as a holy bit Oh they yellow holy whip for holy person para but but you can imagine if that holy whip use I don't think any holy pain I the pain is same so so out of fear I studied I carried this study is these texts so the point is all these tests which I learned by heart and also he same similar and my big show the exhibition also you see Oh what is the same sort of experience all these rude texts road by null and the Masters Nagarjuna stepped or aria they are stashed Aria asanga bosserman plug that so all originally is road by non end of Master of course meantime we also just add a common tree among the commentary many Indian commentary as Restylane commentary so he also says read these things but real tech test all you see come from none other like that so therefore and then these country whenever some important point reach the always relying on coach one of the Indian well known in the master master like that so therefore it is very clear in valid of tradition then also there are some over there so he also I think he take special sort of responsibility to introduce Tariana although we believe they are say among danger which catched road by Indian masters various Indian master which translated into Tibetan about two hundred volumes among them quite numb of tantric texts or commentary road by a name of Nagarjuna and also Aria Dawa and many others so therefore so Tibetan Buddhist tradition Nylander lineage and meantime complete form of Buddhism that means Pali tradition of all the Vinaya Sutra original text the original language is pali language then and that does not do engineer so amongst the three collection scripture of collections non at the three baskets one is the the basket on discipline parable is already so the tibetan canonical collection the text on the discipline basket are primarily based on the pali teachings tonisha jean de da da da da da da didn'r bali yesterday in a total inertia so a mother within the two remaining baskets one on suit the collection of discourses the other is epidermal or higher knowledge for these although there might be some specific poly text but primarily these were translated to Tibetan from Sanskrit language sanskrit sources been an unbelievable model Komatsu door for example in the Tibetan tradition when we speak of abhidhamma tradition we speak of two systems of abhidhamma the lower ab Adama in the Abba ABBA Tamia so then in Tibet since 8th century complete form of Buddhism then the introduced and start that usually we call mangu Numa the early transition school then dr. Delany 9th century 10th century 11th century that surely i kumamoto Berta so during this period the establishment of the buddhadharma in tibet went through a turbulent and difficult period of degeneration and in tibetan emperors sort of our organism per uh also then decentralized and also pursue china and tibet as a country became splintered into you know different smaller kingdoms then summer george appear Roger isn't big and then when around the time the Indian master our teacher came to tibet this is in the eleven early part of the 11th century then what is known as the second phase of dissemination of Buddhism in Tibet occurred and from this movement emerged other Tibetan traditions such as Kadampa school and the kaigu school and the cycle school then later a kilo tradition also so all days say complete form of Buddhism that means hurrah Tabata Misato so each of these lineages embody the complete form of Buddhism which means that they embody the teachings of the all the vehicles including the Vajrayana teachings as well that when joining me come near this world whatever box Jimmy cada Jolanda Neander Ranga taking chances checking in jeweled Abbottabad some chair then a song of and it 300 by yoga's go to visit them to share their ma artists own utopia tell us tomorrow she said that too much to love this one so to give an example in the early translations called an Ingmar tradition the tradition speaks of nine Yanis or nine vehicles and nine vehicles are identified as the vehicles of the disciple the self enlightened ones pratyekabuddhas and the buddhist art was the three external vehicles and then within the Vajrayana teachings they are via the action Bupa Tantra and yoga Tantra so these are another set of teachings and then finally you have that you cute little goose so these are the external Contras or outer tantras and then you have maha our new and the hoodie amah Maha Tantra and our new Tantra and a tea Tantra it is that three inner voice Rihanna teachings so we can see that there is a complete recognition of the complete form of Buddhist teachings so now the the subtle mind is concerned according saw seen so much more now here MA Mardi Gras I suppose this is it at our new more vgtv you could do samba say that that d yum new digital world so in the new magician particularly from the suction perspective the great perfection of perspective now one speaks of the one gives teachings at the level of the pertaining to the subtle most level of consciousness which is the innate mind of clear light and there the focus is primarily on introducing the nature of mind at that level and and bringing about the realization of that awareness that they were to move a column to gallery similarly Bush ancient so one universes a name yeah glory boy Shiva Sailor Jupiter member chair until Nebuta Ruby she's a Jawa Ruby she's a little booty girl Cora Jenny toto Lulu J Dilla same connection yet dominate the Jewish in the aunt again then J Dilla Ripa good new symbols from other common LM so one unique method in the great perfection tradition is based upon drawing distinctions between what the traditional calls basic mind versus primordial awareness or Ripa awareness and here the distinction is understood on the basis of those mental states which are more vocational and advantageous and more temporary and these belong to a basic they are kind of a more of a fluctuating nature they are characterized as belonging to the basic ordinary a state of mind where is the river awareness is characterized as being devoid of that kind of fluctuation they are ever-present and also they are recognized to be a primordial quality of consciousness so the distinction is drawn between these two young dogs in lean on siggy a dr. Cindy George a long day and in there Marcus and Emily sugar long or some more many on song yes a lambic was sold or so and within the Georgian teachings of course sorry earlier I have recorded that so the Ripper awareness that is characterized as being free from fluctuation ever-present and so on is sometimes also referred to as Samantabhadra you know all goodness and with no beginning and no end and a temporal so within the suction teachings again there are many different levels of teaching or many different classes of teachings for example the three primary classes of teachings are known as the the cycle of mind teachings cycle of expands and the cycle of instructions so we see there are many different types of teachings even within the suction and great perfection instructions tindy book kun do some walk Thalia yes on Keros called a machine Rita she made about cartilage so there's a lot yes thank you ever Lulu at Shimer checking it that the tumor centers on a young Sargeras solo position alia – alia ranch in yonder and of how Jenna the coming under maneuver Yonezawa so Rohini on dirty tomorrow Monday Francine Johnson and average halva in Iranian in the bottom church leaders and a reunion ended about the manner Luo Cheng in Yun dae-ho Shamala what bitten a patina she Yesung here at the Manor yes I gave a on tomorrow so this primordial mind Ripa awareness referred to as characterized as Samantabhadra is in fact described as primordial Buddhahood and this is a primordial quality of Buddhahood that we all possess and however this primordial quality of Buddhahood is obscured by advantageous mental factors which are the afflictions and the various thought processes and through practice when this primordial quality of Buddhahood is removed you know when all of these advantages mental qualities properties of processes are cleansed then one becomes reawaken or rien lightened so the attainment of enlightenment is referred to as the reawakening or rien you know attainment of enlightenment and this is in a sense analogous to an idea in the professional wisdom teachings where the natural one's mind is referred to as the natural Nirvana and the natural Nirvana serves as the basis for the possibility of attaining and Nirvana with residue and in tirana without residue which are constituted by elimination of the afflictive forces so if there is no a natural Nirvana then there is simply no possibility of the attainment of the nerve an actual Nirvana so this the idea is similar so similarly in the in the doctrine professional teaching because of the presence of the primordial Buddhahood in us it allows the possibility to gain this reawakening attainment of Buddhahood Dante or beaucoup sadi chill tambon inshallah taboc we are a CNS or some member can say Chi Chi not only because Allah Tabora beaucoup de la santé to say eventually the drill tsumuji hungry these ray Alisha so dr. Islam of tissue Kamiya d- are set in charge not dinner then she starts but her a dish in Omni sheets are comes and then today Allatoona look you don't wanna and he called joram joram joram katana got in shame we re did you do many around Jerry Thomas chain then a simcha children Shravya me de dee da Salam position lock Toyota GED and change a sabbatical chair polish women to participate my chances with t-wayne ammunition Dardanelle high nandroid communist on em and Sergio Cucho Pavano Serena en hacer todo Santa me Ronnie Picciotto vote le vous ne she so moody Leia busy road I struggle so that Linda's on a any Jia mo ba da yoga DD Nimisha TTT big Takada financial social totally then any give a my aura Luna novices and it's aluminum Middle America Tan n Chavo Chavo ADEA was loose on a any River sound a great anime teacherly seduce any cancer gene the decimal oh man drew solution e kappa r ba la pena Mizrachi akuto ha pen along ginger june area tangerine a the society no unity shetty tamil ginger jeonggi namely solver that thousand conversation do not to desert any autistic to desert heat day when each injured a tech engineering a superhuman are singing sot chorus shark a chain or a shemitah shushanna do all share in the determinant down droppage re t DHA Antonella bill megan jones change that easy inning am little mud attraction Yashiro so so when we speak about nine Yanis or nine vehicles from the early translation traditions perspective it's not a question of simply making a presentation about the general teachings of the Buddha but in fact there is a tradition where the teachings of all the nine Yanis nine vehicles are made relevant to the progress of an individual who is working on the path so in this respect then all the teachings of the nine year of vehicles become relevant to the transformation of an individual person a practitioner so in this context then the the teachings and the practices of the Four Noble Truths will correspond to the teachings of the disciples vehicle and then when the teachings of the Four Noble Truths are further elaborated then the Four Noble Truths the causal networks between suffering and origin and cessation of the path when they are further elaborated then the teachings of the twelve links of dependent origination becomes relevant and here both the reversal order and the sequential order of the relationship between the twelve links explained and then meditated upon then the practitioner is essentially implementing the teachings of the Prothean buddha the self enlightened ones and then when the individual moves on to the next stage then the teachings on generating bodhichitta and the altruistic awakening mind and based upon that implements the practices of the six perfections giving a moral discipline and and so on culminating in the cultivation of schemata a tranquil abiding and also Vibhishana a special insight then the practitioner is implementing the teachings of the buddha satva vehicle on that basis then one moves on to the next level where dat yoga practices are brought into once once daily practice and then you know depending upon the levels of one's experience the deity yoga practice becomes ever more subtler and that's how you want moves through this next three vehicles and initially for some individuals it is said that that clear action Tantra meditation may involve visualizing once meditation deity in the form of a master outside and then from home one receives blessings and empowerment and so on but gradually as the deity Yoga realization becomes more and more profound one moves on to the next stages and then finally you know one moves on to the the Maha yoga and a new yoga and at the yoga then there the manipulation of the subtle energies and the channels and the drops these practices the more advanced of our gianna practices are also brought into the at the person's path and then all of these having established as a kind of a preliminary practice one then moves on to the doct in the great perfection avati yoga practice where the focus is really on affecting the realization of the ripa primordial awareness so therefore when I and this is in fact the approach that is presented in the seven Treasuries of longchenpa for example and in fact I normally recommend to people who wishes to engage in a grid perfection and practice to proceed by first study long chambers Treasury on the philosophical systems to pursue and then follow that with the Treasury of wish-fulfilling jewel you Schanzer and then on that basis also study smel so the mind at ease which has there is a custom of doing the study and practice of this over a period of 145 days where you generate all that shower is Carrie Nageotte shop water is sorry Serena data shoe sherry yes so if each of the meditation cycles tell me what shall we do to digest their soul kalyana in de chile rellenos rule yes so so each of these you know rounds of visualization you know practice cycles are coral correlate to a day or week and then there is a custom of doing this over an extended period of time in one stretch that would be beneficial and then gradually one can move on to the study of the treasury of the supreme vehicle and then the treasury of ultimate expands and then this way the approach would be very systematic colombians all all chil-su distribution so the the point is it is very important to have an overall understanding of the basic framework of the Buddhist path tell me Casa can de letra Jenna Cora Thomas essentially tony cornett atomic identi hungry telecon some questions every virtue on the Serena the mo Yeon's or Hajj have atonia and individually the Murchison said they rode out to which one the other way so of course there could be an individual circumstances where some individual practitioners may have residual karmic forces you know being brought from the previous lives and then in a sense they are connecting with what is you know moving on from a already a certain stage in which case a very specific instruction from an experienced guru or a master may be an appropriate approach but generally for most practitioners it is better to approach from the the basis of having an overall understanding of the structure of the Buddhist path and then engaging in specific practices on that basis Oh then next could you could you lineage mainly come from nah robot at the Lama marble or Tibetan he received teaching from many Indian master and particularly his ferocity the medieval philosophy is concerned from bit Reba so very clear the medieval whatever it is the holder of the each other Cadiz view like that then that could you be charged a symbol so design a Chinese Shambala ocularly education charges so we are in the chancellor domain each a light on biology which I disabled did so in the metal commercial commercial on Alcatraz I just research Tour de Nesle team we are a Tribbiani damn to memoriam buddy la merced attaining knowledge children are gay sokovia trova or that tada the teeny guy Adela any suggestion boss a mob mudras at the tree so the whole saudi numerology give a lot any done nano more game we re lambda more game we are so one of the key teachings of the kagu tradition is the Mahamudra teachings and although mohammed ratings can be found also in the key looks cool as well but in cargo teachings imatra is the essential instruction and when we speak of the term Maha mudra or the Great Seal this can be applied in the context of a Sutra teachings and also in the Vajrayana tantric teachings when it is used in the Sutra context then Mohammed refers to meditation on emptiness empty emptiness and however in the cut you teachings when the term teachings term Maha mudra is used it's being used in this Vajrayana sense where the key point is to really utilize the innate mind of clear light into a realization of the natural mind and so the emphasis is really on the cultivation and development and also a realization of this innate mind of clear light o died in a psyche saga Dubonnet my journey a fundamental cycle objects are did they do that QT Sagar I am needy get off me AMG the genie the soda wha Jenny da nonsan goossens so no society in dalam need some BRE bah no hombre no Matta when our tenon a jogger attaboy no sense Oceano so Tina meenalla da da de Gallina me the gender renge chance of tearing a minute attended Sunday I got in a trio a yoga today missus from Duque de marche da na na la McGee da Matta sat at the 30-ton that is Sally Ellison do any you some sentence a llama can rotate wha-la me not individually do some say directory under some diggin along higher tier a do you compute devi qs j da GU since ever sandy Dada cheeky Maradona era the so much official name any the bakudo sambusas to share that D Union income not Osman a of the holiday what is tangent area dr. 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layer we shake every year a hindi nargis mean gee babe what tragic disappearance of Sigma Chi some GRE tada-san some Evelina less a number have an ego-t tongue move center David nigga verybody chanimal sunshine Lewis empty the garbage is about this one rosetta stone totally Dasani total enemy de Muro quiet anybody sat on the demon Sian no OSA de da de da de seldom shook saudade a cell assembly Cheney Tompa sempai g7 fugu fugu charge a society not the music do you do under I'm some solace did humble hadera's Lana music do you day correlation MJ Senegal to the Sun susana tada do you still deny the causal or any guru bata taman negara today mainly sunny della horror short Angelo Mulder jr. in the sunny senior citizens now lung Gotama deity your intentions now move along under the tab a judicial DoDEA – new – eruption of the day out the London simcha Chile financial success although they are Zumba virginity GD ton o Shiva dick on a book guru tattwa Shahada Canadian tag 1000 sudden a temperature which a laywer local don't intentionally design a lungi because over lundi lundi certain shape your intention some top solving under deity Jules Jules guru from cells but it is only 30 Rangers and a green sheet you under year may say so sure that they are linked one so know what it is Rosanna ah ah this is much better than you were sorry now too long no so this that the psyche a tradition traces its the lineage of its instruction to the Indian master ver Appa over boob virupa Virata and the key instruction of the psycho school is known as the laundry cycle of teachings part in its fruit and part and its fruition teachings lambda teachings and so and these lambda cycle of teachings are principally based upon a cycle of Raj Rihanna texts known as the hey vara Tantra and at the key idea in that cycle of teachings is the notion of three three types of continued and referred to as the three tantras and one is the causal Tantra the basis of all and and then the causal Tantra the explanation of the causal Tantra and the instruction based upon this is presented in the form of what are known as the three three appearances and also three tantras the three appearances here correspond to the nanhua driana teachings for example they the teachings deal with what are known as the perspectives of afflicted mental states cleansing of the afflicted mental states perspectives the teachings corresponding to the cleansing of the impure perspectives or impure appearances and then finally cultivation of the pure appearances so these correspond roughly to the external teachings such as the teachings of the disciple vehicle the self in that self enlighten once a vehicle and the Bodhisattva vehicle and however the central focus of the teaching is really on understanding and cultivation of the qualities of this basic causal Tantra the kanji Gugu and so this and so there is in the cycle London teaching an explanation of a method of a practice where the three tantras are brought into some kind of mixture of fusion and so this and and the idea of the basic causal Tantra is analogous to this idea of fundamental innate mind of clear light which in the deduction terminology is referred to as the basic awareness awareness that is the Samantabhadra the primordial mind and and so however the instruction for bringing about a realization of that basic causal continuum is done through an experiential process in this IKEA school for example Sakya Pandita makes the statement that he says that in between the arising of different thought processes the arising of a clear light mind a radiant clear light mind remains uninterrupted so what he is saying is that for example if you observe the mind your own thought processes thought processes one follow after another as if in a kind of a sequence but in between the arising of one thought and the you know dissolving of that and arising of another they are interval you know regardless of how how short they may be but they are intervals between the transition the different aright you know arising or thought processes and so and then so that the the practice involves trying to tease out those transitional periods so that one can kind of you know I tend to recognize and these gaps in the arising of another thought and and dissolution and arising of another thought and so this is done through a cultivation of a particular meditation practice which is found also in the gulag and the kagu Maha mudra teachings as well where one seeks to cultivate an ability to simply focus on the present moment of consciousness so this involves deliberately you know refraining from chasing after any thoughts that you know look back retrospectively into some kind of memory or recollections and so on and nor you know you know chasing one's mind after some kind of future anticipatory experiences some kind of you know future directed oriented thought processes so one refrains from both you know looking backwards into the past nor into the future through anticipation and hopes and so on but remains simply in the present moment so initially you know what one experiences is simply a kind of an absence or a gap but through experience as one learns to prolong that period of this absence of the simply remaining focus in the present moment at that time one comes to recognize the subtle thought processes and this is although not exactly the actual clear light state of mind but it is somewhat you know belonging or indicative of that basic clear light mind and in for example in ended option teachings it is through this kind of practice one cultivates what is called the sense of wonderment you know simply being aware of the present state and just remaining in that state with the total wonderment and the sense of wonder and then from this sense of wonder one leads to a real experience of rickwaa awareness so this is what a patroller butcher for example explains so in the psychie a– laundry cycle of teachings although that kind of language is not used but the basic idea is to really cultivate that present moment awareness with a sense of wonder where one does not let one's mind follow after the temptation of looking into the past or into the future but simply remaining in that present moment of consciousness as one learns to remain simply focused on the present moment of consciousness then you know one allows for the natural quality of the mind to express itself and the natural quality of the mind is clear light so this is the instruction that is found in in in the psycho cycle of teachings now of course in the absorption great perfection teachings there is a recognition that even when the gross levels of thought processes are occurring like everyone is for example when a strong affliction afflicted state of mind arises even at that point given that all of these mental processes are in some sense expressions of this a basic Rippa awareness and they are referred to as effulgence Azure expressions or manifestations of Reaper awareness therefore even the afflicted most afflicted state of minds are permeated by the quality of a basic quality of awareness so in zorton a great profession and instructions there is a technique where while the afflicted state arises one learns not to follow after the grasping and clinging that normally tends to arise in with these mental states so while you know when the afflicted mental state arises one refrains from falling after the grasping tendency but rather you know you know maintains one's focus simply on the bare awareness dimension of the experience and – this way affect the actualization of the ripa awareness so this is a unique method found in the great perfection teachings whereas in the new translation sky school teachings the principle approach is to utilize various techniques to withdraw the grosser levels of mind and energy and so that the subtler levels of consciousness and energy can become more and manifest because when the sensory and the thought processes are active then the subtler level of consciousness remains inactive and through applicate manipulation of the physiological forces such as the channels and the energy that flows within them and the drops and so on one learns to withdraw both grosser level of consciousness and energy and then allow for the subtle levels of consciousness to arise so that's the the principle approached found in the new translation school so this is in fact the one of the key approaches of the psycho school of teaching where it talks about the the union of clarity and emptiness and here clarity refers to the clear light and emptiness to the emptiness quality so in this it says that the clarity is the defining characteristic of the nature of mind and emptiness is the ultimate reality of mind and through the union of the two one attains the realization and also this kind of practices teaching is also referred to as the indivisibility of Nirvana and samsara because in this basic causal continuum Gugu all the attributes of both samsara and Nirvana are present and the all the attributes of samsara the cyclic existence are present in the form of actual characteristics that we experience and and all the attributes of the part present in the form of qualities of the mind and all the attributes of the result contained in the form of potentials so therefore this GU GU GU the basic causal Tantra or continuum is understood to be a form of an Indian divisibility of both enlightened men and unenlightened state okay so better some question follow you here your holiness these questions were submitted through the internet yes professor Cabazon handed them to me the first question is in my reading of some of his Holiness's books I have sometimes seen the subtle most nature of mind characterized as neutral one day but in other instances it seems as though His Holiness says that we have an innate predisposition for goodness for love for compassion and for enlightenment so this would seem to imply that the fundamental nature of mind is positive or virtuous but not neutral can you hold us please explain and generally because we are not talking about art with reality or subtle mind as far as subtle mind is concerned this moment just word and so they so there are basic sort of human nature you know the way I think that I think in afternoon session until I may explain something here so those people who will not come this after the next session hmm then you can ask someone who again second question you all in is is there some reason to prefer meditation on the natural mind to meditation on anything else for example meditation on the nature of self or other phenomena or crosa symbol Sigma Omega D comment Ipanema Tabaco Butantan tombola later a damn green egg Aquinas this mainly says refer in terms of teaching tantric practice the reason is as I mentioned at the beginning the ultimate ultimately things depend on our motivation motivation is part of mind so therefore or penalty was a joke sim against Sims engine and our knowledge addition another good normal rule early killers or someone in relating a means so for example in one Buddhist texts as Chan Chan Turk at the 7th century he says that you know it is the mind that creates the the world that we live in and it is the mind that creates the actions that lead to that creation and therefore in this way we understand the karmic action to be the person agent for creation tadaa take a saddle sun-joo Xia reared oh my gear may tear me sohcahtoa chiba-chiba de de da para saddle SuJu salad yummy Caesarea to need a mushroom phonetic tune it up and toss or butter bourbon you do need ah Tony in big money chip already in a Cheshire salad aa movie macabre sanity clunky machines of the world Oh under the wrangle wrangle and Cindy Runge top isotropic a table to devote you teach Saturday dozen a simply tunic on a sometime or the middle bridge new him is some down vomiting so did he mean discern a panelist on this re endure a resume ear and not assume you are a simply Cheney the tall red shoes catch me image conduct this artists as well other did not attend she would not do initially you know just under the target but sashimi Nagy the timber Tolliver Johnny Tomica Alabama gone then it should you die mucosa she's officially on it now let me the dangers a ninja means you simply to continue mother Josh every so therefore we have been talk for example we have been talking about the union of clarity and emptiness union of rickwaa awareness and Antoinette a union of bliss and emptiness so all of these are really perspectives coming from the Vajrayana teachings and therefore inverse Rihanna teaching the meditation on emptiness on the mind itself the natural mind itself becomes very important because although one can take the emptiness of say an external object like a sprout and meditate upon it but the distinction here is that when one takes the mind to be the basis upon which one meditates on emptiness then one is actually reflecting upon the natural one's own mind the ozpin natural wants on or on mind and all of these is really from the perspective of was a on a teaching for example in one of Aria divers texts on Tantra he X means the significance of taking a mind nature of mind as the focus of one's practice in the Vajrayana context however in a non version a context such as the perfection of wisdom teachings then generally it is said that between the emptiness of the person and emptiness of phenomena one generally takes the emptiness of person to be the initial focus because it is easier to understand emptiness by taking one's own personal identity or person to be the faces of meditating upon emptiness then a one sort of the Sanskrit word usually we recite that is um sure that Jannah banza Samoa amok aha these sumo are self conscious next one ordered a community regime current regime so in this mantra that is part of the Vajrayana sadhana practice there's the word svabhava which means nature and swamp hava in this particular context indicates meditating upon the svabhava of the mind itself the very mind which is meditating upon it its own nature so um Musa Moses our Dharma sumo I should announcer gives tsubasa Dada on showing the gentleman of small circle our eternal card wa so so this vibhava in these two different contexts are different one is slow bhava of the nature of all phenomena there is in another context svabhava or nature refers to the nature of the mind meditating upon itself lift I'm wondering if you think it is a lot more difficult for Americans to focus their minds and to be able to reach enlightenment oh look at that simile as that Simnel to purchase them that focus share the connection and these are that total really iconic shape metros teacher we are a culture that thrives on stimulation excitement pleasure and doing everything very quickly I think that meditation and centering oneself is extremely difficult in American society do you think it would be easier for Americans if we lived in a country with a slower pace where people took more time being present in their daily life Oh basically I don't think this is much differences but the eastern our asana I don't think much differences in fact some my American friend who spent years years or meditation said they are result quite amazing so these are American not a Tibetan so so that mean that shows basically same same human mind as the external influence important but ultimately Kasota the nature of mind itself is more important so we alway everyone have sort of same potential I think of the same manner quality I think that that I he but then someone I'd I think you I mean discussion if you really serious then current investigation interview more people but then maybe you get more clear picture now I don't I don't think as much differences final question Donna Karen blue ocean as all right I did two three questions okay um why did you say Buddhism is like a science of the mind that's it that word not originally come from me but some Western scholar you see described they say Buddhism is not a religion but rather signs of mind so ask him ask them yes how do you feel about the use of LSD and other psychedelic drugs alone to attain higher states of consciousness or spirituality of course firstly I have no such experience then you see according those the people who have some experience then since another trimmin immunity over the trivial driven numbers within show seemed WA but from what I have heard from people who ever had the actual first an experience it seems that the experience of using these kind of psychedelic drugs tend to bring a greater profusion of illusion and since we are already have a lot of illusory experiences to begin with so why do we need additional illusory experiences then this I think you see in serious practice is concerned I think should not rely on external methods of justice justice simply try true as other cultivate might cultivate the mind here the nature quality of mind there's much better and a happy heart that answers to come later about chocolate in your 50 years of exile you have faced down many hardships and never wavering in your commitment to your people and the fight for social justice what is advice do you have for young people on how to achieve success while staying true to one's moral principles or afternoon most of the questions are always general I'll stop thank you thank you very much you

Electrical experiments with plants that count and communicate | Greg Gage

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Neuroscientist Greg Gage takes sophisticated equipment used to study the brain out of graduate-level labs and brings them to middle- and high-school classrooms (and, sometimes, to the TED stage.) Prepare to be amazed as he hooks up the Mimosa pudica, a plant whose leaves close when touched, and the Venus flytrap to an EKG to show us how plants use electrical signals to convey information, prompt movement and even count.

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المترجم: Ehab Aboelkhair
المدقّق: Riyad Almubarak أنا عالم أعصاب، والمؤسس المشارك لBackyard Brains، ورسالتنا أن ندرب الجيل القادم
من علماء الأعصاب بأخذ معدات البحث في علم الأعصاب
من مستوى الخريجين وجعلها متاحة للأطفال
في المدارس المتوسطة والثانوية. وعندما ندخل فصلاً دراسياً، فهناك طريقة لجعلهم يندمجون في التفكير
عن الدماغ، الذي هو في غاية التعقيد، أن نسألهم سؤالاً في غاية البساطة
عن علم الأعصاب، وهو: "ما الذي لديه دماغ؟" وعندما نسأل هذا، سيخبرنا الطلاب فوراً أن قطتهم
أو كلبهم لديهم دماغ، ومعظمهم سيقولون أن الفأر
أو حتى حشرة صغيرة لديهم دماغ، ولكن تقريباً لا أحد يقول أن نبتة أو شجرة أو شجيرة لديهم دماغ. لذا فعندما تتابع لأن هذا يمكنه فعلاً
المساعدة قليلاً في وصف كيفية عمل الدماغ في الواقع فتتابع وتقول، "حسناً، ما الذي يحدد كون
الكائنات الحية لديها دماغ أم لا؟" وغالباً ما سيجيبون بتصنيف أن الكائنات التي تتحرك
عادة ما يكون لها أدمغة. وهذا صحيح تماماً. تطور جهازنا العصبي لأنه كهربائي. إنه سريع، حتى نتمكن من الاستجابة
بسرعة للمؤثرات في العالم وأن نتحرك عند الحاجة. ولكن يمكنكم العودة والاستمرار مع طالب، وسؤاله: "حسناً، تعلم، أنت تقول
أن النباتات ليست لديها أدمغة، ولكن النباتات تتحرك". أي شخص قام بزراعة نبتة قد لاحظ أن النبتة ستتحرك وتواجه الشمس. ولكن الطالب سيرد قائلاً:
"ولكن هذه حركة بطيئة. كما تعلم، فهي لا تحتسب.
فقد تكون عملية كيميائية". ولكن ماذا عن النباتات سريعة الحركة؟ حسناً، في عام 1760، قام (آرثر دوبز)،
الحاكم الملكي لولاية كارولاينا الشمالية، باكتشاف مبهر للغاية، ففي المستنقعات خلف منزله، وجد نبتة تنغلق بسرعة في كل مرة تسقط فيها حشرة. وقام بتسمية هذه النبتة
مصيدة فينوس (خناق الذباب)، وخلال عقد من الزمن،
شقت طريقها إلى أوروبا، حيث تمكن تشارلز داروين
العظيم من دراسة هذه النبتة في النهاية، وقد أذهلته تماماً. وسماها أكثر النباتات روعة في العالم. هذه نبتة كانت معجزة تطورية. هذه نبتة تتحرك بسرعة، وهو شي نادر، وهي آكلة لحوم، وهو نادر أيضاً. وهذا في نفس النبتة. ولكنني هنا اليوم لأخبركم أن هذا ليس أروع شيء
بخصوص هذه النبتة. فأروع شيء هو أنها تستطيع العد. ولكي أتمكن من إظهار هذا، فعلينا أن نفهم بعض المصطلحات. لذا فسأقوم بما نفعله
مع التلاميذ في الفصول. سنقوم بتجربة في الفيزيولوجيا الكهربائية، وهي تسجيل لإشارات الجسد الكهربية، سواء التي تأتي من الخلايا العصبية
أو من العضلات. وها أنا أضع بعض الأقطاب الكهربائية
هنا على معصمي. وعندما أوصلهم، سنكون قادرين على رؤية إشارة على الشاشة هنا. وقد تكون هذه الإشارة
مألوفة بالنسبة لكم. وهي تسمى بالEKG،
أو تخطيط كهربائية القلب. وهي تأتي من الخلايا العصبية في قلبي التي تطلق ما يسمى بجهود الفعل، والجهد هو الجهد الكهربائي والفعل
يعني أنه يتحرك بسرعة صعوداً ونزولاً، وهو ما يشغل قلبي، الذي بدوره يتسبب في الإشارات
التي ترونها هنا. لذا أريدكم أن تتذكروا
شكل ما سترونه هنا الآن، لأن هذا سيكون مهماً هذه هي طريقة تشفير الدماغ للمعلومات في صورة جهد فعل. فلننتقل الآن إلى بعض النباتات. سأعرفكم أولاً على الميموسا، لا أعني الشراب،
ولكن الميموسا بوديكا (النبتة الخجولة)، وهي نبتة توجد في أمريكا الوسطى
وأمريكا الجنوبية، ولديها سلوكيات. والسلوك الأول الذي سأريكم هو عندما ألمس الأوراق هنا، سترون أن الأوراق تميل إلى الكرمشة. والسلوك الثاني يظهر، إذا نقرت على الورقة، يبدو أن الفرع بأكمله سيسقط. إذاً فلماذا تفعل هذا؟ إنه شيء ليس معروفاً حقاً للعلم. قد يكون واحد من الأسباب
أنها بهذا تخيف الحشرات، أو أنها تبدو أقل جاذبية للحيوانات العاشبة. ولكن كيف تفعل هذا؟
هذا هو المثير للاهتمام. ويمكننا إجراء تجربة لمعرفة كيف. فما سنقوم بعمله الآن، تماماً مثلما سجلت الجهد الكهربائي لجسدي، سنقوم بتسجيل الجهد الكهربائي
لهذه النبتة هنا، هذه الميموسا. لذا ما سنفعله،
هو أنني قمت بلف سلك حول الجذع، وأين وضعت القطب الأرضي؟ في الأرض. هذه مزحة
مهندسين كهربائيين. لا بأس. (ضحك) حسناً. سوف أبدأ الآن وأنقر على الورقة هنا، وأريدكم أن تتابعوا التسجيل الكهربائي الذي سنراه داخل النبتة. مهلاً. إنه كبير جداَ.
علي تصغيره. حسناً. فما هذا؟ هذا فعل جهد ينشأ داخل النبتة. ولما نشأ؟ لأنها أرادت الحركة. أليس كذلك؟ ولذلك عندما أضرب مستقلات اللمس، أرسلت جهداً كهربائياً على طول الطريق
حتى نهاية الجذع، والذي تسبب في حركتها. وفي أذرعنا، نقوم بتحريك العضلات، ولكن النبتة ليست لديها عضلات. الذي لديها هو الماء داخل الخلايا وعندما يضرب الجهد الكهربائي الخلايا،
تنفتح، وتحرر الماء، مغيرة شكل الخلايا، وتسقط الورقة. حسناً. فها قد رأينا فعل الجهد
وهو يشفر معلومات للحركة. اتفقنا؟ لكن ما الذي يفعله أكثر من ذلك؟ لنكتشف ذلك. سنذهب إلى صديقتنا العزيزة،
مصيدة فينوس هنا، وسنلقي نظرة على ما يحدث داخل الورقة عندما تهبط ذبابة داخلها. لذا سأتظاهر أنني ذبابة الآن. وها هي مصيدة فينوس خاصتي هنا، وداخل الورقة، ستلاحظون أن هناك ثلاث شعيرات هنا،
وهن شعيرات إثارة. وهكذا عندما تهبط ذبابة سألمس واحدة من الشعيرات الآن. مستعدون؟ واحد، اثنان، ثلاثة. ما الذي نحصل عليه؟ نحصل على جهد فعل جميل. وعلى الرغم من ذلك، لم تنغلق مصيدة الذباب. ولكي نفهم لماذا هذا، علينا أن نتعلم أكثر قليلاً
عن سلوك مصيدة الذباب. أولاً هي تحتاج وقتاً طويلاً
لتعيد فتح المصايد، تعرفون، حوالي من 24 إلى 48 ساعة
إذا لم تكن بداخلها ذبابة. فهي تستهلك الكثير من الطاقة. وثانياً، أنها لا تحتاج أن تأكل
كمية كبيرة من الذباب على مدار العام. تحتاج مقدار قبضة فقط. فهي تحصل
على معظم طاقتها من الشمس. فهي تحاول أن تستبدل الذباب
ببعض العناصر الغذائية في التربة ليس إلا. وثالثاً، فهي تفتح وتغلق المصيدة بضع مرات فحسب حتى تموت تلك المصيدة. لذا فهي تريد أن تكون على أتم التأكيد أن هناك وجبة بداخلها
قبل أن تنغلق مصيدة الذباب. إذاً كيف تتأكد من ذلك؟ تقوم بعد الثواني بين مرات اللمس المتتابعة
لتلك الشعيرات. والفكرة أنه ستكون هناك احتمالية عالية، إذا كانت هناك ذبابة بالداخل،
أن الذبابة والشعيرة سيتلامسان، فعندما تحصل على أول جهل فعل، تبدأ بالعد، واحد، اثنان، وإذا وصلت ل20 ولم ينطلق جهد فعل آخر، فلن تنغلق، ولكن إذا نشأ جهد فعل خلال تلك الثواني،
عندها ستنغلق مصيدة الذباب. سنعود إليها الآن. وسألمس مصيدة فينوس مرة أخرى. وأنا أتحدث الآن لأكثر من عشرين ثانية. فلنر ما سيحدث عندما
ألمس الشعيرة مرة ثانية. فما الذي نحصل عليه؟ نحصل على جهد فعل ثان، ولكن مرة أخرى، لا تنغلق الورقة. والآن إذا عدت داخلها وكنت ذبابة تتحرك بالداخل، فسألمس الورقة بضع مرات. سأتابع وأحتك بها بضع مرات. وفوراً، تنغلق مصيدة الذباب. فها نحن نرى مصيدة ذباب تقوم بالحساب. إنها تحدد ما إذا كانت
هناك ذبابة داخل المصيدة، وبعدها تنغلق. فلنعد إلى سؤالنا الأصلي. هل للنباتات أدمغة؟ حسناً، الإجابة هي كلا. ليست هناك أدمغة هنا. لا محاور عصبية، لا خلايا عصبية. ولا يصيبها الإكتئاب. ولا تهتم بنتائج مباريات كرة القدم. وليس لديها مشاكل في تحقيق الذات. ولكن ما لديها،
هو شيء مشابه جداً لما لدينا، وهو القدرة على التواصل باستعمال الكهرباء. الفرق أنها تستعمل
أيونات مختلفة قليلاً عن ما لدينا، ولكنها في الواقع تقوم بنفس الشيء. لأريكم فحسب الطبيعة واسعة الانشار لجهود الفعل هذه، رأيناها في مصيدة فينوس، رأينا جهد فعل في الميموسا. بل ورأينا جهد فعل حتى في إنسان. إنه العملة الموحدة للدماغ. إنه طريقة تمرير كل المعلومات. وهكذا نستطيع استخدام جهود الفعل تلك لنقل معلومات بين أنواع من النباتات. وهذا هو جهاز الاتصال بين النباتات
من أنواع مختلفة خاصتنا، والذي قمنا به هنا،
هو أننا ألفنا تجربة جديدة كلياً فيها سنقوم بتسجيل جهد الفعل
الناشئ من مصيدة فينوس، ثم سنرسله إلى الميموسا الخجولة. وأريدكم أن تتذكروا ما يحدث عندما نلمس أوراق الميموسا. لديها مستقبلات لمس تعيد إرسال تلك المعلومة في صورة جهد فعل. فما الذي سيحدث إذا أخذنا جهد الفعل من مصيدة فينوس وأرسلناه إلى كل جذوع الميموسا؟ يجب أن نكون قادرين على خلق سلوك الميموسا بدون أن نلسمها بأنفسنا أصلاً. وإذا سمحتم لي، سوف أتابع وأثير هذه الميموسا الآن عن طريق لمس شعيرات مصيدة فينوس. فسنقوم بإرسال معلومات اللمس
من نبتة إلى أخرى. وها أنتم ترونها. لذا، (تصفيق) لذا، آمل أنكم تعلمتم اليوم،
شيئاً عن النباتات، وليس هذا فحسب. تعلمتم أن النباتات يمكن أن تسخدم للمساعدة
في تدريس علم الأعصاب. والنهوض بالثورة العصبية. شكراً لكم. (تصفيق)