Jordan Peterson: Universities have turned into ideological factories



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It has reached a point where most university faculties, outside of science, technology, engineering and math subjects, do more harm than good. Source: …

Definitions of Economics



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In this module, the learner will understand the definitions of economics given by Adam Smith, Alfred Marshall and Lionel Robbins.

This is a product of Mexus Education Pvt. Ltd., an education innovations company based in Mumbai, India.

Herschel's World of Economics



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Dr. Harlan Day talks about the Herschel’s World of Economics videos. This series is designed to help elementary students understand economics and matches state social studies standards. You can find more information at and

the intended audience for Herschel is primarily kindergartener fifth grade sixth grade in that range we did testing with students and found that the k5 those inside the best okay in the Herschel DVD I am interacting with a a dog puppet who was called Herschel and Herschel doesn't really know anything about economics and I am there to kind of help him learn economics and you do it in front of a live TV audience and they cover the basic economic concepts that you would find in a k5 curriculum some of the teachers tell us that the students just say oh can we see her short come to see another episode of Herschel and the students become very attached to Herschel and we now have a little puppet that we have produced that we are going to sell along with the DVD and so we anticipate even more interest from students who just love learning via the use of a puppet as well as the DVD programs it's a first DVD is just called Herschel's rule of economics and we deal with concepts such as goods and services economic wants opportunity cost scarcity trade simple concepts like that and Herschel to that is Herschel goes into business there are a little more advanced such as specialization productivity interdependence profit price things like that go so Herschel goes into business and you encounter some of those more little more advanced concepts it's just a fun and interesting and also very effective way of teaching these simple concepts to students getting teachers to look at economics in the social studies in general is sometimes a challenge and we think by using the puppet and using the DVD and the interesting curriculum that it's going to really encourage teachers to go ahead and take that step and focus a little more on the economics and it's a way that's so easy to use and yet highly effective at the same time so it we really think it's it's it's going to get more teachers teaching economics in the elementary grades way to go that they're certainly in Indiana where we're matching to our Indiana State Standards but also we match perfectly with the national standards in economics developed by the council and economic education so teachers who use these DVDs are going to be really touching on the concepts that are prevalent in almost all the state standards and certainly all the national standards I think the key selling point of this herschel school of economics curriculum is the very interesting nature of teaching economics using a puppet we have tremendous companion materials to go along with herschel the curriculum uses kids econ posters which are posters that have the economic concepts on there there's a teacher guide with activities you can use with the curriculum and there's also materials like pint-sized economics half-pint economics just a lot the website also has a literature connection so you can use books to follow up the teaching activities of herschel there's also economic songs that's very popular the student the teachers love the teach economics using the songs and they're available for you also on the kids econ poster's website you

MOCK TEST English REET Exam 2018, Literary Terms: Elegy, Sonnet, Drama,short story



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MOCK TEST English REET Exam 2018, Literary Terms: Elegy, Sonnet, Drama, short story
Elegy Sonnet drama & short story, Literary terms used in English Literature.
Poetry appreciation

This is an Educational Channel for online lectures/ classes/ discussions on different competitive exam, College & University courses, all subjects Like English Grammar, English Literature, English Teaching methods, hindi Language,Hindi Grammar, Hindi Shikshan Vidhiyan, Child Development and Pedagogy, Psychology, Social Studies, history, Geography, Political science, Current events, Rajasthan GK, Educational Psychology, Indian Constitution.

We discuss previous years Question papers and prepare students for all competitive exams like RAS, UGC NET/JRF, REET, TET, CTET, HTET, UPTET, SSC, and many other state and National level exams.

Singaporeans Try: Social Studies (NDP SPECIAL)



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Here’s a mega throwback to our thirteen-year-old selves in uniforms, studying about Maria Hertogh’s history in our Social Studies class – a subject we all nearly forgotten that existed! In conjunction to NDP, we challenged ourselves to rack our brains for a Social studies quiz!

For more info on this year’s NDP!

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the smart locals embassy since NDB is coming we did a social studies test to find out how well Singapore is know our history no it was my favorite subject in second sector no Chris last 15 tree like a lot my friends want to my peers other countries but I feel like Singapore certify country other than the weather the weather can afford to let probably slower we got like one of the world's best passport whenever I go overseas I realize that people Tommy's harsh Somalia producer in today's MVP special episode you will be taking a social studies test I can't even remember what I did in social studies at the Mauna Singapore is when we were liberated from British colonisation 1965 Lisa when we gained independence it's not when simple sponsor newly did idealize student Homo sapiens yes the government of the day that he finds more than right it's gonna be that a certified okay modern Singapore yes yes my if stemware fascist 1818 did send me love time I spent time going to be a and I leave what do is walk so it should be me the modern Singapore under 18 19 1965 is actually that feel independence the bicycle company had so did he fly in yeah I watch this this sure I felt growing up then I feel you know sighs yeah then they got it arrived on both were not because he has to go at the South that's why we have for canning the guns are pointing out but the Japanese were like them smaller let's not take a book and pretty shall be tanks suspect then tanks are made cumbersome of a slow and he be and it was imaginable if these things tell me I sense then I will the oh my god a there are we going to be yes is so tall is that which is Island I'm glad that of all the things that you found out the standard I think that strong half-wit green right Jesus a single honestly my only guess right is a bright because Japanese the Land of the Rising Sun at least it because the flesh is desiccated Japanese embassy me but rather it was my office so Marya her table was adopted by a Muslim family she's actually Dutch yes correct her parents her biological parents found her eventually there was a whole big hoo-ha the hotel there and then there was a race riot sir it sounds more familiar if I get this wrong I think my mom would hit me because my mom is a history major Amina is their grandma valia they're dry he's confident so i shaii we are bombing but I think being seasonal yogi I mean I should hey there really is three out of four of their masculine operation thirty-five possible Kaiba oh wow Alibaba barely by until it dies like no there are air business so if you did some military things going on I think that before Changi Airport was very life would be functioning they actually function from other a possible for and I think it's a little and the producer keeps nothing P and D are not and I confirm not because we were born you the national courtesy campaign is fronted by sing I rely on to every tired has he really oh poor thing the issue of people s Mandarin is very easy no man Nicholas comes with the problem dialects oh that makes sense ok then increase might be right I don't know no family planning campaign right is one of the first concerns it be endear that they after you miss a table right there is something about them but the sea is like a luxury campaign uh I mean if you assure you it's like population control you wouldn't be like hey I'll be a little root be nice to each other so is either we settle the family stuff first or we set though the clean please I think it's co so I feel like be my come on in like the 80s be see you the answer is oh my god I knew their DG's movies we've all seen this clip it's just that whether I pay attention to what exactly is there is a different story Wow let's be honest yeah I could have did use that so for me it's a moment of great relief okay this all wrong Oh synonyms for all my life is a moment of sorrow for me it's also me game to the Occupy state of mine all my life my whole life I have believed in the merger merger unity something along the lines of life unison right University I'm just gonna guess random okay I am Mandela effect refers to a phenomenon in which a large number of people share false memories of past events then exactly like year I remember the strength being on directing the the clause and then see is the song let me long gamma moon is either madrasa or copy deal whoa I knew it the body yes which I revised exam reading I think I did better than expected I find it a lot of the things which I remember everything are not really from textbooks but from mitochondria at least we're not ignorant it's inside I know these are never happened before you know I mean things like the campaign's right you need to know that they have been in the past like be a part of what Singapore is now and then contribute to a Singapore war so I think not knowing the year is executable let me just touch on the main but yeah we have made like a name for ourselves not the whole fact that we don't have natural resources this doors like not scary but like the overwhelming feeling like war we can do this even without like natural resources group a lot like from a small fishing village now we are like the most expensive city to live if you take this country for granted yeah too much there are no good things in this country why are we people a lot of people focusing on the negative things we just need to remember that for everything that's good there has to be drawbacks yeah of course we don't live in a dystopia thank you very much for watching this video now if you want to find out more information about this yes National Day Parade you can check out their social media links in the description box below if you like these videos like share subscribe and watch other videos over there bye

Reading Comprehension & Conceptual Understanding in Philosophy



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Presented by Crisol Escobedo
Teachership Academy 2014-2015

my name is chrysalis Kawada I'm a philosophy instructor here at a PCC the title of my talk is reading comprehension and conceptual analysis and philosophy before I actually start with my project I like to give you some background and this came about from the research action project I had for the teacher Ship Academy face one title motivating students to read require course material so the reason why I wanted to go ahead and do this was because we tend to think that reading prior to lecture will actually help students understand the concepts that we talked about so in particular philosophy is difficult to understand because we deal with a lot of abstract concepts so it is very crucial for students to come to class before having read the material that was gonna be covered on that day in order to motivate students to do so I went ahead and created an extra credit assignment asking them to find ten things they found interested about the readings and then I recorded the performance analysis on seven different assignments when I went ahead and collected the results I found that there wasn't for the most part students its statistical significance that only one out of seven assignments were there was a difference between that so this was contrary to prior research some of the limitations in my study included that i targeted reading instead of reading comprehension and because of this I wasn't really targeting content area learning which is why maybe they weren't understanding the concepts and there was no statistical difference in the results for the teachers teacher chip Academy face to project I went ahead and I became those limitations by trying to look at reading comprehension instead of just reading and see there was any effect on the conceptual understanding in philosophical concepts so what I did was go ahead I went ahead and talked about and asked them to go ahead and comprehend what they were reading and this was very important because that would give them prior exposure and by doing so it would go ahead and trigger meaningful understanding versus factual knowledge so very important for students to comprehend with the reading because studies have shown that student success and academic standards are raised by reading comprehension because it will aid them in critical thinking and communication skills community college students however have difficulties with content area reading one way to overcome this is by into implementing content area learning so we can supplement lecture and by doing so we can increase certain student learning so reading writing and vocabulary strategies can be used in order for us to be able to help students understand what their reading content area literacy a literally literary strategies include selecting and analyzing key terms concept mapping creating focus questions and creating comparison charts so for this particular phase two of the project I went ahead and gave students assignments that focused on content area literary strategies instead of just reading the purpose of the study was to determine if having students complete assignments involving contra content area literary strategies prior to assessment increases comprehension of philosophical concepts my hypothesis was that students who do complete the assignments involving content area literary strategies prior to assessment will perform better on expert sessions than students who do not complete them what I did for this study was to go ahead and take two of my introduction to philosophy classes the philosophy 1301 section number two one six six seven was the experimental group and they meet Monday Wednesdays and Fridays from 8:00 to 8:50 and this is at the Rio Grande campus the number of students in this class was 15 the philosophy 1301 section number two one six seventy seven was my control group and they meet at 8:30 to 9:50 Tuesdays and Thursdays at the Northwest campus and I have 29 students in this class what I ended up doing was I went ahead and gave my experimental class which was the Monday Wednesday and Friday from 8:00 to 8:50 an assignment that involves selecting and analyzing terms I also asked them to complete an outline and I gave them focused questions to go ahead and help them complete the assignment for the control class which was the 8:30 to 1950 Tuesday and Thursday I just asked them to read the material I let them know that they were going to go ahead and have an expert session and to come prepared but I did not require any sort of assignment to be turned in the assessment itself was an expert session which is a five minute presentation and they had to go ahead and explain particular philosophical concepts these are my results I went ahead and measured them on three expert sessions and as you can see the control versus the experimental group for the egg for the first expert session there was no statistical significance but for expert sessions two and three there was statistical significance at P point zero five so for these the control group actually performed better than the experimental group so here's a data here's the data in chart form so for expert session one there wasn't really any statistical significance but for expert issues two and three there what's the purple is the control group and the light yellow is the experimental group based on my results I was not able to find adequate support from my conclusion on the contrary the control group outperformed the experimental group on two of the expert sessions instead of the experimental session I mean group outperforming the control group as far as the control group performance statistical significance was at P 0.05 expert Session two and three showed significant significant statistical significance expert session two showed it at P point zero one one expert session three showed it at P point zero four eight for expert session one there was no statistical significance one explanation from my results was because the limitations to the to the study the class samples were not the same so there was a difference in size my experimental group only have 15 students as opposed to my control which had 29 the time that the class was given could also have been a factor so Monday Wednesdays and Fridays classes are shorter than the Tuesdays and Thursday classes so maybe that contributed to the difference in the results also another possible explanation is that because they were taking place at the two different campuses the student population have been different and that might have influenced the result other limitations I encounter was in the assignment that I gave them I noticed that my experimental group went ahead and turned in incomplete assignments some of the assignments were improperly done and this had to do because of the strategy they do they used to go ahead and complete the assignment I did not give them any prior instruction on how to do the assignment I just went ahead and asked them to do it so that could have influenced the results as well as far as what I want to do with this study I'm going to go ahead and modify my teaching strategy to actually include reading comprehension strategies so as professors we tend to assume that the students coming into our classes are proficient in reading comprehension but that might not necessarily be the case as a result I'm planning to incorporate different techniques into my teaching methodology that will address a reading comprehension such would include metacognitive processes where I go ahead and ask them to identify the purpose and for them to create a process that will help them comprehend the material and also to motivate them and to complete the assignment proper another thing that I can do is to go ahead and focus on reading strategies and teach them how to be able to for example engage in peer teaching in encoding and part of encoded encoding include concept maps and the sq3r method one of the reasons why I expect that that may be the control group performed better is because they were actually engaging in some of these strategies more than the experimental group since they were allowed to go ahead and talk about the material before actually giving their presentation they were able to share ideas more efficiently than the students who went ahead and completed the assignment by themselves here are my list of references thank you

Jim Crow and America's Racism Explained



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warning if you do not know the significance of the 14th amendment watch at your own risk a 14th amendment video is linked in the description for your learning convenience hey guys welcome to hippies history we're gonna take a quick look at the term Jim Crow its meaning its influence its impact on the United States of America because you need to know whether you're a kid in school whether you're a lifelong learner or whether you're cray-cray and the Internet understanding Jim Crow should be a requirement of citizenship so let's talk a little bit about the origin of the word Jim Crow before we go into kind of the concept of de jure and de facto segregation jump Jim Crow was an old song and dance routine that originated in 1828 which was written by a white comedian by the name of TD daddy Rice who would perform in blackface basically to make fun of slaves feel about turnabout and do you though every time I feel about a jump Jim poo the term Jim itself is short for Jimmy like I'm going to Jimmy a lock and that was a crowbar so a crowbar in the 1800's was sometimes called a gym or a jimmy and then of course crow itself was used as a term for blacks as early as the 1700s in terms of jump Jim Crow farmers used to feed their crows corn soaked whiskey then the crows would get drunk and kind of dance around not being able to fly as the farmers you know kind of beat the crows to death so there's multiple meanings behind the term Jim Crow they all refer in a negative connotation to slaves and to freedmen to blacks and now we're going to turn that term Jim Crow into a system of racial oppression so Jim Crow laws and that would be segregation de jure meaning that by jurisdiction local and state ordinance and we're also going to talk about federal ordinances which mandate by law segregation now early on right after the Civil War that's where we're going to start in 1865 we still had those southern governments that wouldn't be controlled by kind of Confederate forces so those southern white democratic dominated legislatures would pass something called Black Codes right after the Civil War that severely limited the rights of these new freedmen and most of these Black Codes were based on vagrancy laws where if you were black you had to prove that you had a job and that job was recognized by whites and if you couldn't do that you would be forced into labor you could be put in prison and then kind of you know leased out to people in order to do job so many historians have called Black Codes slavery by another name but that's going to change during Reconstruction because starting in 1867 the republican-dominated Congress is going to basically mandate through the enforcement of the 13th and 14th and 15th amendment the military occupation of the south this is the period of history from basically 1867 to 1877 about a decade called reconstruction and during Reconstruction the Black Codes were eliminated and for the most part african-americans were allowed to vote and you did have African Americans that were elected to high office you had governor's there was a african-american senator there were african-american state legislators so it was kind of working but of course it's all being held together by military occupation and then there was an incident in Louisiana in 1873 called the Colfax Massacre and this is really kind of the southern democratic forces trying to coalesce around groups in order to take back what they see as their rightful place as leaders of these southern governments and in Louisiana at the Colfax Massacre in 1873 there was a group called the white League in this white League unlike the Klan which was kind of a terrorist under the ground organization the white leagues and the redshire it's groups throughout the south we're open about their you know opposition to african-american rights and they're wanting of power so it Colfax this white League basically attacked a courthouse that was being held by Republican forces and we basically have a mini civil war at Colfax we ended up having about 150 African Americans that were murdered maybe more we're not really sure about mass graves and people that were thrown into the river and such but that culminated in a federal trial with the conviction of some of those people who did that based on the 1870 enforcement act saying that you know Congress is going to have the ability to prosecute people that are violating the rights of freedmen in 1876 the Supreme Court comes out with a decision called United States versus Cruz shank where they basically kind of take the teeth out of the enforcement act by saying that because this white League was not a government group of a private organization the Enforcement Act didn't hold that private groups could discriminate you how to get them a different way you probably had to use state and local courts which we're going to work back then so that's kind of a breakdown of federal control over you know the southern governments and the the rise of what's going to become Jim Crow and then really it all falls apart in the election of 1876 you can watch there's a video on the compromise of 1877 you can click down in the description below to watch that but basically there is a deal in the presidential election where the Southern Democrats kind of give their votes to the Republicans in Rutherford beat Hayes them you'll Tilden the Democrat lost even though he was from New York that's another story but the the sticking point the compromise sellout is going to be the end of military occupation in the south by reconstruction forces that they're going to be able to own their governments again and this is really the beginning of the birth of Jim Crow and segregation de jure down south so let's take a look at some of the specifics of what Jim Crow laws we're talking about and how they're going to affect freedmen african-americans in the south as they seek to claim the mantle of the American dream now Congress wasn't done in the 1870s they passed something called the Civil Rights Act of 1875 which was basically kind of a reclaimed to the 14th amendment in terms of public accommodations that there would be no segregation in places of public accommodations like restaurants and hotels and trains and all of that kind of jazz but that's going to be torn apart in 1896 with Plessy versus Ferguson now Plessy versus Ferguson isn't based on schools even though Brown versus Board of Ed is going to overturn it it's really based on the concept of segregation by legislation and in Louisiana it was always illegal for blacks and whites to ride out the same car but the separate car Act of Louisiana kind of added coloreds to the mix they had a classification for mixed races and if you were one-eighth of African ancestry you were considered colored and you couldn't ride on the train so this was an organized effort by the black and colored community to fight this new law and Homer Plessy who was 1/8 black he was very of light complexion kind of walked onto the train one day and he had to announce to the steward of the train his racial heritage because nobody could tell just by looking at him then he proceeded to sit down and get arrested and him the spirit of Rosa Parks which launched the court case Plessy vs. Ferguson where the court is going to end up saying separate is equal that segregation laws are constitutional because they are still given african-americans I'm a seat at the table it's just a separate table and it's an equal table and of course we all know that not to be true so Jim Crow itself in terms of segregation de jure is going to be the laws that are passed which are going to segregate African Americans from whites so following Plessy versus Ferguson the South kind of has legislative and judicial authority to segregate and they're going to do that rapidly by passing laws Jim Crow laws which are going to segregate not only the public schools but libraries and hospitals and transportation and all of that jazz the other big huge segregation de jure peace is going to be voting restrictions and you would only have to look at Louisiana to see the effect that Jim Crow is going to have on voting rights we we talked about this before Louisiana had african-american representation they were being elected to high office you know all the way up through the 1870s by 1900 there's only a couple hundred african-americans that are registered to vote only 0.5 of the african-american population had registered to vote that could vote and in fact in North Carolina it was zero no african-americans registered to vote how did they do this they did this by passing a series of poll taxes meaning that you had to pay to vote and that got a huge majority of the african-american population from being able to vote because they simply couldn't afford it and then they had literacy and comprehension tests where you had to put you know pen to paper and prove that you were smart enough to vote now you might ask well there were certainly a lot of poor whites that couldn't read and write so how they get away with it they had something called grandfather clauses where if you could prove your ancestry and your grandfather voted that you were allowed to vote and of course African Americans don't have that luxury because of slavery so that's how they did it and now that is a humongous humongous thing because that means that if African Americans can't vote their interests are not going to be served they're not going to be in any type of powerful situation where their voice is going to be heard their interests are going to be served so they are literally going to get swept under the rug and of course we could also talk about the effect in terms of cultural social psychological effect on African Americans I don't even want to talk about all of the lost opportunity all of the poet's we didn't get to read all of the scientific inventions that didn't get invented all of the books that were written all of the songs that were never heard because of course Jim Crow is putting a kibosh on that because it's literally putting a plug in the in the hose of opportunity I don't know that analogy works but I think that you get what I mean now it's not just state and local that's the majority of it and we're not even talking about segregation de-facto just segregation by custom and of course in the south this means you know calling everybody sir you know crossing the road if a white person is coming at you there were even customs where if you pulled up to a stop sign you had to let the white guy go even if he got to the stop sign after you lie kid you not and this is of course not just regulated to the southern hemisphere of the United States we have segregation de facto in the north we have banking policies and housing policies and all kinds of different private customs which are going to put African Americans in a different category in the north as well but of course it's more widespread in the south we also have federal Jim Crow federal you know segregation and we're going to put the blame squarely on maybe one of the most racist presidents a Democrat by the name of Woodrow Wilson even though Woodrow Wilson was the head of Princeton in New Jersey and people tend to think of Memphis as a progressive he may have been a progressive in some respects but he was born down in Virginia you know before the Civil War so he's the first southerner to be elected to the presidency of the United States since the Civil War and one of his first things that he's going to do he's going to segregate the federal workplace he's going to segregate the army in fact if you were applying for a position in the Wilson administration you had to send a photo just to make sure you were the right you know skin color so Wilson and the Democrats are just as guilty as the Democrats in the south on a state and local level of kind of making this happen so we've talked a little bit about you know Jim Crow and in terms of segregation de jure and a little bit of segregation de facto there's lots more that we could talk about and of course the enforcement of at least segregation de facto and I guess segregation de jure is happening through the use of terrorist organizations like the KKK which are widespread throughout the early 20th century what you're going to use intimidation humiliation and violence to make sure that african-americans are put in their place that they're not fighting back but why don't we start talking about kind of the slow road to the end of this you know century Jim Crow system of racial so we're gonna get to the good stuff in a moment we'll talk a little bit about kind of the civil rights movement as most people understand it in terms of Martin Luther King and Montgomery and Selma and all of the laws that are passed but one of the earlier origins of the fight against Jim Crow and segregation occurs on the federal level and there was an incident in 1946 called the blinding of Isaac Woodward jr. where a member of the armed services an african-american Isaac Woodward who had just been honorably discharged literally a few hours later had an incident with the Sheriff Department where he was beaten to a bloody pulp where he was basically blinded and that caught the attention of the nation and there were popular songs written about it Woody Guthrie one of my favorite musical peeps wrote a song called the blinding of Isaac Woodward this caught the attention of the Truman administration who forcefully went after the guys who did this one of the sheriff's in the Sheriff's Department the local police they were then tried in a federal court in South Carolina where it happened and of course you know what happened they were all found not guilty by an all-white jury this probably changed harry truman's approach immediately after that he starts giving speeches to the n-double-a-cp he puts civil rights on the radar and he issues two executive orders 98 80 and 98 81 and using his power of the presidency he wipes away Wilson's action desegregating the army and desegregating the federal workplace that's really the first big movement we have in terms of knocking down Jim Crow and of course that's at the federal level the southern states are going to be much slower to respond so we're going to have to have darn it all a civil rights movement based on the concept of non-violence and of course most people associate this with Martin Luther King the the Baptist preacher from Alabama who's going to be the spiritual leader of the civil rights movement and of course that's going to really begin in Montgomery Alabama in 1955 in 1956 where Martin Luther King using what he's learned from kind of the teachings of Jesus and Mohandas Gandhi of non-violence to do the bus boycott which is successful it was successful they desegregated the buses they showed african-americans and progressive whites that they could use their power of citizens to boycott and to engage in civil disobedience in order to change the law so that's eventually going to lead of course we all know about the I have a dream speech in Washington in 1963 there's lots I'm skipping guys by the way but that's going to result in the 1964 Civil Rights Act the 1965 Voting Rights Act court cases like the 1967 loving versus Virginia Court case which is going to legalize interracial marriage throughout the south and we're going to slowly start chipping away at Jim Crow through federal action and through Supreme Court decisions not to mention the biggest one that I skipped which is the reversal of Plessy versus Ferguson in the 1954 court case Brown versus Board of Education where the court is going to rule down that separate is inherently unequal which is going to begin the process of desegregating schools throughout the south not private institutions that's going to have to happen through federal legislation kind of a repeat of the Civil Rights Act of 1875 in the Civil Rights Act of 1964 which is going to use the interstate commerce clause to kind of broaden the scope of ending segregation so it's including public accommodations hotels restaurants and such like that that's going to be challenged in the heart of Atlanta Motel versus United States where the court is going to upheld the Civil Rights Act of 1964 really striking down segregation in the southern hemisphere of the United States and of course that's going to be followed up in 1965 when King and the civil rights forces focus on voting rights they get the 1965 Voting Rights Act which is going to basically put voting registration and elections under an umbrella of federal oversight to make sure that these places that are discriminating aren't doing that as much and African Americans are going to be able to vote again and start to participate in the American democracy in 1968 we get the Federal Housing Act which is of course addressing the housing discriminatory practices that are occurring out throughout the United States and that's pretty much the end of big federal legislation to attack the heart of Jim Crow so there you go guys that was quick and simple we're giving you really the direct nation of Jim Crow there's so much more to learn and to understand which I highly encourage you to do hopefully you wrapped your brain enough to understand the significance of Jim Crow and the impact it had on the United States for generations to come so there you go guys getting up for the learning we hope that your brain is a little bit bigger than when you started before we certainly hope that you understand the scope and impact of the system of racism known as Jim Crow on the history and the development of the United States of America so I'm going to say because I always say it remember it because it's true where your attention goes your energy flows we'll see you guys next time as you press

Judaism Explained: Religions in Global History



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What do Jews believe? What are the basic beliefs of the Jewish faith? A short overview of Judaism. Please support the World History Playlist! Watch Mesopotamia Explained Here Watch the Arab-Israeli Conflict Here!

hey guys welcome to hip Hughes history world history edition we're gonna go get another world religion under our belts today this time the very basics and history of Judaism so you can walk around earth a little bit smarter and you'll pass your exams how about that so why don't we go get ready to grow our brains together and go giddyup for the load right about now all right guys some very basics about Judaism it's a rather minor religion there's only about 0.2% of people on earth that consider themselves to be of the Jewish faith that's about 14 million people and 42% of them today live in the country of Israel which you can see is on the eastern Mediterranean and I'm going to call that Canaan many times Canaan there's the word right there because that's the ancient word that refers to the land that the Jewish people believed was promised to them and what they call the Torah the first five books of the Old Testament we should get started off by saying that the reason we are studying a little bit about Judaism here even though it's a very small religion in terms of numbers is because it's very influential not only in terms of kind of Western civilization and their outlook on God and such but really it is going to be the roots of not only Christianity but also Islam so the two biggest religions on earth have their roots in the history that we're going to go over in a moment now even though we're going to be talking about Canaan or Israel sometimes called Palestine or ancient Palestine and again this is eastern Mediterranean holy cross roads Batman I mean if you go to the West you're in Egypt and if you go into the East you're like in Mesopotamia and Babylonian so this is at the center crux of early civilizations really a trading crossroads at the end of the day but we have to start by saying that Judaism or Hebrew people does not originate in Canaan it actually originates in the city of Ur in ancient Mesopotamia if you want to watch a video in Mesopotamia you can click in the description below and learn all about Mesopotamia and another thing that we should probably mention is that much of what I am going over comes from the first five books of the Bible so in terms of historical accuracy and maybe maybe not that's going to be up to you the viewer so a lot of what we're talking about is what people believe that's what a religion is right it's their faith so whether it really happened – really didn't we're going to leave that up to you the viewer to decide for themselves or do your own research but nevertheless if we go to the city of Ur in ancient Mesopotamia there's a guy around 2,000 BCE by the name of Abraham and the story in Genesis in the first five books of the Bible the first one is Genesis is that Abraham was contacted by God himself and that's the first kind of rule in Judaism and Christianity and Islam there's only one God and he goes where you go right and he's ever knowing and ever watching he's everywhere it's not like many of the polytheistic religions of Mesopotamia where gods are location orientated they're polytheistic so that's the first definition really of these three big religions in Judaism Christianity and Islam that it's monotheistic that everything derives and comes from one God there's no any other gods just one and they're gonna call him in the Jewish faith in Judaism Yahweh so instead of God I'll say Yahweh because that's what the word is and you should know what the word is but nevertheless Abraham makes a deal a covenant with God and why don't we just listen to God go over your country and your kindred and your father's house to the land that I will show you I will make of you a great nation and I will bless you and make your name great that's the first thing God says to Abraham it's a covenant it's a deal that if you listen to me if you follow my rules if you pray to me and we're me and honor me that I'm going to give you really great land and your descendants are going to rule over that great land that's the deal you do what I say I give you this land which is going to be Canaan which eventually we're going to call Israel which people also refer to as ancient Palestine and that is at the root of Judaism it's a covenant it's a deal and Abraham is tested there's the story of his son remember he had two sons to begin with and that's Ishmael and Isaac now Ishmael who is the son of Hagar who is Abraham's slave is going to be the descendant of the people that are going to form Islam and of course Isaac is going to be the descendant that continues with this covenant and eventually into Israel but in terms of testing the Covenant God actually in the Old Testament asks Abraham to kill his son Isaac you got to kill your son Isaac to show how much you're going to listen to me and right before he kills them God's like psych all right says I'm an angry god I'm a jealous God I'm also a merciful God I'm not going to have you kill your son another sign of this covenant is in the Old Testament in the Torah that it demands that sons of the Jewish faith are circumcised you can go google that if you don't know what it is but that is supposed to be the flesh sign that I am one of these people that has made this deal with God now you have to remember that Abraham dude was 75 years old he didn't have any children so as part of this deal he's got to make babies and that's what happened he made babies and he leaves her he leaves Mesopotamia with his new tribe with his new people and he starts traveling to the land of Canaan to Israel to Palestine and the story is is that for many years they wander trying to find their way eventually they find their way but then they leave that area the descendants of Abraham because the land was arid and dry there was supposedly famine and starvation and they went across the Red Sea to Egypt to settle and that's where we're going to leave our story right now because at first they were welcomed the Egyptians were like hey Jewish people Hebrews come on over nice have you but eventually they're going to become slaves and there's going to have to be a way for these slaves to get out of Egypt so when we take a look at that right so now we're in Egypt the Hebrew tribe they are slaves in Egypt it's around 1300 1200 BCE don't quote me guys but the Pharaoh of Egypt at that point decided that he didn't want the Jewish people around anymore he was feeling threatened by these Hebrews and basically what occurs is that there is one baby Moses he's put on the Nile by his mother and they kicked the basket down and eventually he's found by Egyptian princess who raises him in luxury and eventually as Moses gets into adulthood God's going to point to him to be the leader of the Hebrew people to lead them out of Egypt so I guess when God asks you to do something if your Moses you do it and Moses who was still connected with his Hebrew faith takes the Jewish people and leads them into the Sinai Peninsula leads his people into the desert heading back towards the land they call Israel where they're supposed to go make their kingdom and we haven't mentioned this but in the Jewish faith there is a belief that one day a messiah will come and unite the Jewish people in the kingdom of Israel and this Messiah will rule over Israel and create peace on earth and this is the differentiation they have with christians christians believe that Messiah was in Jesus Christ Jewish people say no there was no United Kingdom with peace on earth so he was a prophet he was not the Messiah and of course there's differing beliefs among different Jews about Jesus but that's the basic plot if you're a Jewish person you believe that Jesus was a great prophet but he was not the Messiah that was mentioned in the Old Testament Jewish people are still waiting for that Messiah to come to bring peace to earth but I get off track because something happened when Moses was leading his people according to the Old Testament in the Sinai Peninsula there's Mount Sinai and Moses decided to go up and pray and and he finds these two huge tablets and they're very important because they're going to make the formation of the ten commandments which is really at the root not only of the Jewish faith but of the Christian faith of the Islamic faith in a sense and of Western civilization in a sense so we should probably say something about the Ten Commandments and this is part of that covenant you follow these Ten Commandments and I'll give you the kingdom I'll give you peace on earth right I am a jealous God I'm a mean God but I'm a merciful God I'll give you stuff if you do what I say so here are the Ten Commandments and if you're Jewish or if you're Christian you probably should be checking these off as I go through them now the first four deal with your relationship with this one God and the other six deal with your relationships with other people as you're walking around on earth so we can see the first one is I'm a jealous God no other gods before me that's number one you don't pray to any other gods number two is no graven image er II there should be no representation of any idols that anybody's praying to any type of symbols or anything like that because God's a jealous god he doesn't want you wearing those things or praying to other things because the God is not a physical according to monotheism in the Jewish faith the Christian faith and the Islamic faith but it's a spiritual realm so there should be no images graven images of this one God number three you can check this off if you if you believe you deserve so but there should be no use of God's name in vain and number four is to keep the Sabbath holy now Christians many people might have be Christians out there that's Sunday but for Jewish people that is sunset from Friday until Saturday evening that's the day you're not supposed to work you're just supposed to worship and pray to God there's a lot of tradition in the Jewish faith there's a lot of symbology a lot of lighting of candles a lot of recitation that is meant to keep that covenant to worship that one God so that one God will keep rewarding you that's the main idea now the other six deal with how you deal with other people number size is honor your mother and father so if your spatting with your mom and dad you're giving them grief you're breaking the covenant with God that's not a good thing number six is pretty simple thou shalt not kill number seven thou shalt not commit adultery I guess you Google that no don't Google that number 8 is going to be thou shalt not steal that's pretty straightforward number 9 is they shall not bear false witness against my neighbor and number 10 is I shall not covet anything of my neighbor's I shall want anything just because my neighbor has it right so that whole thing keep up with the Joneses not so good according to the 10 commandments but that is the covenant that the Hebrew people make with God that Moses brings these 10 commandments down from Mount Sinai and says to the people we need to follow these Ten Commandments now the story after that is that Moses and the Hebrew people wander the desert for like forty years before they eventually are going to settle in the land they call Israel ancient palace ID you can see it on the map right there and because that land is so geographically not so nice they're going to quite quickly begin to expand their Kingdom now there were twelve tribes of the Hebrew people the largest of those tribe is the tribe of Judah so that is where we get the name Jewish but there were 12 tribes and if you look at the old Bible there's numerous judges that are brought up to unite the tribes one of the more famous one is actually a woman Deborah but we should mention that like other faiths women were seen as below men in a sense they're basically kept underneath men to deal with the house stuff and the raising of the kids in the making of the babies and such like that of course we're not talking about modern times there's many different modern interpretations but of course in terms of a paradigm of how civilization forms women are definitely not at the forefront and that's not just in Judaism and like we've mentioned these judges are going to be able to unite the Hebrews the twelve tribes including the largest ones which are the Jewish people which is going to create the Kingdom of Israel there was a Kingdom of Israel I'm telling you there was but it's not going to be around for very long I'm going to get the kingdom of this room so Abraham made a deal with Yahweh and God made him the promise that his descendants would rule over this new kingdom the kingdom of Israel and about 1020 BCE – around 922 BCE that actually occurs the Kingdom of Israel is going to be in that Canaan land and three kings are going to rule over it and historically this is true there is Saul there is Saul son-in-law David and then there's Solomon these are the three kings of Israel and it was David which really is going to take Jerusalem and Jerusalem is going to be a very important city in Israel now we also of course have Solomon and one of Solomon's great accomplishments is that he's going to build Solomon's Temple and Solomon's Temple is which is going to hold if you watch Raiders of the Lost Ark the Ark of the Covenant which keeps in the two tablets of the Ten Commandments which is the representation of this covenant between men and God on earth how about that should go watch Raiders of the Lost Ark it's pretty awesome now I don't want to give away the goose here but Solomon's Temple it's not standing today that's because it's going to be burned down about 400 years after it was built and the building of Solomon's Temple is going to divide the Kingdom of Israel there were high taxes there was forced labor people aren't happy it's not so good so we're going to get two kingdoms in the North the Kingdom of Israel and the South the kingdom of Judah and it's that disunity that weakness that eventually is going to lead to their invasion and their conquering so from about 922 BC to about 738 BCE we have these two kingdoms that are a little bit vulnerable and I hear some wolves and they're coming for Israel so around 783 BCE there's a new empire there called the Assyrians and they're starting to look at Israel with some greedy eyes so both the Kingdom of Israel and the kingdom of Judah began paying tribute to Assyria around 783 BCE around 725 BCE the Assyrians didn't think that was enough so they're going to have this siege at Samara which is the capital of Israel and that's going to be successful and the Israeli Kingdom is going to fall now the kingdom of Judah is going to last about another 150 years but around 600 BCE they're going to fall to the Assyrians as well now the Assyrian Empire is quickly going to be evaporated by the Babylonian Empire and around 586 BCE that Babylonian Empire is going to capture Jerusalem and they're going to take down the temple at Solomon which housed the Ark of the Covenant Raiders of the Lost Ark I'm telling you you should watch it and they're also going to take the Jewish people the Hebrew people and they're going to exile them to Babylon and in the Bible it says that the prophet Ezekiel is supposed to keep the Jewish faith alive as this exile occurs now the Exile is not going to last forever around 539 BCE there's going to be a new king in town this time it's the Persian king Cyrus the Great and Cyrus the Great is going to give permission for about 40,000 of those exiled to return to Jerusalem to rebuild the Temple of Solomon and eventually that's going to be destroyed again but it is at that Second Temple of Solomon where we get that tradition of Hanukah that called the Maccabee in revolt and the idea was that the Jewish people were in this Temple of Solomon and they only had enough oil for their candles for a day but somehow the magic oil lasted for eight days and that's where you get the menorah with eight candles each one represents a day and there's a magic candle they all light the other candles with but that's about it guys for Judaism we got the very basic beliefs down there's one god it's monotheistic they believe there's a special covenant with they're one God and they will be rewarded eventually with a messiah that returns to rule over Israel and brings peace to earth that's the main idea and the last thing I'll say guys is holy smokes we've only scraped the surface like that much you only don't like that much or so much more that you should probably find out so go research go read go grow your brain on your own and if you want to know a little bit more about the conflict that becomes known as the arab-israeli conflict we have a video for you right there it's down in the description below so if you feel like it you can go get her done – hope your brains a little bit bigger I hope when you're walking around you know what you're talking about and I hope you always remember where attention goes energy flows we'll see you guys next time get your press my buttons you

9th Class Economics NCERT Solutions Chapter 1 – The Story of Village Palampur



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9th Class Economics NCERT Solutions Chapter 1 – The Story of Village Palampur

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Mesopotamia Explained



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Please support the summer video World History drive! The basics for any student in a world or global history course on the earliest recorded civilization, Mesopotamia!

hey kids guess what time it is it's time for some world history learning welcome to hip Hughes we're going to be hitting you up with a little bit of history dealing with one of the earliest civilizations that develops in a region of the world called Mesopotamia and I'm not messing with you this is perfect if you're in school maybe you're doing an assignment maybe you have a test tomorrow or maybe you're just cray-cray on the Internet either way we're gonna get you up for the learning and we're gonna go get her done right so as we discussed in the previous lecture on the Neolithic Revolution kind of the end of the caveman as people begin to sit down and settle and relax and build stuff we really get different pockets around the world in one of those earlier pockets is in the Crescent Valley in the Middle East and a land called Mesopotamia now it's not like it's a contrary it's not like people like hey I'm from Mesopotamia where are you from just kind of the area of the world that archaeologists and historians are going to be able to refer to so we know what we're talking about but a lot of different civilizations in city-states which we're going to talk about are going to develop in this area because of geography geography is weawy importante because really you're dealing in the Middle East with like a lot of sand and it's a hot Sun and you can get real thirsty but luckily there are two rivers count'em do two rivers that flow through this Crescent Valley and as you can see from the map it looks like a crescent we're stretching from the Mediterranean Sea and the West across the Middle East in that crescent shape until you get to the Persian Gulf and the two rivers that flow south eastward across that desert sand are the Tigris and the Euphrates maybe you should write that down and these two rivers the land in between it is pretty groovy man pretty good land that you're going to want to settle on because it is fertile once a year both of these rivers flood and when the water washes away it leaves what's called silt which is very moist awesome soil that you can grow lots of barley lots of wheat fill your granary fill your belly and have a good civilization how about that kids so Mesopotamia is about their large area and as we move forward we're really going to be focusing on the Sumerians which is closer on the eastern side of Mesopotamia as they're going to build city-states and one of the earliest civilizations you're ready to start a civilization all right make sure you understand Mesopotamia which literally means the land between two rivers Tigris and Euphrates all right let's see if we can't build a civilization I'm ready are you ready so we have a winner we have the first earliest civilization that archaeologists and historians agree is Sumer and of course the people living in Sumer are Sumerians never met a Sumerian but they did exist and you have to remember that it took a long time to get to the point where we could have a civilization the end of the Neolithic Age the Neolithic Age is 10,000 BCE to around 3500 BCE so that's about six thousand years or so kind of where people are building small communities and trying to figure things out but by 3500 BCE Sumer is going to be able to check off all five boxes now Sumer itself will go through those five boxes and a second I promise kids the Sumer itself is about the size of Massachusetts it was located on the eastern edge of what we call Mesopotamia present-day Iraq breath the Persian Gulf area right where the Tigris and Euphrates come together to pour into that Persian Gulf but they were able to do five things that nobody else could do that gives them the title of their earliest civilization now number one you need to have advanced cities and Sumer certainly had numerous cities that were called city-states they had her and Eric and uma and quiche and Lagash now these cities shared trade routes they're going to share languages and technologies and religious customs but in a sense they're like separate little you know countries all by themselves they're going to have their own you know kings in a sense and rulers and different personalities that are going to fight with each other but they are under the umbrella of having these commonalities things in common that make them all Sumerians now we also are going to need for civilization specialized workers and certainly having city-states and different jobs you have to build walls and you have to irrigate and raise animals and there's going to be people that are going to write things down and invent new things so that box is going to be checked off lots of specialized workers in Sumer you also have complex institutions that develop that's another requirement if you ever building a civilization you want to have complex institutions so we're going to have governmental bureaucracies military bureaucracies religious bureaucracies organizations that are going to lay out the rules and how things are done we're going to have record-keeping a cuneiform is the earliest writing system that was ever developed and in the beginning it was more pictorial like pictures little cows and such that develops into an actual written language with even sounds and you know phonetics and all that groovy stuff so they're going to be able to actually have the first recorded history in the world about that kids and the fifth box and they're going to be able to check this off is advanced technologies wait till you see all the wonderful things they invent sir some of them are simple like the wheel how could you not think of the wheel I don't know but they're also going to invent mathematical systems based on 60 ever wonder why there's 60 seconds in a minute circle is 360 degrees Thank You Sumerians so now that we've checked off all five boxes let's take a little bit of a closer look at the people of Sumer you know the Sumerians so now that we know what a civilization is the next question is why why are they going to build a civilization and I think that the answer really rests in the challenge that the geography presented to the Sumerians you know the geography in a sense is wonderful I mean they're in Mesopotamia the land between two rivers like I could throw stuff down there and grow stuff but the flooding created a problem you know it would leave the silt behind but then the Sun would come and everything would dry up so the Sumerians are presented with this challenge of how to deal with all of this dry land but having the flooding so they're able to figure out that they are able to irrigate they're able to take the water from the river and move it to where the crops are growing so they can grow lots and lots of wheat and barley they love their cereal but this gave them a surplus of food which is going to help them deal with the second problem which is they have a lack of natural resources I mean there's not a lot of stuff other than what they're growing at that area so with this surplus food they can create trade routes they can go and get metal to create weapons and tools and new technology they're able to take that next step and the third kind of natural geographical that's kind of a bummer is that they don't have any natural defenses and they're able to figure out with all this mud silt they can make little bricks and walls they built a wall I kid you not and this kept them safe but doing these three things requires organization you need to control workers and give them jobs and have taxes and do all of the things that you know are required for a civilization to grow and that's where you're going to get government and religion and politics and really the fundamental building blocks of civilization let's talk about the city state just for a few minutes here kids because it's really really important now the city states in a sense are like little nations unto themselves that do share some commonalities but some of those commonalities are really important now because of cultural diffusion they had trade routes they bring back this kind of religious idea from outside of Sumer of being polytheistic of worshipping many gods and I'm not talking about three or four gods I'm talking about like three thousand cots but because of the importance of religion and the crops and the weather and this focus on religion the priest becomes the leader in the beginning of Sumerian life of the civilization itself at the center of every Sumerian city-state is what's called a ziggurat you are vocab there's the Dumbo cap is ziggurat write it down like ten times and you can see that this kind of rectangle or pyramid kind of structure which has a temple in the middle is really going to be in a sense like the religious city hall of Sumer life but as time goes on and warfare increases not only between city-states and outside nomadic you know tribes barbarians that are fighting them but between themselves city-states fighting city-states these city-states begin to have standing armies so it's going to be the strongman that takes the front seat with the priests taking the back seat and of course this is where we get the King idea as the strong man passes their power on a to their son so that's the very very basics of kind of what a city was ziggurat being the most important vocabulary word and now let's take a look a little bit at their cultural life in Sumer where the Sumerians live so we go back to religion really as being culturally the most significant thing in the life of a Sumerian who lived in Sumer and again they were polytheistic they had about 3,000 gods the number one God was Enlil and Enlil was the god of the air and the clouds and you probably could figure out why because their crops are life and if it doesn't rain or the flood doesn't come or the ground dries up you die so Enlil was at the top of the food chain in terms of the the gods and the wicked uh dogs were the demons in the lowest form of gods that were responsible for bad things that occurred to you if you got sick or your house burned down or your kid died it was the wicked uh Dougs so people were constantly praying and giving sacrifices and giving gifts to the priests in order to get the gods on their side they lived for the day they didn't live for death this isn't a religion where you die and you go to heaven you die and you go to like the underworld beneath the earth where it's all dark and nasty and in fact they used cuneiform to write their ideas down that's how we'd know this and one of the first pieces of literature in human history was the epic of gilgamesh who is one of the early kings of a city-state in Sumer where the Sumerians land you can hear from this passage how they viewed life itself Gilgamesh whither are you wandering life which you look for you will never find for when the gods created man they let death be his share and withheld life in their own hands immortality you're not going to find it Gilgamesh but we also have a social class that is emerged it's important who you are when you're born so of course at the top of that pyramid are going to be the leaders the rulers the Kings the strongmen of society and then underneath them a nice cozy life it could be a priest how about that be a priest and then we have merchants the people that sold and traded and we're able to accumulate you know in a sense some wealth and then below them we have the workers themselves the people that are digging the ditches building the walls you know carrying the rocks and then even below them we have slavery in the land of Sumer slaves were normally captured from outside of the kingdom but they were also sometimes sold by their parents into slavery but you could free yourselves I guess if you worked hard enough but I certainly wouldn't want to be a slave in any circumstance now there is a slight difference in the way that men and women were viewed in Sumer they're going to be viewed afterwards it certainly is a patriarchal society in a sense it's run by men that's what patriarchy means it's run by men but unlike civilizations that occur afterwards women could basically have any job they could be priests they could be merchants they could be artisans they couldn't learn to write that was one negative of being a woman but they could own property which is unheard of after that maybe the sumers were a little more advanced than the civilizations that are going to occur after them and finally I'd like to talk about Science and Technology so they invented lots and lots of things not only do they invent some pretty simple stuff like the wheel and to the wheel but they're going to be the first ones really to invent sales for you know navigational purposes they're the first ones that recorded Maps they invent plows the first ones to use bronze of course they had writing systems again that's the word cuneiform write down that ten dimes they're the first ones to investigate astronomy and medicine and chemistry and because of the ziggurats you know architecture becomes really important and you need ramps and you need arches and you need columns which means you need brace yourself kids you need math so they come up with a mathematical system that was based on 60 that's why we have 60 seconds that's why there's 360 degrees in a circle so I'm going to give a shout out to the Sumerians thank you for having the first civilization but like all great peoples you're going to be invaded and conquered by somebody a little bit stronger so let's look at some of the other civilizations that are going to pop up in kind of that an area of Sumer and in Mesopotamia in general and then we'll close up shop and your brain will be a lot bigger about that big nothing lasts forever now the Sumerians themselves had a really good run at it remember they start around 3500 BCE and about a thousand years later a little more than a thousand years although they were on the fighting downfall for a while they're finally going to be overtaken by the Akkadians a Cade was a city-state that was north of where Sumer was and their leader was the Sargon of Akkad and Sargon of Akkad is going to have the distinct pleasure of being the first leader of an empire not just the city-state not just the civilization but an empire a real Empire so around 2,350 BCE they're going to invade they're going to adopt to the Sumerians a lot of their customs and their beliefs but they're going to be the top dogs running the show and their empire that means that it's not just going to be Sumer but it's going to be expanding northward and westward as well and eventually that's going to stretch from the Mediterranean you could see from the map right there all the way through Iran so that's a pretty big Empire that they had it lasted for about two hundred years again these were the Acadians under the Sargon of Akkad who invaded Sumer and the Sumerians and created the first Empire good for him but eventually those folks are going to be replaced around 2,000 BCE by the amorite and the abba rites are going to overrun the Sumerians they were a numeric kind of barbaric tribe that came in and are going to run the show now and they're going to make their capital at Babylon and that's why they're known as Babylonians and the Babylonians are going to last for about 500 years to about 1500 BCE their crowning achievement their Golden Age around 1750 BCE is going to be when they had the leader Hammurabi and Hammurabi is best known for not only being a very powerful end in a sense peaceful leader he really tried to look after his people but he believes in law and order so here's some more vocabulary called Hammurabi's code and we have a video that you can go check out we've already made if you want to learn more about Hammurabi's code its link down in the description below but it's going to be a set of 282 laws that were etched in stone and put across all of the empire so everybody had a standard eyes book of rules to follow in a sense it's an eye for an eye it's very gangster in a sense you're gonna hear a couple of them really quickly right now if a man has stolen an ox a sheep a pig or a boat that belongs to a temple or Palace he shall repay 30 times its cost if it is a private citizen he shall repay ten times if the feet cannot pay he shall be put to death if a woman hates her husband and says to him you cannot be with me the authorities in her district will investigate the case if she has been chaste and without fault even though her husband has neglected or belittled her she will be held innocent and may return to her father's house if the woman is at fault she shall be thrown in the river I told you it's pretty gangster and that's Hammurabi's code but eventually everything comes to an end even the Babylonians couldn't stay in power with all their nifty rules and such and around 1500 BCE they're going to be kicked out of town as well all right guys we hope that you understand the very basics of Mesopotamia remember this is an intro lecture you're probably going to have to learn a little bit more by maybe I don't know reading a book or something but we certainly hope that you have enough to make yourself comfortable in class pass that test and maybe your brains a little bit bigger as well so giddyup the Lord in one more time skies I say it at the end of every lecture because I mean it with all my heart where attention goes energy flows make sure you check out the growing world playlist down in the description below and if you haven't checked out the home page we have over 400 videos across the social studies we certainly hope they could check that I I'm not even from Canada I say ow all right guys we'll see you next time did you press my buttons

economics chapter 1 The story of village palampur class 9 -social science.



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this video is presented by steady text say bye to good learning social studies class 9 the spreading of village Vallum to overview main activity of the people of palin pool is forming the pollen pool is and missionary village in pollen to some other activities are also practiced bamboo is well-connected with neighboring villages and dance numerous village is charged Burnsville ears tongue is sharper transports that are visible here are Tonga beer cart bogie motorcycles dreams practice total number of families are 450 from which eating half of a cache memories and they own the highest part of land with lower cost families live in Punta part of the village in the corner of the village houses of lower-class families this made of mud and straw electricity education facility available double eat have to primary school and one secondary school medical facility is also available in the village pollen pool by reading the introduction we learn that a local hubs and of lagoons transport system medical facility education system electricity are available the N it have value of love education system

Marbury v Madison Explained: US History Review



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A super fun exploration of one of the nation’s most important judicial decisions, Marbury vs Madison. Subscribe to HipHughes History, it’s stupid easy and free In this video we explore the roots of Judicial Review, the facts of the case and the judicial rational. Perfect for cramming high schoolers and collegeers, life ling learners and the cray cray on the internets.

hey guys welcome to hippies history we're hit me up with the biggest Supreme Court of them all and that's Marbury vs. Madison there's three reasons you need to know what number one it's going to be on the test I promise you number two you're not allowed to talk about judicial power if you don't know Marbury vs. Madison and number three what an awesome story it's pretty cool story here we go video so here's the story it's a pretty cool story we have the election of 1800 also called the revolution on 1800 because in a sense we have really a transfer of political power going from the Federalists to the Democratic Republicans and of course in 1800 a have Thomas Jefferson who's elected but the story gets interesting not with the election of Jefferson but with the period between the election and the actual taking of both of office which is on March 4th of 1801 so we have kind of this what's called a lame-duck session really in the beginning of 1801 where you have John Adams and a federalist Congress remember Adams is a federalist and you have a federalist Congress and they're still in charge of making and signing laws we haven't switched the dates yet to January 20th so during this lame duck session they go a little bit crank crank they're going to pass a law which is called the Judiciary Act of 1801 an extension of the Judiciary Act of 1789 which really is going to create new district courts a new circuit courts and new justices of the peace this is the position that wasn't even in the original Constitution and they're going to do that in order for John Adams on March 3rd the day before Jefferson comes to town Jefferson's all like yo go to the White House and in the office the night before Adams is like on the phone like yo you want to be a judge these are called the midnight judges and he ends up pointing 16 circuit judges and 42 justices of the peace one of them is you're getting ready you've been waiting for it William Marbury we're not half the story Marbury vs. Madison so this judge Marbury is all excited the next day is like I'm gonna be a judge I'm gonna no you're not so this is where the story gets interesting so on March 4th the day that Thomas Jefferson is going to take his oath of office right he's getting ready like getting ready here we go you actually have John Marshall remember that name because he's been appointed to be the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court but he hasn't taken that job yet you know what job he has he's still the Acting Secretary of State for John Adams you want to know what his job is his job is to give these appointments out to get these judges confirmed it goes to the Senate it comes right back to John Marshall and he's running around like a madman like handing out judge ships and then on us the crops thrive Jefferson and Jefferson takes over without all of the judge ships I don't that's a word without all of the jug ships I'm going to say it again being given out and guess who to get their judgeship just guess I guess you have kabillion choices no you know it it's William Marbury and now we have a new man in town yo TJ's in town so Jefferson wakes up the next day and he's like what the heck gives happen at UM's what are you doing this is crazy and Adams is like yo dig it you got to give these judgeships out and Jefferson it's like digging no and he orders his Acting Secretary of State who's a guy by the name of Levi Lincoln which is a really cool name for being an 1801 by the way and later his secretary of state get read you're going to be excited about this one it's going to be James Madison Marbury vs. Madison and they're basically going to be refused to give these Commission's out they're going to say we're not going to do it we think that the 1801 Judiciary Act is complete poop poop poop poop and they're actually going to get the new Democratic Republican Congress to pass the Judiciary Act of 1802 we've got rid of the Judiciary Act of 1801 and also canceled the Supreme Court for a whole year what are you doing but nevertheless we have our situation now where you're going to have liam Marberry going to the high court who's run now by john marshall who was the guy who didn't get to give him his job because the time ran out it's a pretty cool story so the decision comes down in 1803 it's actually a four-nothing decision 1803 because they cancelled 1802 and john marshall again he's the guy you didn't get to give William Marbury his commission time ran out is now ruling on the matter and here's what he comes up with he says you got to know two things first you got to know Constitution article 3 section 2 Clause 2 which is really the judicial power that the Constitution gives to the court it gives them something called original jurisdiction original jurisdiction just means that this would be where you would go directly to the Supreme Court ambassadors in cases that involve States and really there's very few instances of original jurisdiction and then it talks really about appellate jurisdiction that they're going to hear court cases that arise from the lower courts where there's some sort of dispute and that really is the extent of judicial power nowhere in there does it give the court exclusive right to declare laws passed by Congress to be unconstitutional but then he goes on to say you can't unknow something else you got to know about the Judiciary Act of 1789 which these guys were amending the Judiciary Act of 1801 into distinctive acute sue and then the Judiciary Act of 1789 you find the language we're basically Congress has created a new piece of original jurisdiction basically what this Clause says in the Judiciary Act of 1789 is that the Supreme Court will now have the power to order what's called writs of mandamus and I could be butchering that but in this writ of mandamus it's like a mandate from the court they are now given permission to tell basically an executive department like Jefferson you've got to give this guy his job and basically what Marshall comes up with is three questions he says look should William Marbury have gotten his job was that done illegally just yet Chevy's job he's definitely you know his job and did he do the right thing by coming to us he said yeah so it's right there judiciary 79 go Supreme Court issue like that but number three can the Supreme Court enforce it can they tell the executive department through a writ of man Damon said they have to hire this guy William Marbury and what John Marshall says and this is where he's going to make a enemy and William Marbury is I can't give you your job because that's not in the original Constitution the original Constitution is nothing about these Rick's of mandamus this comes from expanding original jurisdiction that was done in the gtcm side you know you can do that you can do that basically we have a problem we have a problem where you have a law passed by Congress and you have the words the Constitution and even though it's not in the Constitution this is work is really weird basically even though I really should have taken the case in the first place because I don't have original jurisdiction I did anyway and now I'm going to decide that original jurisdiction really shouldn't ever be expanded and then it violates the Constitution so I'm going to give myself a new power which is not in the Constitution to declare laws unconstitutional Marbury vs. Madison established judicial review Sanji's look at I took it off to the Constitution not to the laws passed by Congress so if there is a distinction between a law passed by Congress in my beloved Constitution not only did I take it up to it but there's a Supremacy Clause I'm going to side with the Constitution I'm not going to enforce the law which I believe is unconstitutional because in a sense why do we have a constitution if we don't have a court which is going to be the judge in a sense but the end of the day what they have done is that they've given themselves almost lawmaking powers we can see judicial review taking action in something like Miranda versus Arizona where the court creates a rule for policemen to read suspects their rights or expanding upon the right to an attorney we're now the state has to pay for an attorney for indigent peoples these are all not in the Constitution the right to an abortion the rights of privacy there's a tons of Rights that come from judicial interpretation and you can take it or leave it I don't really care if you subject out but now you know it is you're smarter for it all right guys if you haven't checked that nippy's history we have a whole bunch of life you should check it out right now and you should subscribe use it so wrong not to at least subscribe isn't it retention goes energy close we'll see you next time when you press my father's

Economics – Deposit with banks



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Economics – Class 10 – Deposit with banks
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deposits with banks the other form in which people hold money is as deposits with banks at any given point of time people need only some currency but a day-to-day means for instance Wilkers who receive their salaries at the end of each month and extra cash at the beginning of the month you what do people do with this extra cash they deposited with the banks by opening a bank account in their name banks accept the deposits and also pay an interest rate on the deposits in this way people's money is safe with the banks and it earns and interest people also have the provision to withdraw the money as and when they require since the deposits in the bank accounts can be withdrawn on demand these deposits are called demand deposits demand deposits offer another interesting facility it is this facility presented essential characteristics of money that powerful medium of exchange you will have heard of payments being me by checks instead of cash for blamin you check the peer who has an account with the ban mix I will check on a specific amount a check is a paper instructing the bank to be a specific amount from a person's account to the person in whose name the check as we made thus we see the diamond deposit share the essential features of money the facility of checks against Devon deposits makes it possible to directly settle payments without the use of cash since demon deposits are accepted widely as a means of payment along with currency they constitute money in the modern economy you must remember the rule that the banks play here but for the bank's there would be no demand deposits and no payments by checks against these deposits the modern forms of money currency and deposits are closely linked to the working of the modern banking system

Texes EC-6 Core Subjects Social Studies: Economics, Part 3



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Texes EC-6 Core Subjects Social Studies: Economics, Part 1



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This video explains the three major economic systems that are found in the TEKS. It gives historical background, plus current examples of each system.

so as we are starting our review of economics of the the principles the concepts the ideas about economics that are in the teks we should start with a pretty fundamental idea and it's in two things of course and it has to do with different types of economies different different ways of organizing an economy right in economics systems we could call it and the tick's lists three so we have a traditional economy a command economy and a market economy right so we're gonna go over just some of the basic principles the basic concepts basic facts about these different kinds of economies all right so a traditional economy is is based in custom and belief all right so belief I can spell custom centered around tribe or family you'll often find them now and it's both developing developing countries developing economies if we find them at all we're thinking of areas like Aboriginal tribes in the rainforest or or in the outback in Australia or what what would have been or what had been in the u.s. and different different Native American tribes and cultures things like that right that's that's what it's how the teks talks about it it's it's based on on need on subsistence not on surplus okay so based on need because once we get to not a surplus so once we get to surplus surplus meaning making more than we need so if we're making baskets or if we're making I mean doesn't matter what it is when it's some kind of a good okay we're making some kind of a good and we start making more than what we need then we're getting closer to a market economy but traditional economy it's really just based on subsistence okay and that's probably all that we need to know about traditional economies now the second one is command economy and North Korea would be the best example probably now an old historical one could be Soviet Union and Nazi Germany examples there it's where the government controls all aspects government controls all aspects of the economy because in these systems we're talking about how goods are produced and distributed how goods are produced and distributed here in a traditional economy a good just something that is made okay that's a good this it's produced locally it's produced within the tribes in the family guided by belief or custom it's it's not distributed it's not made to be distributed really outside of the group it's not that much okay there could be some Trading's for example Native Americans in in the 18th century and 18th 17th century 18th century early on they traded with the French for example right so so it's not the thing there was no training but it wasn't a huge part of their income it was just was just a piece of it right I mean that changed over time of course right so he's kind of a became more like a marketed come right the traditional economy did as they interacted with your penis more and more command economy government controls all aspects of production of distribution of pricing things like that and and those are the examples ok so a market economy so usually equals democracy so you'll usually find a market economy and a democracy so the US has a market economy Mexico has a market economy Canada does Great Britain does Germany does Australia does most of the countries in the world have market economies right there is probably an exception China China is not the democracy and it's for the most part a market economy so so there can be an exception to this right but usually market economy means that it's it's in at the market most of the time there is limited government control there are some rules there are some laws in the US insider trading is against the law so if I know that the stock of a company is going to go down if I get some inside information and I share that with people or exactly sure how it works but their rules against that right so there you're not gonna be quizzed on on and start of trading I don't know all the specifics of it it's just an example of a rule okay they exist ranks that's a wall that you can go to jail for that anyway so there's limited government control but most of the most of the ways that a market economy works most of that is decided by the market it's decided by actions of people okay so we're gonna put actions of people well that's the the thing that really drives way the economy works actions decisions by people are production decisions distribution decisions pricing decisions you know how we're gonna sell goods and we're gonna make them those are all that is determined by the collective action of people and and how they're putting their businesses together I mean the government largely stays out of the way of that supply and demand it's a big deal here supply and demand forces related to that help influence how this works in a market economy okay and the teks lists a free enterprise system stuff is that free enterprise system is is a market economy it's a market-oriented economy right it's an example it refers to to the ways in which an economy works it's not capitalism but it tends to produce capitalism and some of the rules there are some rules in here that people follow okay private property rights and competitive voluntary contracts things like that and those rules are are made not necessarily by government but but by the market buying people making decisions and collectively and those are the basic principles of the three kinds of economies these systems okay economic systems that are they're mentioning the teats and and that's what we'll start in our review of economics in the next two videos we're gonna cover some some terms and some ideas some concepts that are in the teks and and it's gonna help you in addition to this these next two videos are also going to help you if you have questions about about economics on your exam so let's go ahead and go to the next video

CBSE 9 Economics || The Story of Village Palampur -4 || Non Farming Activities



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like most villages in India farming is the main production activity in pollen poor however one-fourth of the population of Palampur is engaged in non farming activities like shopkeeping daring Manufacturing transport let us learn more about these activities the moment you get down at Palampur bus stop you will see small eatery shops and tea stalls set up by people in open spaces outside their houses further into the village you will find some shopkeepers who buy goods from wholesalers in sharper and sell them in pollen pool you can get all things of daily use like groceries fruits and vegetables toiletries and stationary items in the shops at Palampur meet Karim he found that a large number of students from Palumbo geppu take computer classes there so kareem started a computer training center in his house at Palampur Karine bought a few computers and hired two computer literate women from the village No a good number of students attend classes at his computer training center let us move on to Dairy several people in Palampur are engaged in dairy activities Buffalo's in these dairies effective our and Bhadra grown in pollen poor itself milk from the dairies in Palampur is transported daily to Reagan's sharp or have setup collection centers and chilling plants at dragons from where milk is supplied to other towns and cities now let us look at manufacturing when we talk about manufacturing we immediately think of large factories and production plants in industrial towns and cities however in villages like Palampur manufacturing happens at a much Moeller skin using simple and often traditional methods several families in Palampur are engaged in small-scale manufacturing activities like making handicrafts weaving cloth and baskets and making candles all members of the family contribute to the manufacturing activity and outside labor is rarely hired meet Miss Lila the entrepreneur he has set up an electric sugar cane crushing machine on his field this machine offers many advantages over the traditional method of crushing sugarcane using bollocks mr. Lall buys sugarcane from other farmers in Palampur and makes jaggery from it he sells the jaggery to traders in Sharper at a small profit coming to transport varam poo is connected by an all-weather road to Riga ang and shabu a number of people in pollen pool are engaged in transporting goods and people along this route using a variety of vehicles like cycle rickshaws dongho's bullock-carts jeeps tractors and trucks here is kishora a man of multiple vocations his is another interesting story Yashiro does not own any land till a few years ago he worked as a farm laborer the little money he earned was hardly sufficient for his family then Joshua took a loan under a government scheme providing loans to landless labourers and water buffalo he now sells dairy products for a living Kizuna also appends a card to his Buffalo and uses it to transport different types of material every month extra money by transporting all kinds of material from play for the village Potter to jaggery for traders in shabu you sure – fine condition is much better now let us conclude by looking at the table showing the nature of capital and labor used for the production of goods and services in pollen poor by cream Srila and kisara [Applause] [Applause] [Applause] you

CBSE 9 Economics || People As Resource – 4 || Unemployment



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we often hear about the problems of unemployment and unemployed people who exactly qualifies as being unemployed let us look at some people to understand the definition of unemployment meet the Kumar family let us see what each person in this family does and decide whether he or she is unemployed or not father is a retired senior citizen he no longer goes out to work but he is not considered unemployed as he's above the age of 59 mr. Kumar's daughter is still in school she cannot be considered unemployed as she is less than 15 years of age mr. Kumar goes out to work in an office and gets paid for it employed mrs. Kumar prefers to look after her house and family she willingly does not want to go out and work to earn thus she also cannot be considered unemployed mr. Kumar's son is 20 years old he's willing to work but has no job as yet he belongs to the category of unemployed people unemployment exists when a person 15 to 59 years of age who is willing to work at acceptable wages cannot find a job a person is called an unemployed person the form of unemployment is different in rural and urban areas in villages people usually face seasonal unemployment or disguised unemployment on the other hand and cities people often face educated unemployment seasonal unemployment occurs when people cannot find work for a few months in a year seasonal unemployment is mostly faced by farm laborers in rural areas these people have lots of work during the sowing and harvesting seasons there is little or no work in the months in between thus farm laborers are seasonally unemployed disguised unemployment occurs when people appear to be employed not increase the productivity at their place of work to understand disguised unemployment let us visit London in his field Landon's wife and his three sons also work in the same field London's field is small it requires the labour of only three people but actually five people are employed on it work of two extra persons does not increase the productivity from the field thus two people in RAM dense tamale face disguised unemployment they just appear to be employed disguised unemployment is easier to bear because each person has a share in the produce however this sharing does not improve the condition of the family eventually people facing disguised unemployment have to find other work where they can actually be productive the unemployment faced by people who are meticulous graduates graduates is called educated unemployment studies suggest that there are more unemployed graduates and post graduates then unemployed matriculants the manpower situation in India shows a conflicting picture while there is a growing demand for technically qualified people to boost India's economic growth we also see so many technically qualified people being unemployed unemployment is a cause of many social evils it wastes precious human resources making people hopeless victims of depression and a liability to the nation unemployment creates what is an economic overload this is a situation where a small percentage of the employed population supports a large percentage of unemployed people an unemployed person cannot provide healthy nutritious food to his family this leads to a decline in the health of the people and overall deterioration in the quality of life in some cases parents have to unwillingly withdraw their children from school when they can't afford their education due to unemployment high rates of unemployment indicator sick sluggish economy unemployment not only affects individuals but has a negative impact on the overall economy of a nation at 7.2 percent the unemployment rate in India is comparatively low in the world many people in India do not get the opportunity to work at their full potential and to earn the income they deserve you already know that economic activities are divided into primary secondary and tertiary sectors let us see which activities in these sectors employ the largest number of people in the primary sector agriculture employs the largest number of people in recent years surplus labour engaged in agriculture has started moving to the secondary and tertiary sectors for employment in the secondary sector small-scale manufacturing units employ the largest number of people there is no clear winner in the tertiary sector however this sector has opened new avenues like biotechnology and information technology to generate a large number of jobs for people [Applause] [Applause] [Applause]

CBSE 9 Economics || The Story of Village Palampur -2 || Factors of production



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CBSE 9 Economics || Food Security in India – 2 || Food Insecure Groups in India



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CBSE 9 Economics || The Story of Village Palampur -1 || Introduction



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CBSE 9 Economics || The Story of Village Palampur -3 || How Should Land be Used



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as is the case in most Indian villages the main production activity in pollen poor is farming around 75% of the working population in pollen poor is engaged in farming these include farmers and farm laborers the welfare of the farming community is directly dependent on farm production the more the production the happier the farmers and farm laborers so how do we increase farm production well there are two ways of doing it one way to increase farm production is to increase the land area under cultivation the other way to increase farm production is to adopt methods that allow you to grow more crops on the same land let us explore both these possibilities let us start with the possibility of increasing the land resource for cultivation land is a limited resource we require land not just to grow crops but to build houses industries public spaces schools and hospitals etc thus it is difficult to increase the land area under cultivation the only way to increase land under cultivation is to convert waste lands into cultivable land however wasteland is also limited so this method can only increase the farmland marginally what is true verbal ampoule true for the whole of India observe in this graph how total land under cultivation in India increased only marginally between 1950 and 1970 between 1970 and 2000 the land area under cultivation remained unchanged in the table is mentioned in million hectares hectar is the standard unit of measuring land area and is equal to the area of a square having a site of 100 meters thus one hectare is equal to 10,000 square meters since we cannot substantially increase the land area under cultivation let us see how we can grow more crops on the same land to increase farm production you can grow more crops on the same land in two ways you can either adopt multiple cropping use modern farming methods let us discuss both these ways in detail let us start with multiple cropping farmers in pollen pool grow jawar and basra during the monsoon or harif season these crops are used as cattle feed after harvesting Java and Basra the farmers grow potato in their fields between October and December after the patoot harvest the farmers so heat in the winter season which they harvest before the monsoon the next year a part of the land in pollen pool is used to grow sugar cane that takes about a year to grow thus in a period of one year farmers in pollen pool grow three crops on the same land growing two or more crops on the same land in a year is called multiple cropping farmers in Balham pool can grow multiple crops in a year because they are not dependent on drains for irrigation they have access to electric powered tube wells to irrigate their fields all villages in India are not as fortunate as Palampur less than 40% of the cultivated area in India is irrigated and is primarily in the northern and coastal plains in regions like the Deccan Plateau farmers are still largely dependent on rainfall for cultivation now let us learn about modern farming methods to increase farm production and how these methods are different from traditional methods of cultivation before we proceed let us understand how farm production is measured farm production is measured as yield which is the total quantity of crop produced on a piece of land in one year to the 1960s additional seeds that required less irrigation and grew well with natural manure made from cattle dung traditional farming is less expensive as the farmer does not have to buy too many things but it produces a lower yield of crop the Green Revolution in the 1960s introduced modern farming methods that used high yielding varieties or hy-vee of seeds that required a lot of water and the application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides modern farming is expensive as the farmer has to purchase hy-vee seeds fertilizers and pesticides and also has to pay for electricity and for the installation of tube wells for irrigation however the crop yield is very high as compared to traditional farming with increasing yield big farmers invested in farm machinery like tractors and harvesters these machines speeded up the work but increased the farmers expenditure on fuel and maintenance yield seeds used in modern farming produce more grain on each plant as compared to traditional seeds this is how farmers get a higher yield through modern farming farmers in Punjab Rhianna and western Uttar Pradesh were the first to adopt modern farming methods in India and they yield got more than doubled the Green Revolution in India was more successful for some crops than the others chart clearly shows that while wheat production in India has increased manifold the production of pulses has not changed much of late people have started associating several adverse environmental and economic effects with modern farming methods let us take a look at them prolonged use of large quantities of chemical fertilizers and pesticides kills useful bacteria in the soil leading to soil degradation and a decrease in the natural fertility of soil chemical fertilizers and pesticides percolate through the ground to pollute the precious groundwater resources groundwater for irrigation through tube wells has reduced the water table in many areas with decreasing soil fertility farmers are forced to use more and more fertilizers to maintain their production levels this is increasing the cost of production for farmers and decreasing their income thus we need to adopt modern farming methods with care for sustainable farm production we have discussed multiple cropping and modern farming as two ways to increase farm production however farm production also depends on how much land a farmer has let us see how cultivable land is divided amongst farmers in Palampur the families in pollen pool are landless is an aerial view of the farms in Balham pub observe that there are a large number of small fields and a few large ones over 50% of the farmers who own land cultivate small fields less than two hectares an area these farmers find it difficult to produce surplus crops that they can sell in the market the large fields that comprise a major portion of the cultivar land in pollen poor are owned by a small group of families some of them have feels in excess of 10 hectares in size the situation in Palin pood reflects the general situation of land division across India as shown by these figures across India 82% of the farmers are small farmers who cultivate only 36% of the total cultivable land in the country comparison percent of medium and large farmers owned 64 percent of the total cultivable land in India division of land through succession and inheritance is another reason for many farmers having smaller fields take the example of sujin Singh he owned a field of five hectares in size sujin Singh produced enough on his land to live a comfortable life sujin Singh had four sons Harry Shum sunder and Pola after Susan singh's death his land was equally divided between his four sons thus hurry Shyam sunder and Pola each got a filled just 1.25 hectares in size today none of them can sustain their family with such a small fields to cultivate farming requires hard work after land labor is the most important requirement for cultivation farmers work in their own fields with the help of their families medium and large farmers hire landless workers or small farmers to work in their fields in exchange for small wages or a small share of the crop farm workers find different kinds of work like sewing planting harvesting and threshing at different times of the year they may be employed on daily wages offer a whole year farm laborers lead a difficult life loans to repay there is no job security and payments are much less than the government stipulated 60 rupees per day farm machines taking over most of the manual work done in the fields farm laborers find it increasingly difficult to find jobs many of them migrated to other states to find work along with land and labor the third important requirement for farming is the capital or money required for cultivation we have already seen that modern farming methods require a farmer to spend more on farming a farmer can earn money only by selling his produce all farmers grow just enough crops to feed their families they are left with little or nothing to sell to arrange for the capital required to grow another crop thus small farmers in Palampur are forced to borrow money from big farmers or local moneylenders besides being a high rate of interest small farmers also have to work as farm laborers for large farmers to repay their loan farmers on the other hand than their own requirement Palampur sell their surplus wheat to traders in Regan's at a good profit farmers deposit their money in banks two small farmers farmers also use their surplus profits to acquire new fixed capital assets like farm machinery the large farmers are also investing money in non farming activities like transport and shops thus while the rich are getting richer the poor are getting poorer in pollen poor [Applause] [Applause] [Applause]

CBSE 9 Economics || People As Resource – 3 || Quality of Population



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education health care and training make a population an asset to a country these are the three factors that determine the quality of a nation's population uneducated untrained and unhealthy people find it difficult to take care of themselves and can do little for society thus they are our nation's liability why is education so important what does it do to make you an asset to your nation education unlocks the doors of new aspirations and opportunities for you and allows you to have a good life education inculcates good values to make you a better person education allows you to find good employment so that you can contribute to the national income education prepares you to become a responsible citizen and contribute to the country's good governance India's national education policy recognizes the importance of education in tackling the problems for a person's growth now let us look at some steps taken by our government to educate people in India the national expenditure on education grew from just 151 crore rupees in the first five-year plan of 1951 to forty three thousand eight hundred and twenty five crore rupees in the tenth plan of 2002 from 1951 to 2002 and adjourn education rose from just 0.64% to three point nine eight percent of our gross domestic product the government is in the process of establishing never they are with the allies in every district of the country to provide universal access to education to all children with special emphasis on girls the central government has also launched the server Shiksha Abhiyan in partnership with the state and local governments this is a time-bound initiative to provide free compulsory elementary education to all children between 6 and 14 years of age by 2010 the tenth five-year plan for 2002 2007 focused on increasing the enrollment of students from 18 to 23 years of age in higher education the 10th plan also aimed to combine formal informal and distance education to provide better access to education to students in all parts of the country the government aims to provide vocational training even to high school students however many well-paying skills are acquired through higher education in colleges after school the number of universities and colleges of higher studies have grown in number since 1951 still these are not enough to accommodate all the aspiring students in the country here shows that rise in the number of college students and teachers in India between 1951 and 1999 clearly teachers has not increased in proportion with a large increase in the number of students the state of education in a country is measured by its literacy rate then I see the trend in the literacy rate of India shows the change in the literacy rate in India from 1951 to 2001 can see that the literacy rate is continuously on the rise the literacy rate is higher for the male population than for the female population this is mainly due to the tradition of less emphasis on education of girls fortunately this trend appears to be changing people in urban areas are more literate than people in rural areas among the states literacy rates range from 96% in some districts of Kerala to under 30% in parts of bihar and jharkhand after education and training let us move on to health why is staying healthy important for you allows you to fight illness and perform to your full potential good health allows you to work more efficiently and to be an asset for the organization you work for besides career opportunities and growth good health is important for your overall well-being as an individual our national health policy aims to make health care and family welfare programs more accessible to people and provide them with nutritional guidance with special focus on the poorer sections of society there has been a tremendous increase in the number of health care institutions in India in the past few decades primary health centers and community health centers catering to the rural population have grown in large numbers a good indicator of the increase in health facilities is the number of hospital beds available in India doctors are renowned the world over for their expertise the pool of trained doctors and nursing staff has also increased in India though there is still more requirement for such people how do you judge the health of a population the health of a population is indicated by parameters like its life expectancy infant mortality rate and birth and death rates health care facilities increased the average life expectancy in India to 65 years by the year 2000 infant mortality rate is the number of deaths of children under one year of age per 1000 live births child and family care programs reduced the infant mortality rate in India from 147 in 1951 to 75 by the 2000 birth rate is the number of babies born per thousand people in a given time with increasing awareness about family planning in India came down to 26.1 by the 2000 debts rate is the number of deaths per thousand people in a given time with better health care in India decreased 28.7 by the 2000 like education health care facilities are also not uniformly distributed in India for example while the states of Karnataka Andhra Pradesh Astra have 81 out of the 181 medical colleges in India the densely populated states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh have very few [Applause] [Applause] [Applause] you