Lecture 1 | Modern Physics: Special Relativity (Stanford)



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Lecture 1 of Leonard Susskind’s Modern Physics course concentrating on Special Relativity. Recorded April 14, 2008 at Stanford University.

This Stanford Continuing Studies course is the third of a six-quarter sequence of classes exploring the essential theoretical foundations of modern physics. The topics covered in this course focus on classical mechanics. Leonard Susskind is the Felix Bloch Professor of Physics at Stanford University.

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this program is brought to you by Stanford University please visit us at stanford.edu this quarter we're going to learn about field theory classical field theory fields such as the electromagnetic field gravitational field other fields in nature which I won't name right now propagate which means they change according to rules which give them a wave-like character moving through space and one of the fundamental principles of field theory in fact more broadly nature in general is the principle of relativity the principle the special printless the the principle of special relativity in this particular case the principle of special relativity well let's just call it the principle of relativity goes way back there was not an invention of Einstein's I'm not absolutely sure when it was first announced or articulated in the form which I'll spell it out I don't know whether it was Galileo or Newton or those who came after them but those early pioneers certainly had the right idea it begins with the idea of an inertial reference frame now inertia reference frame this is something a bit tautological about an inertial reference frame Newton's equations F equals MA are satisfied in an inertial reference frame what is an inertial reference frame it's a frame of reference in which Newton's equations are satisfied I'm not going to explain any further what an inertial reference frame is except to say that the idea of an inertial reference frame is by no means unique a reference frame first of all was a reference frame in tale of a reference frame first of all entails a set of coordinate axes in ordinary space X Y & Z and you know how to think about those but it also entails the idea that the coordinate system may be moving or not moving relative to whom relative to whomever we sitting here or you sitting here in this classroom here define a frame of reference we can pick the vertical direction to be the z axis the horizontal direction along my arms here to be the x axis X plus that way X my X is minus in that direction and which one have I left out I've left out the y axis which points toward you from me so there are some coordinate axes for space XY and Z and I didn't this in addition to specify a frame of reference one also imagines that this entire coordinate system is moving in some way relative to you sitting there presumably with a uniform velocity in a definite direction if your frame of reference is an inertial frame of reference in other words if when you throw balls around or juggle or do whatever is supposed to do in an inertial frame of reference if you find yourself in an inertial frame of reference then every other frame of reference that's moving with uniform velocity relative to you now remember what uniform velocity means it doesn't just mean with uniform speed it means with uniform speed in an unchanging direction such a frame of reference is also inertial if it's accelerated or if it starts standing still and then suddenly picks up some speed then it's not an inertial frame of reference all inertial frames of reference according to Newton and also I think also Galileo Galileo was often credited with the idea but I never read enough of Galileo to know whether he actually had it or not neither did I read enough of Newtons they both wrote in languages that I don't understand what was I saying oh yes right according to both Newton and anybody else who thought about it very hard the laws of physics are the same in all inertial reference frames laws of physics meaning F equals MA the forces between objects all the things that we would normally call laws of nature or laws of physics don't distinguish between one frame of reference of and another if you want a kind of pictorial example that I like to use a lot when I'm explaining this to the children or to grownups I like to think about the laws of juggling there are very definite procedures that you train your body to do uh in order to be able to juggle balls correctly now you can imagine yourself being in a railroad car moving with perfectly uniform velocity down the x axis and trying to juggle do you have to compensate for the fact that the train is moving and for particular when you throw a ball up into the air that you have to reach over to the right to compensate for the fact that the train is moving to the left my left your right the answer is no you don't the laws of juggling are the same in every reference frame and every inertial reference frame whatever you do in one reference frame you do exactly the same thing and you'll succeed or fail depending on whether you're a good juggler or not but it will not depend on whether you're moving with uniform velocity so the laws of juggling are the same in every inertial reference frame the laws of mechanics are the same in every inertial reference frame the laws Newtonian laws of gravity are the same in every inertial frame according to Newton what about the laws of electrical phenomena well there there was a clash the clash had to do with Maxwell's equations Maxwell's equations were the field equations the field theory that governed the electromagnetic field and the way that it propagated and sent waves electromagnetic waves that we ordinarily call light or radio waves or so forth and the fundamental dilemma as you all know I'm sure you all know the fundamental dilemma was both according to well here was the dilemma Maxwell's equations said light moves with a certain velocity if you take the various constants that appear in Maxwell's equations and put them together in the right way you get the velocity of waves moving down an axis and that velocity comes out to be a certain number out of Maxwell's equations you have two choices one is to believe that Maxwell's equations are true laws of nature as good as any other laws of nature in which case the principle of relativity says they should be the same in every reference frame but if it follows from Maxwell's equations that the speed of light is three times ten to the eighth meters per second which is about what it is if it follows from Maxwell's equations that light moves that fast and if Maxwell's equations are laws of physics fundamental laws of physics and if the laws of physics are the same in every reference frame then the speed of light must be the same in every reference frame but that was very hard to swallow because if a light beam is going down that axis and you chase it and run along with it that lets say three-quarters of the speed of light then you want to see that light ray moving much more slowly than three times ten to the eighth meters per second relative to you on the other hand the light ray going in the other direction since you're sort of running into it you should see going even faster so all these possibilities could not simultaneously be correct that the laws of nature are the same in every reference frame and that Maxwell's equations are laws of physics in the same sense that Newton's laws of physics namely the same in every reference frame something had to give well the point was of course that they were good laws of nature and that they were the same in every reference frame the thing that had to give is our concepts of velocity space and time and how we measure velocity especially velocities were up which are up near the speed of light now I'm not going to spend the full amount of time that I did previously on the special theory of relativity that can be found on lectures from how long ago and there on the Internet I believe relativity and electromagnetism I think that was maybe about three quarters ago I've lost track yeah they're up there they're on the net and they're the lectures on relativity special relativity and electromagnetic theory we're just going to cut through it real fast we're going to cut through the basic ideas of relativity a little more mathematically than I would do if I were teaching it for the first time I teach it the first time I tend to teach it the way Einstein first conceived of it how do you measure distances how do you measure velocities how do how does the propagation of light influence these things instead I'm going to take a more mathematical view of it and think about the properties of various kinds of coordinate transformations coordinates now consists not only of XY and Z but also time T so imagine every event in the world is characterized by just like every particle would be characterized by a position x y&z every event taking place in space-time is characterized by four coordinates X Y Z and T let's suppress for the moment y&z let's just forget I forget them for the moment and concentrate on X and T that would be appropriate if we were mainly interested in motion along one axis let's focus on that motion along the x axis let's suppose there is no motion along y&z then we can forget y&z for the moment momentarily we'll come back to them and think of motion along X and T and the various reference frames that might be moving along the x axis alright here's here's time vertically is space horizontally physicists always draw space horizontally and time vertically I found out that mathematicians are at least certain computer scientists always draw time going horizontally I didn't know that and I got into an enormous argument with a quantum computer scientist which was ultimately resolved by the fact that he had time going horizontally and I had it going vertically these are traditions I guess traditions grow up around subjects but time is north and X is east I guess or at least time is upward yeah yeah yeah that's what that that that's the point that is the point yes they're thinking of time is the independent variable and everybody knows that it's a law of nature that the independent variable should be horizontal ok all right now let's in let's imagine a moving observer moving down the x axis with a velocity V let's take his origin of spatial coordinates his origin of spatial coordinates at time T equals zero is just the same let's assume that my I'll be the moving observer I move down the x-axis I am my own origin there's nobody who was your origin that seat is vacant over there so that absent a human over there is the center of the x-coordinates in your frame I'm the X prime coordinates and of course I being very egocentric will take my x-acto is origin to be where I am there I do I move down the x-axis we pass each other our origins pass each other at t equals 0 so that means at T equals 0 your axis and my axes are the same or your origin in my origin is the same but then as I move down the x axis my core my coordinate center moves to the right most of the right that's supposed to be a straight line that's as good as I can do under the circumstances that's a straight line and it's moving with velocity V which means it's X prime equals SR it means x equals VT but it's also that's the way you describe it in terms of your coordinates my centre you described by saying x equals VT how do I describe it I just say X prime my coordinate X prime is 0 X prime equals 0 is the same as x equals VT all right what's the relationship between X Prime and X and T well it's easy to work out if you believe this picture the X prime coordinate is the distance from my origin the x coordinate is the distance from your origin so one of these is X the other is X prime the upper one here is X prime the low and here is X and the relationship between them is that they differ by an amount VT in particular X is equal to X prime minus VT or X prime is equal to X plus VT will have it wrong yes I do X prime is X minus BT and X is X prime plus VT yeah I think I have that's correct now all right what about time itself well according to Newton and according to Galileo and according to everybody who came afterward up until Einstein time is just time is just time is just time there was no notion that time might be different in different reference frames Newton had the idea of a universal time sort of God's time God upon his cloud ticking off with his with his super accurate watch and that time was universal for everybody no matter how they were moving and so everybody would agree on what on the time of any given event in this map of space and time here and so the other equation that went with this is that T prime is equal to T let's forget the top equation here let's just forget it one might say that this was the Newtonian or the Galilean transformation properties between X and T your coordinates and the coordinates that I ascribe to a point in space-time now let's examine a light ray moving down the plus x axis if it starts at the origin here then it moves along a trajectory which is x equals CT C being the speed of light now shortly I'm going to set C equal to 1 we're going to work in units in which C is equal to 1 but not quite yet incidentally once you understand a bit of relativity working in coordinates in which C is not equal to 1 is about as stupid as using different units for x and y are if we used yards for x and feet for y then we will have all kinds of funny factors in our equations which would be conversion factors from X which is measured in feet to Y which is measured in our yards the cycle has its uses log scale has its uses no long skilling long scale well let common interest yep I'm not sure we good but okay I'm just saying it is quite often in practical circumstances that one uses different scales yeah you sometimes you might there might be a good reason I mean um it wouldn't be totally unreasonable for a sailor to use different units for horizontal direction and vertical direction hmm I mean he's used to moving around horizontally he might use what miles miles versus fathoms or something nautical miles versus paddles yeah Persian is relative but um when you talk about a frame of reference you need to specify a period of time because obviously goes that 15 billion years there is no yeah we're ignoring now the fact that the universe began at some time and we're imagining now as Newton did and as the early Einstein did that the universe has just been here forever and ever and ever unchanging totally static and space and time have properties which don't change with time now of course that's incorrect in the real world and at some point we will take up the subject of cosmology and find that's not right but as long as we're interested in time intervals which are not I suspect this is what you're getting at as long as we're interested in time intervals which are not too long in particular time intervals over which the universe doesn't expand very much and so forth we can mainly say the properties of space don't change over a period of time and so everything just stays the same as always was is that what you're asking it seems that that this assumption if it is made it needs to what you're describing so well so the question is without imagining to some point as it doesn't lead it doesn't lead to what I'm describing where is this this room for different formulas here this is a formula which is based on an assumption the assumption being that time is universal that's what Einstein found was wrong basically what he found is that when you're in a moving frame of reference to different the observers will not agree about what time a particular event takes place this is the culprit here this one and some modifications to this one but in any case to see what's wrong let's go to Maxwell's equations Maxwell's equations say that light always moves with this velocity C being some numbers in meters per second okay 3 times 10 to the 8th meters per second we will later as I said say C equals 1 let's imagine a light beam moving down the x axis let's describe how X prime sees it in other words you see the light move this way to the right how do I see the light well let's see what I see let's just work it out X prime will be X which is CT for that light ray minus VT which is the same as C minus VT all this says is that I see the light moving with a diminished velocity a velocity C minus V why is that because I'm moving along with the light so naturally I see it move slowly the slow compared to what you see it what about the light going in the other direction supposing it was a light beam going in the other direction then how would you describe it you would describe it as x equals minus CT and if I do exactly the same thing I will find that X prime is equal to X that's minus CT – VT which is the same as minus C plus V times T so what this says is that I will see the light moving also in the negative direction that's the minus sign but I'll see it moving with an enhanced velocity C plus V if this were the right story and if these were the right transformation laws for space and time then it could not be the case that Maxwell's equations are laws of physics or laws of nature in the sense that they were true in every reference frame they would have to be corrected in moving frames just like the juggler who had to reach to the right who didn't actually but who thought he had to reach to the right to collect the ball when train is moving the physicist interested in light beams would have to correct things for the motion of his reference frame now it's an experimental fact that this is not the case that you don't have to correct for motion was the famous Michelson Morley experiment Einstein he just rejected he just felt this can't be right Maxwell's equations were much too beautiful to be relegated to the approximate or to the contingent on which reference frame and so he said about to find a framework in which the speed of light would be the same in every reference frame and he basically focused on these equations and after various very very beautiful Gedanken experiments thought experiments about light and about measuring and so forth he came to a set of formulas called the Lorentz transformations I'm going to explain them the Lorentz transformations in a more mathematical way not fancy mathematics but just get we want to get right to the heart of it and not spend the three weeks doing it the best way is to a mathematical problem but before I do let me set up a different mathematical problem which is for most of you you've seen me do this before but nonetheless let's go through it again the problem of rotation of coordinates we're going to do this quickly let's just take spatial coordinates now for the moment two dimensional spatial coordinates let's forget X and T and just concentrate on X&Y two coordinates in space instead of events in space-time concentrate on a point in space a point in space has coordinates and we can determine those coordinates the x and y coordinates just by dropping perpendicular to the x axis in the y axis and we would describe this point as the point at position let's just call it X Y now there's nothing sacred about horizontal and vertical so somebody else may come along some crazy mathematician a really nutty one who wants to use coordinates which are at an angle relative to the vertical maybe a couple of beers and you don't know the difference between vertical and worth worth worth we should give this direction a name oblique yeah all right the oblique observer the blue observer can blue be seen everybody can see blue okay good ah the blue observer also characterizes points by coordinates which he calls X Prime and Y Prime the X Prime and the Y prime coordinates are found by dropping perpendicular to the X Prime and the Y prime axis so here's X prime is y prime and given a point X Y there's a role it must be a role if you know the value of x and y you should be able to deduce the value of X I'm in y-prime if you know the angle between the two coordinates between the x coordinate and the X prime coordinate and the formulas simple we've used it least in these classes many times I'll just remind you what it is that's X prime is equal to x times cosine of the angle between the two frames between the two coordinate systems minus y times sine of the angle and Y prime is equal to minus plus I think X sine of theta plus y cosine theta I just want to remind you about a little bit of trigonometry all of trigonometry is encoded in two very simple formulas I've used them this signs on these signs of are on the right let's Ella and X prime is bigger than X for small theta since ours here are all so it's Auto Expo Rhine is bigger than it is is it yeah let's see if you rotate it to the next so that y is y prime is zero it's further out X prime rook will have it backward yeah what's your gift I'm not gonna fit nobody so let's say just make sure the links take survive is the little perpendicular there no my life primary so that's y prime y prime is this is why I'm here right right that's why I'm in X prime is bigger than X so there has to be a plus sign on the second you know its prime is bigger than X let's see um yeah X prime is bigger than X yeah X prime is bigger than X looks like that's probably right probably sign but then this one must be man negative yeah okay there's an easy way to correct for it another way to correct for it just call this angle minus theta that would also do the trick because cosine of minus theta is the same as cosine of theta and sine changes sign when you change theta 2 minus theta so if instead of calling this angle theta I called it minus theta then my previous formulas would be right it's true true but the it's an excuse all right what do we know about sine and cosine it's important to understand sine and cosine everything you ever learned about trigonometry can be codified in two very simple formulas if you know about complex numbers the two very simple formulas are that cosine of theta is e to the I theta plus e to the minus I theta over 2 and sine of theta is e to the I theta minus e to the minus I theta over 2i those two formulas contain everything about trigonometry you don't have to know any other formulas other than these for example I will assign you the homework problem of using these two formulas to find cosine of the sum of two angles but the way you would do it is just write the sum of two angles in here and then reexpress the Exponential's in terms of cosine and sine that's easy to do e to the I theta is equal to cosine of theta plus I sine theta and e to the minus I theta is cosine of theta minus I sine theta so work through these formulas get familiar with them they're extremely useful formulas once you know them you will never have to remember any trigonometric formulas again the other thing to know is that e to the I theta times e to the minus I theta is 1 all right e to the anything times e to the minus the same thing is one those things characterize all trigonometric formulas in particular as was explained to me by Michael a number of times if we multiply e to the I theta times e to the minus I theta we will get one on this side but on this side we will get cosine squared of theta plus sine squared of theta naught minus sine squared but plus sine squared cosine squared and then ice minus I squared sine squared that gives us cosine squared plus sine squared cosine squared theta plus sine squared theta so that's equivalent to the fact that e to the I theta times e to the minus I theta is 1 all right now the most important fact that again follows from the simple trigonometry is that when you make the change of coordinates from XY to X prime Y prime something is left unchanged namely the distance from the origin to the point XY that's something which is you know you count the number of the molecules along the blackboard from here to here and that doesn't change when I change coordinates so the distance from the origin to the point XY has to be the same independent of which coordinate axes we use well let's take the square of that distance the square of that distance we know what it is let's call it s squared I'm not sure why I use s but s for distance s s for distance s for space I think it must be for space that I'm using it for the spaces for the spatial distance from the origin to the point XY we know what that is it's Pythagoras theorem x squared plus y squared but as I said there's nothing special about the XY axes we also ought to be able to calculate it as X prime squared plus y prime squared well it's not too hard to work out that X prime squared plus y prime squared is x squared plus y squared it's easy to use do X prime squared plus y prime squared will have x squared cosine squared theta it will also have x squared sine squared theta when you add them you'll get x squared plus y squared you know you know the rigmarole so it follows from cosine squared plus sine squared equals 1 that X prime squared plus y prime squared equals also equal is equal to x squared plus y squared work that out make sure that you have this on the control that you understand why from the trigonometry not from the the basic physics of it or the basic geometry of it is clear make sure that you understand that you can see that from the trigonometry okay one last thing about sines and cosines if I plot on the blackboard for every angle if I plot sine or cosine along the horizontal axis supposing I plot cosine of theta along the horizontal axis and sine of theta along the vertical axis then if I plot all possible angles they will correspond to a bunch of points that lie on a unit circle Y on a unit circle because sine squared plus cosine squared equals 1 so one might call the properties of sine and cosine the properties of circular functions circular in that they're convenient for rotating they're convenient for describing unit circles points on unit circles are described in terms of coordinates which are cosines and sines of angles and so forth it's natural to call them circular functions these are these are not the functions that come in to the transformation the new transformation properties first of all these are wrong and I don't want to use X what's X ya ya now just wrong Newton had it wrong Newton or Galileo however it was postulated who postulated it Einstein modified it now we're going to have to make sure that Einstein's modification doesn't change things in situations where Newton knew where Newton's equations were good approximations the situations where I'm Stan's modifications are important is when we're talking about frames of reference moving very rapidly up near the speed of light before the 20th century nobody or nothing had ever moved faster than a hundred miles an hour probably well of course some things did light did but for all practical purposes light didn't travel at all it's just when you turned on the switch the light just went on so light didn't travel nothing and anybody's experienced direct experience traveled faster than 100 or 200 miles an hour and well I should say nothing travels faster than 100 miles an hour and then live to tell about it so all of experience was about very slow velocities on the scale of the speed of light on the scale of such velocities newton's formulas must be correct they work they're they're very useful they work Nutan got away with it so there must be good approximations it better be that whatever einstein did to the equations in particular to these two equations here had been a reduced to newton's equations in the appropriate limit okay let's come back now to light light according to the Newton formulas doesn't always move with the speed of light but let's let's try to figure out what it would mean of a better formula of a replacement for this but light always moves with the speed of light first of all let's set the speed of light equal to one that's a choice of units in particular it's a choice of the relation between space units and time units if we work in our light years for spent for a distance and years for time then light moves one light year per year the speed of light is one if we use seconds and light seconds it's also one whatever whatever scale we use for space if we use for time the time that it takes light to go that distance one unit of space if we use that for time units then the speed of light is equal to one now from the ordinary point of view of very slowly moving things those are odd units but if we were electrons with neutrinos and whizzing around like photons they would be the natural units for us speed of light equals one so let's set the speed of light equal to one as I said it's just the choice of units and then a light ray moving to the right just moves along a trajectory x equals T C is just equal to one a light ray moving to the left is x equals minus T how can we take both of these equations and put them together sorry x equals minus T can I write a single equation which if it's satisfied is a light ray either moving to the left or to the right yes here's an equation x squared equals T squared it has two solutions x equals T and X equals minus T the two square roots or x squared equals T squared is equivalent to either x equals T or x equals minus T in other words this equation here has the necessary and sufficient condition for describing the motion of a light ray either to the right or to the left supposing we found a replacement for this equation which had the following interesting property that whenever let's let's write it this way X square minus T squared equals 0 this is even better for our purposes x squared minus T squared equals 0 that's the necessary and sufficient condition to describe the motion of a light ray supposing we found a new set of rules a new set of transformation properties which which um had the property that if x squared minus T squared is equal to 0 then we will find that X prime squared minus T prime squared is equal to 0 in other words supposing this implied this and vice-versa then it would follow that what the unprimed observer you and your seats see is a light ray the primed observer me moving along also see as a light ray both of us agreeing that light rays move with unit velocity now this doesn't work for Newton's formula here it just doesn't work if X is equal to T it does not follow that X prime is equal to the T prime in fact it says something quite different okay so the form of these equations must be wrong let's look for some better equations now at this point let's in fact let's even be a little bit more ambitious it turns out being a little bit more ambitious actually simplifies things let's not only say that when X square minus T squared is equal to zero then X prime squared minus T prime squared is equal to zero let's say something even bolder let's say the relation between XT and X prime T prime is such that x squared minus T squared is equal to X prime squared minus T prime squared in other words pick any X and any T and calculate X square minus T squared then take the same point except reckoned in the primed coordinates in other words we take a certain event a light bulb goes off someplace you say that corresponds to X and T I say it corresponds to X Prime and T Prime but let's require just to try it out see if we can do it let's look for transformations so that X square minus T squared will always be equal to X prime squared minus T's prime squared that would be enough to ensure that everybody will agree about the speed of light why if x squared minus T squared equals X prime minus T prime squared for all X and T and so forth then when X square minus T squared equals zero X prime minus T prime squared will be zero and then if this is a light ray so is this a light ready everybody get the logic ok good so let's assume now that let's ask can we find transformations which have this particular property now it's not so different from looking for transformations which preserve x squared plus y squared equals x prime squared plus y prime squared it's just a little minus sign other than a minus sign here X square minus T squared look of these two is very similar and the mathematics is quite similar here are the transformations which preserve x squared plus y squared what are the transformations which preserve x squared minus T squared well they are the Lorentz transformations they are the fundamental transformations of the special theory of relativity they're not this but they're closely related or perhaps one should say closely analogous to these equations here but we have to substitute for circular trigonometry hyperbolic trigonometry so let's go back and remember a little bit about hyperbolic functions instead of circular functions well I didn't want to erase that all right these are the basic rules governing circular functions cosine theta this sine theta is equal to this and the e to the I theta in terms of cosine and sine all right let's see if we have a yeah we do have a blank blackboard here let me write whoops what did I do here I erased something I didn't mean to erase incidentally does everybody see how I got this side from the side you just add and subtract the equations appropriately and you isolate it to the I theta e to the minus R theta that's elementary exercise alright hyperbolic functions what are hyperbolic functions alright those are functions of the form hyperbolic cosine cosh hyperbolic cosine first of all the angle theta is replaced by a variable called Omega which I will call Omega Omega is called a hyperbolic angle it doesn't go from zero to two pi and then wind around on a circle it goes from minus infinity to infinity goes from minus infinity to infinity so it's a variable that just extends over the entire real axis but it's defined in a manner fairly similar to cosine and sine cosh Omega is by definition you're not allowed to ask why this is definition e to the Omega plus e to the minus Omega over 2 all we do is substitute for theta or for Omega theta I theta substitute Omega and that gives you hyperbolic functions likewise or similarly there's the hyperbolic sine and that's given by e to the Omega minus e to the minus Omega over 2 essentially you throw away all eyes out of that formula out of the top formulas just throw away all Sun all eyes the equations on the right-hand side become e to the Omega equals hyperbolic cosh Omega plus sin Chi Omega and e to the minus Omega equals cosh so mega- cinch Omega I think that's right is it right gosh – cinch it is yeah it is right okay now what about the analog of cosine squared plus sine squared equals one that simply came by multiplying this one by this one so let's do the same operation multiplying e to the Omega by each by e to the minus Omega gives one and now that gives cosh squared minus cinch squared you see we're getting a minus what we want we want that minus the minus is important we want the well somewhere is under here was a formula with a minus sign yeah we want to get that – into play here that's cos Omega squared knockouts Prakash squared Omega minus sin squared Omega so it's very similar everything you want to know about hyperbolic trigonometry and the theory of these functions is called hyperbolic trigonometry everything you ever want to know is codified in these simple formulas these in these and they're more or less definitions but there are the useful definitions now yeah go ahead yeah not only is it worth mentioning I was just about to mention it so I squared minus y squared is what hyperbola yeah right exactly so if I were to play the same game that I did here namely plot on the horizontal and vertical axis the values not of cosine of theta and sine of theta but cosine cosine cosh of that of Omega and since Omega what's in other words on the x-axis now we're going to plot cos Omega and on the y-axis cinch Omega then this is a hyperbola not a circle but a hyperbola and it's a hyperbola with asymptotes that are at 45 degrees you can see let me show you why why the asymptotes are at 45 degrees when Omega is very large when Omega is very large then e to the minus Omega is very small right when Omega is very large e to the minus Omega is very small and that means both cosh and cinch are both essentially equal to e to the plus Omega in other words when Omega gets very big cosh and cinch become equal to each other and that's this line here cash equals cinch along this line here so when Omega gets very large the curve asymptotes to to a curve which is a 45 degrees it's not hard to see that in the other direction when Omega is very negative that that it asymptotes to the other asymptotic line here so that's why it's called hyperbolic geometry it the hyperbolic angle the hyperbolic angles the caches the cinches play the same role relative to hyperbolas as sines and cosines do two circles any questions No so cosh Omega equals zero how would you plot that hi purple okay show me hmm Oh cos squared minus sin squared equals zero no that's no no cos squared minus sin squared equals one in the same sense that sine squared plus cosine square it never equals zero I think what I think you want to ask a different question I think oh well since Omega equals zero is the horizontal axis the costume a equals zero is the vertical eyebrows right okay well this is the x-intercept yeah it's it's the vertex I just think here's one point on a minute oh man the x-intercept there is one yeah because Kostroma cost of zero is one to see that just plug one r 0 in here 1 plus 1 divided by 2 is 1 at least it was yesterday yeah stores okay so now we we're sort of starting to cook a little bit we're starting to see something that has that nice minus sign in it but what's it got to do with X and T and X Prime and T prime we're now set up to make let's call it a guess but it's a guess which is based on the extreme similarity between hyperbolas and circles cautions and cosines and so forth he is the guess I'm going to make and then we'll check it we'll see if it does the thing we wanted to do my formula instead of being this has gotten with and we're now going to have instead of x and y we're going to have x and t time and x later on we'll put back y&z we're going to have to put back y&z but they're very easy okay so let's start with X prime X prime is the coordinate given to a point of space-time by the moving observer namely me and I'm going to guess that it's some combination of X and T not too different but not the same as where is it X prime equals X minus VT I'm going to try cosh Omega X let's write X cos Omega minus T sin Omega sort of in parallel with this I could put a plus sign here but you can go back and forth between the plus and the minus by changing the sign of Omega just as you did here so this let's do it this way X cos Omega minus T sin Omega and T prime going to look similar but without the extra minus sign here this you know the relation between sines cosines and cautious and cinches is one of just leaving out an eye you go from sines and cosines the clashes and cinches by leaving out the I well if you track it through carefully you'll find that this minus sign was really an I squared it's not going to matter much I will just tell you it was really came from some I squared and if you leave out I I squared just becomes one squared is no minus sign so here's the guess for the formula connecting X prime T Prime with X and T it equals let's say X since Omega – no – plus T cos Omega in this case there are two minus signs in this case there was only one minus sign okay but but let's check what do we want to check we want to check that X prime squared minus T prime squared is equal to x squared minus T squared your ask you're probably asking yourself what is this Omega what does it have to do with moving reference frames I'll tell you right now what Omega is it's a stand-in for the velocity between the frames we're going to find the relationship between Omega and the relative velocity of the reference frames in a moment there has to be a parameter in the lower end these are the lines in these are the Lorentz transformations connecting two frames of reference in the Lorentz transformations as a parameter it's the velocity the relative velocity that parameter has been replaced by Omega it's a kind of angle relating the two frames a hyperbolic angle but we'll we'll come back to that for the moment let's prove that with this transformation law here that X prime squared minus T prime squared is equal to zero ah is equal to X square minus T squared I'm getting to that point in the evening where I'm going to make mistakes all right this is easy you just work it out you use all you have to use is that cosine squared minus sine squared is 1 you can work that out by yourself but we can just see little pieces of it here X prime squared will have x squared cos squared Omega t prime squared will have x squared sin squared Omega if I take the difference between them I'll get a term with an x squared times cos squared minus sin squared but cos squared minus sin squared is one fine so we'll find the term with an x squared when we square take the square of the difference between the squares of this and this and likewise will also find the T squared the cross term when you square X Prime you'll have XT cost cinch when you square T Prime you'll have XT costs inch when you subtract them it'll cancel and it's easy to check that's our basically one liner to show that with this transformation here x prime squared minus T's prime squared is x squared minus T squared which is exactly what we're looking for let me remind you why are we looking for it if we find the transformation for which the left-hand side and the right-hand side are equal then if x squared equals T squared in other words if the right-hand side is 0 the left-hand side will also be 0 but x squared but x equals T that's the same as something moving with the speed of light in the X frame of reference if this being 0 is equivalent to the left hand side being 0 it says that in both frames of reference the light rays move with the same velocity so that's the basic that's the basic tool that we're using here X prime squared minus T prime squared is equal to x squared minus T squared all right that does follow by a couple of lines using cos squared minus N squared equals 1 but what I want to do let's take another couple of minutes now let's take a break for five minutes and then come back and connect these variables Omega with the velocity of the moving frame of reference somebody asked me a question about the ether and what it was that people were thinking somehow Einstein never got trapped into this mode of thinking um well what were they thinking about when they were thinking about the ether what exactly was the michelson-morley experiment well I'll just spend the minute or two mentioning it certainly Maxwell understood that his equations were not consistent with with Newtonian relativity he understood that but his image of what was going on is that the propagation of light was very similar to the propagation of sound in a material or water waves propagating on water and of course it is true that if you move relative to the atmosphere or move relative to the substance that sound is propagating in you'll see sound move with different velocities depending on your motion if you're at rest in a gas of material isn't there's a natural sense in which is a particular rest frame the rest frame is the frame in which on the average the molecules have zero velocity if you're in that reference frame then first of all light has the same velocity that way as that way number one and it has a velocity that's determined by the properties of the fluid that the sound is moving in okay Maxwell more or less thought that light was the same kind of thing that there was a material and the material had a rest frame and that particular rest frame was the frame in which light would move with the same velocity to the left as to the right and he thought that he was working out the mechanics or the behavior of this particular material and that we were pretty much at rest relative to this material and that's why we saw light moving the same way to the left of the right one would have to say then that Maxwell did not believe that his equations were a universal set of laws of physics but that they would change when you moved from frame to frame just happened by some luck we happen to be more or less at rest relative to the ether to this strange material um of course you could do an experiment with sound if you're moving through the sound you can check that the velocity in different directions is different you do let's not worry exactly how you do that that's what the Michelson Morley experiment was Michelson and Morley I suppose said look the earth is going around in an orbit maybe at one season of the year we just happen to be at rest relative to the ether by accident and some other season six months later we're going to be moving in the opposite direction and we won't well we won't be at rest only at one point in the orbit could we be at rest relative the–this or at any other point in the orbit we wouldn't be so if we measure in November that light moves the same than all possible directions then in what's what's the opposite of November May then in May we should find that light is moving with great with the different velocities in different directions and he tried it and a very fancy and sophisticated way of measuring the relative velocity in different directions but he found that there was no discrepancy that the light traveled the same velocity in every direction at every time of year there were all sorts of ways to try to rescue the ether but none of them worked none of them work and the result was one had to somehow get into the heart of space and time and velocity and mid distance and all those things in a much deeper way in a way that didn't involve the idea of a material at rest in some frame of reference that that propagated the light okay oh where are we I forgotten where we were when we stopped somebody remind me whoo-hah Omega yeah what is Omega forgotten Omega Oh how Omega is really metal speed of light but to the velocity of the moving reference frame here we have two reference frames X T and X Prime and T prime what's the relationship between them well the whole goal here was to understand the relationship between frames of reference moving with relative velocity between them Omega is not exactly the relative velocity but it is closely related to it okay let's say let's see if we can work out the relationship we know enough to do it let's see if we can work out the relationship between Omega and the velocity of the moving frame all right again let's go back to this picture there's a frame of reference moving let's redraw it here's my origin moving along okay what does it mean to say that from your perspective my frame of reference so my origin is moving with velocity V well by definition this is not a law now this is a definition and says that this line here has the equation x equals VT that's the definition of this V here my origin moves relative to your origin it moves with a uniform constant velocity that's an assumption that we're talking about two inertial frames of reference and you in your frame of reference will write x equals VT that's the definition of V if you like what will I call it I will call it X prime equals zero all along there I will say X prime is equal to zero it's my origin of coordinates okay now let's come to this transformation law here and see if we can spot how to identify V well X prime equals zero that's this trajectory moving at an angle with a velocity V X prime equals zero is the same as saying X cos Omega equals T sin Omega X prime equals zero set this side equal to zero and that says that X cos Omega equals T sin Omega all right so whatever the connection between velocity and Omega is it must be such that when X prime is equal to zero X cos Omega equals T sin Omega well let's look at that equation it also says that X is equal to sin CH Omega over cos Omega times T well that's interesting because it's also supposed to be equivalent to x equals VT now I know exactly how to identify what the velocity is as a function of Omega the velocity of the moving transformation the moving coordinate system must just be sin Chi Omega over cos Omega that's the only way these two equations can be the same x equals VT x equals sin Chi Omega over cos Omega times T so now we know it we know what the relationship between velocity and Omega is write it down the velocity of the moving frame now this is not the velocity of light it's just the velocity of the moving frame must just be cinch Omega over cos omega well actually i want to invert this relationship i want to find sin and cos omega in terms of the velocity i want to rewrite these Lorentz transformations where are they i want to rewrite these Lorentz transformations in terms of the velocity that's the familiar form in which you learn about it in in elementary relativity books X prime is equal to something with velocities in it to exhibit that all we have to do is to find Cinch and cosh Omega in terms of the velocity that's not very hard let's let's work it out the first step is to square it and to write V squared is equal to cinch Omega squared over cosh Omega squared that was easy next I'm going to get rid of since Omega squared and substitute where is it I lost it one is equal to cos Omega squared minus cinch Omega squared alright so wherever I see cinch Omega squared I can substitute from here namely cosh squared Omega minus one is equal to sine squared Omega so here we are this is just equal to hash of Omega squared minus one divided by cost of Omega squared or let's multiply by what I want to do is solve for cost Omega in terms of velocity I want to get rid of all these cautions and cinches of Omega and rewrite it in terms of velocity so first x cost Omega squared we have cosh squared Omega times V squared equals cosh squared Omega minus one or it looks to me like this is cosh squared Omega times one minus V squared equals one what I've done is transpose yeah cos squared times V squared minus cos squared itself that gives you cos squared 1 minus V squared equals 1 change the sign can everybody see that the second line follows from the first I'll give you a second yeah yeah yeah it's clear ok finally we get that cos Omega is equal to 1 divided by 1 minus V squared but now I have to take the square root cos Omega / one minus V squared and then take the square root and that gives you cos Omega now we've all seen these square roots of 1 minus V squared in relativity formulas here's where it begins the kayne we begin to see it materializing what about sin Chi Omega let's also write down sin Chi Omega well from here we see that sin Chi Omega is just equal to V times cos Omega this is easy since Omega equals V times cos Omega sorrow sin Chi Omega is V divided by square root of 1 minus V squared let's go back to these Lorentz transformations over here and write them getting rid of the trigonometric functions the hyperbolic trigonometric functions and substituting good old familiar velocities let's get rid of this and substitute the good old ordinary velocities ok so we have here X prime equals x times cos Omega and that's divided by square root of 1 minus V squared then this minus T times sin Omega which is V over the square root of 1 minus V squared or if I put the two of them together and combine them over the same denominator it's just X minus VT divided by square root of 1 minus V squared I think most of you have probably seen that before maybe slightly different let's let's clean it up a little bit X prime equals X minus VT divided by the square root of 1 minus V squared what about T prime T Prime is equal to t minus V X over square root of 1 minus V squared T prime is equal to T times cos cost is just 1 over square root and then x times sin CH that gives us the extra V in other words the formulas are more or less symmetrical and those are all good old Lorentz transformations now what's missing is the speed of light let's put back the speed of light the put back the speed of light is an exercise in dimensional analysis there's only one possible way the speed of light can fit into these equations they have to be modified so that they're dimensionally correct first of all one is dimensionless has no dimensions it's just one velocity is not dimensionless unless of course we use dimensionless notation for it but if velocity is measured in meters per second then it's not dimensionless how do we make V squared dimensionless we divide it by the square of the speed of light in other words this V squared which is here which has been defined in units in which the speed of light is 1 has to be replaced by V squared over C squared likewise over here V squared over C squared now velocity times time does have notice first of all the left hand side has units of length the right hand side this is dimensionless X has units of length but so does velocity times time so this is okay this is dimensionally consistent as it is but over here it's not the left hand side has dimensions of time that's all right 1 minus V squared over C square that's dimensionless this has units of time but what about velocity times X velocity times X does not have units of time in order the given units of time you have to divide it by C square okay let's check that velocity is length all the time times length divided by C squared that's length square R which gets correct but it's correct all right this is probably familiar to most of you who've seen relativity once or twice before these are the equations relating to different moving coordinate systems moving relative to the x axis but you see the deep mathematics or the mathematical structure of it in many ways is best reflected by this kind of hyperbolic geometry here and you know most physicists by now never write down the Lorentz transformations in this form much more likely to write them in this form easier to manipulate easier to use trigonometry or or hyperbolic trigonometry it's a little exercise it's a nice little exercise to use this the hyperbolic trigonometry to compute their to compute the compounding of two Lorentz transformations if frame two is moving relative to frame one with velocity V and frame three Israel moving relative to two with velocity V Prime how is three moving relative to one the answer is very simple in terms of hyperbolic angles you add the hyperbolic angles not the velocities but the hyperbolic angles the hyperbolic angle of three moving relative to one is the hyperbolic angle of three moving relative to two plus two moving relative to one and then you use a bit of trigonometry or hyperbolic trigonometry to figure out how you do the inches and kosh's of the sum of 2 hyperbolic angles very straightforward and I'll leave it as an exercise to see if you can work that out much easier than anything else ok so there there we have the Lorentz transformations yeah oh oh absolutely yes that's that's that's a good point yeah when we that's right if we have frame 1 let's call this x1 and y1 x2 and y2 and finally x3 and y3 well then the angle of – let's call F of 3 relative to 1 let's call it theta 1 3 is just equal to theta 1 2 plus theta 2 3 the angle connecting frame one with frame 3 is just the sum of the angle theta 1 2 plus theta 2 3 so in that respect the Lorentz transformations are much simpler in terms of the Omegas it's the Omegas which combined together to add when you add velocities now how different is omega from the velocity let's work in units in which the speed of light is equal to 1 where is our formula for velocity all right let's take this formula over here what a cinch Omega 4 small Omega let's put the C squared there a let's not put the C square there or not put the C square there since Omega is essentially Omega when Omega is small just like sine is omega where is theta when theta is small the cinch function the cost function looks like like this the cinch function looks like this but it but it crosses the axis with a slope of 1 for small Omega cinch Omega is proportional to Omega for small velocity one minus V squared is very close to 1 if the velocity is a hundredth of the speed of light then this to within one ten-thousandth is just 1 if we're talking about velocities a millionth of the speed of light then this is very close to 1 and so since Omega and velocity are very close to each other it's what's going on here Thanks okay so for small velocities Omega and velocity are the same the actual correct statement is that V over C is like Omega the dimensionless velocity over the speed of light is like Omega for small Omega and small velocity so for small velocity adding velocities and adding omegas are the same things but when the velocities get large the right way to combine them to find relationships between different frames is by adding Omega and not adding velocities when you add Omega like compounding velocities as you've got it there I guess you won't go greater than 45 degrees that guess because that would be faster than light no but Omega no more you see this bit the speed of light is V equals one that corresponds to Omega equals infinity yeah yeah so Omega Omega runs over the whole range from minus infinity to infinity but when it does V goes from minus the speed of light to the speed of light so you can add any omegas and still add any omegas Omega that's right there's no there's no speed limit on Omega is this like we just go on that diagram it looks like it's greater than 45 degrees if here where where I make a and I guess they use the definition of state along the hyperbola yeah that's right sorry where are we right there today I guess that's theta though isn't it this is Theta that's a good oh god yeah right right yeah Omega is the distance along hyperbola that's right distances that's right Omega is a kind of distance along the hyperbola all right now let's let's talk about that a little bit all right now that we've established the basic mathematics structure of the transformations I think we should go back and talk about some simple relativity phenomena and derive them oh one thing which is important which I yeah well let's see we're here are my Lorentz transformations over here I said we should we ought to at the end make sure that our transformations are not too dissimilar from Newton's in particular when the velocities are small they should reduce to Newton that's all we really know that's or at least that's all that Newton really had a right to assume that when the velocities are smaller than something or other that his equations should be good approximations isn't adding velocity good enough isn't velocities adding good enough in fact you're right in fact you're right but let's just look at the transformations themselves all right as long as the velocity is a small percentage of the speed of light an ordinary velocities are what a hundred miles an hour versus 186,000 miles an hour what is that it's small right and it's doubly small when you square it so for typical ordinary velocities even the velocities of the earth around the Sun and so forth fairly large velocities what 60 kilometers per second or something like that 60 kilometers per second is pretty fast that's the that's the orbital earth around the Sun it's pretty fast but it's nowhere near 300,000 kilometers per No yeah looks here on a thousand meters per second we're I'm sorry three times ten to the eighth no three times three hundred thousand kilometers per second right 60 kilometers per second three hundred thousand kilometers per second small fraction and then square it so for ordinary motions this is so close to one that the deviation from one is negligible so let's start with the top equation for the top equation this is negligible and it's just x prime equals X minus VT the bottom equation here you have a C squared in the denominator whenever you have a C squared in the denominator that's a very very large thing in the denominator this is negligible compared to T so here the speed of light is also in the denominator just forget this and it's just T but it's just T prime equals T it's just D prime equals T so in fact Newton's formulas are essentially correct for slow velocities no no significant departure from Newton until the velocities get up to be some some appreciable fraction of the speed of light okay let's talk about proper time proper time and then let's do a couple of relativity examples yeah question the bottom equation when X is very large yes that's right when X is exceedingly large you get a correction but that correction that X has to be very large look let's let's discuss before we do anything else let's let's let's talk about that a little bit X minus VT one minus V squared over C squared yeah let's alright in my drawings I'm going to sitt C equal to one but in the equations you can leave the C there okay this equation we understand apart from this one minus V squared over C squared in the denominator it's just this x equals V T or X minus V X minus X minus VT that's Newton let's look at this one over here okay let's look at the surface T prime equals zero T prime equals zero is the set of points that I in my moving reference frame call T call time equals zero it's what I call the set of points which are all simultaneous with the origin T prime equals zero is just everyplace in space-time which has exactly the same time according to my frame of reference and I will therefore call all those points synchronous at the same time what do you say about them if T prime is equal to zero that says that T is equal to V over C squared X now let's set C equal to one for the purpose of drawing just for the purpose of drawing I don't want this huge number C squared to distort my drawings too much it says the T equals V X what does the surface T equals V X look like it looks like this T equals V X which is also X is equal to 1 over V T so it's just a uniform line like that all of these points are at different times from your reckoning this ones later this ones later this ones later and so forth according to my reckoning all these points are at the same time so we disagree about what's simultaneous this was this was the hang-up incidentally this was the basic hang-up that took so long to overcome that took Einstein to overcome it the idea that simultaneity was the same in every reference frame nobody in fact it was so obvious that nobody even thought to ask a question is simultaneous does it mean the same thing in every reference frame no it doesn't in more in your reference frame the horizontal points are all simultaneous with respect to each other in my reference frame what I call horizontal what I call simultaneous you do not okay so simultaneity had to go let me point out one more thing about these equations I'm not going to solve them for you but I will tell you the solution anyway how do you solve for X and T in terms of X Prime and T Prime well think about it in the case of angles supposing I have a relationship like X prime is equal to X cosine theta what is it plus plus y sine theta and y prime is equal to X minus X sine theta plus or Y cosine theta and supposing I want to solve for x and y in terms of X Prime and Y Prime you know what the solution is just change theta 2 minus theta and write that X is equal to X prime cosine of minus theta but what's cosine of minus theta right cosine theta plus y sine of minus theta what's sine of minus theta minus sine theta times y and likewise for y prime Y prime is equal to minus x times sine of minus theta so that becomes plus X sine theta plus y cosine of minus theta which is cosine theta you don't have to go through the business of solving the equations you know that if one set of axes is related to the other by rotation by angle theta the second one is related to the first one or vice versa the first one is related to the second one by the negative of the angle if to go from one frame to another you rotate by angle theta and to go from the second frame back to the first you rotate by angle minus theta so you just write down exactly the same equations interchange Prime and unprimed and substitute for theta minus theta same thing for the Lorentz transformations exactly the same thing if you want to solve these for X and T write down the same equations replace primed by unprimed and change the sign of omegas to minus the sines of omegas change sinus rgn of all the sign all the cinches okay in other words just send Omega 2 minus Omega and that will solve the equations in the other direction yeah yes it's also the same as changing V 2 minus V yes the way to see that is to go right what was it what do we have cosh Omega yep yeah that's right via sign yes that was correct yeah you just well you change Omega 2 minus Omega it has the action of changing V 2 minus V you can just check that from the equations good alright let's let's talk about proper time a little bit proper time if you're doing ordinary geometry you can measure the length along a curve for example and the way you do it is you take a tape measure and you you know sort of take off you take off equal intervals equal equal little separations you can think of these separations as differential distances DS squared small little differential distances and that differential distance is d x squared plus dy squared with the x squared and the y squared are just the differential increments in x and y DX and dy this is d s alright so that's the way and you add them up you add them up that's the way you compute distances along curves it's quite obvious that if you take two points the distance between those two points depends on what curve not the same for every curve so I'll measure the longer curve you have to know not only the two points but you have to know the curve in order to say what the distance between those points are of course the distance between its longer straight line that's that's well-defined but the distance along a curve depends on the curve in any case D s squared equals the x squared plus dy squared is the basic defining notion of distance between two neighboring points if you know the distance between any two neighboring points in a geometry you basically know that geometry almost essentially completely so given this formula for the distance between two points you can compute if you like the distance along a curve because you've got to take the square root of this and then add them up don't anhedonia the squares add the differential distances all right the important thing is here that square root of DX squared plus dy squared which is the distance between neighboring points doesn't depend on your choice of axes I could choose X Y axes I could choose X prime y prime axes if I take a little differential displacement the X and the y or I just take two points two neighboring points don't even give them labels and measure the distance between them the distance between them should not depend on conventions such as which axes are used and so when I make rotational transformations the X square plus dy squared doesn't change the X and the y may change but the x squared plus dy squared does not change the same thing is true in relativity or the analogous thing we don't measure distances along the paths of particles let's say now that this curve here is the path of a particle moving through space-time there's a particle moving through space-time and we want some notion of the distance along it the notion of distance along it another example would just be a particle standing still as a particle standing still particle standing still is still in some sense moving in time I wouldn't want to say that the distance between these two points and space-time is zero they're not the same point I wouldn't like to say it's zero I would like to say there's some kind of notion of distance between them but it's quite clear that that distance is not measured with a tape measure this point and this point are the same point of space boom here at this point of space and that at a later time boom again at the same point of space two events at the same point of space how do I characterize and some nice way the distance between those two events that occurred in the same place you don't do it with a tape measure all right what do you do with a clock a clock you take a clock and you start it at this point tic tic tic tic tic tic tic a stopwatch you press it at this point tic tic tic tic tic it picks off intervals and then you stop it at that point and you see how much time has evolved that's a notion of distance along a particle trajectory it's not the distance the particle moves in space it's a kind of distance that it's moved through space-time and it's not zero even if the particle is moving standing perfectly still in fact what it is is it's the time along the trajectory what about a moving particle well you can imagine that a moving particle carries a clock with it of course not all particles carry clocks but we can imagine they carry clocks with them as they move and we can start the clock over here and then the clock over here what is the time read off by this moving clock the time read off by a moving clock is much like the distance along a curve measured by a tape measure in particular it should not depend on the choice of coordinates why not this is a question that has nothing to do with coordinates I have a clock made in the standard clock Factory the standard clock Factory and I don't know we're in Switzerland someplace makes a certain kind of clock that clock gets carried along with a particle and we ask how much time evolves or how much time elapses or how much the clock changes between here and here that should not depend on a choice of coordinates it shouldn't depend on a choice of coordinates because it's a physical question that only involves looking at the hands of the clock in fact we can ask it for little intervals along along the trajectory we could ask how much time elapses according to the clock between here and here well the answer again should not depend on what coordinates you use which Lorentz frame you use and there's only one invariant quantity that you can make out of the D X's and DTS describing this point describing these two points there's a little interval DT and there's a little interval DX now we're in space and time not ordinary not ordinary space and the quantity which is invariant there's really only one invariant quantity that you can make out of it it is DT squared minus DX squared it's the same quantity x squared minus T squared for a whole you know for a whole interval the T squared minus DX squared that's the quantity which is invariant it's minus D it's the negative of what I wrote over here x squared minus T squared okay this quantity is equal to the X prime squared minus DT power sorry DT prime squared minus the X prime squared the same algebra goes into this as goes into showing that X prime squared minus T prime squared equals x squared minus T squared incidentally this is the same as saying T prime squared minus X prime squared equals T squared minus x squared doesn't matter which way you write it all right so that suggests that suggests that the time read off the invariant time read off along a trajectory between two points separated by DX and DT is just the square root of DT squared minus DX squared why the square-root incidentally okay you're going to integrate in detail I can integrate DT yeah well alright why not just DT square minus the x squared for the time between here and here is it here's an answer supposing we go to you two intervals exactly the same as the first one we go an interval over here DX and DT and then we go another DX in DT what happens when we double the interval to DT squared minus DX squared it gets multiplied by four because everything is squared well I wouldn't expect a clock when it goes along you know when it goes along a trajectory for twice the the interval here to measure four times the the time I expected to measure twice the time so for that reason the square root is the appropriate thing here okay that's called D tau squared the tau squared the proper time along the trajectory of an object you're right that's just the towel or D tau squared being the x squared minus DT squared the Tau is called the proper time let's go I think we'll let's see the towel is called the proper time and it is the time read by a clock moving along a trajectory it's not just DT that's the important thing it's not just DT the T squared minus the x squared let's do one last thing let's just do the twin paradox in this language I think I think I've had it I'm going to finish you can do the twin paradox in this language all you have to do is to compute the proper time along two trajectories one that goes out with a uniform velocity turns around and comes back with the same uniform velocity versa a trajectory which just goes from one point to the st. the another point along a straight line and it's no more weird it's no weirder really from this perspective than saying the distance from one point to another along two different curves do not have to agree the proper time along two different curves in general will not agree what is a little bit weird is that because of this minus sign the proper time this way is less than the proper time this way that's the consequence of this minus sign here moving with some DX decreases the proper time all right we'll do a little bit more next time but then I want to get to the principles of field theory and and connect some of this with field equations for interesting wave fields the preceding program is copyrighted by Stanford University please visit us at stanford.edu

Mythstory #9 – Aztec Mythology



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The Aztec were a flourishing Mesoamerican culture from the 1300-1521. The capital of the Aztec empire was Tenochtitlan. During the empire, the city was built on a raised island in Lake Texcoco. Modern-day Mexico City was constructed on the ruins of Tenochtitlan. The Spanish colonisation of the Americas reached the mainland during the reign of Montezuma II. In 1521, Hernán Cortés, along with an allied army of other Native Americans, conquered the Aztecs through germ warfare, siege warfare, psychological warfare, and direct combat. Lucky for us, much of their mythology still survives to this day. So let’s begin from the beginning

hello everyone welcome to myths tree the shore we talk about myths from around the globe for today's show we're going to be discussing the central religion of Mesoamerica Aztec mythology the Aztek were a flourishing Mesoamerican culture from 1300 to 15 21 the capital of the Aztec empire was Tenochtitlan during the empire the city was built on a raised island in Lake Texcoco modern-day Mexico City was constructed on the ruins of Tenochtitlan the Spanish colonization of the Americas reached the mainland during the reign of Montezuma ii in 1521 Hernan Cortes along with an allied army of other Native Americans conquered the Aztecs through germ warfare siege warfare psychological warfare and direct combat lucky for us much of their mythology still survives to this day so let's begin from the beginning creation there are two variations of the Aztec creation myth that are very popular in discussions I picked the one that seemed to have the most support if you would like to learn about the other creation myth feel free to check out the big myth site for an overview in the beginning there was only chaos and the god of duality it was both male and female the Lord of duality no meant acutally and the Lady of duality oh mecha waddle this God was good and bad male and female and gave birth to four other gods who each preside over one of the four cardinal directions over the West resides Quetzalcoatl the god of light mercy and wind over the South presides witzy lapaki the God of War over the east presides she pathetic the god of gold farming and springtime and over the North presides tests cat lopaka the god of judgment night deceit sorcery and the earth these gods set out to create the world they created many other gods and the first humans who are Giants one of these gods had to play the part of the Sun and they would end up switching their roles as time went on this creation model is called five sons each son had to be replaced by a new God because the world always came to end Tezcatlipoca was chosen as the first son but either because he had lost the leg or because he was god of night he only managed to become half a son the world continued on in this way for some time but a sibling rivalry grew between Quetzalcoatl and his brother the mighty son who Quetzalcoatl knocked from the sky with a stone club with no son the world was totally black and in his anger Tezcatlipoca commanded his Jaguars to eat all the people the gods created a new group of people to inhabit the earth this time they were normal-sized Quetzalcoatl became the new son and as the years passed the people of the earth grew less and less civilized and stopped showing proper honor to the gods as a result Tezcatlipoca demonstrated his power and authority as a God of sorcery and judgment by turning the animalistic people into monkeys Quetzalcoatl who had loved the flawed people as they were became upset and blew all the monkeys from the face of the earth with a mighty hurricane he then stepped down as the Sun to create a new people tolik the god of rain became the next Sun but Tezcatlipoca seduced and stole his wife Chuckie Quetzal the goddess of sex flowers and corn Pollock then refused to do anything other than wallow in his own grief so a great drought swept the world the people's prayers for rain annoyed the grieving son and he refused to allow it to rain but the people continued to beg him then in a fit of rage he answered their prayers with a great downpour of fire it continued to rain fire until the entire earth had burned away the gods then had to construct a whole new earth from the ashes the next Sun and also Pollux wife was Shashi Whitley qu she was very loving toward the people but Tezcatlipoca was not both the people and sha Chi wheatley ku felt his judgement when he told the water goddess that she was not truly loving and only faked kindness out of selfishness to gain the people's praise sha Chi weakly ku was so crushed by these words that she cried blood for the next 52 years causing a horrific flood that drowned everyone on earth during the fifth son the current one humans would once again walk the earth Quetzalcoatl rescues humanity Quetzalcoatl would not simply stand by as the gods continued to kill people he needed to save them so he asked for the help of his brother Shilla tell the God with the face of a hound she little said I am shuttle the evening star every night I lead the Sun down to machlin the Aztec hell to die I know the way to the land of the dead and will guide us there Quetzalcoatl with his wise old face and brilliant feathers said I am Quetzalcoatl the morning star every morning I lead the Sun back out of Midland to be reborn with the dawn I know the way out of the land of the dead and I will guide us back home to the sweet paradise to mountain the Aztec heaven they retrace the path that the Sun took every night down to the depths of the underworld all the way to the Palace of the Lord of the Dead we must be careful Quetzalcoatl said I know Lord McClintock wittily will not be pleased by our request he is a wily God and may try to trap us Shalako agreed and they cautiously proceeded to the throne of the Lord and Lady of the Dead Quetzalcoatl approached the Lord of mifflin who sat on his throne surrounded by spiders and owls as well as the bones of humans piled up like treasure I've come for the bones the precious bones the Jade bones said Quetzalcoatl can I have them in order to populate the earth MacLeod too quickly replied and how do i benefit from this no I don't think I'll give up my splendid bones if I give them to you I'll never get them back and I'll be poorer for it no you can't have my bones Quetzalcoatl had anticipated this oh no you misunderstand me we don't intend to keep the bones we just want to borrow them the humans would be mortal and would eventually return to you just like how everything else is born and eventually dies even the Sun itself only we the gods live forever you wouldn't really lose anything in the end and in the meantime your fame would grow lady McClintock wattle looked pleased by these words Lord McClintock oddly considered them then spoke hmm an interesting idea all right you can have the bones if continued McClintock Whitley and shelah Tov Rose if you can play my conch shell trumpet and circle my kingdom four times in honor of me he handed Quetzalcoatl a conch shell that did not look like any kind of instrument and they left the chamber she Lovell looked at the trumpet and dismay the conch shell couldn't make a sound he's trying to trick us I've got a plan said Quetzalcoatl and he called the worms and other gnawing insects and ordered them to chew holes into the conch shell then he took the shell and held it up and summoned the bees to climb inside through the holes and buzz loudly the sound echoed through the shadowy realm like a trumpet blast Quetzalcoatl and shelah rule came back into the room and asked for the bones very well then said McClintock wittily you can have them for now but the humans will not be immortal they must die again someday and return to me just as you had said earlier the gods agreed gathered up the bones and left lady McClintock wattle looked terrified our treasure we can't let them carry it off of course we won't I may have said they could have the bones I never said they could leave my kingdom with them and then he ordered some of his servants to dig a pit along the path that the two gods must take to escape and others to chase after them the gods were able to escape but lost some of the bones along the way all the gods got together and sprinkled the bones with their blood restoring them to life and thus humankind was born from the penance of the gods of themselves journey of a princess when the Aztecs settled down on a magical island that had appeared they did not go to war as they usually did they still had to feed their hungry gods but they used their own people instead of captives that's what their God had told them to do after a while the Aztec emperor sent a message to a nearby tribe inviting the Chiefs daughter to visit the Aztec capital and meet his son his invitation was accepted the princess of the nearby tribe arrived at the capital city with many servants and many presents for the royal family she was delighted to meet the emperor's son they had a lovely dinner together by the end of the evening she was more than willing to become his bride a few days later her father arrived in Tenochtitlan the Aztec capital city he expected to discuss what goods his daughter would bring to her marriage with the Emperor's son that's when he heard that his daughter and her many attendants had been sacrificed to feed the many hungry Aztec gods in fact he probably would have been sacrificed himself only fortunately for him he had traveled to the city with many armed guards the Emperor tried to explain that it was an honor to be sacrificed but the chief would have none of it he hurried home to his people and the very next day sent his army to destroy the awful Aztec people as their God had told him to do the Aztecs had taken time to grow in strength before they had contacted this nearby King their young men had become capable warriors they had many weapons and they won easily the Aztecs demanded tribute in the form of jewels food clothing and of course captives to feed their hungry gods that made the Aztecs very happy the Aztecs went on to conquer other tribes in the area and that made them very rich there aren't many Aztec tales that aren't related to creation most of the mythology is just the story of the five sons or expansions on it I was lucky to find some that had nothing to do with it Aztec mythology is very in-depth and contains a very rich story thanks for watching this episode of myths Treon Aztec mythology make sure to LIKE and subscribe and tell us what mythology you want us to cover next in the comments below and if you really love us consider supporting us on patreon we'll see you next time

Something About the Hindenburg Nobody Noticed



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Oh the humanity! Yes ohhhh that fake news. UAP is making videos critical of dishonest old fake history/news…

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My analysis includes humor, but is serious about finding the observable+ repeatable+ reproducible data that IS fact, especially when the Bible has given us the right direction, inspiration, and corroborating testimonials.

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hey I'm in trowing my outro double-double time because we're gonna talk about the Hindenburg explodes it's copyrighted news more than 30 probably 33 perish when the world's largest airship is totally destroyed and purposed by fire and explosion in that order May the 9th 1936 all the world claims whatever so there it is the Hindenburg supposedly a new technology at the time when it was nothing of the sort there was a remnant of a former civilization now look at New York City the buildings look empty ish to me Charmin ease pide completes its first crossing to America mmm-hmm here come the Nazis woohoo and oh man the guy fell out no that's just the Rope oh all their pee all the pee that they peed on the way over is just pouring out the other than the Nazis then Germans wouldn't do that to the Nazis to make Heil see Kyle to the new arrival blah blah blah painted up silver cameras are there on this special occasion now I'm going to watch that bottom part with great interest so they're reeling it in and sew the fabric on the outside isn't airtight and if you didn't know that see it's got open windows it that's just a skin you're just covering oh they add some more pee the Germans like drink their beer and coffee see those windows all right so here's the deal the skin the fabric of it okay in one year 20 safe crossing sounds like a great technology that you'd want to keep well well well we'll see about that well that's kind of a shaky way to do it looks like they hadn't really thought about long-term use now look at that look how high the ceilings are in there it's four tall folks folks tall it's a tall Volkswagen it's meant for very tall beings catarrian giant type beings perhaps whatever I don't know the giant mistress of the skies arrives in New York City crossing in front of an empty building actually that building they had already tried to burn it and everything that I know that building look at all those buildings they're not full they can barely fill them up today there's steam coming out the top all is serene the calm before the storm oh are they going to show the Statue of Liberty no they don't no they don't dusk the Hindenburg nears its mooring mast and the false flag is ready as the skin has been painted up with thermite they're not going to show you the ignition even though all the cameras are on it suddenly the fatal moment the thermite paint was ignited yes paint it up with with a silver paint made with thermite and yeah filled with hydrogen air mixture and the cameras were ready and rolling yet they didn't catch the ignition because that would have shown how it ignited because even paint it up with thermite they had to actually like fire a flare into it so what caused the blaze well they don't know but it's sure making a big headline in the News rescuers rushed into the mass of twisted white-hot steel you know again what is burning you know they had incendiary chemicals and obviously okay the hydrogen gas burns yeah but it kind of flash burns it it's quick puts out heat sure lot see yeah that much hydrogen gas a whole lot of heat but honestly you know there are multiple bladders on the inside it's just one of these things like the Titanic they they just it was even more than the Titanic because this was meant to just once and for all destroyed the idea of dirigible x' for air travel they didn't want it they did not want it look at that cloak into the clouds like that and that cool is that not cool though but sure they had to copyright it copyright copyright just a quickie there just wanted to show you Giants for the Hindenburg you know had to get rid of it maybe maybe but we know it's fake news you

Change Fake Moon Shows



Views:1476|Rating:4.97|View Time:4:57Minutes|Likes:170|Dislikes:1
UAP is making videos critical of dishonest science. Chang-E is a fake moon landing, these days are numbered for this lying has got to change.

If I’m doing something on another YouTube Channel it will be at “UAP” on

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No finances? Caption or Translate!

Who is UAP?

UAP (as conferred by my subs) stands for Underrated Actual Physicist. I’m Orthodox in faith and technologically inclined by profession, but my nature here is rebellious… it usually lines up with the traditional wisdom of Church Fathers, and knowledge of the Ancients by way of THE scientific method;
OBSERVABLE
REPEATABLE
REPRODUCIBLE
-and yes, that may be revolutionary.

What’s this UAP doing on YouTube?

I’m making videos at a rate of about one per day,
1. Defending God’s Word,
2. Remediating botched news
How?
science lessons,
entertaining while enlightening,
or just pushing the envelope
About?
Any subject that is fascinating, extraordinary, uncommonly known but very useful, and true, I demand answers about official stuff I don’t want misrepresented by popular science, first by researching it myself, then by spewing forth my own wild conjecture, and finally seeing how myends up being correct more often than I expect.

My analysis includes humor, but is serious about finding the observable+ repeatable+ reproducible data that IS fact, especially when the Bible has given us the right direction, inspiration, and corroborating testimonials.

Even more when these Orthodox ideas have been systematically contradicted and suppressed only by widespread belief in popularly conjectured hypotheses. These things are my targets of opportunity.

►Help translate at the other channel simply called UAP! Your language ability can be a tremendous help!

►If you have video or photos you want me to see, do send it to [email protected] and I’ll check it out!

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Materials used are chosen sources for reporting the best in research from around the world as UAP deigns to question the narratives of consensus, because, I reject the premise!

►The Truth About the Stars and Flat Earth

►Music: UAP’s select jams for the Flat Earth

Titles used are either under licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license ( or by Fair Use for ongoing research.

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Music, revenue-shared, or copyrighted works included by fair use (including content used by licensed sharing agreements in accordance with YouTube policy), or used by permission may be listed below,

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1811 to 1818 Earthquakes Madrid to Madrid | UAP



Views:4874|Rating:4.80|View Time:29:38Minutes|Likes:265|Dislikes:11
They’re trying to make it seem like earthquakes are totally geologically randomized based on fault lines. Here are some headliners that don’t fit the bill.

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Who is UAP?
UAP (as conferred by my subs) stands for Underrated Actual Physicist. I’m Orthodox in faith and technologically inclined by profession, but my nature here is rebellious… it usually lines up with the traditional wisdom of Church Fathers, and knowledge of the Ancients by way of THE scientific method;
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I’m making videos at a rate of about one per day,
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…I demand questions to answer today’s pop-sci culture that tries to make it seem like the Bible isn’t true and God doesn’t exist.

It’s funny that serious Biblical interpretations empirically buck ubiquitous indoctrinations by the impositions of imperial 🧚‍♀️ tales institutionalized internationally to interfere with every jot and tittle of the INRI inspired Word.

Orthodox Scriptures have been assaulted systematically, and contradicted line by verse. Hypotheses based on systemic assumptions taught as fact are my targets of opportunity.

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Exploring the Universe – Understanding the Solar System Documentary



Views:59359|Rating:3.87|View Time:0Minutes|Likes:357|Dislikes:104
The most mind-boggling explosion you can imagine doesn’t come close to what the universe can create. When stars 150 times the size of our sun explode, they produce the brightest light sources in the universe and release as much energy in a few seconds as our Sun will produce over its entire lifetime of 10 billion years.

These explosions generate beams of high-energy radiation, called gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which are considered by astronomers to be the most powerful thing in the universe. What’s more, these GRBs could be killing our chances of ever discovering life on other planets.

Hopeful scientists say that we are not alone in the universe, but if that is true, then where the heck is everyone? One explanation could be that life in the universe is truly rare because GRBs are sterilizing the cosmos.

The Curious Life of a Mars Rover | Nat Geo Live



Views:4491512|Rating:4.79|View Time:25:21Minutes|Likes:60989|Dislikes:2711
Having helped design the Mars rovers Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity, NASA engineer Kobie Boykins reveals what these robots are telling us about the existence of life on the red planet.
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The Curious Life of a Mars Rover | Nat Geo Live

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The Real Meaning of E=mc² | Space Time | PBS Digital Studios



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You’ve probably known OF E=mc² since you were born, and were also probably told that it meant that it proved Mass equaled Energy, or something along those lines. BUT WAIT. Was E=mc² explained to you properly? Mass equalling energy is mostly true, but E=mc² actually describes a much more interesting, and frankly mind-blowing aspect of reality that likely wasn’t covered in your high school physics class. Join Gabe on this week’s episode of PBS Space Time he discusses THE TRUE MEANING OF E=mc²

Extra Credit:

Einstein’s 1905 E=mc^2 paper (English translation):

(more modern notation)

Veritasium: Your Mass is NOT From the Higgs Boson

—————————————-­­­­­­­­­­­——————————­-

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What Happens At The Edge Of The Universe?



Views:1406171|Rating:4.64|View Time:10:11Minutes|Likes:14121|Dislikes:1089
What Happens At The Edge Of The Universe?
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Voice over:

What Would Happen If The Sun Suddenly Disappeared?

Have you ever wondered what might lie at the end of the universe? It’s amazing to imagine what it could be like at the very edge of the universe, what it looks like, what is out there. If it were possible to see this part of space, we would see the beginning of the universe as it began. But once something slips past the event horizon, it becomes lost to our sight, no longer giving off light signals.

Spacetime is a fascinating subject. One that needs to be explored to fully understand just how big the known universe is. So let’s take a journey to the outside of the known universe and answer: What Happens at The Edge of the Universe.

4th Dimension – Tesseract, 4th Dimension Made Easy – Carl Sagan



Views:3498916|Rating:4.92|View Time:9:30Minutes|Likes:63609|Dislikes:1087
From the epic Cosmos by Carl Sagan: (US). For UK: | Canada: |

This short video clip shows Carl Sagan explaining the 4th Dimension. It is a short clip from Carl Sagan’s Cosmos: A Personal Voyage.

Astronomy Gift Shop:

FLAT EARTH COURT: Dark Matter On Fire And The 600 Nautical Miles Sessions



Views:280|Rating:3.13|View Time:2:50:53Minutes|Likes:30|Dislikes:18
“In times of profound change, learners will inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists.” Eric Hoffer.

“by virtue of the thoughts which they choose and encourage; that mind is the master-weaver, both of the inner garment of character and the outer garment of circumstance, and that, as they may have hitherto woven in ignorance and pain they may now weave in enlightenment and happiness.”
-James Allen

“Enlightenment, understood in the widest sense as the advance of
thought, has always aimed at liberating human beings from fear and
installing them as masters.” –(Max Horkheimer, Theodor Adorno) Dialectic of Enlightenment

“Many will say to me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in thy name? and in thy name have cast out devils? and in thy name done many wonderful works? And then will I profess unto them, I never knew you: depart from me, ye that work iniquity.” Mathew 7;22-23 KJV Bible

FOR PHILOSOPHICAL PURPOSES. get an attorney if you have a legal matter, this is not legal advice, ok?
“It behooves us to remember that men can never escape being governed. Either they must govern themselves or they must submit to being governed by others. If from lawlessness or fickleness, from folly or self-indulgence, they refuse to govern themselves, then most assuredly in the end they will have to be governed from the outside. They can prevent the need of government from without only by showing that they possess the power of government from within. A sovereign cannot make excuses for his failures; a sovereign must accept the responsibility for the exercise of the power that inheres in him; and where, as is true in our Republic, the people are sovereign, then the people must show a sober understanding and a sane and steadfast purpose if they are to preserve that orderly liberty upon which as a foundation every republic must rest.” – Theodore Roosevelt (At The Jamestown Exposition, April 26, 1907)

The Scientific Method: “The seeker after the truth is not one who studies the writings of the ancients and, following his natural disposition, puts his trust in them, but rather the one who suspects his faith in them and questions what he gathers from them, the one who submits to argument and demonstration, and not to the sayings of a human being whose nature is fraught with all kinds of imperfection and deficiency. Thus the duty of the man who investigates the writings of scientists, if learning the truth is his goal, is to make himself an enemy of all that he reads, and, applying his mind to the core and margins of its content, attack it from every side. He should also suspect himself as he performs his critical examination of it, so that he may avoid falling into either prejudice or leniency.” –Al Hazen

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Gaslit | UAP Channel



Views:2016|Rating:4.91|View Time:28:56Minutes|Likes:217|Dislikes:4
UAP is making videos critical of dishonest, gaslighting so-called science. Finally, a TED I DON’T SHRED! This lady seems to understand how things work.

If I’m doing something on another YouTube Channel it will be at “UAP” on

And this is where you are now:
Share!

Cool downloads of my music on my website which is and my “safe house” of operations. It is a place that edifies God and any evil is reviled.


►Support UAP:
►Buy UAPs Artwork:
Merch Teespring.com/UAP_Channel

No finances? Caption or Translate!

Who is UAP?

UAP (as conferred by my subs) stands for Underrated Actual Physicist. I’m Orthodox in faith and technologically inclined by profession, but my nature here is rebellious… it usually lines up with the traditional wisdom of Church Fathers, and knowledge of the Ancients by way of THE scientific method;
OBSERVABLE
REPEATABLE
REPRODUCIBLE
-and yes, that may be revolutionary.

What’s this UAP doing on YouTube?

I’m making videos at a rate of about one per day,
1. Defending God’s Word,
2. Remediating botched news
How?
science lessons,
entertaining while enlightening,
or just pushing the envelope
About?
Any subject that is fascinating, extraordinary, uncommonly known but very useful, and true, I demand answers about official stuff I don’t want misrepresented by popular science, first by researching it myself, then by spewing forth my own wild conjecture, and finally seeing how myends up being correct more often than I expect.

My analysis includes humor, but is serious about finding the observable+ repeatable+ reproducible data that IS fact, especially when the Bible has given us the right direction, inspiration, and corroborating testimonials.

Even more when these Orthodox ideas have been systematically contradicted and suppressed only by widespread belief in popularly conjectured hypotheses. These things are my targets of opportunity.

►Help translate at the other channel simply called UAP! Your language ability can be a tremendous help!

►If you have video or photos you want me to see, do send it to [email protected] and I’ll check it out!

+Sources:

Materials used are chosen sources for reporting the best in research from around the world as UAP deigns to question the narratives of consensus, because, I reject the premise!

►The Truth About the Stars and Flat Earth

►Music: UAP’s select jams for the Flat Earth

Titles used are either under licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license ( or by Fair Use for ongoing research.

Music self-composed and performed by UAP (©️ UAP) may be listed here:

Music, revenue-shared, or copyrighted works included by fair use (including content used by licensed sharing agreements in accordance with YouTube policy), or used by permission may be listed below,

Love my videos?

Contact me at [email protected]

Voyager I : 1977 – 2019 [ The Journey Continues ]



Views:1585570|Rating:4.84|View Time:16:17Minutes|Likes:32590|Dislikes:1088
A short documentary by SuperNova Films.

If available, watching it in HD with headphones is greatly appreciated. All audio and video clips used in the documentary are named in the credits at the end.

Thanks a lot for your time and support. If you want to support and help me grow this channel by more videos like this, you can donate to:

or email me @ [email protected] to get in contact.

If you are inspired by the video, don’t hesitate to Like and Share it with others.

Carl Sagan: Christmas lectures 2 – The Outer Solar System and Life



Views:94924|Rating:4.91|View Time:59:34Minutes|Likes:934|Dislikes:18
1977 Carl Sagan Christmas Lectures 2, about the outer solar system and life.

In his second Christmas Lecture, Carl Sagan travels beyond Earth to explore the possibility of life in outer space.

To find the answer, he looks back to the early stages of the development of our atmosphere. The hydrogen from this atmosphere has since escaped to space from Earth, but not from bigger planets like Jupiter. When the hydrogen-rich gases of the early Earth are mixed together and supplied with energy, the essential molecular building blocks of the proteins and nucleic acids are formed.

As Sagan suggests, although this process no longer occurs on Earth, such organic chemistry should be occurring in the outer solar system on Jupiter, and Titan, Saturn’s largest moon. The NASA twin spacecraft Voyager 1 and 2, launched a few months prior to these Lectures in 1977, were sent to space to explore this hypothesis.

DRONE Solar System Model- How far is Planet 9?



Views:5442960|Rating:4.90|View Time:9:28Minutes|Likes:92886|Dislikes:1916
I heart space but sometimes it can be hard to comprehend. I try to fix that in this video with junk you can find lying around your house. Also, if you’ve wondered how there could be a ninth planet that we’ve never noticed till now I try to clear that up too by demonstrating just how impossibly far away it is.

Try a FREE trial for a Squarespace website and help support future videos of mine at the same time!
Here’s a great example of a Squarespace website about taking long exposure shots of the stars:

Make your own scale model of the Solar System using this spreadsheet I made. If you put in the size of the object you’re using for a Sun it will scale everything else for you:

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8:52- Birds Don’t Sing- TV Girl-

Special effects created by-Ken DSilva-

Drone footage courtesy of the amazing Stephen Diaz- or

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أعلن مؤخراً خبر نزل كالصاعقة في المجتمع العلمي، وهو أن هنالك مجموعة من الأجسام الصغيرة في النظام الشمسي الخارجي يبدو أنها تأثرت بجاذبية كوكب تاسع هائل مختفٍ وهذا الكوكب أضخم من لأرض بـ 10 مرات وهو على بعد 100,000,000,000 كلم ويحتاج إلى 15,000 عام للدوران حول الشمس دورة واحدة شاهدت مقاطع فيديو مذهلة حول حجم النظام الشمسي ولكنها جميعها لا تزال مبهمة إلى حد ما لأنها إما أنها تستخدم نماذج مصورة للكواكب أو أنها تستخدم أجساماً ومسافات ليست حقيقية على أرض الواقع. لذلك سأحاول حل ذلك اليوم من خلال تمثيل الكواكب باستخدام خردوات يمكنك أن تجدها ملقاة حول منزلك. وسنضعها في ملعب كرة القدم هذا. سنبدأ باستعراض حجم الكواكب الثمانية الأولى وبعدها سأحاول مفاجأتكم من خلال عرض المسافة الدقيقة للكوكب التاسع المتنبأ به. إن سألتم عن المسافة التي تدور بها الأرض حول الشمس سيجيب معظم الناس بإجابة مثل هذه. *بمثل هذه المسافة أعتقد* وهو أمر يمكن فهمه نوعاً ما *تقريباً إلى هنا* *هنا* *توقف!* لأن كل صور النظام الشمسي على الإطلاق تبدو مثل هذه، وذلك يتمن تقريري عن المجموعة الشمسية الذي أعددته في الصف الرابع. إذاً، هذ هو الحجم الحقيقي للنظام الشمسي ونبدأ مع كرة القدم بالحجم الرسمي والتي تمثل الشمس ما يضع عطارد على خط العشر ياردات وتمثله رقاقة فلفل أسود صغيرة وبعد يأتي الزهرة على خط الـ 19 ياردة وهو بحجم رأس دبوس تقريباً بعده يأتي كوكبي المفضل، الأرض. الذي تدور حوله ذرة الملح القمر. إذاً، إن لم تتذكر أي شيء من هذا الفيديو فقط تذكر أن حجم الأرض يماثل حجم رأس دبوس وأنها على خط الـ 26 ياردة. وآخر الكواكب الصخرية كوكب المريخ الذي يقع على خط الـ 40 ياردة وتمثله كذلك رقاقة فلفل أسود والآن سنبدأ بملاحظة مسافات أكبر، فعلى بعد أكبر من ملعب كرة قدم عن الشمس لدينا المشتري الذي هو بحجم حبة عنب. وبعد القليل من المشي نصل إلى زحل الذي هو بحجم حبة عنب أصغر ويقع على بعد ملعبي كرة قدم ونصف من شمسنا كرة القدم بعده يأتي الكوكب السابع أورانوس الذي هو بحجم حبة بازيلاء ويبلغ معدل بعد مداره عن الشمس 5 ملاعب كرة قدم وأخيراً نصل إلى نيبتون الذي هو أيضاً بحجم حبة بازيلاء ويدور حول الشمس التي يبلغ حجمها مثل حجم كرة القدم في مدار يبعد قرابة 8 ملاعب كرة قدم. والآن، يجب على هذا المشهد أن يساعدك على تقدير الصعوبة في تمثيل الحجم والمسافة بين الكواكب بدقة في صورة واحدة. حسناً، قبل أن نتحدث عن الكوكب التاسع، دعونا نلخص ما تحدثنا عنه لدينا رقاقة فلفل أسود على خط العشر ياردات لتمثل عطارد وبعد ذلك رأس دبوس على خط الـ 18 ياردة ليمثل الزهرة ثم رأس دبوس آخر يمثل الأرض على خط الـ 26 ياردة وبعده رقاقة فلفل أسود تمثل المريخ على خط الـ 40 ياردة تقريباً ثم بالطبع حزام الكويكبات ثم نصل إلى المشتري الذي تمثله حبة عنب عند خط الـ 135 ياردة ثم نقطع الشارع لنصل إلى زحل الذي تمثله حبة عنب تدور على بعد ملعبي كرة قدم ونصف حول شمس تمثلها كرة قدم. ثم نضاعف المسافة عن الشمس لنصل إلى كوكبنا لسابع وهو حبة بازيلاء تقع على بعد 5 ملاعب كرة قدم. وأخيراً على بعد قرابة ثمانية ملاعب كرة قدم من شمسنا، لدينا حبة بازيلاء أخرى هي نيبتون. وهكذا نكون وضعنا الإطار العام لفهم مدى بعد الكوكب التاسع لأنه من أجل لوصول إليه علي أن أمشي وأمشي أيضاً وأن أستمر بالمشي بخطوات سريعة لمدة خمس ساعات ونصف حتى أصل أخيراً إلى حبة البازيلاء التي تمثل لكوكب التاسع. وبينما أنتم لا ترونها بالطبع، ما عليكم سوى الثقة بما أقول، وهو أنه أمامنا مباشرة على بعد 17.5 ميل أو 309 ملاعب كرة قدم هنالك كرة قدم بالحجم الرسمي لونها أصفر تقع في منطقة النهاية. في الحقيقة، إن عرض العامود الذي ترونه يمثل نطاق نظامنا الشمسي كما نعرفه اليوم. ومن ناحية أخرى، سيكون هذا هو المشهد كما تراه في حال ركنت مركبتك الفضائية في منتصف المسفة إلى الكوكب التاسع. يثير دهشتي أن شمسنا التي تبعد 17.5 أميال تكون قادرة نسبياً على الحفاظ على حبة البازيلاء هذه في مدار حولها. ولكن الأمر الذي يماثل ذلك روعة هو عندما نأخذ في عين الاعتبار أنه في نموذجنا المعياري الشمس ممثلة بكرة قدم يمكن لأي شخص وضعها بسهولة داخل مرمى ملعب كرة القدم. ناهيك عن أن نجمنا الهائل الذي نسميه الشمس يعد صغيراً إذا قارناه ببعض النجوم الأخرى. في الحقيقة، أضخم نجم نعرفه سيكون إذا قارناه بشمسنا كرة القدم سيكون بطول مبنى الإمباير ستيت. وسأنهي بإخباركم أغرب شيء تعلمته عن الفضاء أثناء عملي في ناسا على مدار تسع سنوات. ولكن قبل ذلك، أود بسرعة أن أشكر سكوير سبيس لمساعدتي على جعل إعداد هذا الفيديو ممكناً. إليكم قصة حقيقية، منذ عدة سنوات بينما كنت لا أزال أعمل في ناسا كانت لدي فكرة جنونية لزي هالوين. فأنشأت تطبيقاً وأعددت مقطع فيديو على اليوتيوب. ثم طبعت كميات ضخمة من القمصان وبعدها أنشأت موقعاً يستطيع الناس من خلاله شراء البضائع. وكانت أسهل خطوة إلى حد كبير في تلك العملية هي إنشاء الموقع لأنني استخدمت سكوير سبيس. لا يزال بالنسبة لي من المذهل أننا نعيش في زمن نستطيع فيه في غضون أقل من ساعة ومن دون الحاجة إلى التشفير أن ننشئ موقعاً مصمماً يبدو فائق الاحترافية ويمكن للناس أن يشتروا البضائع التي تصنعها من خلاله من جميع أنحاء العالم. لذلك إن كان لديك فكرة رائعة تود إطلاقها أو كنت تود فقط عرض عملك أو ربما هوايتك اذهب إلى Squarespace.com/MarkRober واحصل على نسخة تجريبية مجانية. وبعد ذلك عندما تصبح جاهزاً يمكنك استخدام رمز العرض MarkRober للحصول على خصم بقيمة 10%. حسناً، إليكم أروع شيء أعرفه عن الفضاء. منذ 20 عاماً قام علماء الفضاء بأمر خطير نوعاً ما وقرروا توجيه تلسكوب هابل إلى أكثر مناطق السماء إظلاماً لمدة عشر أيام كان ذلك خطيراً لأن الوقت على تلسكوب هابل كان محدوداً للغاية وكانت هنالك فرصة محتملة لعودة الصورة مظلمة تماماً لذلك بدؤوا بتعريض الصورة، فكانت الفوتونات تدخل التلسكوب لمدة عشر أيام وأنهت رحلتها التي تمتد لمليارات السنين من على متن مستشعر اقتران الشحنات على متن هابل وفي نهاية الأيام العشر كانت هذه هي الصورة الناتجة. فيما عدا هذه النجوم القليلة كل بقعة ولطخة وشكل حلزوني تراه في الصورة هو مجرة تحتوي على مليارات النجوم شأنها شأن مجرتنا درب التبانة. والذي يجعل ذلك مذهلاً حقاً هو أن نسبة رقعة السماء الظاهرة في هذه الصورة هي بمقدار حجم عين روزفيلت في صورته على عشر سنتات عندما تحملها على طول ذراعك وهي ممدودة. للنظر إلى الأمر بطريقة أخرى، هنالك نجوم في السماء أكثر مما هنالك ذرات رمال في جميع الملاعب والشواطئ وقيعان المحيطات والصحاري على كوكبنا. فعندما تكون بالقرب من رمال خذ حفنة منها وتخيل فقط أن واحدة من هذه الذرات ضئيلة الحجم هي شمسنا مع الكواكب التي تدور حولها ثم انظر إلى مئات الآلاف من ذرات الرمل الأخرى في يدك كل واحدة منها لها كواكبها التي تدور حولها ثم أثناء حملك لها تأمل في عدد حفنات الرمال التي تتواجد على كوكبنا. لذلك فأعتقد أنه بغض النظر عن الطريقة التي ترى أن الكون وجد فيها يبدو أن فرصة كوننا وحيدين هي فرصة متناهية الضآلة

Once upon a Timeline | UAP Channel



Views:2663|Rating:4.94|View Time:30:13Minutes|Likes:234|Dislikes:3
UAP is making videos critical of dishonest historians. Not necessarily Graham Hancock .

Sources: placeboing starring Comedian Bill Hicks, and London Real.starring Graham Hancock.

If I’m doing something on another YouTube Channel it will be at “UAP” on

And this is where you are now:
Share!

Cool downloads of my music on my website which is and my “safe house” of operations. It is a place that edifies God and any evil is reviled.


►Support UAP:
►Buy UAPs Artwork:
Merch Teespring.com/UAP_Channel

No finances? Caption or Translate!

Who is UAP?

UAP (as conferred by my subs) stands for Underrated Actual Physicist. I’m Orthodox in faith and technologically inclined by profession, but my nature here is rebellious… it usually lines up with the traditional wisdom of Church Fathers, and knowledge of the Ancients by way of THE scientific method;
OBSERVABLE
REPEATABLE
REPRODUCIBLE
-and yes, that may be revolutionary.

What’s this UAP doing on YouTube?

I’m making videos at a rate of about one per day,
1. Defending God’s Word,
2. Remediating botched news
How?
science lessons,
entertaining while enlightening,
or just pushing the envelope
About?
Any subject that is fascinating, extraordinary, uncommonly known but very useful, and true, I demand answers about official stuff I don’t want misrepresented by popular science, first by researching it myself, then by spewing forth my own wild conjecture, and finally seeing how myends up being correct more often than I expect.

My analysis includes humor, but is serious about finding the observable+ repeatable+ reproducible data that IS fact, especially when the Bible has given us the right direction, inspiration, and corroborating testimonials.

Even more when these Orthodox ideas have been systematically contradicted and suppressed only by widespread belief in popularly conjectured hypotheses. These things are my targets of opportunity.

►Help translate at the other channel simply called UAP! Your language ability can be a tremendous help!

►If you have video or photos you want me to see, do send it to [email protected] and I’ll check it out!

+Sources:

Materials used are chosen sources for reporting the best in research from around the world as UAP deigns to question the narratives of consensus, because, I reject the premise!

►The Truth About the Stars and Flat Earth

►Music: UAP’s select jams for the Flat Earth

Titles used are either under licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license ( or by Fair Use for ongoing research.

Music self-composed and performed by UAP (©️ UAP) may be listed here:

Music, revenue-shared, or copyrighted works included by fair use (including content used by licensed sharing agreements in accordance with YouTube policy), or used by permission may be listed below,

Love my videos?

Contact me at [email protected]

BBC Documentary 2017 – George Orwell – A Life in Pictures – Full Documentary



Views:4417|Rating:4.87|View Time:1:28:34Minutes|Likes:37|Dislikes:1
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good evening George Orwell perhaps we should start with you telling us a little about yourself I like English cookery English beer French red wine Spanish white wine Indian tea strong tobacco coal fire candle light and comfortable chairs go on I dislike big towns noise the motorcar the radio tinned food and central heating interesting lead and modern furniture they're quite famous for writing 1984 and inventing Big Brother George Orwell witnessed and reported on some of the defining moments of the 20th century but there are no moving pictures of all well nor are there any recordings of his voice he did leave a vast written legacy containing insights on everything from diet to revolution it's this we used to create his life in pictures the pictures are invented but every statement all where others is his own in an early documentary Orwell is an imperial policeman and a film si he's a kitchen hand roughly speaking for more one has obliged pay for food and more sweat and spittle when is a blog tweet with it it means real he's glimpsed as a freedom fighter the perfect cup of tea my own rules every one of which I regard as building enormous piles of rubble out of which iron girders thrust themselves like sticks of rhubarb towards the end of his career he penned the confessional essay why I write all writers are vain selfish and lazy and at the bottom of their motives there lies a mystery then so you have no control over or to write writing a book is a horrible exhausting struggle like a long bout with some painful illness one would never undertake such a thing if one were not driven by some demon one can neither resist nor fully comprehend 1984 with its thought police room 101 and Big Brother it has given us a language with which we can defy oppression what demon drove you to dream up 1984 I do not think one can assess aright as motors without knowing something of his early development his subject matter will be determined by the age in which he lives but before he ever begins to write he will have acquired an emotional attitude from which he will never completely escape George Orwell's real name was Eric Blair he was born on the 25th of June 1903 into what he labeled the lower upper-middle class this mock tudor villa in the Thames Valley was the Blair family home he was only eight when he was sent away to boarding school it is not easy for me to think about my school days without seeming to breathe a whiff of something cold and evil smelling such–such for the joys was an autobiographical essay on Blair's school days considered libelous it wasn't published in his lifetime but as this expressionist film adaptation shows it is crucial to understanding his character soon after I arrived I began to wet bed a disgusting crime night after night I prayed with a fervor never previously attained in my prayers please God do not let me wet the bed oh please God do not let me wet the bed but it made remarkably little difference the grim statuesque matron Daphne by name arrived in the dormitory especially to inspect my bed she pulled back the sheets then drew herself up and the dreaded words seemed to come rolling out of her like a peal of thunder reports yourself to the headmaster after breakfast he knew of course why I had been sent to him and had already taken a bone handled riding-crop out of the cupboard he read me a short but pompous lecture seasoned me by the scruff of the neck and began to beat me I knew that bedwetting was a wicked and be outside my control it was possible therefore for me to commit a sin without wanting to commit it this was the great abiding lesson of my boyhood that I was in a world where it was not possible for me to be good Eric Blair was instinctively rebellious and independent but to become the English language's fiercest critic of tyranny and privilege he would have to completely reinvent himself later I was educated at Eton to me in my boyhood to children of nearly all families like mine common people seemed almost subhuman I was an odious little snob but I was both a snob and a revolutionary the writer Cyril Connolly was at Eton with Blair he talked about those days to the television presenter Malcolm Muggeridge if someone has said to you in those days what do you think of that boy Blair barbecue bombs it was always laughing and arguing any embarrassing and quibbling with people and heckling and he he seemed like Socrates to be constantly questioning everybody and everything they did or said and always with this wheezy laughter you think that but I god I don't think you think it in ten years time or if you hadn't got this or that and said so he was a deep bunker before the word existed after Eton Blair and connolly lost touch connolly like most bright boys of his class went to university Blair went in search of tyranny to which she was drawn like a moth to a flame ah this silent movie promoted Burma's contribution to Britain's Indian Empire made in the mid 20s it was one of the earliest observational documentaries it seems that the local superintendent was unaware cameras were watching him shortly after I left school I wasn't quite 20 years old then I went to Burma and joined the Indian Imperial police scene from the outside the British rule in India appears benevolent even necessary but the truth is that no modern man in his heart of hearts believes it is right to invade a foreign country and held the population down by force but I was in the police which is to say I was part of the machinery of despotism I watched a man hanged once it was a sudden morning of the rains sickly light was slanting over the high wall into the jail yard he was a puny wisp of a man with a thick sprouting mustache he walked clumsily with his bound arms but quite steadily and once in spite of the men who gripped him by each shoulder he stepped slightly aside to avoid the puddle on the path it is curious but till that moment I had never realized what it means to destroy a healthy conscious man when I saw the prisoner step aside to avoid the puddle I saw the mystery the unspeakable wrongness of cutting a life short when it is in full tide this man was not dying he was alive just as we were alive he and we were a party of men walking together seeing hearing feeling understanding the same world and in two minutes one of us would be gone one mindless one world less it seemed to me worse than a thousand murders I could not go on any longer serving an imperialism which I had come to regard as very largely a racket when I came home on leave in 1927 I was already determined to throw out my job for five years I was part of an oppressive system and it had left me with a bad conscience from a very early age perhaps the age of five or six I knew that when I grew up I should be a writer between the ages of about 17 and 24 in Burma I tried to abandon this idea but I did so in consciousness that I was out raging my true nature and that sooner or later I would have to settle down and write books but this stage it was still Eric Blair and the brand of literature that you first attempted was the polar opposite of 1984 that time I I wanted to write enormous naturalistic novels with unhappy endings full of detailed descriptions and arresting similes and also full of purple passages by the winter of 1928 after six months of writing Blair hadn't sold so much as a sentence holed up in a miserably cold studio here in West London he was struggling with both his art and a physical handicap since childhood he had suffered from frequent chest infections by his mid-20s that had developed into a chronic illness possibly TB in the 20s fear of being quarantined kept many infected people from getting tested for TB tuberculosis killed thousands of Britain's last year from the few that did come from some was shanghaied into Public Information films that encourage others to do likewise take this young man perhaps he scrimped on heating coal or he's been short of food lately anyway an old cough has just got worse probably smoking too much he would have choked to his mates he was now let's have a look at his x-ray you see that patch on the lung that's evidence of tuberculosis you have to go in the hospital for treatment I'll arrange that for you it's what you must do when you come out that's so important first you must get sunlight open air job then you will have to have a special death I'm sorry to have upset you I can only do my job throughout his life he ignored doctor's orders especially if they got in the way of his writing during 1928-29 I lived in Paris writing a novel which no one would publish in which I afterwards destroyed at that time failure seemed to be the only virtue when my money ran out I worked for a time as a dishwasher in an hotel I lived mostly from hand to mouth and though I'm hungry on several occasions I was very happy here I was returning to London Blair sank deeper into the underclass I lived for months among the poor and half criminal elements who inhabit the worst parts of the poorest quarters begging and stealing I associated with them through lack of money but later their way of life interested me for its own sake by his late 20s he was writing and selling articles about life in the gutter ironically this correspondent of the dispossessed was then living in genteel comfort with his parents in South world a seaside resort in suffering they gave up his job which wasn't very well for five in those days you know mom's parents put one in something was expected to stay but hallo disappointed disappointed more than anything he tried to exploit his failure by writing a book about being a down-and-out working in secret he spent two years on it I don't very well very tall and lanky I had lost a nice face well there's a gentle guys face not good-looking under one and you remember that his sleeves always outstanding yes no no names wrists his clothes but look like that indeed no you conform their form like a temple Blair's finished manuscript was sent to the left-wing publisher Gallants they described it as utterly disgusting but socially important and they agreed to put it out suddenly concern for his parents reputations Blair devised a pseudonym his new first name came from the king his second from a local River mr. George Orwell weird gallons have made this short film to introduce his first book down and out in Paris and London it's a record of his Odyssey through the lawless underclass created by the unprecedented unemployment of many millions of working men I was conscious of an immense weight of guilt I had to expiate I felt I had got to escape from every form of man's dominion over man the social outcasts tramps beggars criminals prostitutes once I had been among them and been accepted by them I should have touched bottom part of my guilt would drop away are born bad enough things before but nothing at all like these they have a grown Express etre graciousness a patina of antique filth there is a feeling that is a great consolation in poverty you have talked so often of going to the dogs and well here are the dogs and you reach them and you can stand it it is a feeling of relief almost of pleasure but knowing yourself at last genuinely down and out reading down and out in Paris and London will change your life because writing it has changed mr. Orwell I will never again think all tramps are drunken scoundrels nor expect a beggar to be grateful when I give him a penny nor be surprised when men out of work lack energy nor refuse a handbill nor enjoy a meal in a smart restaurant that is a beginning yeah one critic has claimed that you cannot blow your nose without moralizing on conditions in the handkerchief industry but where you such a political firebrand when George Orwell was invented in 1933 I spent five years in an unsuitable profession the indian imperial police in burma i then underwent poverty and the sense of failure this increased my natural hatred of authority but these experiences were not enough to give me an accurate political orientation his literary income remained slight but in 1934 all well left his parents and rented a room in Hampstead North London this was then an enclaves of intellectuals with fashionably left views I knew that I had a facility with words power of facing unpleasant facts unfortunately you do not solve the class problem by making friends with tramps in the highbrow world you get on if you get on at all by going to cocktail parties and kissing bums one of all wells friends whilst he was in Hampstead was the anthropologist Jeffrey gora I would have said he was an unhappy man he was convinced that nobody would like him which made him prickly the middle-class bearded fruit juice drinkers are all for a classless society so long as they see the proletariat through the wrong end of the telescope forced them into any real contact with the proletarian and they're capable of swinging back into the most ordinary snobbishness even so it was at a party in this house that all well met Oxford graduate and trainee psychologist Eileen o Shaughnessy she had according to admirers eyes that danced she was very pretty very intelligent very philosophical she was very much interested in people she was very much interested in everything she was always thinking it I mean I mind was breaking there's sort of things all the time within days of meeting Eileen Orwell proposed and though she knew very little about him she didn't say no lettuce Cooper was one of the few friends to whom Eileen spoke about her feelings for all well she thought he was a very good writer I would say she took him seriously she was very much amused often at things he said and did he was very often thinking about something else movies they're kind of worldly resumed after that but I need you loved her but all Wells writing barely earned enough for him to scrape along there wasn't enough for two to cover the rent he was working part-time in a bookshop a job he was later invited to celebrate bookshop memories wasn't what anyone expected in a town like London there are always plenty of not quite certifiable lunatics walking the streets and they tend to gravitate towards book shops they would come in and demand some rare and expensive book would make us promise over and over again to keep it for them and then would vanish never to return many of them of course were unmistakable paranoiacs [Applause] there was a time when I really did love books loved the sight and smell and feel of them but as soon as I went to work in the bookshop I stopped buying books seen in math five or ten thousand at a time books were boring even slightly sickening even the inanimate world was against him he was awfully lucky to knock things off tables trip over things I mean he was a gangling physically a badly coordinated after just over a year they're all well resigned from the bookshop to suppress my snobbishness I've got to alter myself so completely that at the end I should hardly be recognizable as the same person and he needed money to marry Eileen I couldn't afford a ring except perhaps a Woolworths one Gallants offered him a potentially lucrative assignment to travel into industrial Britain and report on the distress of the working class poor well recorded his trip north in the road to Wigan pier a key set piece in the road to Wigan pier is all wells first drip down on mine here am i a typical member of the middle class it's easy for me to say I want to get rid of class distinctions but nearly everything I think and do is the result of class distinctions it's no use my clapping a proletarian on the back and telling him he's as good a man as I am if I want real contact I have to make an effort for which very likely I'm unprepared I I am handicapped by being exceptionally tall not only been double but also keep your head up all while says to see the beams and girders and dodge them as they come you have therefore a constant crick in the neck but this has nothing compared to the pain in your knees and the thighs after half a mile it becomes I'm not exaggerating unbearable agony one begins to wonder where the world will never get to the end and still more how on earth one's going to get back further in we travel the Lord and the roof on our dinky to travel best part of 3/4 of a mile bent absolutely double the work in face was I think 26 inches by the time we flooded it's only when you see the – down the mine and naked you realize what splendid men they are most of them are small but nearly all of them have the most noble bodies wide shoulders tapering to slender supple waist small pronounced buckets and sinewy thighs but not an ounce of wasted flesh anywhere all of us really oh the comparative decency of our lives – poor drudges underground blackened to the eyes with their throats full of coal dust driving their shovels forward with arms and belly muscles of Steel the miners job would be as much beyond my power as it would be to perform on a flying trapeze or to win the grand national the work would kill me in a few weeks the day after going down the mine Orwell staggered West to Liverpool to visit a friend Mary Dinah he was a strange figure you no overcoat no hat no bag and threadbare coat standing there and shivering he was actually shivering from head to foot well he collapsed well not quite collapse but as near as made no matter so my husband had we got him to bed as quickly as we could and he was really very ill but within days all well was back on his feet his mission now carried him into the industrial slums of South Yorkshire Sheffield I suppose could just Lee claimed to be the ugliest city in the old world its inhabitants who want it to be preeminent in everything very likely do make that claim for it as you walk through the slums you lose yourself in labyrinths of brick houses festering in planless chaos the interiors of the houses are all the same all have it almost exactly similar living room 10 or 15 feet square the average unemployed family lives on an income of about 30 shillings a week of which at least a quarter goes in rent it is worth considering in some detail how the remaining money is spent the basis of their diet is white bread and margarine corned beef sugar tea and potatoes an appalling diet the results of this visible in a physical degeneracy in Sheffield you have the feeling of walking among a population of troglodytes the question of the unemployed and the distressed areas was terribly well portrayed and you felt that really he'd done all in his power to get himself into this situation in order to be able to you really felt that he'd become one of them as far as it's possible for anybody with such a different background to get into this is what industrialism has done for us Columbus sailed the Atlantic the first steam engines tottered into motion the British Square stood firm under the French guns at Waterloo the one-eyed scoundrels of the 19th century praised God and filled their pockets and this is where it is all led – labyrinthine slums and dark back kitchens with sickly aging people creeping round and round them like black beetles it is a kind of duty to see and smell such places now and again especially smell them lest you should forget that they exist at the back of one of the houses a young woman was kneeling on the stones poking a stick up the lead and waste pipe which ran from the sink inside and which I suppose was blocked I had time to see everything about her a stacking apron her clumsy clogs her arms reddened by the cold she looked up and I was almost near enough to catch her eye she had a round pale face the usual exhausted face of the slum girl who is 25 and looks 40 thanks to miscarriages and drudgery and at war for the second in which I saw it the most desolate hopeless expression I've ever seen we are mistaken when we say it isn't the same for them as it would be for us for what I saw in her face was not the ignorant suffering of an animal she knew well enough what was happening to her understood as well as I did how dreadful a destiny it was to be kneeling there in the bitter cold on the slimy stones of a slum backyard poking a stick up a foul drainpipe in the Brenda Wiggin pair you were venerate the working class for an old atonium like yourself that is a political act using the word political in the widest possible sense desire to push the world in a certain direction to alter other people's idea of the kind of society they should strive after so you were by your early thirties a political writer no book is completely free of political bias service is an extraordinary change both in his writing in a way also in his attitude after he'd been to North I mean as long as they've been the kind of fire smoldering in him on his life but sudden they've got a broken to flame the road to Wigan pier was an immediate success at the end of 1935 I was able to live on what I earned by writing and moved into the country in Wallington New Hampshire he even felt able to provide for Eileen edit off of their Bachelor of the Spanish and I did more degenerate spinster parish of Greenwich she walked up the road and he walked up the bridle way or the footpath and left over the wall and joined her in the porch went all well and Eileen married she was 31 he was almost 33 he was a lonely man until he met Eileen a very lonely man I think the only that I ever knew him really hurt it was that first year with a leader to reduce their outgoings the couple kept a vegetable patch a chicken run and even again called Muriel said he give me a pair of trousers machines and it's yours some mark every father Strauss is off the sponsor it's years ago since mother gave the way get her up against the wall if she gives trouble you can steady her with your shoulder and having greased your fingers massage the utter a little and then grip the nearest teat pretty firmly at the root if you are gripping at the right place you will feel it film with milk and thicken in your hand then still gripping pretty hard if you are hurting her she will soon let you know draw the hand down the teat being careful not to relax the pressure till you reach the end where no more milk comes out of this teat go on to the other the whole operation should take about five minutes but that Christmas Muriel lost her milk once again he had gone off in search of tyranny the driving force behind fascism is the belief in human inequality Hitler had walked into power and proceeded to Massacre political opponents of his shades mussolini and bombed Abyssinia while 53 nations made pious noises off but when Franco tried to impose fascism the Spanish people against all expectation had risen against him it seemed possible that it was the turning of the tide by the winter of 1936 Spain's struggle against fascism had escalated into civil war these actual pictures of the Spanish Civil War to the story of graphic violence as the fascist horde encircles it the beautiful and ancient city of Barcelona fills with freedom fighters from around the world our roving reporter spoke to one a really pretty I have come to Spain to fight fascism after all there are not such a terrific a lot of fascists in the world so if we eat shoot one of them under the glorious banner when all well arrived in Barcelona just before New Year 37 the civil war there had taken an unexpected turn the trade unions who had formed militias to defeat the fascists had by now gonna step further a revolution had taken place young you know farmers workers indeed it was the first time I'd ever been in a town where the working-class were in the saddle yes it was the aspect of the crowds that was the query there were no well-dressed people at all it was a town where the wealthy class practically ceased to exist this really was a work a stage name military machine and an improvised army of masses I joined the militia almost immediately because at that time and in that atmosphere it seemed the only conceivable thing to do if you would ask me what I was fighting for I should have answered common decency days after arriving in Spain corporal Olga was marched into the mountains west of Barcelona this was where the workers revolution planned to stop fascism in its tracks for the enlightenment of future generations documentary cameras would record the historic battles nothing happened nothing ever happened in nearly three weeks I had fired just three shots at the enemy they say it takes a thousand bullets to kill a man but this raid it would take twenty years before I killed my first fascist all true tea lovers like their teas strong six heaped teaspoons should be about right now no strainers or bags to imprison the tea actually one can swallow tea leaves in considerable quantities without any ill effect one should pour the tea into the cup first this is one of the most controversial points of all but I maintain that by putting the tea in first one can more precisely regulate the amount of milk that goes in whereas you are liable to put too much milk in if you do it the other way around lastly tea should always be drunk without sugar it would be equally reasonable to put in pepper or salt after four months at the front or well was granted leave to visit Barcelona Eileen had also made it to Spain and was waiting for him there getting back to Barcelona and discovered that a deep change come over the town the revolutionary atmosphere vanished once again it was an ordinary city with no outward signs of working-class predominance the normal division of the city into rich and poor upper and lower class was reasserting itself and the people responsible the communists although officially the malicious allies Spain's Communist Party was deeply alarmed by the rise of democratic freedom in Barcelona's workers State in May 37 as all well met up with Eileen the city was bracing itself for a communist led counter-revolution I had some rifle shots behind me I turned around and saw some youth with rifles in their hands and red and black handkerchiefs round their throats I thought instantly it started the next three days and nights I spent continuously on the roof of the cinema I was in no danger I suffered nothing worse than hunger and boredom the official death toll during the May riots was 400 when it was over the Communists controlled Barcelona militiamen were ordered to quit the city or become good communists I could not join any communist controlled you did it might mean being used against the Spanish working class one could not tell when this kind of thing would break out again and if I was to use my rifle at all in such an affair I would use it on the side of the working class not against them Orwell returned to his militia unit at the front at dawn on the 20th of May Orwell relieved his American colleague Harry Milton from guard duty it was a beautiful sunrise he stuck his head over the parapet which is very dangerous then I heard a shot and he toppled over I put his head my arms and when I put my hand out of his neck it was a puddle of blood he was shot through the neck the bullet passed right through just missing a major artery weakened by TB Orwell was very vulnerable to severe trauma a year later he was still recuperating in a British sanatorium so the whole experience being hit by a bullet is very interesting in fact I think it's worth describing in some detail roughly speaking it is the sensation of being at the center of an explosion a loud bang and then a blinding flash of light all around me and I felt a tremendous shock no pain just a violent shock such as you get from an electric terminal with it a sense of being stricken and shriveled up to nothing there must have been about two minutes during which I assumed I was killed which was interesting my first thought conventionally enough was for my wife my second thought was a violent resentment and having to leave this world which when all is said and done suits me so well the stupid mischance of it infuriated me the meaninglessness of it a month after being shot all well was walking wounded back in Barcelona with discharge papers in his pocket but the city had become dangerous for militiamen the Communists following the orders of their Soviet backers demanded absolute allegiance it was subversive even to think ill of the party Orwell was getting his first taste of totalitarianism it was all the more shocking because it came from former allies on the left for some time a reign of terror was in progress police spies were everywhere the jails were still crammed with prisoners left over from the may fighting and others were disappearing into jail by ones and twos so far as one could discover no one was ever tried or even charged he was simply flung into jail and kept there usually incommunicado practically everyone we knew was in jail by this time Aileen was wonderful in fact actually seemed to enjoy it it was a queer business we started off by being heroic defenders of democracy and ended up slipping over the border with the police panting at our heels we were very lucky to get out of Spain live the Spanish war turned the scale and thereafter I knew where I stood every line of serious work that I've written since 1936 has been written directly or indirectly against totalitarianism in a more peaceful age I might have written ornate or merely descriptive books as it is I've been forced into becoming a sort of pamphleteer his campaign was against every form of totalitarianism but all well was not fully fit again until 1939 by then Franco had won the Spanish Civil War and Nazi Germany was threatening much of Europe it was a time for art to be anti-fascist all well contributed to this movement with an articulate celebration of English popular culture I believe in England it is a living contradiction of all the infallible dogmas of fascism a minor English trait which is extremely well marked though not often commented on is a love of flowers it is found in people who have no aesthetic feelings what it does link up with however is another English characteristic which is so much a part of us that we barely notice it and that is the addiction to hobbies and spare time occupations the privateness of English life we are a nation of flower lovers but also a nation of stamp collectors pigeon fanciers amateur carpenters coupons nippers darts players crossword puzzle fans all the culture that is most truly native centers around things which even when they are communal and not official the pub the football match the back garden the fireside and the nice cup of tea the liberty of the individual is still believed in the totalitarian idea that there is no such thing as law there is only power has never taken root in England such concepts as justice liberty and objective truth are still believed in they may be illusions but they are very powerful illusions in September 1939 Britain declared war on Nazi Germany to improve understanding of the conflict Orwell volunteered for a public debate to speak against the war we have here tonight the writer and critic Derrick Savage as well as the poet and sexologist Alex comfort making the case against them is George Orwell pacifism is objectively pro-fascist this is elementary common sense if you hamper the war effort of one side you automatically help that of the other in practice he who is not with me is against me the fascism is not a force confined to any one nation we're just as likely to find it here as anywhere else the characteristic markings of fascism are curtailment of individual liberties abolition of private life and private values these are all tendencies of present-day Britain the pacifist is opposed to all of these and might therefore be called the only genuine anti-fascist if mr. savage and others imagined that one can somehow overcome the German army by lying on one's back let them continue to imagine that let them also wonder occasionally if this is not an illusion due to security too much money and a simple ignorant of the way things actually happen there are innumerable reasons why war should be opposed the chief reason is the diabolical nature of modern warfare the idea of diabolical repercussions the idea to youth front and superior to the struggle and option while living on through the British sailors have had to risk their lives to bring us is a bourgeois illusion based on security and money mr. Orwell is intellectual hunting again he's made the discovery almost every writer under the age of 30 in this country already has their feet on the slippery slope towards fascism whilst we all know mr. Orwell to be a preacher of the doctrine and physical courage is an asset to the left-wing intellectual despotic governments can stand moral force til the cows come home what they fear is physical force when war broke out I was rejected by the army because of my lungs my health is wretched but it's never prevented me from doing anything that I wanted to accept fighters of war oh well blame the German victories at the start of the war on Britain's ruling class he believed no aristocrat would defeat Hitler because even in Britain they were too remote to unite and energize ordinary people hello it is almost certain that England will be invaded during the next few days or weeks and I want to talk to you about how we at home can most effectively respond to this threat our slogan should be armed the people when the government created a Civil Defence Force the Home Guard within 24 hours a quarter of a million men enlisted sergeant Orwell was keen as mustard Eileen told a friend that she could bear the machine-gun under their bed but that the grenades on the mantelpiece were too much firearms everybody should have one and know how to use and clean it it might just save your life but more importantly there's nothing that demoralizes an invading soldier more than being shot at hand grenades these will be absolutely necessary if enemy parachutists with machine guns managed to establish themselves in our large towns which brings me to street fighting next time you're outdoors take a look at an ordinary Street note the many examples of cover available dustbins pillar boxes street lamps etc also take a look at houses imagine attacking one what would be the best way in remember it's almost always best to go in from the roof imagine the demoralizing effect of attack from above and never forget it's always easier to throw a bomb down stairs than up as well as practical advice all well outlined a political role for the Home Guard a village hall on a quiet sunny evening but there seems to be something doing he proposed that the dad's army act as the militia had done in the Spanish Civil War it is only by revolution that the native genius of the English people can be set free we have got to fight against privilege against the notion that a half-witted public school boy is better for command than an intelligent mechanic we have got to break the grip of the moneyed class as a whole there will be a bitter political struggle at some point or other it may be necessary to use violence we shall have to fight against bribery ignorance snobbery the bankers and larger businessman the landowners and dividend drawers the officials with their prehensile bottoms will obstruct for all they are worth but the chances are the will of the majority will prevail we are in a strange period of history in which a patriot has to be a revolutionary and a revolutionary has to be a patriot I find it were very exciting for us in to meet who said what I would like to say idealistic and young David Astor became a loyal supporter of all well he really saw things in a way that I felt I instinctively reacted to is being right because his sort of counterpoint to Churchill speeches it was sort of his reason why he wanted to fight the wall and why he liked Britain what he thought its future should be displaying his instinct for being at the heart of great events all well and Eileen moved into London just in time for the Blitz during the war he said to me how much he hated London but he said of course you can't leave when people being bombed to bits all around you the novelist Julian Simmons became one of always closest friends during the war there was something they're very friendly about all when you met him but also something very remote he was a kind of permanent outsider and his behavior was sometimes absurd him what I found an endearing way like at our lunches they would always be on the menu perhaps some really quite good bit of food like say liver and bacon or would never have that what he would go for would be the victory pie which was practically an eatable and he would eat it quite zestfully and say with happy way you won't get anything what I call the we're all in it together mood of 1944 store well to change his attitude to his compatriots I fell into the trap of assuming that the war and the revolution are inseparable and I have to admit that I was grossly wrong in my analysis of the situation it would be absurd to imagine that Britain is on the brink of revolution Churchill boasted that the motto of the British people was business as usual Orwell was both frustrated and charmed by this lack of reaction he was concerned about the future life goes on much the same in the face of terrifying dangers and golden political opportunities people just keep on keepin on in a sort of Twilight sleep in which they are conscious of nothing but the daily round of work family life darts at the pub exercises the dog bringing home the supper beer etc etc and the home guard it is so very typical of Britain that this vast organization has had absolutely no conscious political development at all it has not developed into the People's Army like the Spanish militias it is held together by no political Creed but by inarticulate patriotism the fact that more than 2 million men have rifles in their bedrooms and the authorities contemplate this without dismay is the sign of a stability unequaled by any other country in the world in 41 Orwell having abandoned hope of revolution even put aside his quest for truth he joined the Ministry of informations propaganda unit the BBC he would produce and present a radio show for listeners in India his BBC office was room 101 he certainly thought that the propaganda machines are propaganda machines and he didn't like being part of one on the other hand he accepted that a war required all this apparatus tonight's broadcast in the BBC's eastern service in the Far East the governor of Hong Kong states that heavy fighting is in programs written and that fat ration has been cut down to 8 ounces a week the ordinary people who have to put up with these restrictions is stabilized on any of the fronts and in the Far East Japanese are still getting further advantages from their first treacherous surprise attack by far the most important event during this week is the anglo-russian treaty I consider I kept our propaganda slightly less disgusting than it might otherwise have been deodorize gives to some small extent but I felt I was just an orange that was being trodden on by a very dirty boot he thought that you could use propaganda machines to invent anything to make people make speeches they hadn't ever made and so I remember he used to I think he wants to try to do toyed with the idea of taking a little extracts from Winston's recorded speeches and have him declare peace but on Yamaha Kumud guitar Obsidian for two years he was a reluctant mouthpiece for the government but in 43 all well resigned from the BBC's I had become conscious that I was wasting my own time and the public money on doing work of just no result I felt that by going back to my normal work of writing I could be more useful in London England with war raging all around them people need entertainment but they don't want this although it may look like good old-fashioned fun it's upset a lot of decent folk the kiss playing pigs are leading a revolution against the farmer it's all based on a new book Animal Farm in an exclusive interview its author brett george orwell gives us the lowdown on this showdown holder the actual details of the story didn't come to me for some time until one day I saw a little boy perhaps 10 years old driving a huge cart horse along a narrow path and whipping it every time it tried to turn it it struck me that if only such animals became aware of their strengths we would have no power over them and that meant exploit animals in much the same way that they which exploit the proletariat so it's the Russian Revolution in a barnyard and Orwell pulls no punches his pigs betray their own rebellion and start to rule like the human they overthrew what he's trying to tell us is that the Russian communists can't be trusted just when we've learned to get along with them only recently the leaders of Britain America and Russia and joined a friendly supper party they agreed on a grand design for smashing Germany and signed a lofty declaration ensuring a post-war world free from tyranny who thought that people were much too much calmed by the Soviet war effort into taking a favorable view of the government of the Soviet Union this was of course the reason for writing Animal Farm at that time the kids loved Animal Farm but their parents won't get to read it the books not banned but this is a story nobody wants to hear one publisher had decided to consult the Ministry of Information who appear to have warned him or or at least err strongly advised him against publishing it he wrote the fable does follow so completely the progress of the Russian Soviets and their two dictators that it can only apply to Russia it would be less offensive if the predominant cast in the fable were not pigs I think the choice of pig as the ruling caste will no doubt give offense to many people and particularly to anyone who is a bit touchy as undoubtedly the Russians are Orwell says he won't keep quiet even if the rest of his country wants him to circus dogs jump when the trainer cracks his whip but the really well-trained dog is the one that turns his somersault when there is no whip and that is the state we have reached in this country thanks to 300 years of living together without a civil war Animal Farm was the first book in which I tried with full consciousness of what I was doing to fuse political purpose and artistic purpose into one he'll some say politics has no place in art the opinion that art should have nothing to do with politics is itself a political attitude what I most wanted was to turn political writing into an art Animal Farm was the first product of this approach but before it was even published you were considering 1984 we wrote I thought of it in 1944 in 1984 true love between individuals is impossible only haters allowed the only permissible love for power this bleak future you'll seem to be forecasting for Britain could the tell Italian hasn't really happen in a democracy like ours I do not think that the kind of society I described will arrive but that something resembling it could arrive and the totalitarianism if not fought against it could triumph anywhere before the swallow before the daffodil and not much later than the snowdrop the common toad salutes the coming of spring after his own fashion which is to emerge from the hole in the ground where he's lain buried since the previous autumn and crawled towards the nearest suitable patch of water at this point after his long fast the toad has a very spiritual look like a strict anglo-catholic towards the end of Lent his movements are language but purposeful his body is shrunken and by contrast his eyes look abnormally large a toad has about the most beautiful eye of any living creature it is like gold is it wicked to take pleasure in the spring and other seasonal changes if it is only a brighter blue between the chimney pots or the vivid green of an elder sprouting on a blitz sight people so the thinking runs ought to be discontented and it is our job to try and multiply our wants rather than to increase the enjoyment of the things we already have and yet if we kill all pleasure in the actual process of life what sort of a future are we preparing for ourselves if a man cannot enjoy the return of spring why should he be happy in a labor saving utopia I think that by retaining one's childhood love of such things as trees fishes butterflies and to return to my first instance toads one makes a peaceful and decent future a little more probable we'll be home the size and twice in June 1944 we adopted a little boy aged three weeks his names are Richard Horatio she was a bit uneasy I fear she couldn't love his enough she was afraid she as it wasn't home she might not be able to give with everything it ought to have but then it was the tree being served in the hospital and they were they were wanting it and she went took it home and they were both delighted with him within months of establishing his happy family daddy was off again at the beginning of 1945 I went to France and then spent some time in Germany just before the surrender there are still a hundred thousand Germans living among the ruins of Cologne the whole central part of the city is simply a chaos of jagged walls overturned trams shattered statues and enormous piles of rubble it is queer to think these are the people who once ruled Europe from the channel to the Caspian Sea and might have conquered our own Island if they've known how weak we were while Orwell was in Germany back home Eileen went into hospital for an operation to remove tumors from her womb she wrote to all well from our hospital bed dearest I'm just going to have the operation already injected with more fear this is a nice room can see the garden not much in it except daffodils but a nice little lawn my bed isn't next the window but it faces the right way I also see the fire clock there the letter ended Aileen died as a result of the anaesthetic Arleen died very suddenly it was terribly sad that she should die when she becomes so devoted to Richard and was making such a good job of his upbringing and things were just beginning to get better I felt so upset at home that I thought I would rather be unmoved for a bit and do some more reporting immediately after the funeral Orwell put his son in the care of a nurse and returned to the war he began working at a furious pace averaging an article or review every other day the war in Europe ended only six weeks after Eileen died all well celebration was muted but his gloom was more than grief to defeat fascism people have learned to live with less freedom he thought this left them vulnerable to other types of tyranny to be corrupted by totalitarianism one does not have to live in a totalitarian country the mere prevalence of certain ideas can spread a poison and the thought corrupts language language can also corrupt thought defenseless villages are bombarded from the air the inhabitants driven out into the countryside this is called pacification when one watches some tired hack on the platform mechanically repeating the familiar phrases unstained tyranny free peoples of the world stand shoulder to shoulder one often has a curious feeling that one is watching some kind of dummy the appropriate noises are coming out of his larynx but his brain is not involved this reduced state of consciousness if not indispensable is at any rate favorable to political conformity maybe I am pessimistic but at the same time there is not too much cause for optimism in the world today this strange gentle critical cynical personality comes out completely in the way he writes as in the way he talks and this pessimism of his I think is peculiar to him and I'd like to say that this I noticed always in him as a boy – it's a bracing pessimism a feeling that once you admit the worst everything's a bit more fun or round and therefore you almost seek out the worst in 1945 Animal Farm was finally published on the brink of the Cold War Orwell's anti-soviet parable became a critical triumph and a best-seller his success was a pleasant surprise but it had come too late his TB lesion had begun to bleed having met her on the stairs to his London flat he wrote to his young neighbor and Papa there is no knowing how long I shall live but what I'm really asking you is would you like to be the widow of a literary man if things remain as they are there is a certain amount of fun in this as you would probably get royalties coming in and you might find it interesting to edit and publish stuff etc of course it's absurd a person like me wanting to make advances to someone of your age it's just that I feel desperately alone sometimes and Popham turned him down as did Celia Padgett and Cyril Connolly's assistant Sonya Brown all though she remained in touch even when all well accompanied by a housekeeper and his young son quit London altogether after traveling from London to Glasgow we took a train a boat a bus and then another boat to arrive here on the Hebrides island of Jura before traveling the final seven miles in a car to this remote farmhouse our host requested that we bring tea flour and jam stout boots and warm clothing it is in this almost monastic seclusion that the author George Hall has decided to write his new novel the first since Animal Farm several years ago mr. Orwell what can you tell us about the new book I do not like talking about books before they're written but I will say that it is a novel about the future it is in a sense of fantasy 15 miles from the nearest telephone on an island with just one proper Road and one dr. mr. Orwell's new home seems inappropriate for a virtual invalid with a young son but isolation is what mr. Orwell craves one just seems to have such a limited capacity for work nowadays one has two husband it these islands are largely uninhabited so I can work quietly here I'm getting on with my novel and hope to finish it in the spring I've not got as far as I'd hoped because I have been in wretched health my chest as usual of course I can't see Richard till I'm not infectious the novel Orwell went to the Isle of Jura to write was 1984 for this final attack on totalitarianism he drew on his entire life it is Christmas Eve 1947 I am again with George Orwell who despite severe tuberculosis has just finished the first draft of 1984 it is being driven to a Glasgow hospital to recuperate one was to live of course indeed one only stays alive by virtue of the fear of death but I think now it is better to die violently and not too old people talk about the horror of war but what weapon has man invented that even approaches in cruelty some of the common are diseases natural death almost by definition is something slow smelly and painful of course I don't know you very well but it seems to me that this latest illness has changed you do you agree yes isn't it awful I've got some more false teeth and a little gray in my hair actually I wasn't referring to physical changes I was talking more about your attitude towards your book a long illness when one is weak and without appetite without being actually feverish or in pain one gives the impression one's brain is quite normal one's thoughts just as active as ever it's only when one attempts to write that you realize the deterioration that has happened inside your skull your thoughts when you have them are just like your thoughts at any other time but as soon as they're reduced to some kind of order they turn into badly express platitudes in which case why carry on such a good idea couldn't possibly abandon it returning to Jorah in the spring of 1948 almost a year after my first visit I find mr. Orwell back from hospital and working on the final draft of 1984 I am just on the grisly job of typing out my novel it is a very awkward thing to do in bed where I still have to spend half the time as ever when working hard George Orwell is smoking very heavily I begin to feel that his book is killing him days after typing up the final draft of 1984 all were collapsed again he was rushed first to a hospital in southern England then up to London we are at University College Hospital in London at the bedside of mr. Orwell whose satirical novel 1984 has been such a publishing sensation here is the blue-eyed 30 year old Miss Sonia Brahma she is known mr. Orwell for five years and has today thanks to her bedside wedding become his wife the newlyweds hoped that mr. Orwell will soon be well enough to leave hospital so they can go abroad there would be no harm by the time Orwell married Sonia Brown Oh 1984 was written after which he would never leave his bed again but he left one final warning 1984 is I believe a quite terrifying masterpiece so terrifying in fact I don't think I should like to read another like it I'm not absolutely dissatisfied with it I think it is a good idea but the execution would have been better if I had not been under the influence of TB when I wrote it you once claimed that you have an ability to face unpleasant facts is that what you've demonstrated in 1984 by drawing an accurate portrait of the future I think that allowing for the book being after all a parody something like 1984 could actually happened this is the direction the world is going in at the present time in our world there will be no emotions except fear rage triumph and self abasement the sex instinct will be eradicated we shall abolish the orgasm there will be no loyalty except loyalty to the party but always there will be the intoxication of power always at every moment there will be the thrill of victory the sensation of trampling on enemy who is helpless if you want a picture of the future imagine a boot stamping on a human face forever the moral to be drawn from this dangerous nightmare situation is a simple one don't let it happen it depends on you coming up Chris Langham in another writer role as BBC four explores the science behind the fiction of John Wyndham author of day of the Triffids and the Midwich cuckoos that's next you

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the serious thank you so much for coming I think your plane landed literally two hours ago in Vancouver it's legit rate such a such a treat to have us tell some he's gonna wish he missed that plane when I'm done with this little talk talk us through how do you get from Einstein's equation to a black hole with all science you're watching the UAP chip I'm going to take another look at the black hole phenomenon as this recent TED talks video shows a couple of things about it and since I already shredded this subject before this one's going to be something unique and special so let's take a look so over a hundred years ago Einstein came up with this geometric theory of gravity which deformed space-time so matter to form space-time and in space-time tells matter in turn how to move around it did you know that space-time has a form that can be deformed I didn't know that and that space-time tells matter things and matter tells space-time things but the mode of communication nobody can tell me what that is and have we ever seen it telling that no and how does it tell that is it at the speed of light or faster it would have to be faster how how could it be faster if it's simultaneous then why doesn't okay let's move on and you can get enough matter into a small enough region that it punctures space-time so now the fabric of space-time can be punctured and the matter then is spilling down through the puncture hole out of this rubber sheet that is the fabric of space-time and it's pouring down I guess with the information into another dimension and that's going to become a wormhole someday because science fiction tells us that even light can't escape the force of gravity keeps even light inside and so I mean before that the reason the earth moves around the Sun is it's not because the Sun is pulling the earth as we fake but it's literally changed the shape of space so that we just sort of fall around free-falling around and around okay so now gravity doesn't pull because they know there's a problem with that because equal and opposite forces so if it pulls it has to push well they're saying well it doesn't pull now now it just changes the shape of the rubber sheet because of the weight of it pushes down on the rubber sheet of space-time and then it you know causes something to fall around a roll around okay there's no friction and whether the way the Earth rotates on a tilted axis that doesn't have any precession around it just maintains this angle with respect to what well with respect to the rubber sheet playing you know it keeps the same angle so how could it roll like that it wouldn't so the whole model is absolute poppycock balderdash nonsense exactly that the geometry of space-time tells the earth how to move around the Sun and so you're almost seeing a black hole puncture through space-time and when it goes so deeply in then there's a point at which light orbits the black hole and so this that's I guess is what's happening here right this is not an image this is this is a computer simulation of what we always thought like one thing if the event horizon around a black hole I see so many problems with it just the fake image itself it is an image it's a computer-generated image of course it is there's no difference between the image that they have on their intro and any other image of the black hole that they've had for decades now they're trying to sell this and you'll see why but it's got no teeth it's there's no logic to it I mean it's shaky logic put it that way so I have questions already about this image like why is it moving and spinning other than the fact that that creates a hypnotic suggestive state in the viewer but I don't know that that's the intent I think that's just serendipity for what they're trying to do you know until last week we had no idea what a black hole really looked like the best we could do our simulations like this in supercomputers but even here you see this ring of light which is the orbit of photons that's where photons literally move around the black hole not literally get a dictionary and around that is this hot gas it's drawn to the black hole and it's hot because of friction there's gas all right hot air look what the heck is talking about hot gas in space the vacuum of space but all this gas was trying to get into a very small volume so it heats up and so a few years ago you embarked on this mission to try and actually image one of these things and I guess hey is this science or is this a flippin crusade embarked on a mission to image these things it's just like the LIGO laboratory they've spent over a hundred years on a mission to prove Einstein's theory that's not science you guys don't science nope well then I guess you took you focused on this galaxy way out there tell us about this this galaxy right so this is the galaxy where we're gonna zoom into the galaxy m87 that's 55 million light years away he knows this because he used the Millennium Falcon to run some measuring tape to and fro and look at the number because it's certainly when you say something that matter of fact you wouldn't be asked meeting and you wouldn't be guessing and you wouldn't be conjecturing and you wouldn't be assuming any which is a long way well it all comes down to a simple equation smaller and smaller bigger and bigger by crunching the numbers you can easily calculate and if we could build this earth sized telescope and the famous words of mick jagger building a single dish telescope the size of the earth is impossible and if we could build this earth sized telescope this picture wouldn't contain all the detail that we get to see in computer graphic rendering and but at its heart it's hard for us to really fathom right six and a half billion suns compressed into a single point and it is governing some of the energetic so the center of this galaxy but even though that thing is so huge because it's so far away to actually dream of getting an image of it dude are you trying to make it seem like it's hard it's a dream up an image of it or dream of getting an image of it it's not hard to dream like that they do it all the time and ultimately we know it's going to be a CG picture drawing animation whatever like it always has just as the sketch artist the imaging algorithms I developed use our limited data to guide us to a picture using simulated data when we pretend we pretend to point our telescopes it's just a simulation use this to verify our results based upon how they are to be the black hole image that's incredibly hard I mean the the resolution would be incredible that you need yes so black holes are the smallest objects in the known universe right but they have these out size effects on whole galaxies but to see one you would need to build a telescope as large as the earth alright so this is the galaxy where we're gonna zoom into the galaxy m87 there's 55 million light years away 26,000 light years towards the heart of the spiraling Milky Way are the smallest objects in the known universe right but they have these out size effects on whole galaxies but to see one you would need to build a telescope as large as the earth okay I've been following this stuff since before I went to college it's a new one to me that black holes are the smallest objects in the universe I guess in terms of the singularity that would be the case however it's very very arguable and dubious to say that but nonetheless let's continue across the the the black hole that we're looking at gives off copious radio waves it's going to be meeting all the time and I think exactly what you did copious amounts of radiation have a dubious amounts of radiation or dubious just the idea of the radiation I mean this in fact you know the Higgs boson particles give me a break Stephen Hawking and his Hawking radiation there Hawking some real bull shite here he was a character anyway played by at least two different like people just a ridiculous joke that they could get away with abusing you know people and and trying to make it seem like they're these brilliant scientists and they're just typing into the voice translator the whole time it's just nonsense anyway so what you're seeing here is we use telescopes all around the world however as you can imagine and the famous words of Mick Jagger building single dish telescope the size of the earth is impossible exactly what you did exactly so what you're seeing here is we use telescopes all around the world we synchronize them perfectly with atomic clocks this is 2019 this video was just made and that's the animation they have for the earth you gotta give me a break you guys are a joke you don't have pictures of the earth you have not ever been to space you won't be up there and take a picture and the earth wouldn't look like that anyway and it's proven by this joke of a cartoon that you have and you just said all around the earth well wouldn't only like half of the earth not even be able to be synchronised and get images of this one spot out in fake space don't give me a break people you want to say all around the earth no it's not and you have one of these satellites and these one of these things out in the ocean supposedly on an island okay how do you deal with all the weather and then other things just work out perfectly it's just like the moon landing then you know impossible but it just happens to work out perfectly but it's not any and you can verify only they can verify it so they received the light waves from this black hole and then we stitched all of that data together to make an image I mean to do that the weather had to be right in all of those locations at the same time right so you could actually get a clearer view there we had to get lucky in a lot of different ways it's sometimes it's better to be lucky than good you just have to ask yourself this one question do I feel lucky well do ya punkk in this case we were both I like to think but light had to come from the black hole it had to come through the intergalactic space through the Earth's atmosphere where water vapor can absorb it and everything worked out perfectly the size of the earth are you telling me that the size of the earth worked out perfectly for you is that what you're telling me Punk at that wavelength of light one millimeter wavelength was just right to resolve that black hole 55 million light years away now I don't harbor any ill will towards these people personally I could very easily have ended up being right up there on that stage doing what they're doing but that's neither here nor there I think I don't know I I guess I said that without thinking about all the things that would have to happen before that would be I just really I couldn't deal with the the nature of it being so impractical and theoretical I wasn't a fan of Einstein lines from a long time ago anyway let's just apply some logic here the girl's presentation was a couple years ago I think and so her prediction was of the black hole at the alleged black hole as if there were such things at the center of our galaxy as if it were anything like what they say 26,000 light-years away an incredible distance she said we would need an earth-sized telescope because remember the calculation smaller and smaller bigger and bigger okay now this guy is presenting the image that he said we first saw a week or so ago but actually it was weeks and weeks ago maybe he has a different perception of time because of CERN or whatever I know but the image is pretty much exactly like what the girl was predicting you know years ago it's so it's such a joke and his is 55 million light years away which required exactly perfectly luckily the earth sized telescope wouldn't you need something so much bigger because when you're talking about resolving images like let's say it's even linear which it isn't linear especially in this case you would need something twice the size of Earth but actually be much more it's just it's alt the whole thing the whole premise ridiculous ridiculous anyway let's let's try and wrap this up before it gets too crazy and I I do have to cut off some of the end you know because I don't want to get copy wrong struck or anything this is for fair use scientific inquiry ongoing research criticism commentary it's transformative and it's funny it's parody it's parody of the lack of parity if you follow what I'm saying so this is you AP channel and all right well we'll wrap this up I might talk some more before the end but um after this I'm done with black holes I am done with them okay and you should be – it's just ridiculous stuff do we pay money for this and we esteem the people who perpetrate these things on us with all kinds of status and respect which is really what all you know what I wanted with the education side of it my love of science hasn't changed but my understanding of science has improved tremendously and these top scientists are some of the most theoretical impractical people as for in terms of their career so I'm really glad I didn't go down that path because I don't I don't think I would personally actually feel very good about myself my dog would love me either way but I might not even have a dog because I would be too busy in the lab and flying around and selling this stuff no way the universe was there telling us what to do no Einstein was telling you what to do and look here's Einstein he started capturing like huge amounts of data I think this is like like half the data from just one telescope yeah so this is one of the members of our team Lindy Blackburn and he's sitting with half the data recorded at the large millimeter telescope she algorithms I develop use our limited data and what he's holding there is about half a petabyte which to put it in terms that we might understand about but now there are a lot of holes this is an incredibly small number of measurements to make a picture from five thousand people's lifetime selfie budget a lot of day so this was all but you couldn't send this over the Internet it's transferred over submarine cables not satellite not satellite no no that's right not satellite not saddle lunch that's right all the states was shipped to one place and the the massive computer effort began to try and analyze that and we recreate kind of an earth-sized lens and the only way to do that is to bring the data back by plane you can't beat the bandwidth of a 747 filled with hard disks yes not satellite not satellite one no no that's right it's what is the main challenge in moving vast amounts of data a blazing fast 160 terabyte per second cable from Virginia to Spain we can transmit the entire contents of the Library of Congress across the Atlantic Ocean in two seconds does these thin thin little threads put it under it's housed in a thicker thing but the actual cable itself I mean it's you can barely see it it's and this is what the Library of Congress is traveling in um two seconds that's astounding yeah it's extraordinary I'm out of this right so the way this technique works that we use to imagine to imagine taking this the way a normal neural works is the light rays bounce off the surface which is perfect so imagine taking making an optical mirror and smashing it we take all these recordings and with atomic clock precision we align them perfectly later in a supercomputer for that reason there an infinite number of possible images that are perfectly consistent with our telescope measurements yeah and you didn't you didn't really know what you're gonna see but now there are a lot of holes this is an incredibly small number of measurements to make a picture from and so I guess a few weeks or a few months ago on a computer screen somewhere this this started to come into view this moment well it took it took a long time look at this that was it that was that was the first if we baked Einstein's equations into our algorithms we'll just end up seeing what we expect to see in other words if we bake Einstein's equations too much into our algorithms are being a giant elephant at the center of our galaxy they have this belief going that they are smart and they have all these answers and equipment to see things that you can't see and and so one of these things is the black holes that they said suck in light with fake you know the gravity that isn't real and that they could never take a picture of something because it sucks in the light but then they said well the light that almost gets sucked in but doesn't well make a ring around it and so then they use these supercomputers and millions of dollars to predict what it would look like years ago this girl goes up on stage who isn't an astrophysicist or whatever she's a computer scientist who makes drawings on computers and she shows the image of what the simulation said it would look like and then she says well if we make an earth-sized telescope we can see 126 thousand light years away by a calculation you have to have an earth-sized toaster and then she has this picture and it's black and white and then this guy comes along years later and shows the picture that they got of a supposed black hole the center of a galaxy fifty five million light years away and it looks exactly like the predicted model simulation computer and generated graphic that she showed years earlier on stage all they did was make it orange and they blurred it out and gave it some highlights and so I took that image the black and white image that she showed years earlier and I manipulated it and I came out with pretty much the exact same thing which looks like someone token on a doobie in the darkroom okay yeah it's if you want to see a black hole you just go into a really dark room and have Snoop Dogg toke on a poopy yeah so that's what it is or it could be a cigarette but it's a little uneven it's more like a doobie but they say that's because it's spinning in the Doppler effect would make it right or not changed the wavelength frequency as much as the whole thing's ridiculous so tell us what we're really looking at that this isn't a real photograph but a computer graphic rendering an artistic interpretation of what a black hole might look like so I still love it so what what you're seeing is about that last orbit of photons you're seeing Einstein's geometry laid bare Ivan's married my cousin and she had two daughters I once finally got some alone server over I said would you like to see my geometry they bear and then they said nein I said I am Einstein I do it anyway bitches the puncture in space-time is so deep that light moves around in orbit so that light behind the black hole as I think will see you soon moves around and comes to us on these parallel lines at exactly that orbit if the light can't escape then if it's circling around then oh well it happens to shoot off towards us and then we happen to be able to image it okay but then why does it not kind of angle down and kind of fill in where the black hole is well they can't let it do that because then it doesn't look like a black hole so they want to have that black hole in there so the light will Bend all this way and all these you know 360 degrees well but then it just won't do this a little bit of extra to kind of fill in where that spot is well you know we don't see you know we wouldn't see the black hole but we do see it so then they have it look that way it turns out that orbit is the square root of 27 times just a handful of fundamental constants it's extraordinary when you think about it I mean what when in my head initially when I when I thought of black cause I'm thinking that is the event horizon there's lots of sort of matter and light sort of whirling around in that shape but it's actually it's a more complicating that it's really more well talk us through this this animation because it's it's like being lens de round it so you'll see here that some light from behind it gets lens and some light there's a loop-de-loop around the entire orbit of the black hole but when you get enough light from all this hot gas swirling around the black hole then you wind up seeing all of these light rays come together on the screen which is a stand-in for where you and I are and you see the definition of this ring begin to come into shape and and that's what Einstein predicted over a hundred years ago yeah that is that is amazing so tell us tell us more about what we're actually looking at here first of all why is part of it brighter than the rest oh so so what's happening is that the black hole is spinning and you wind up with some of the gas moving towards us below and receding from us on the top and just as the train whistle is a higher pitch when it's coming towards you there's more energy from the gas coming towards us then going away from us so you see the bottom part brighter because the light is actually being boosted in our direction and how physically big is that so our entire solar system would fit well within that dark region but and if I may yeah that dark region is the signature of the event horizon there's reason we don't see light from there is that the light that would come to us from that place was swallowed by the event horizon so that's that's it and so when we think of a black hole you think of these huge rays jetting out of it which are kind of pointed directly in our direction why don't we see them so this is a very powerful black hole but not by universal standards is still powerful and from the North and South Poles of this black hole we think that Jets are coming

UAPtalks with FLAT EARTH BROTHERS Channel



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WE have been making videos critical of Science that seems to depart from reality only if, and especially when, it seeks to disprove Scripture. After the 2-hour discussion on Saturday, the recording failed to take, we had another chat that seems to cover about the same ground in half the time. Enjoy, and God bless! We’ll have to do this again ✅

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Who is UAP?
UAP (as conferred by my subs) stands for Underrated Actual Physicist. I’m Orthodox in faith and technologically inclined by profession, but my nature here is rebellious… it usually lines up with the traditional wisdom of Church Fathers, and knowledge of the Ancients by way of THE scientific method;
1. OBSERVABLE
2. REPEATABLE
3. REPRODUCIBLE

I’m making videos at a rate of about one per day,
A.) Championing God’s Word by inspiration and NOT imposition
B.) Remediating Educational Indoctrination
C.) Rejecting anti-Biblical ideas IF the premise “doesn’t SCIENCE”
D.) Proposing a better idea in place of the narratives institutionalized by
-scientism,
-inbred academia,
-peer-pressure reviewed research studies, and
-MSM
How?
Logic, science, technology, learning, fun, and faith in the Good Creator I trust and love…
…I demand questions to answer today’s pop-sci culture that tries to make it seem like the Bible isn’t true and God doesn’t exist.

It’s funny that serious Biblical interpretations empirically buck ubiquitous indoctrinations by the impositions of imperial 🧚‍♀️ tales institutionalized internationally to interfere with every jot and tittle of the INRI inspired Word.

Orthodox Scriptures have been assaulted systematically, and contradicted line by verse. Hypotheses based on systemic assumptions taught as fact are my targets of opportunity.

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okay well I tell you what then I've been thinking of like the things we were talking about you know what what to cover and I can't think of anything that I wouldn't want to cover again but yeah you know I'm sure it will end up being a little different oh yeah I know I never script anything I do I feel like if I start scripting things I'm gonna start saying things I think people want to hear and know what needs to be said know what the father wants me to say so it's like I have to just scratch everything I'm doing I've started over so many times on videos when I catch myself saying what I want to say or you know something that I think would just yeah I scrapped a whole bunch of videos to have you like like you've done one and and you just think you know doesn't it doesn't feel right and yeah yeah I published one it that was pretty popular and I got rid of that one just because I was critical of somebody and yeah I didn't know if if it was the right thing to do and I'm really glad that I pulled it yeah I've done the same thing I've had videos where people say look you know you're teaching love and you're making fun of a belief in a way and when I catch myself doing that so much original videos I had to get rid of all those I just I didn't want to put that out there because that's sort of what it's come to is who can make fun of who the best and who can own who and I'm just tired of it I'm just ready for it people to eat accept the science you know form their own beliefs based on evidence instead of just believing something somebody told them yeah yeah and like that's that's what we're talking about with this issue of like where I was saying and you agreed that it was just like black magic is what I was you know I don't have when I say it but my gosh it is no different when I when I go through this and I see I see what they're what what they are saying or what other people are like believing and everything it's it's no different than like somebody doing an incantation in a fairy tale and yeah their eyes turn into spirals and you know and there's a lot of truth to it like yeah the spirals and and the spinning things I think a lot of times they have the spinning globe that it sets people into a suggestive state like a hypnotic state and they are willing to accept whatever is laid onto which is sometimes the most ridiculous thing yeah yeah I was looking at Netflix today and scroll through trying to find something really interesting for my kids to watch at school is we're finishing up and we're running out of things to do and every little of the recommended videos that were science and nature were our blue planet this planet planet Earth everything and one of them was literally called our round planet that was the name of it I was like wow they're just putting that out there everything on the recommended strip and I'm like I just never noticed how often we saw that I mean of course in start of every movie but once you see it's just everywhere I mean every single teacher on the science hallway has Globes either hanging from the ceiling or plastered on the wall and they're usually like the 1972 pictures of the Earth you know from the Apollo missions and things and even I have the Challenger poster on my wall with all the people and paying honor to them and for that loss yeah the ones that just happen to have identical twins like every single one of them yeah yeah that's right the other that the odds I'm sure we could calculate that because I think in there's a twin there's a city in China where they have like an exceptionally high number of twins right and it's like one out of a thousand births is right yeah which is exceptionally high when it's actually what 1 in 10,000 mm-hmm and so you know you get together a random group of people 7 people for the crew I guess and they all just happen to be twins yeah yeah yeah my brother and I we were twins and we went through school and it was usually me and him and maybe one or two other sets of twins in school that was it you were something special if you were a twin mm-hm we could have all become astronauts yeah yeah yeah there's a lot yeah I have some pretty close relatives who are identical twins girls both you know beautiful girls and I mean they have all kinds I think at one point you know like agents who are interested in like you know like models or these types of people you know we're really sketchy but there's yeah like the Olsen twins you know how much money that they've made of that it's really good for the type of stuff they do but yeah and but when you when you had that poster up there of the Challenger well I guess what was the poster of the crew or it had all them and like the teacher in space and remembering them I've still got the poster wrapped up I just can't get rid of it just for the history sake and now knowing that those people are still alive it's kind of like a relief to think wow they're still alive they can't be that II if they they didn't just kill them off like this mission failed let's get rid of them hide the bodies it was like we'll just give them you know witness protection program like another opportunity but they still keep their same names most of them like Richard Scobie became dick Scobee you know like Richard is another word for dick or another name for that so I mean he's they're still the same names pretty much so that was yeah it was interesting they let him to live and I'm guessing they they're just high enough up there and they really it's not a risk to them because even people finding out posting it on the Internet nothing's gonna change they're still gonna say the same clothes and say we're we're going back to the moon and no matter what evidence is out there they're always going back it how I would really and somebody said that in the comments once that I would respect them more if they would just confess the truth and then say okay now we're going to show you the firmament we're gonna get as close as we can to it show it to you I didn't pay money for yeah oh yeah so easily tell us the truth we're looking at the luminaries and seeing things don't match up with what you're telling us and proving that things are off something's off you know nobody has it all figured out a regular person somebody knows I mean these people that are studying the Stars and have been for centuries and they have observatories set up in places where they can see parts of the firmament that we can't see because there's so much land out there and the heavens work like a clock I mean everything's pretty pretty much like a clock except for a few new signs here and there that are important so they they're able to predict and know things way in advance compared to what we do because they've been studying this for centuries with pretty much the wisdom of the fallen that they've just passed on and they make sure that they've kept that understanding with them and in their control yeah yeah and I think it was on both sides because the the so-called wise men you know that visited Jesus after his book that they used the Stars so basically astrology you know to know when and it was something that like everybody knew and it I don't think it can be understated how familiar people were with the the firmament and the the movement of the Stars and everything back when they used to on hot night so you'd sleep outside you know on your back looking up at the stars and I recently read about these three German guys that went through the desert in Africa for took them like 50 days to get through and they said when they're laying on their back just go to sleep that once your eyes fully adjust that the sky almost looks white from all the stars and Wow yeah yeah and they get really familiar with it yeah you do and Hawaii I went there once and you're out there where the volcanoes everything's just jet black because you have all that volcanic ash and all that everywhere so everything's black and there's no lights you're on the Big Island and you looked up at the sky and it is so clear it's it's like nothing you've ever seen round here where I'm from so it's it's definitely you could imagine with no street lights back then yeah but he can see the stars so clear and they didn't have any computer animations or philosophies influencing their minds and when we talk about the stuff we're talking about now they think that oh this is just the dumb ancient people that thought that but I've come across articles from the 1800s with 1860s where people were having the exact same conversations that we are now in questioning things they were questioning Copernicus and the people that measured the Sun and this one guy I want to read his book because all I've read the reviews on it and he was questioning the distances of the Sun and that was when I was questioning those guys who actually measured the distance and he was saying how you know just in the 1800's the distance the kids were reading in school books and writing down or not even what we have today oh yeah it's open here comes a new scientist to change it and the books are going to change and I think it's funny like what you said about college textbooks last time we were talking house yeah they have new additions because things are always changing the next text books we read in science class are going to have the atmosphere going beyond the moon and no one's gonna blink it's just gonna happen and our little poor little kindergarteners coming up we're gonna go wow the Earth's atmosphere goes way beyond the moon now yeah that's why the flag waves people because of that you know it's like you know what children they don't know any better that's just that we take it in we see it and we believe it like the evidence of evolution that really programs billions of people millions worldwide I'd say billions because when I talk to my students I do surveys I ask them what do they think the chances are of them coming from nothing what are the chances of say like this cup right here it's made out of metal it's all natural materials forming on its own and filling up with water and their life that would never happen and I'm like well how much more complex than a glass or a cup are we humans you know we didn't come from an amoeba every single family tree you have is here just amoeba and then BAM here's everybody yeah and that's where kind of think of my journey started was with evolution and debunking that and that's pretty easy to destroy I mean evolution falls apart when you really look into the complexities of life and just the math behind it and to get to where we are today me and you would be changing into something else as we talk and this would be very entertaining to watch because we wouldn't know what we're gonna be yeah yeah that's what I say you know I you know for any progeny you know whether children or maybe further down the line I said that applying pressure for them to grow wings because I think it would be for the family yeah but not wings that work right away those take generations to happen they're just gonna have mutated scales that almost look like feathers yeah yeah yeah because it's all gradual but then yeah and and that's the that's the black magic coming in again with it's mostly lingual now you mentioned the repetition but then there's also just like the like the false premise like in the terminology where they say the missing link or the missing link you know to emphasize that there's only only one singular missing link humans between Apes and humans yeah and yet in reality there's there are billions and trillions and quadrillions of missing links just for you know a subset of species you know but for every living thing and isn't it the phylum like it's the phylogenetic explosion I remember when I was teaching because I taught for a year I taught biology in general science and I thought about that and it was just the the everything came onto the scene at that time and it's like the pretty much the closest thing to created kind so it really kind of goes along with the Bible in a sneaky way where they say yeah you know everything's created according to its kind reproduces according to its kind and such yeah very worded like much worded like the Bible when my son did homeschooling and he's finishing up this year his second year of homeschooling he's nine and he got a book last year that was how was something how frogs became something I can't remember but it started out like in the beginning like a lot like the Bible and then before there were frogs there were fish and with the water dried out and when the water dried out some of the fish flopped on the land and died but there's a few that didn't like you know like it but a pond dries up fishes die it's this one happens and they made it sound like you know what ponds drying out all the time that some of those fish just evolved like one fish just yelled out evolution and blinkered on the ground and eventually became a fraud and and that's why frogs are wet and they start out in the water because of ponds drying out and fish dying and it's written as if it's fact and then you read it and it's like no but this is fact that's been proven and they show you those collide against the way you change from this to a coelacanth to you know like all of these things like the coelacanth was a big one for me as a kid going wow that was growing arms and then you realize they still exist yeah today so that was a big find I remember that one because yeah I have a brother two non twin brother but that was a big one for him because he's like you know living fossil this this stuff sounds like BS you know and then and so I'm I thankfully I didn't really fall into the evolutionary belief you know just for a while in college it wasn't very long maybe six months or so and then it was kind of the same thing about with the space program later on where when I got my mind somehow to accept it to go under the spell just you know try it out or make things go easier whatever it was quite a few different things but not only did not feel right but it was like I found myself saying you know this is just miraculous you know like I was analyzing for evolution that do you realize special we are that so many things died and here we are you know and yeah like we're this unique special creation and it's such of a miracle and then it's like well yeah it would really be the biggest miracle of all for evolution to have happened for like two it just started like when I started doing the map it was like mind-boggling to find the parts that were needed to make life all in the same general area marks that are only made inside of cells you know when we talk about cell theory and things it's like cells only come from living cells you know there's no cell we've ever known this just came from nothing and so it's like where did the first cell come from where did the parts of that cell that the phospholipids that are made inside of cells and there's no answer it's like well they were just there billions of them and they surrounded DNA and the DNA had the code and it's like it's programmed so there has to be a programmer like for your computer it's program that has to have a programmer there's no way around it yeah and they even have the quality control things something I figured out because what I do mainly I'm not doing a very good job of it lately but I'm an inventor and so I have a well a patent I'm working on another one but one of the things that I do is I look at the best inventions out there and I've always thought this that really all they're doing is kind of mimicking whatever God has designed into but yeah the usually it's in biology but just how things work and and so like with aerodynamics for example I knew that because sharks and the really fast swimming fish have kind of a rough surface on their skin it's the same thing with a golf ball with the dimples and so yeah Mythbusters did a thing where they had a car and they dented it up with a bunch of dimples like a golf ball and then they ran this big test to see if it would get better gas mileage I already knew that it would get better gas mileage signa secondly better that did and it was really just going back you know to the to creation looking at how things were designed by the ultimate engineer designer you know and yeah so thankfully I was I wasn't thrilled in by that but but with the fake space and the space program and all that I really was i I had high aspirations working for JPL one day and I have a sibling that worked for NASA just briefly doing contract work doing that yeah ironically you know that it was about the satellites how they wobble yeah and so it was about how well how do you get these satellites to stop and it was kind of a known thing is more like a like a summer project you'd give to kids like in a math camp or something because it's a mathematical solution using like differential equations and coming up with the formula and then you know she came up the formula is so fat asked that they're like oh wow yeah it's like turning it into your teacher you know yeah and then moving on to the next thing but you know I I'm I'm pretty much the only one still I think that thinks there's any funny business going on but but when they didn't hire then it's like well why is that all the qualifications all this stuff but I think it was like you had to kind of know like kind of let them know that you know that type of thing and then you can be in yeah if you're a boy scout you know good soldier whatever they they're not interested in babysitting somebody like that they don't really have anything if they don't really need you yeah that's smart so it's kind of a waste yeah it's very compartmentalized I came across the video an old vintage video they were making the space suits and these women were like just factory workers that came out of like one of them said she made boxing gloves and then she went right into making the Apollo mission spacesuits the like she had no expertise she didn't know how the whole suit went together it was compartmentalized she said she eats person had one task nobody knew what the next person was doing and so they were like oh my gosh these people's lives depend on us you know like what if we mess up and so it was like I saw him putting the glove together and it was like they were just taking a bunch of pieces of foil and just sticking them on the fingertips it it didn't look vacuum proof I've seen things going to fumes it just look like there's gonna be little spaces in between that foil because there was not like any gluing or like pressurizing it to see if it was legit it was just like put this aluminum foil here slide the glove on top of this and then put all the Foley all together and you're good I was like that just did not look it looked like it would be safe to go out in the snow and play but not in a vacuum chamber yeah that's why when I was a kid you know they had moon boots still yeah that were for walking around in the snow and they just called him that but they were exactly that you know yeah yeah I did a I research into the suits a little bit too and the thing that really struck me at one point was that for the same reason you know if you compress if you put something in pressure it'll shrink accordingly with these suits if they have any flexibility at all I mean at all yeah when you have it pressurized – whatever that one you know one bar atmosphere it's different sometimes they say that the space station is at a lower pressure and it's kind of different but whatever the case when you evacuate that chamber before opening the door you know so you don't lose the air out the door when you're evacuating that chamber that suit would become so stiff and it would blow up like a balloon – oh yeah extent it would be about to pop from what I've seen with vacuum experiments everything swells up even if you suck the air out of it completely like the action labs does where he sucks the air out of this vac man it was like one of those Reggie Armstrong toys he sucks the air out of it like all the air sucked out of it puts it in a vacuum and it swells up like a balloon and then you think well these guys are breathing in their suits so they already have air all the air they're going to be recycling already in their suit it's not like a scuba diver where you have air just shooting out of your ventilator you have a suit fully enclosed there's no hoses attached to let air out or anything so all the air they have is already there that's like you're saying they would look like puffer fish walking around like the Michelin Man about to explode yeah and no answer for that and they would they'd have to have a valve that equalizes so when the suit expands what would happen if they didn't have more air coming out of a tank like compressed air they would number one they would get really cold because of the expansion the temperature would drop drastically like they could actually get frostbite then the other thing is they would get the bends yeah severely they would actually get you know their blood would boil and then so with that recovery tank going you're also going to have that expansion so you're gonna have cooling effects from that anyway so you're actually going to be very cool at first but if you survive long enough to get to equilibrium then you're you're going to get really hot really fast yeah and so and never mind the fact that you wouldn't be able to move once he did hit equilibrium in a vacuum yeah you couldn't move there's almost no way and then if you did you'd spring a leak because they really don't have even the best o-rings in the world with the best like silica coating or whatever that or it wouldn't it wouldn't withstand much motion at all before it would start to spring a leak yeah because I did work for years with high pressure systems and we did vacuum testing and loop systems with refrigerant and other things and I can tell you even a really good o-ring that's got all the specs everything can become pulverized under extreme vacuum or pressure but vacuums more severe and the flexing that needs to happen can only happen so many times you you have to oil it and the oil that you use gets everywhere and it's a single hair will spring a leak which will then cut like a path like how they say the Grand Canyon was cut well it would actually do that pretty quickly and some of these o-rings and and I speculated about how many o-rings would be on the International Space Station and I speculated a conservative number of like 30,000 a rings Wow it is conservative because like your your average automobile I don't know the number offhand right now but your average automobile just if you ask somebody how many Springs just you know Springs of any kind are in a car what would be your guess I don't know about cars yeah but like I was yeah well I was asked I said a thousand and I was off by a factor of 10 it's a the average is around up around 10,000 I mean it's probably a little bit less nowadays but if you're counting you know like the plastic Springs and different there are like different types of Springs but if you count all those different types it's incredible how many of these components you have and I I would think Oh rings would be pretty close pretty close to that because they are there are a lot of gaskets and seals and o-rings and you know to hold against that vacuum it's just you know it's just one of the many things that there's just no way yeah we'll never see it acted out in real life we'll never see them go in those exact suits into a vacuum chamber it'll never happen we don't have there's no hood that yeah I I did find some footage where they were ostensibly getting into a vacuum chamber running it but the door was wide open yeah and it's like well what is this you know they're just smiling they're just going through the motions yeah but you know that's where it's like okay how could I believe this yeah yeah but once you see it you know it's very III was euphoric you know for me it was about two and a half years ago you know but well just a little over two years ago what got your wheels turnin to make you think something was up well it was a lot of different things like you said you know you're into it and it's kind of like how it was with evolution but it was on it was like my whole life instead just a short time I only loved the Space Shuttle as a kid I went to the Kennedy Space Center you know my family is all about engineering and all this kind of stuff you know gung-ho for USA and everything yeah whatever the USA does and and that type of stuff and it was great you know and I loved it and he can sense that it's a fun place and it's all fun and they have all this positive stuff but more recently you know there's there's a lot of different things but I can I can look over here I still have this NASA it's the Saturn 5 like media book and I was really into the Saturn 5 and the moon landings because I thought since it's real you know but you know just one of the most amazing things we have ever done and can't you believe it and just shouldn't everybody be excited and I wanted to get an artifact of it you know like collegia you know spend spend a little money now it'll be worth a lot someday because this is the greatest achievement ever oh yeah they're I mean we can't even go back you know yeah they said that in the magazine I found in my mom's I was going through all their stuff and they have a lot of old collectibles in a magazine from that that era that said our last trip to the moon this century and I'm thinking about it I was like this was back in the early 70s the year 2000 when I was a kid seemed like the future like in the year 2000 they're gonna have flying cars we just knew it and so it's like how could they say then but that was the last time how do they not know they wouldn't come into something it would be like super easy to get us there like there's no way but they're like this is our last time because they knew this is everybody's bought it we don't have to do this anymore it's a risk it was just to show them earth we didn't have to show them the Sun no one's looking at pictures of the Sun rise from the moon or any type of sun footage it's all about this little earth and so once they sold us on that they didn't have to do it again and now they just have to buy time and tell us that every country is going Israel India we are NASA SpaceX everybody's all of a sudden going to the moon and they're going there to stay and with commercial partners and all this talk and they've never talked about how they found the old technology that we lost or anything or why they deleted the everything and record it over all of the stuff there's no talks about that so it's it's interesting that we have this sudden urge to go right on top of everything we're doing and the awakening and I just I think the spiritual awakening is just almost too fast and powerful for them to keep up and they are trying so hard I've just noticed a major increase in all of their activity I mean they're launching rockets every day now it's like sending a rocket sending a rocket in a ship I'm going to show you the exact same things and it's very smart on the Elon Musk on the SpaceX side of it like you know his part of this whole thing but to impress people with what's coming off of these Rockets so we're so fascinated with something coming off and landing if we lose sight of where it's going and we have the technology to send regular people can send a balloon up and record for 3-4 hours straight mm-hmm I've never seen that on a rocket launch four hours straight three hours straight or three minutes straight the whole yeah and the voyagers recording for 40 years or 50 oh yeah so tonight that's my favorite thing like that's why I say you know to talk to an engineer somebody who knows really well like the inverse-square law and how with distance you know the intensity of a signal is lost exponentially and and you're talking about you know remote starting your car and then I tell them you know do you realize and I can show the article and everything do you realize that they ostensibly remote cars started the Voyageurs 37-year idle liquid and propelled rockets yeah so retask it to focus the beam back on this hairline absolutely impossible yeah trajectory to signal back to earth so it could be in position to maintain contact through the Oort cloud or whatever the case and it's by the way broadcasting with the same power and I can show the clip where they say it as your refrigerator light bulb that's that yeah if you're seeing that clip yeah and and they just throw that out there and it's like that a real thinking like independent person is not under any kind of enchantment should like start stand up and scream and throw desks over and grab their hair and pull on it and just like what you know like yeah is that for the amount of money they spent for gas lighting you know just outright lying to someone's face that most people are it's like one of the worst offenses you could do when you are a public servant you're supposed to be honest all these things so that one really if if they don't see the light on that I know they can't explain to me how that would work you know well the signal comes back like how did they know how to retask it can they Orient there's no frame of reference and can you receive the signal no only the Deep Space Network yeah which isn't NASA but it is and and they have the these dishes that they're just so huge and it's inexpensive that well I guess we just have to take their word for it don't we well yeah yeah I don't I don't feel like I have to though because people give you this blank stare every time you bring up something being a lie or hoax even like with evolution when I if I rip my department's looking at things that are like pictures that are known hoaxes from the 1919 late 1800s and I'm like you know that was a hoax right that drawing of these embryos they look at me like are you serious there's no way that was a hoax still in our books right now I'm like it was a hoax the guy that drew this said it was a hoax they're like now wouldn't happen not in our books and I'm like okay I tried yeah I mean I would bring on the article then they would get mad and then they probably tattle or whatever it's like there's no winning when you get that look of like oh yeah what are you talking about conspiracy theorists over here mmm like yeah chicken coop you know with the the one chickens like they're gonna kill us yeah the rest like they're giving us a roof over our heads you idiot like yeah it's like a chicken run yeah if you but once you see it like if they actually accept it you know it's what for me it was euphoric because in so validating but also you know I was already kind of using the Bible as a guide and you know the Bible for me was really great except there were some cringy moments where I would just read it and it like just grit my teeth and all right we'll just skip over that they didn't there's a Middle Eastern you know just way back they didn't know any better blah blah blah yeah yeah I know it's tough talking to people in the science board to bring up the Bible they're like oh this what you believe and it's like yeah and actually I have of it you know and yeah thank you but I want to look into I'm like there's actually proof I wished it could be more science accepted instead of us being shunned so much but it's sad on the university level especially about high school – or have any age level it's just shun to say creation create or designed or intelligent design and it's like why why is intelligent design not something we can just openly admit and talk about because it's obviously there the more we dig and the more we look into it and miracles happen there's unexplained miracles all the time people coming off of addiction you know and people and there's things happening people in wheelchairs standing up and walking for the first time in 20 years you people have been dead for over 45 minutes coming back to life thanks things that you're just like that's not something we can explain why can't we just say it's a miracle even the doctors who are atheists are like now that's a miracle pretty sure it's a miracle yeah yeah yeah I I have personal experience with something like that and and I know you'd mentioned that too with yeah your mother and so if you've seen it like I know everybody who knows me I can't really mention it without daxing myself yeah but I'll just try to speak in generalities but everybody who knows me knows that somebody very close to me was at death's door I was told not that this person is not like that the chaplain met with me before the surgeon put it that way yes not like if you know if if if the patient's alive tomorrow then we'll go from there but expecting this person to walk and talk ever again the note you know very very much out of the cards and but if so it'd be a long time before that would happen bla bla so I just had faith first thing I did was I prayed openly you know the chaplain didn't pray I prayed I wouldn't yeah well I you know I just jumped in and then everyday it got better and there was no protocol for the recovery that happened and yeah and it's just an absolute miracle yeah it is and and I just had the faith I wouldn't accept what they were telling me and I wouldn't I couldn't let myself think that it wouldn't be alright and it it was amazing how I did some a lot of research nonstop research to find the best possible outcome of all in in every all dijanna articles everything I searched and the best possible outcome I found was about a 90 percent recovery in a year Wow and that was like one or two cases but what happened it was more like 90% after a month Wow and you know closer to 95 percent or plus after a year and it's unheard of and I'll tell you what no one's interested in it yeah like they study their mistakes I guess yeah but they don't study the successes because it wasn't them and they know it on some level I think they know it yeah it's just there was something else yeah and it's like healing you know how does how do things heal if you ask a doctor that they're stumped I think yeah yeah the body is just they're so miraculous in that to me what really caught my attention with the father and how he works and the common misconceptions about him is how fast he picked me up and healed me and not just healed me and restored me to where I was before but over a hundred and ten percent I mean 200 percent what I was before and showed me things on top of that like taking someone who deserved punishment I deserved what I had I had a broken heart I'd lost everything I deserved it in my mind I was condemning you know you can deem yourself when you just you step away from your father and your loving father and you just do things for you you put the world first you lean on your job and relationships whatever you're leaning on but it's of the world and when it falls away it hurts it hurts back you know and I remember just being so a loss it was so empty and just thinking I've lost everything what else do I have to live for what you know why even keep living and I deserve this I've been bad and but I remembered the pain was so bad and I have you know too many people like my twin brother and everybody I knew that if I was just in my life it would destroy so many other lives and that pain was so great I was like you know father I haven't cried out to you or spoke to you sincerely in years but I'm at a point where I've had so much pain that I feel like I just want to in my life like there's so much that I can't take it anymore but I know I knew there was a verse that popped into my mind where he wouldn't let too much be honest you know more than we could handle and I was like I trust you but I'm right there and I and I trust that you're gonna have you know heal me and when I said the trust because I think the word faith really just means trust and when I said I trust you he healed me but he didn't just it wasn't like I starting to feel better it was like I got hit by a bolt of lightning and was floating and I'm psyched I have my I just feel like I'm looking up I can't tell what my body's doing I know that I'm looking up but I feel like I'm floating and I just feel like I'm surrounded by this love that I've never felt in my life like stronger than any love with any relationship a fearlessness a just a sheer joy that I've never it's just so much all of that combined at one time and then he started showing me things and it was like he's not who I thought he was you know the world's like if you mess up here he comes you're getting punished you done messed up you know and you're gonna burn forever you hear all these things people talking about God and they don't even have they're basing on what they've heard about him and if somebody dies allows his will it was his will for a little Johnny to die he needed another angel and they put all these into our mind we just have this image of him but it was like when he talked to me it was like I have always loved you I have never left you you left me you know like you leaned on the world and it's one of those parent things where you teach your kid not to you know when they cross the road look both ways it's not so you can punish them when they get ran over getting ran over would kill them that's why you teach them to look both ways and so that was the lesson I learned was he's always loved us we make mistakes all the content we go out and do our own thing and he picked me up and healed me and the broken heart that I had if anyone knew I mean people that knew me knew that I was supposed to coming out of what I came out of supposed to be in a world of hurt people want me to come out hang out have drinks with me and do all this and let's go and go be wild or whatever and I'm like you know I'm healed you know I'm supposed to be heartbroken now supposed to be getting married in a month that didn't work out everything was south I'm supposed to be down and sad but I am the happiest I've ever been I'm healed I know things I'd known before blown up being human I walked off on a different path and rushed into stuff and kind of put got on the back burner again which is like how do you do how do you experience what I did and then go that route but I did and so fer yeah we are only two years eight or so years I went a different way kind of not really following his will and I and I'm telling you I needed a wake-up call I know like we all have our wake-up experiences but mine was with my mother when whenever she was diagnosed with stage four cancer and given two months to live like you're gonna live for two months might be able to stretch it to four months and but you're pretty much you're gonna die and she had the same convictions that I had I mean her story was just like mine like well it's my time to go I've been bad this let's just end this you know I mean live out in my last few months and just go and that shook my world I mean I was this again for the first time in a long time crying crying out like father show her your will show her what he showed me and that's just that's when he showed up and just like he's my mom calling the next day and said my god it's God spoke to me and I was like how are you listening to me how are you why do you care about beyond such a jerk and that's when she saw what happened to you yeah his love I mean he just he started sort of working with her and it was like before long she was glowing again and looking healthy and they're trying to give her a chemo and it's not affecting her at all and I was asking God you know kind of like Paul when the snake bit him and it didn't affect him Mike let this happen to her they're trying to give her poison she trusts the world to do this I ask that it not affect her and when she called when she after three days of her being symptom-free and actually feeling better I was like this is there's something up I need to start asking questions and that's when I was digging into everything I started digging into evolution I started putting this timeline out of everything totally started going on the offense and I created a channel that was fighting it was providing the lies against got it and it was a channel where I put my face and everything out there I wasn't really worried about being private and that's when I said show me the truth about everything I'm ready for it and here comes the truth and I was not ready I mean like you said it's euphoric like it knocked me down in my seat and I just remember sitting back and it was like wow this is creation has been hidden like they're not just hiding it with evolution they're hiding all the creation in so much land and just so much beauty firma man all this stuff and I was like but I'm still gonna do tests to prove what I believe and every test I've done has not matched up with what I've been taught and that's the shot that's what shocks me is we can go out into simple experiments and I look at the Stars for seven months and was expecting to be on the other side of the Sun facing the opposite way and I never was like this is interesting seven months of still looking at the same stars yeah that was where I was like I'm Dom bought into this man creation is real the firmaments there I've seen it like that you've seen it like it's you can't unsee it we can't just be like well it's it's a ball we just saw things no we've seen it yeah it's there yeah yeah when I I was pretty young when I first heard about the waters above and the dome and the you know and that was from my best friend like in elementary school and and like I mentioned you know I grew up Catholic and he was like Assembly of God I think it was and and but we were both you know Oh in lockstep Christians and everything but then when he hit me with that I was like no I haven't heard that you know like yeah that sounds crazy he showed me where it was in the Bible and I'm like and then that's like the moment like I wasn't a Bible literalist yeah I'm then because of that maybe yeah but thankfully you know I I was still a literalist for most most of the time after but that always kind of irked me or ate away at me like yeah inconsistency and I know it's not if I knew it wasn't right but it I did actually sit and think a lot of times about what if it is correct and I just couldn't I just shake my head after a millisecond and just laughed like no yeah mm-hmm that's nuts you know yeah and then I don't know what changed but it's like a spiritual like a seal or you know broken seal or you know cup poured out whatever type thing on a higher level yeah where suddenly people are able to see it again or or it could just be you know just the information sharing you know but at any rate when I started to see it and the only things within the Bible that I thought I wouldn't ever think could literally be true are the things that I now kind of Center my my youtube channel around and and like the twitch stream I'm doing now you know I talk about it because I keep hitting on the same theme that what what I take issue with the dishonesty that's out there and we know where it comes from you know it's not the people I don't go after the people because it's a a higher a rather lower level you know organized on a spiritual level where they're trying to make it seem like the Bible isn't true and God doesn't exist yeah and in science what science is all about what's repeatable like it what's a number-one measurable observable number two can it experimentally be repeatable number three can it be reproduced if somebody else does the experiment did they get the same result one two three that's science but when they deviate from that like with the Voyager yeah that is like so against science why do they do it well the common thread that I find and anybody who's like a atheist or agnostic who sees the truth I kind of harp on this because I can't believe that they don't see it just that what would be the motivation well money there are a lot of different things but for me the common thread is right there it's it's going against the scripture which has always been correct I mean I've used it as a it's like a field guide that has saved my life and yeah and shows me the right way to go over and over again it never fails even when you think it's got you walking into a fire cross fire everything but you do it and you come out unscathed then you look back and you see there's just destruction every other direction could have taken yeah and it sets you free it's a different type of freedom people don't understand and the way I'd the way that it breaks addictions to me that God's power is so amazing because like there's things I could not let go of with my flesh with my will thinking I've got all this willpower like when I competed and I wanted to put up put away bad food or junk food yeah I could do that that's that's challenging but I could go here eating healthy or whatever but as like flesh though like lust and different things that everybody struggles with doing away with that on your own from what I've learned is not pretty much impossible and it was like you have to say these works I'm ready if you're not ready God's not gonna be like I'm just got away from you that addiction of to lust or whatever you have and or alcohol whatever your addiction is he's not just gonna take it away from you until you're ready and I think a lot of us we want to say we're ready but we're like this is kind of this is a good thing I got going on because I like indulging in this lust or fantasy or whatever it is whatever the weakness you have is you've got to be ready to let it go and that was what helped me get past everything was just saying I'm ready because for so long we kind of danced with one foot in the grave or we do you know there's so much that slows us down from getting where we need to be and a lot of it's just something so small some small temporary pleasure of the world that we think is everything or financial gain or whatever it is and just let it go let it go and see where see where the truth takes you see where this new freedom it's you don't realize you're a slave to your flesh until you're free from it and you're like so freeing not to have that addiction and those thoughts and these attacks all the time and it's just it's a different kind of freedom and a different kind of joy and I wouldn't be able to do I don't think me and you would be able to do what we do on YouTube with all the hate that we get if we didn't have that spirit of joy and that love that the father sends us I would just hate people I would when I first started doing it and getting all that hate you start going like oh my gosh these people are so mean and now it gets to everything the father is just like love them what wasn't gonna hurt you to love these people and send them love they might come back they might not but you send them love they're definitely not gonna return it's harder for them to return their remarks if you just say all right man I love you thanks for stopping by to someone who's like a flat toward it you know like so yeah move on why you know wipe the dust off move away yeah and and it's but yeah and it's not just us I mean it's making a difference because I I don't I when I started out I'd say about 40% of the comments or so were like negative or trolling at first and I got accused of all kinds of different things but over time they dropped off and precipitously about five months ago yeah I mean I know it's five months ago because it was so sudden and it dropped down to probably about 10% maybe even less now yeah which is like for this community at this time I mean I don't know how things will be in the future but if someone's watching this years later yeah it's unheard of that I mean that the the reactions that the programming triggered responses are there and I mean I was told how not just to kill myself but how I should get myself you know and family and and so you know I would just reply with you know it's kind of light-hearted you know like thank you for helping me with your with science yeah and it's right there for everybody else to see it I think it changed minds yeah and it makes a difference yeah so it but the joy I think they can sense the joy that I have I mean I'm still euphoric about it I have been for oh I guess over two years now and yeah it's a euphoria so it is pleasure so there's that you know but that can go but but I have a deep-seated joy because I look at reality and all the different things you know if if the Illuminati control and all this stuff that people get into you know you can get really deep into all this stuff down every rabbit hole and that I just I I know that I believe in a god creator is more powerful than any evil and I want to belong to that God who's good I was good I wouldn't want to believe that he's not good and I don't understand why anybody wouldn't want to be like that yeah and for me seeing his work seeing how he seemed like a fool because his words said things that I knew scientifically could not possibly be true yeah for so long I mean it's like the all ultimate underdog thing to play out I mean people went to the moon for crying out loud I mean yeah give me a break and then it's all turned upside down now yeah it really has if somebody said this that I met up they only meet up I've ever gone to is it's important it's the very first part of the Bible when you open it up is in the beginning you know and the earth is just dry land it's not everything all at once it's just dry land that's all ours really is we've taken it and turned it into so much more but when you start reading like like the book of Jubilees my wife bought the Zephyr based on someone's comments on one of our videos they said get the set for it has all the old lost books in it and Jubilees was actually one of the Kanan I would say that word came the nice text and it was just like Genesis it's called little Genesis but if they it's something they kept out for money purposes because they could print they could still make you know more money printing it with less pages or whatever and so it's like I'm reading that and it tells you how high the waters went above every mountain during the flood and you remember I think last time we were talking I was telling you about how much land is out there based on this book and our actually I was the fourth book of Ezra how it said that there's the earth is divided into seven parts and at creation it says I see here upon the third day you did command that the water should be gathered in the seventh part of the earth six parts have you dried up and kept them to the intent that some of these are that to the intent that of these some being planted of Elohim and killed my serve you and upon the fifth day you said under the seventh part where the waters were gathered that it should bring forth living creatures fowls and fish and so it came to pass well that was showing how large the earth is that it's more it's not 75% water you know it's more land than there is water we're fed that blue marble repetitive all the time that there's just blue marble it's mostly water mostly water when in reality there's a lot more land out there but yesterday my wife or the other day right after I got off the chat with you my wife was reading Jubilees and we talked about seven parts well Jubilees talks about the flood and it says and yahoo opened seven floodgates of 7/7 so actually gives a number seven floodgates of heaven and the mouths of the Fountains of the great deep seven mouths in number so it actually tells you so there's seven parts and then there's seven floodgates seven Fountains of the deep opening up and the whole earth filled with water and it says that and the floodgates began to pour down water from the husband forty days and forty nights and The Fountains of the deep also sent up waters until the whole world was full of water and the water increased upon the earth fifteen cubits did the waters rise above all the high mountains so it's actually giving you a depth of how high it was above all the high mountains though everything on earth it was covered with water like a giant pool I mean like a lake it wasn't a round ball of water I mean it was like the water raised up water was coming down from the floodgates like and that's one of my first clues in the Bible when you go back to the original meanings when it said the windows I think our says the windows of heaven but when you look up that original word window it's different when it says the windows of heaven as as opposed to the windows on the ark you know so it's like it's talking like a sleuth or something water comes out of as opposed to a hole in the wall and I just pictured it being clouds you know when he said that opened up I just pictured clouds pouring out rain I never really thought much into a bunch of cool things when you start reading these lost books that give us clues that there's more land out there and I think that what it froze more suspicion if they didn't take them out in the 1500s when they were creating this model especially Enoch I mean it literally prophesized about the heliocentric model and how the chief stars are gonna leave their orbital paths now we call them planets we're gonna make we're gonna take them to be gods and now they're all named after cods yeah yeah it was mind-blowing I remember hearing that I was laying down listening to it on audio kind of skeptical of Enoch I was just reading for the first time and I'm listening to it on audio and it was like talked about the chief stars and that's taking them to be gods and I started going we've done that I think we've taken to be gods and it's and we've lost our understanding of what these are to us their Suns our Sun isn't even the great light it's a star it's one of the smaller stars it's not even a big star yeah that's how deep the lies go if you ask just grab anybody on the street and you ask them a simple question this is the difference between you know the Bible and what you actually see with your senses how they agree and then how the in contrast how the world teaches you so if you ask anybody what is the brightest thing you've ever seen in your life and it's it they'll stumble around you know what's the well what's the brightest thing in the world what's the brightest thing in existence I guess you could ask it that way yeah and they'll give you all these answers but really it's the Sun for almost all of us I think it would have to be the Sun realistically and then in the Bible it pretty much says that but but yeah it's if you just dispense with what they've taught you know I I think it's a graven image the globe and then the fact that they named all these missions and all these things Isis and all these different names of these old you know evil like demonic god yeah but the lowercase G type thing that's very telling like why would you do that you know you guys have both hands on the Ouija board or what yeah everything numerology I mean gosh it's freaky when you look into all the NASA's their numbers and the way they do things with a globe model and yeah it gets really freaky yeah yeah yeah so I yeah it's cool I think I'll trade joy or I'll trade pleasure away for joy any time and yeah and we mentioned last time that if you don't know joy you can see it at least in somebody else maybe but it's it's just a longer lasting feeling that makes you rest easy at night and you know for me it comes from God that comes from Jesus and the Bible and all that and but I do respect I make this a point to that I've been different places in my life and not everybody's the same and in jesus's life he meets people where they are he doesn't expect them to come to him and recognize everything that there is about him there's no way they could possibly do that so he meets something that they are and there's Samaritan if there whatever he doesn't say well first you need to convert to this or that before you could yeah me and that so so you know I always make a point to welcome anybody and everybody wherever they are to to the discussion or what-have-you yes stop giving yourselves and try it if you don't believe it try it you know like if you don't believe that the Father's love is that he is love try it out you know with stop condemning yourself like we all do I think I spent years just condemning myself before I really realized I just need to turn to him and stay there stop condemning myself you know he's gonna help me through it if I'm ready you know if I'm ready to get out of it well hey definitely deliver you from any situation any low I'm talking there's some deep voids that we've all been in especially when we get sucked into the false Sciences like you were saying you did in college that's probably the lowest lows I've ever had is when my mind got focused on that and how far away these galaxies are and how far away that puts heaven and the father and everything when in reality when you know Jesus looked up to the heavens when he was talking to his father he knew where he was he knew how far that was you know yeah it was a perfect father-son relationship and him looking up and speaking to him makes sense you know unless the earth was rotating a different way he'd have to look you know like where are you but uh yeah and like how I've been into this like mystery history false history stuff where they have possibly been dishonest to a great extent about the past and going back earlier than like 1850 things and I'm starting to discover get really really sketchy and I think maybe the reason is it the same thing I've been saying to make it seem like the Bible isn't true and God doesn't exist because one of the things is when Jesus told as disciples to go out and preach to all nations Jesus didn't come to the earth until the time was full and so if half of the earth doesn't know about it doesn't have any communications with what's going on in Israel and Jerusalem and thus Jesus and all this stuff then was Jesus being ignorant or was he just kind of letting them go off the hook or just kind of ignoring them or what you know maybe reappearing like some religions say you know like he then they realized the problem then they kind of say oh he reappeared over there and did this whole other thing I don't I don't think that I think that there was communication and I think that they've tried to hide that and cover it up because they want you to think that it was longer ago in the past and it was localized just like the local flood not global flood yeah noble isn't the right word I'm still myself but you know they just try to make it seem like it's just a couple of a couple of uh you know backwards people in this nation and it just got out of hand and bah-bah-bah yeah and they're changing it from BC to BCE yeah era now yeah so yeah but but I again I love that doing that I love doing that research I love discovering things and using the Bible and the the study that we've done a extensive study in the past you know is paying off finally some really esoteric things that I learned like why is this in the Bible you know how you come across those things you read it you're like what but you I'm I'm shocked at how they come out sometimes like this really strange thing I read it's actually like the linchpin that holds this whole concept together which answers the question that we've been asking because this other thing it's really a wild a wild ride I'm just having the time of my life with it yeah I mean it looks like you're too and and I know a lot of the people the viewers you know they they love it some of them just can't wait until the next video and I that that's really exciting to see yeah it is and it's deciding watching people change to just watching them come from their backgrounds of being lost to finding hope and truth like wow I finally feel I feel I loved I feel you know like people always say oh you're just in this to feel special and I already felt special I already knew who I was already knew who the father was but it's just cool to be able to prove it and wake up so many people so fast that it has the enemy scrambling and trying to figure out ways to stop us and make us look bad it's and some of their tricks are working for you know some numbers of people and the signature ship it's just annoying and but it is what it is and I and I'm really glad we have this platform while we do and we'll use it while we can and when it's gone we have to find other ways to spread the good news yeah it sounds like my family just made it home so we'll probably have to practice up all right yeah that sounds good yeah I think is great you know just for anybody listening we we talked for about two hours a couple days ago and my mistake I I was thinking I was saving it and then I saw in the error message so I'm like oh boy there's no way to recover it said yeah unless the NSA sends it to me yeah we should do this more and I want to get my brother on here maybe one day my wife when I can get her to start doing videos with me doing that I do videos to make money out put her in a video and and get lots of views she's better looking yeah you know it sounds good and you should consider going over to twitch as well I mean I just did yeah I'm still kind of check it out myself but I'm there at UA PCH is my hand like okay twitch.tv I'll start calling that and see how it works is I'm looking for another platform too so I know everybody's trying to find somewhere to go with YouTube just dropping people left and right without warning yeah yep yeah it's it's disheartening and and that cancelling off certain people's channels that that's just it's not not worth it you know when you're investing and and there's it matters for people's people's well-being so alright well it was great talking to you and we'll just see how to do it again soon look forward to it heck yeah someday really saying alright okay care have a good night you do

Slavemasonry | UAP



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okay so after warn you this one I'm going to talk about some sense of their topics I guess it's really important to hear but if you have no stomach for anything controversial then consider yourself warned and you can go back to sleep and you can go if you need and I do respect your choice so everybody who just can't handle anything controversial or sensitive of any nature be it by Creed by sexual topics whatever that type of stuff if you can't handle it you're gone by now right you're not listening right I don't hear anybody they're all gone okay and if they haven't gone because they don't know what to do somebody else who's listening give them some crayons and some color by number NASA like rocket sheets of paper and set them over in the corner but headphones on in place some ariana grande or Lady Gaga or whatever whatever stuff like that you know to each his own okay okay so they're all gone now the rest of you are a little bit tougher the rest of you here are a little bit meaner in a good way you are known to be a warrior maybe a lawyer maybe just somebody who argues because you have a point and you believe in something whether you're a warrior or a lawyer whether you follow the natural law or you follow the lower the lower isn't the law the lore as I call it because I love to feign an English accent sometimes the lower is the belief system that they have you totally embedded in such as green pieces of paper have power over you green pieces of paper can make you sell out yourself your soul your dignity little green pieces of paper with you know presidents faces on them and numbers can make you do awful things you know that's that's the system we've all been taught and unfortunately we have to stay stay in to some extent well anyway I know that there are people who subscribe listen to myself and others because they want to know the truth but they aren't of the truth okay there may be on the fence maybe you know a lot of people had like one good parent one bad parent and they both had their influence and as a result they're kind of they don't know what direction they're taking there are a lot of younger people listening to my channel now watching my videos and so I do worry a little bit because at my worst when I was I don't know nineteen years old or something I was at my moral low point as most people are in college I wasn't that bad really compared to just not everybody I knew compared to I'd say 70% of everybody at college I was like a saint but for me personally in my own life you know it was a low point that I don't I don't dwell on but I don't forget at the same time not that I can't forget forgive and all that stuff I have but I you know I believed for a little bit for about six months I believed in evolution and that's the time when I was at my worst but at my worst I was selfish I didn't seek to harm others I didn't seek to deceive I just believed the wrong truth and the implications of that LED you know led me to make some poor choices for a little bit but they weren't that bad they just didn't feel right didn't sit well with me because I still had a I didn't go to church but I still had a knowledge and relationship with God the Creator and I just felt like I couldn't let go of God and so I had to let go something else so I let go of my belief in evolution slowly I mean it didn't happen once but just as it crept up on me it it went away but it was a conscious choice anyway my point for this video is I can imagine myself back then at my worst still being a clever dude listening to all this truth stuff if it existed back then in the form that it is today where it's available still I would have been clever enough to realize a fact and that fact would have been a dangerous fact because I wouldn't have known enough about it that maybe maybe it would have influenced me to go a certain route in order to gain power money wealth control all the trappings and it seems like it would work but obviously I'm going to advise against it but it's like an elephant in the room that needs to be addressed for all these people listening to these videos I think I've had six million views now total well maybe it's minutes I can't remember and I think I was over 10 million minutes watched a long time ago anyway there's a lot there's a lot of education going on and this just hasn't been said by anybody at least not me and I haven't heard anybody else but okay here it is the fact of all this deception and the people in control I know it seems like hey the world is what it is nothing's really changing so why not just become a freemason yourself and be part of the deception and if people are just too stupid and they're gonna believe all these lies all this total bull crap then they must just be a bunch of idiots and they deserve to be screwed over they deserve to be lied to that deserve to be the plebeians the the wage slaves the fools who do all the dirty work and and meanwhile the you can be part of the Freemasons who basically print money and control everything behind the scenes and everything's a big joke to them and it's all a big act and it's all theater and they're just like puppet masters and actors and they think they're serving themselves and they are and they get rewards for it that are things you don't even think we're possible they get to do they get away with it if it's not kosher and they just run roughshod over everybody and everything they come into contact with but here's my point including each other so I have a couple points but I have to address more than one even though one should be enough to keep anybody away from joining Freemasonry you know and again I'm not talking about the lower level community you know stuff where it's like oh you know I'm I know this guy he's nice he invited me I go there we drink beer yuk it up pick up trash in the community recruit other people to the lodge and our Lodge doesn't do this and that and we just Bowl and you know it's like Fred Flintstone stuff blah blah blah so that's not what I'm talking about at all of course but um you got to think about it it's a hierarchical organization and it keeps secrets it's it's officially a secret society and I have a problem with secrets not in general but specifically with certain organizations and people and groups so secrets aren't all bad God keeps secrets but it's for your own good whereas I think it's the opposite going on with the Freemasonry so if they keep secrets and it's not for your own good then you have to acknowledge what sinister what is controlling them so this is okay wait where am I getting with that my first point that it's a spiritual death basically because you're following something that keeps secrets which means deception which means the devil which means the father of lies which means hell and so you're on a path to hell if you believe in judgment afterlife all that stuff Heaven and Hell type stuff then it would be ill-advised to go that route of course goes without saying but I need to say it because for me that would be reason enough and case closed done now I know most people because because of the seen and the unseen and especially with young people there's a lot more sway with what you can see and know on earth in right in front of you in terms of you know sensual things and that's fine because we have at least six senses and I always include the sense humor but they're more and I'm not like NASA where I'm going to ask you to just imagine stuff and leave it at that and not address with what you can actually verify yourself so using your senses I'd like to address well what goes on at the higher levels of these organizations and that's where it gets a little uglier and that's why I said if you can't handle stuff you don't wanna listen because if you're into these organizations you have to see the fact that they do all this satanic stuff and the satanic stuff is bad I need to I need to say this I guess because apparently you know they're trying to sell it off as opposite stuff like like God causes Wars and disease and Satan this rebellious against all that when it's not at all true I can remember with 9/11 when that happened they they kept asking this question and then in the mainstream media and all over the place why would God allow this to happen learn all this it's like wait a minute you shouldn't even be talking about God when you're talking about something like 9/11 because you know that's the work of the devil and his minions basically and it had nothing to do with Muslims you know and their idea of God Allah has absolutely nothing to do with 9/11 except that Islam and their understanding of God Allah was used as a scapegoat and a pawn and had a tarnished and sullied image because of deception and that's huge all right needs to be acknowledged because I'm an American Christian and I can understand why you know practically a billion people who are Muslim would understandably want to forever hate my country and my religion for doing that because it was purposeful and it was unfair and it was wrong and that's one of the reasons I'm into all this truth stuff because if we don't acknowledge it now folks we're gonna have to acknowledge it later or it's gonna go on the next generation or the next generation but it's gonna come back and bite us and it's not even us we need to say you know it's Don Rumsfeld Dick Cheney George W Bush and Barack Obama and all the people they work for cuz they're just middlemen pawns you know well maybe not middle but they're up there but they're not that they have people they work for and they answer to and it goes all the way up a hierarchy the pyramid and then tippy-top you have the devil that's the top of their pyramid and they know it and they don't they don't they don't fight against each other that much but let me tell you about what they what they do and why you wouldn't want to join Freemasonry you wouldn't want to be part of that and it's because the whole system the whole idea derives from this selfishness and it's a philosophy that lines up with Darwinism which survival of the fittest means you know the strong survive and so that is a recipe for betrayal and absolutely abusing somebody because if there's no right and wrong the relativism that they love so much with Einstein it carries through to morals it carries through their philosophy from beginning to end everything is relative and I have to say that it's it's true that many many things are relative but not everything is relative and that is what really triggers them when you make a stand on something something very very solid that's what really triggers them because it's not them it's it's the spirit you ever notice when something really really inexplicable is going on with a single person or a group of people they you know they call it like the spirit you know like the spirit you know even in school like you have spirit day where you have everybody's going to support the football team or the basketball team because there's a general feeling it's a general spirit and powers the the team members to do a better job on the field around the court and it's real and there's an understanding that you know if everybody supports the team you know they then the team's gonna do a better job and it's it's not because they don't have new bodies they don't have new knowledge of what plays to run and all that it's just a spiritual thing it's a motivation and it is powerful it's it's life and death and everything else it just emanates from people as individuals or groups well the spirit of what is Freemasonry and Satanism and all that kind of stuff a cult ritualistic stuff like that is not only selfish but it's sacrificial and that is because of what I'm starting to address what I've known for a little while and that is the magic and what what am I talking about magic well all science that isn't understood is magic and you know all explanations of magic are science and I'll get into a lot more but as wacky as it sounds I want you to just stick with me on this it's not going to be something I can cover in a single video but it is something worth covering it's real and once you understand it the kind of wizardry that's being used which is five blocks from the World Trade Center itself I witnessed the entire thing from beginning to end people talk about how it looked like a movie I know when I came walking once you understand the kind of wizardry that's being used you're going to become immune to it and I'm gonna teach you some of this stuff that's being done not to use it but to recognize it and to spit in its face when it's being used to manipulate you and some of it I've talked about already there's a lot more to it though so this but without calling magic or whatever mainly the most powerful magic the most powerful I guess the wizardry might not be the right word but spiritual power is sacrifice so the most powerful being in the universe delivered the most pure and powerful sacrifice of himself on the cross to defeat evil which would otherwise be one of the more one of the most powerful forces in in existence because it's bad enough when somebody dies for something that's wrong you know like an innocent man is executed it's really bad when a child is hurt or killed because they're young they're innocent I mean it's not right to think Oh an old old lady or whatever if she gets killed you know shrug your shoulders but when a child is killed then you're outraged you know that's not really fair but the reason we're all like that to some extent I hope we all are is just because of the the innocence of the child makes that crime more deplorable well Jesus was more innocent than any child and that's why his the crucifixion is so obscene you you know if you're following me but then that makes that sacrifice even more powerful that's why that magic works and it's God could you know God can do it without that sacrifice but but gods he's everything you know you you would you can't accuse god of anything there's nothing there's nothing there to accuse god of it won't stick nobody can say God didn't man up or that God expects us to do something that he himself wouldn't be willing to do you know there's there's no way to say that so so there that's that now these bad people understand the power of sacrifice but they do it in a twisted way so like at church you do this ritual where you act like a cannibal and I do have I do have some problems with that in general because for obvious reasons but you're not literally being a cannibal you're eating bread and you're drinking wine but it's body of Christ blood of Christ and it seems I'm sure too many people outside of the church and many Protestants and you know and I've been a Protestant most well half over half my life for most I don't know about half I guess it just seems like a weird thing to do that like like you're imitating what Satanists do you know in their rituals but that's not at all how it is because it's the other way around I believe it is always the devil twisting what God does to make a counterfeit okay and they're one of the reasons he does it is because of the magic okay so just stick with me I know there's cringe-worthy stuff here and I'm with you I understand that and I'm following your thought process as I'm talking and I don't want you to have a knee-jerk reaction and tune out because stick with me okay so here's the deal Jesus was a willing sacrifice and you're not literally nobodies literally eating his flesh and drinking his blood okay it's like I'm not gonna use the word symbolic but it's it's bread and it's wine you know what I mean so it's not obscene in that sense and if you remember you know like the child sacrifice your only son thing with like Abraham and and then Abraham was willing to do it and he raised the accident but remember the angel came and stopped him from dropping the axe and Isaac wasn't beheaded by his dad that would be as sick that would be insane but the point of that whole story is that most people wouldn't be willing to go that far and God wouldn't expect you to have to do that yet God Himself basically did that by choice for us and then the Jewish people come from Abraham who is one of the few people who would go that far for God believing still that God is good and there must be some better thing or some way that it's gonna be made up for in the end to make it all make sense and be right and that's the faith that sets him apart from pretty much everybody else and that's why the Jewish people are set apart from everybody else because of what he did you know and the sins of the father carry through and just like the righteousness of the father carries through so Jewish people to this day are blessed because of because of that and many other things like that that sets them apart from other people now what they do with that is individuals is a different story okay but I'm just talking about the group all right so here's the deal Freemasonry Satanists they do the sacrifice thing like anything demonic is this way they love to sacrifice the innocent who are not like Jesus they're not willingly giving themselves up they're forcibly giving up that's why they have to be MKULTRA and tied and all this horrible crap and the people doing the sacrifice are doing it they think for themselves because they get stuff you know they get stuff for it so these Hollywood people who just go to the top of the pops so quickly and easily they get all this stuff what did they have to do to get that I'm really starting to see it more than ever and I've known about it like Tom Hanks is not who you think he is you know and he's a great actor but I'm even starting to realize how in some ways how they can be great actors and actresses one of the you know I'm a great actor myself but one of the there are a couple things that I had really a lot of trouble doing when I had to play a scene my acting ability vacated in certain situations and it has to do with the difference between me and someone like Tom Hanks now one of my one of one of the things that I can do really well is play like an evil mastermind genius type person that's like my forte or just the hero guy I can do that well too you know so I could be doctor no or whatever but I could also be James Bond or Indiana Jones or whatever I'm good at those things but I'm really bad at doing it's playing like a like a frat dude trying to trying to sweet-talk a woman or like a soap opera guy that type of stuff is not my forte and and the really the thing that is really hard for me is wine where you have to do like like cry you know like be horrified by something and cry and just freak out but when I'm watching people act and you know they're there their lips start shaking their eyes just tear up and turn red and you know they crinkle up their nose which is a sign disgust and their whole body shakes and they sob now it's not that I haven't done that in my life I've had reasons to do that but there's nothing that haunts me that I can call upon whereby I can do that so convincingly but Hollywood the top you know most of the Hollywood actors actresses seem to be able to do that maybe I'm wrong and maybe that's just a skill or maybe some of this sick crap that they do in their rituals and all this bull crap that they do serves a purpose other than just the supposed you know just the magic of it that I was talking about earlier and so there are practical things about it that allows them to you know to act they're haunted by it it drives them and controls them some of the do-gooder people might be so if you meet them they are a lot of them are just generous super nice cool they'll make you laugh they're just awesome to be around they are and in that moment and in those times they are awesome people but they can be generous because they have a lot of resources that they got by doing things perhaps that are twisted and evil and they are that eats away at them and it drives them to try to make up for it by doing all these wonderful things but they're driven by this guilt and it doesn't work that's why it's so effective that's why it's ever-present and it's not just Hollywood you know it's all you know you get up to these higher levels and there's there are seen too many of not illusions I've seen too many illusions to it I've seen too many references to many scenarios too much imagery too many symbolic things to think that there's nothing to it almost every major band whether it's pop rock whatever even in classical it doesn't take long for you to look through the images associated with that band that persona that group whatever it is composer whatever it is to see them associated with something where there's a circle of people a stone table in the middle or you know some child innocent child and like what the hell does a rock band metal band or pop group of adults what the hell do they have anything to do when I'm talking about album cover art music videos whatever what the hell does it have to do with children in general and don't you sense the creepiness of it the inappropriateness of it why is it there you know well yeah I guess I'll just say it because if you've not seen it there's ex-banker from Europe there was a YouTube video and the guy broke down crying because he said he had to kill a girl in a ritual sacrifice in order to get up in the higher levels of finance yeah seems pretty convincing it doesn't seem like something somebody would make up to be popular on YouTube come on you know it's I watch today I'm pretty good at telling if somebody's lying and that was a confession man and I was talking about the practical aspects of why they do this and you better bet that they videotape these things because they love they love to have something over on you they love to have something so it's practical in the respect that they have something over on you and they can control you because obviously they could give you up for what you did and it's not just that that's the trump card that they have on there it helps if you have really weird perversions and things which of course they encourage but if they don't have that they at least at the minimum make you participate in something like the ritual that I described there or that not that I described but that the guy who was a partaker in that described and he said you know it happens at the level of people who have tens of millions of dollars I know a lot of people who are millionaires Wow a few that have tens of millions who didn't do that but they you you don't know them though the tens of million the ones who have tens of millions of dollars did I know that I don't believe took part in anything like that are not people that you would know the ones that have that kind of money that you would know probably I don't know I'm guessing it's conjecture that they would have taken part in something like that but according to what I've learned from the gentleman banker well he's a gentleman now he wasn't before so so what's what's to keep somebody from doing that I mean people like money I like money I like money – we should hang him I don't really like money but I I like not having to worry about it which I've been doing a lot of lately but you know there are worse things in life um so oh hey man just join up and do this thing and you get everything you want if you're an atheist what's the difference what's it matter okay you know if you're wrong it's really bad if you're right it's not that great why is it not that great because they demand sacrifices also of each other you know it's just like the thing in that there's always this satanic element to almost anything popular and so I went and saw the newest Avengers movie which was really good but it is tarnished by a few things and one of them is when they have to get one of these spirit stones or something like that eternity stone or whatever it is they have to give up something they love forever and so they have to sacrifice a soul for the soul stone that's what it was soul for a soul you know and it's like well wait you know in so then black widows sacrifices their soul you know for to save the world whatever type stuff well it's great that's a nice sacrificial love powerful magic everything I've just been talking about is in the movie there but also you know this this notion of you know they have to give up one of the Avengers has to give up one of the Avengers you know I mean like they couldn't all win there had to be sacrifice and but they do that in their little circles and they betray each other why do you think there you know they have all these freak accidents and they're not it's not like that you know I mean you know what I'm saying so it's not that hard to find yourself on the table with everyone in a circle around you is what I'm saying and you can think you do everything right or whatever but they just want to have you know they like to make examples and keep everybody it's all fear motivation it's not love motivation it's fear and I've read Machiavelli and I understand how the world works and that it's much more efficient and effective overall to rule by fear than by love in the world according to human nature as we've been programmed in time but what I tried to do with this channel on YouTube and I'm gonna mention it over and over again until I do it I want to do a twitch stream live-live screaming live-streaming whatever it ends up being on twitch can give that a shot just because of well for economic reasons there's no doubt about that but just to have a different platform I wanted to go live anyway and just when I'm getting ready to do it YouTube gave me a slap on the wrist for the video I did when I said I'm only gonna say this once and then I showed you about the fake news and the face swapping the deep fakes that they do like real time CGI avatar people and I think that explains a lot of these anomalies that we see not all of them but Musso them and you just it's getting really good i also saw in the avengers maybe the cgi it's still cgi but there's a lot of stuff in there that's cgi that isn't obviously cgi at first you know and they do it on the news and it's very um it's it's getting harder to detect and so when I started off that video and I said I'm only gonna say this once I wanted everybody listen up and learn that the mainstream news is totally fake totally in the pocket of somebody else in there not it's not for your best interest because I knew it was for a limited time only the video is pretty much gone and and you know my channel gets hit for it so I'm not I'm not sure if I'm even gonna appeal it because they you know I know that I wasn't bullying but I know that's not what it's about anyway so why bother and basically a long story short it just made it so I'm not really going to do a live thing on YouTube because I don't feel safe about it I'm going to do twitch Plus YouTube I saw what happened with Owen Benjamin and the super chat I don't know if he got that money back or whatever when they D monetized on my they took money retro actively out so people like what he's saying they support you know but he's doing which makes sense if you've paid for a Steven Spielberg movie as most of us have you've sent money to a Satanist to lie to you when you have someone like Owen Benjamin making you laugh and telling you truth there's nothing wrong with sending them some money but if you do it through YouTube through the super chat they take a huge percentage of that right off the top and there's no point in that you know and then after after taking that much percentage they want to dictate whether or not you even get it right to actively or if you were forced to refund it to people because they don't like what you said that's just craziness I mean if it's actual bullying all that stuff that'd be different but it's not like that and anyway so I've said what I wanted to say and I hope you have a good day and I hope I'm gonna have said there won't be any people foolishly going and thinking that they can join up with Freemasonry and live the life of Riley because it's not like that and you surround yourself with people like that there there's death and suffering and fear because that's what the devlins minions feed off of and it's going to be your fear and your death and at some point and if that's the life you choose it makes sense it's only fair some people say you know how could God how could a loving God have anything be horrible you know everybody should go to heaven well I I would agree except that some people just choose it I mean I would think everybody would be like me and everybody would choose to want to go to heaven but when you see it on earth in different forms and you see people choose murder and promiscuity and you know deception and vainglory and all that kind of stuff knowingly willingly choose it over and over again they're given into it it's who they are well then you can understand it but I don't see that in a lot of people very much except at these higher levels I see it and so you know the path the path to hell is is wide and the path to heaven is narrow but if you would ask me I think a lot of people are going to go to heaven but the people who do go to hell they they deserve it and they chose it and if you're choosing to be in Freemasonry not I'm not talking about lower-level people again here ok so a huge percentage of them I'm not saying they're going to hell automatically you know I'm not saying that it's not my place to judge anyway but from where I stand the people at the top who are doing these things that are alleged to have been done but like I like that European banker and such those people they have no place in heaven I would guarantee that now have I seen evidence of all that stuff being done not a lot of evidence but I have seen a lot of innuendo a lot of symbolism and a lot of there's there are a lot of allusions to it so even if it's just a theory even if it's just a kind of a Methos and it isn't carried out in the flesh it would still be kind of bad because why would you want to associate with something like that symbolically unless there's some kind of kinship with it so I kind of reject it I'm not perfect and everything I mean I'm still somebody who's seen so many Hollywood movies it's just what I know but but I'm gonna make a conscious decision to kind of transition away from that kind of stuff I mean I don't watch television at one time and that is some powerful magic I tell you that there's some mind-control stuff going on and you're a better person for it if you get away from it so I had a long chat hopefully it was good I hope I didn't get too religious on you I don't believe in a religion or a evangelism of imposition but rather inspiration so if anything I said inspired you to become a Christian to put your faith in the work of Jesus as the Messiah the Christ then I am happy for you because that's what I did and I think it will change your life and make you a happier better person and if you're not it doesn't mean that I'm condemning you and all that kind of stuff because I believe God meets us all where we are I also believe that if you are somebody who belongs with God when you see God you see things that are good and you want to be like that and you want more of that in your life and with Freemasonry and Hollywood and all this stuff I don't see things that are good I see deception I see things that I don't mike done to me I don't like to do to others and you know with Jesus and and Christianity I see a lot of good stuff now the sacrificial stuff you know the crucifixion for example that's not good I don't you know and then the you know that body blood that I feel like that's not that great of a thing to have to have done but I realized that it's necessitated by sin and therefore love and redemption and all those things are passed so you know they're not in heaven so that's the ideal that I follow and hopefully it's inspired you having heard this and every day Cheers

Alien Contact: What Happens Next?



Views:60442|Rating:4.29|View Time:1:11Minutes|Likes:919|Dislikes:151
Are we alone in this vast universe? Some think that’s highly unlikely. With new technologies joining the search, NASA estimates we’ll find definitive evidence of aliens within 20 to 30 years. Which raises the vital question: And then what? Will the news inspire jubilation, despair, or fear? Will aliens be seen as gods or interlopers? Evidence of alien life will provoke fundamental questions about our place in the universe–not just about who they are, but also who we are. Join astronomers, astrobiologists, anthropologists, philosophers, and linguists as we ponder these issues.

PARTICIPANTS: Kathryn Denning, David Kipping, Karen Lewis, and Marcelo Magnasco

MODERATOR: Wendy Zukerman

MORE INFO ABOUT THE PROGRAM AND PARTICIPANTS:

This program is part of the BIG IDEAS SERIES, made possible with support from the JOHN TEMPLETON FOUNDATION.

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TOPICS:

0:17 – Participant intros
1:50 – How are scientists searching for intelligent life?
5:10 – Sending messages into space
6:59 – What kind of alien signal are we likely to detect?
9:00 – Would we be able to interpret an alien signal?
13:44 – What is the closest that intelligent life could be to Earth?
16:25 – How would we know if far away transmitting civilizations still exist?
20:00 – How well can we communicate with dolphins?
24:19 – Dolphin research film
26:27 – Understanding dolphins vs. understanding aliens
28:44 – What are the steps to understand an alien language?
38:02 – What happens on earth after we contact alien life?
44:40 – “War of the Worlds” broadcast controversy and damage
46:40 – Will the discovery of aliens unite humanity?
50:39 – What if we’re alone in the universe?
53:10 – Could AI help us find aliens?
54:20 – Using our children to bridge languages and species

PROGRAM CREDITS:

– Produced by John Plummer
– Associate Produced by Laura Dattaro

This program was recorded live 6/3/18 at the World Science Festival and has been edited and condensed for YouTube.

And so today, we're going to talk about what
happens if and when intelligent life contacts us. So what would that be like, what should
we say, will we understand what they're saying? So to help us discuss this, our first guest
is an anthropologist at York University. And she researches, amongst many other things,
the evolution of intelligence, the colonization of space. She's collaborated with The NASA
Astrobiology Institute, the SETI Institute, and the 100-Year Starship Program. Please
welcome Kathryn Denning! Our next guest is an astronomer at Columbia
University, where he leads the Cool Worlds lab. His research team is focused on discovering
new planets and moons. Please welcome David Kipping!
Also joining us, we have a philosopher from Barnard College, which is at Columbia University.
She specializes in the philosophy of language, and is the co-founder and co-organizer of
PhLip, an annual conference that brings together philosophers and linguists from all over the
world. Please welcome Karen Lewis! And our final guest is a biophysicist, and
head of the Laboratory of Integrative Neuroscience at Rockefeller University. Among many things,
he studies the brains and communication skills of dolphins, which is kind of like an alien
species. So he's an expert in deciphering alien languages. Please welcome Marcelo Magnasco!
So David, catch us up to speed on the ways in which science is currently searching for
intelligent life. Sure. So probably the most famous program
that's trying to look for evidence of extraterrestrial civilizations is called SETI. S. E. T. I.,
that's the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. And traditionally, ever since Frank Drake
first started this project, I think back in the 1960's with a famous project called Project
Ozma, they started listening for radio signals, essentially hoping that somebody was transmitting
our direction. And that makes a lot of sense. Radio, which is a form of electromagnetic
radiation, travels at the speed of light. So it's the fastest form of communication,
and it's very cheap to produce and receive. So it kind of makes sense, as a way to look.
More recently, scientists, and I guess you might bunch me in with this group, have been
thinking about other ways that you might be able to reveal the presence of extraterrestrial
civilizations, one of which might be that they are not intending to tell us that they
are here. They're not deliberately messaging us, but maybe we can still tell that they
are there by virtue of their technologies. Maybe they're building some giant alien engineering
megastructure, and we might be able to see them in their act of building that, or maybe
see the waste heat, for instance, from the giant machines they're using. So recently,
both of those approaches have emerged as sort of the main avenues we're using.
And how do you see if someone is trying to build this weird, alien structure, you know,
thousands of miles away? Yeah, that's a good question. It's almost
like Arthur C. Clarke would say that such an advanced civilization would be indistinguishable
from magic, in a way. So how on Earth can you look for something which could essentially
be magic? And that's kind of what, in a way, we do. We look for things which are unnatural.
So we think we understand how stars work. We think we understand how planets are built
around planetary systems, and we look for stuff that essentially just cannot be explained
by any other means. There's a very famous type of signal that
we look for called a Dyson Sphere, maybe some of you have heard of that before. Freeman
Dyson famously proposed that in the 1960s, and it's essentially saying: well, you know,
if energy growth continues at 2% per year, which is about how energy growth has been
increasing over the last few decades, eventually in the year 3500 or something if you extrapolate
it, we would need the energy from the entire Sun. So how do you take the entire energy
of a star? You build a shell around it. So we could maybe look for these giant shells
built around stars. So you won't see the starlight because it's been blocked out, but you would
see all of the waste heat that they were generating. So they can't get around the laws of thermodynamics,
hopefully. If they can beat thermodynamics, then basically we have no idea about how physics
works at all. And if they have to obey thermodynamics, then they should emit, still, some waste heat
energy. And we look for the heat signature of stars which do not appear in visible light,
but appear in infrared. And that would be a giveaway that somebody is extracting all
of the light energy, and doing something with it. So that's a type of signature that we
can look for. Any luck so far?
No, actually, but people have looked. So there's been about 100 thousand nearby stars which
have been surveyed for Dyson Spheres, and about 100 thousand galaxies which have been
surveyed. And so far, there's no conclusive evidence of such a civilization. Which in
a way, is kind of depressing. It means that theses super-advanced civilizations, if they
exist, they don't do that very often. They don't use entire stellar outputs of stars.
Yeah. So we're not just, as a species, in terms
of trying to find alien life, we're not just searching for it actively. We're also sending
messages. We're broadcasting. Can you tell us a little bit about that?
Sure. So there's an institute called METI Institute, so Messaging Extraterrestrial Intelligence
Institute. It's an outgrowth of a thread that was kind of present in SETI from the beginning,
which was the idea that one way to conduct the experiment, instead of just listening,
listening, listening, go, “Yoohoo,” and see if anybody answers.
So there's a pretty major division, I would say, within the world of SETI on that subject.
Some people are very firmly of the opinion that we should just listen, not broadcast.
Others say, “Look. If there's anything out there to be worried about, chances are it
knows we're here already. So we may as well say 'hello.'” Really, quite different sets
of opinions on that, and some friction. And where do you sit on this? And it's quite
controversial the things that go down. It is quite controversial, and it's related
to the question of risk. I should say, as an anthropologist rather than a person who
is an astronomer, or somebody composing messages to transmit, I kind of study the debate. So
I'm going to be annoyingly agnostic on this one, as well, and not commit. What I like
to do instead is kind of look at this question for those who say, in the public in particular,
that we should transmit, why are they saying that? What are their interests, and what are
their concerns? And for those who say we shouldn't transmit, what are their reasons? And then
it all kind of spins out into this larger question about, “Okay, well we all share
this planet together. How do we decide these things?” So it kind of spins quickly into
a question of public-scientist relationships, and different camps on Earth, and all of that.
So if we do … Say SETI does pick up a signal, David, what kind of signal are we likely to
get? Well, that's a hard question to answer. It
could be, classically, the signal that people have been looking for is just a high-powered,
narrow frequency. Narrow bandpass-range radio transmission. But that's all it is. It's just
like a pulse. This star essentially appears very bright when you look at the specific
wavelength of light, which corresponds to radio.
Typically, the frequencies they look at is something called The Water-Hole. That is a
frequency space in the universe which is naturally very quiet. So stars produce radio waves,
quasars produce radio waves, galaxies emit plenty of radio. So you have to choose a frequency
where the universe is not noisy. So there's this one particular bandpass called The Water-Hole
that, collectively, SETI scientists have been sort of honing in on. And if you saw a very
high-powered frequency that was way above the cosmic background noise, then you would
say, “Okay, maybe there's something interesting here.”
But we've seen those. Actually, [email protected], which is essentially this screensaver you
can download and it processes through data that SETI have collected, sees about 72 signals
like that per day, on average. So there are 72 high-powered frequencies above the background
noise, and most of them are just terrestrial interference. So this is just, you know, our
own radio transmitters bouncing off the atmosphere and coming back down, or satellites in space,
military satellites, even. And it's very difficult to go through each one of those and figure
out is this genuinely something alien, or is this something just that was interfering.
So you know, one of the dreams for a long time of SETI has been: what if you could put
a radio telescope on the back of the Moon, on the far side of the Moon? You wouldn't
get any of the radio interference from the Earth whatsoever. So it'd be a very, very
quiet region, and you just have the cosmos to deal with and no human interference. So
if we could build any kind of radio telescope for SETI, that'd probably be the radio telescope
that'd we'd want and then maybe we would have a much clearer view of these things.
So say we did get a signal that wasn't terrestrial interference, Karen, would we be able to interpret
it? You're the linguist. Okay, well, that's a great question. So I
think there are a lot of challenges in interpreting a signal. First of all, it's a matter of recognizing
the signal as communicative in the first place, right? We don't want to try … I mean, maybe
there's other ways to tell that it's evidence that there's intelligent life out there, right?
If it's evidence of technology that they couldn't have if they weren't intelligent. That would
be a non-linguistic way of communicating that there is intelligent life. But if you think,
“Okay, there's a signal, and it's a piece of language, and they want to communicate
something,” how do we even figure out that something's trying to be communicative in
the first place? So if you think about what a language is,
a language is a symbolic system, first of all. Meaning, however you encode it, whether
there is sort of sounds that are coming out of my mouth right now, or a writing system,
or a signing system, or braille, or anything like that, those are just … Say the sounds
that are coming out of my mouth, they're just sounds, but they encode certain meaning. Other
sounds don't encode meaning. And some are very complex and don't encode meaning. For
example, think of a song, or something like that. Music is made of notes, but the notes
don't pick out, or refer to a particular thing in the world. So the first thing is just recognizing
that there's a symbolic system here, rather than something else that occurs in nature,
something that's not suppose to have meaning at all.
And second of all, the way language works, what makes in linguistic is that the speaker
or the sender wanted to communicate something with that message, and we have to figure what
they wanted to communicate. If it's just this random noise that came off into the universe,
then we're trying to interpret something that's not interpretable. So the first thing is just
trying to figure out whether this is something we should be interpreting in the first place.
The next challenge is, of course, if we think it is something we should be interpreting,
is how to decode that. And I think there are challenges in all sorts of levels. One, we
have to figure out just what the individual … so every language is made up of building
blocks of meaning. So for example if I just say something simple like, “This chair is
red and white,” there's the words in a sentence that are building blocks. There's meaning.
So we want to figure out something like “chair,” where it refers to this sort of thing.
And then there's the syntax, the grammar, how they form together. So when I say, “This
chair is red and white,” predicating the properties of being white and red of the chair,
and we figure that out because we know the grammar of English. So whatever the communication
we have, if it's anything linguistic, it's going to have these building blocks of meaning,
and a way that they go together to communicate a message. And we're going to have to figure
out both what those building blocks refer to, and then, how they click together to make
a message. And that's even furthermore going to be complicated because, chances are, the
aliens have very different things they want to talk about than we do. So they're not probably
going to be talking about chairs, or grandparents, or people.
Internet bubbles. Or internet bubbles, or anything like that.
So even sort of searching for what these building blocks could refer to is really hard, because
chances are it's going to be sort of outside of our concepts. And so, even if somehow we
decode that a certain word refers to something, we have a hypothesis of what sort of thing
it refers to, we're not going to have any sense of sort of what role does that thing
play in their society. Just as if we sent messages about chairs. Even if somehow they
could figure out the word “chair” referred to this sort of thing, they have no idea what
a chair is really, or what role it plays in our society. So there's this sort of … Even
if you can, somehow, and I doubt you can, get through all those first layers, you're
going to have at the end, even if you somehow decode the message in a certain sense, you're
not really going to understand the message. And if I can just add something to that. In
terms of trying to translate these messages, it maybe seems to us right now like it's a
long way off that we'd be able to do that. So maybe the advanced civilization might anticipate
that, and they might not actually attempt to send, necessarily, a specific message,
but just a broadcast that they are, in the first case, just intelligent. So maybe you
could just send a prime number sequence. So just a series of, you know, like morse code
almost like, “beep, beep-beep, beep-beep-beep,” and just send the series of prime numbers.
And then at least we would know that there's no way that that was a natural process. There's
nothing in nature that just spits out prime numbers. So you might not be able to necessarily
tell how to build some giant machine like in Contact, the 1997 film, but you might at
least be able to say, “Hey there's definitely somebody smart, there, because that shouldn't
happen naturally." And David, at the moment we're just kind of
… The fun world we live in as we get a signal from far away, how far away are we talking
here? What is the closest that intelligent life could currently be based on how much
we've scanned the universe so far? Yeah, sure. So we do … I mean, one of the
revolutions of the past 10-20 years in astronomy has been the discovery of all of these planets
in our solar neighborhood and beyond. The galaxy is about a hundred thousand light-years
across, to give you some sense of scale, and we have surveyed fairly well within about,
I'd say, about two thousand light-years of the Sun looking for planets. And we now know
that most stars have planetary systems around them, and something like 10% of those stars,
Sun-like stars, have also Earth-like planets around them. So there is no shortage of Earth-like
planets, some order of tens of billions, likely, in the Milky Way Galaxy alone.
The nearest example is probably our nearest star, actually. Proxima Centauri is the nearest
star, you can't actually see it in the sky because it's too faint. It's a red dwarf star,
much smaller than the Sun. But it is the nearest star. It's just four light-years away, and
we now know that it has an Earth-like planet around it. Whether that planet truly is Earth-like,
though, you know, does it actually have a habitable biosphere around it, does it have
liquid water on it? We don't know. We just know there's a planet there that is essentially
the same mass as the Earth, and it has, in principle, the right distance from the star
that it could have liquid water. Okay, so say that is where intelligent life
is, a mere four light-years away. So if they had sent us a signal, how long ago would they
have sent that signal? So if they're continuously broadcasting it,
then we would be able to see it at anytime. All we would have to do is just look up, and
we'd be able to see it. But when did they make the call?
It would be four years. I mean, if it's four light-years, then radio, just like light,
travels at the speed of light. So it would take four years for backwoods communication.
So every text message we would send them, there would be … Essentially, we would send
it, it would take four years to get there, and then another four years to come back.
So there would be an eight-year turnaround time on communication for us to get a reply
when send a message back. So that makes it very possible that we could
have a little nice back-and-forth, but what happens if intelligent life is thousands of
years away? Thousands of light-years away. Yeah, that's when it gets hard, and this is
where METI, the messaging aspect is somewhat limited because we've only been producing
radio waves for what? A hundred years, would you say? Something like that. So only a hundred
light-year bubble around the Earth, actually, would be aware of our radio transmissions.
Everybody else in the Milky Way, up to a hundred thousand light-years away, they might be able
to tell there's a habitable planet here, but they wouldn't know that we were producing
radio waves because there hasn't been enough time for those radio waves to have reached
them yet. So yeah, certainly when you look at the grander scale of the Milky Way, it's
a very limited volume of the Milky Way that would certainly know that we were producing
radio emissions. So Kathryn, tell us: if we did get a signal
that was from a planet thousands of light-years away, how do we know that civilization is
still existing? We don't. So I mean, that's one of the really
difficult things. So let's assume a signal does come in, and I think everything that
you've said in terms of the content et cetera is super important, and they're all sort of
facets of the search is conducted that means that a signal would be somewhat averaged out,
and so a lot of the content would simply drop out. So first of all, I think it's important
to realize that content, if it is there, would be difficult to decipher.
And so anything that would conceivably tell us kind of the status of that civilization,
we just really, actually, wouldn't have access to. So let's say that we do get a signal,
it's only one as opposed … I mean, observations would of course continue to see if there is
a steady stream or something like that, but let's say that a signal comes in. We would
really have a difficult time, I think, deciding whether than civilization or that society,
let's use that word instead, perhaps, is extant or extinct. And then that kind of changes
the equation in some ways. There's been a couple of great science fiction stories, for
example, about transmissions from an alien society, but basically they're just transmitting
to say , "Goodbye, we're dying." How does that make us feel better? I don't know.
Is there anyway that we can study societies on Earth to know? Like, does society have
a lifespan, and then we just build nuclear weapons, and eventually kill ourselves?
Right, okay. Great question. When Carl Sagan was writing about the lifetimes
of technological civilizations, he was very concerned about our own. So for example, when
Cosmos came out in 1980, he was kind of fighting a battle on the side at the same time, a really,
really, important one, regarding the effects of nuclear winter, and the fact that a nuclear
war isn't winnable. So he was very preoccupied with at that time with this idea of our technological
adolescence. You know, how do we, as a global society, deal with the fact that we've achieved
the capacity to destroy ourselves? And he was hoping that if we find a signal from the
great beyond, that if would be proof that another civilization has survived this technological
adolescence, and has kind of come out the other side and that maybe they could teach
us something about how to be a sustainable, ideally peaceful, civilization.
But the thing is, you know, if we're trying to understand civilizations out there from
civilizations here … Personally, my opinion as an anthropologist is that: we can speculate
all we like about alien sociology, but it is speculation.
But we do. But that's what we're here to do. Well, that's what you're here to do. But actually,
I don't think that we can say anything all that meaningful. So there's kind of been every
theory put forward about, for a civilization to last a long time they would have to be
peaceful. Others say, “No, they would just have to be hyper aggressive and wipe everybody
out.” The problem is is that we don't have the data to distinguish between those possibilities
at this time. And so if a detection is achieved, we won't
actually know for sure what that means, and you'll have kind of every conceivable specialty
on Earth saying, “Well, this means this, and this means this.” But we won't actually
know. So then that comes into these questions about, well, what do you want to believe?
And how much do you want to believe it? That kind of is a nice lead-in to … Let's
take this alien adventure into phase two. So say we don't just get a signal, but the
alien spaceship arrives here, and they come out. We're going to also shift this conversation
into a couple of gears, but Marcelo, let's spend some time talk about your research.
You essentially talk to an alien species, if you will, dolphins.
Yes, sort of. So after decades of research, because when
these aliens come we're going to want to communicate with them. After decades of research, how
well can we communicate with dolphins? Well, I would say not really that well, at
all. In my particular case, I studied dolphins 5 years ago thinking that it was assumed that
we would be able to have an understanding of at least whether or not they have something,
a communication system, approaching the complexity of human language. And 5 years later, I can
tell you that I still don't have an idea. It's remarkably difficult to understand all
of these issues. The moment you step away from, anthropomorphism, right? I mean, it's
very easy to imagine that you can communicate with the great apes, which we have so much
in common. But the moment you step into a completely different physical environment,
like water … Trying to communicate with these other animals, okay? There is some extent
to which we understand each other as mammals all do with one another, and some extent to
which we don't. Can you tell me, perhaps, an example of where
maybe you had your best communication with a dolphin after 5 years? Where you really
felt, “Yeah, we're getting somewhere here?" My best communication, okay? So my best communication
was once, we were diving. We were pursuing a group. We had a group of teenage dolphins
off of Belize, and they were just lounging around and horsing with one another. Some
of them were sort of sleeping, a siesta. It was 2 pm. And they were all teenagers, if
I recall correctly. They were all male, and they were just horsing with each other. You
know, teenage style, okay? They were raking their teeth on each other and stuff. And there
was a group of these two teenage dolphins that were going like that. The essential group
of teenagers at the cafeteria that are always together going around, and sneaking up to
everybody else. And we had been following them with helicopter drones, okay? And at
some point the batteries cut out, and I decide: Okay I'm going to jump in the water with the
GoPro, and record from the water because we had been on them for like an hour and a half,
okay? And it was really fascinating, you know, all this display of behavior.
And I get in the water and there's these two teenagers that come around. And dolphins always,
when you're in the water, you hear them well before you can see them.
What sound do they make? So the sounds that dolphins make are a combination
of two very different sounds. One of them is whistle-like, at very high-frequency. It's
sounds like. And a different sound is made by the echolocation clicks. That sounds like.
And they can pulse that at an extremely fast pace, okay? And when they do that, it sounds
like a creaking door, maybe. Like this chair that's creaking, like. Kind of thing. And
so, these two guys were just lounging around, okay? They come around, and they look at me.
They echolocate at me. They turn, and the moment they turn, they start chattering. And
I had the most distinct impression they were laughing at me.
So that's the one time I understood what they were … I don't know exactly what they were
saying about me, okay? Maybe they didn't like my fins, maybe they thought that my figure
in the water was unshapely and gangly, okay? Or maybe they were commenting on the fact
that having both eyes on the front of the face, instead of the sides, makes me look
like a flounder or something. I don't know, okay?
Maybe that's what first contact will be like. They were definitely laughing at me.
We actually have a video of your research. We have two videos. What if we play … This
is one of dolphins surfing. Do you want to introduce it?
Yes, I think that the video … So here we are on a boat, okay? You can see we have two
Gopher balls, and you heard the sounds of the dolphins as they came about right to the
front of the boat. So what you are seeing is the film made from the front of the boat.
Dolphins from, you know, we know from the that they love the boat ride. They love to
surf on the pressure wave on the front of the boat, and this is one of the things that
we're trying study. We're trying to get them to catch their communication
in a very restricted activity, so that by restricting the nature of the activity, we
can correlate what they are doing with their emissions. And we have a better chance at
… Otherwise, language is combinatorial and there is no way can explore all possible combinations
of all possible things, okay? You're never going to be able to fill up a table with all
the combinations. So what we do, in this case, is we try to restrict the kind of behavior
so that the presumably there's a restricted set of words, or verbs, or whatever it is
that they use. So they're unlikely to say, like, “Hey,
let's go to the shore,” if you're in the middle of a-
Yeah, so if they are doing acrobatics, and there is a systematic wave that goes like
every time that one is going to jump over the other one, we have at least proof that
there's a correlation between a given vocal emission and given physical act. Okay? Being
next to the dolphins, we don't believe that there's any way that we can actually figure
out the language if we cannot correlate behavior. That's why I don't think that you would learn
an alien language, at least by listening to a transmission, okay? Because I mean, you
would have to find error curves and means of defining how to transmit the dictionary.
Okay? And what I mean by this, and how do you refer to physical objects if you don't
have a common frame. So you talked about this a little bit, but
what does your knowledge about how much we now understand about how dolphins speak, how
much confidence does that give you that we'll understand what the aliens tell us?
Hmm Doesn't look good, eh?
Well, I mean, we live with dolphins. We have known dolphins for two thousand years, okay?
I mean, go to the Metropolitan Museum, you'll see them all over the Greek wing. You'll see
they were sacred animals in Greece. So I don't know. It doesn't give me great confidence.
If the moment that you step away from certain commonalities … I mean, the interesting
thing is that dolphins are still mammals, recognizably mammals, and they have a certain
… They are able to recognize gestures and interact with us in ways that I would not
anticipate would necessarily be the case with an alien species, who might not even be made
out of carbon. It might be some gas cloud with, you know, entrails and stuff.
Just a walking fart. Yeah. So who knows what they are, okay? I
mean, the moment you posit, you know, people with limbs and stuff, you're really positing
a lot. Right? And it's interesting, dolphins do not have arms, yet when trainers point
at something, dolphins understand they're pointing at something, and they ran to that,
okay? Even though they don't have means of pointing with hands. So there's all these
commonalities that come from having a common neural substrate. We have brains of an essentially
similar texture, okay? Whatever our engines in our brain that powers motion, that powers
attitudes, they come from a common ground, okay?
And therefore, when we interact together, we understand gestures. Dolphins are very
gestural. You know, there's a lot of nonvocal communication between them, in addition to
the vocal communication, which is a lot. So I don't know, I mean if you work together
with an alien with which you cannot even understand physical gestures, where do you start? I have
no idea. This takes us, what a beautiful segue, Karen,
to the linguist. Where do we start? You are our Amy Adams, sent to the aliens that've
come forth. And they say, "Karen, just sort it out." What are they saying? What other
steps? Walk me through what would you do? What are you gonna do?
Well that was great … I don't know. I don't know how much we could do. In one sense, the
stuff Marcelo brought up is very relevant. Because so now in this scenario I'm faced
with aliens, so I can get a little bit of sense of what … Do they resemble something
like a mammal? So, in one sense, chances are the aliens share no kind of similarity to
our brain architecture, to our neuro-architecture. So I can't assume that the way they process
the world is the same as the way I process the world, or they way a dolphin processes
the world. But I could at least maybe see if they have something that looks kind of
like arms, or legs, or sense whether they have vision.
So the first thing I think I would do, and I should say I'm not a field linguist, so
I don't … I'm not like Amy Adams in the movie, a field linguist, I think, and she
goes out into the field. Those are people who actually go out and talk to people, and
try to figure out how foreign languages work. But I think one thing that I would do, and
one thing that I don't think is highlighted very often is just figure out what their physical
senses are. Like, can they see? Do they see things in roughly the same way? Do they process
vision in roughly the same way we do? Can they hear? At what frequency can they hear?
What kind of sounds, or gestures, or other signals are they emitting? To get a sense
of what kind of modality I'm even going to try to communicate with them.
So to go back to Arrival, Amy Adams decides to start writing in English, which is not,
I think, how I would start, by writing on a whiteboard in English. Because that might
be one of the hardest ways for them to figure out what I was saying to them. And I think
at some point, I don't know if I'm remember this right, but she starts to teach them one
of the first things. It's something like her name, and then that she's walking, which is
a really weird thing to start with. Maybe not the name, but you have to assume that
they have a practice of naming, too, and that they're going to understand what you're doing.
And then, these animals don't walk at all, that she's dealing with in the movie. They're
kind of cephalopods that move through this weird kind of substance, like this.
They did walk, though. They kind of walk. They kind of like-
Shuffle. Shuffle.
Yeah. So I'm not sure. This is just to highlight
that it's not clear what kind of concepts they would have. So it's not clear where you
can start, but I think starting by seeing how they respond to the environment. Just
taking data on sort of what sounds, or images, or other kind of data they emit under what
certain stimuli would be the place to start. Can you give me an example?
Can I give you an example? Yeah. Sure. So just very simply, the idea would be suppose
I take an object like a red square, and I put it in front of them. And then I see if
they say anything. Or if they pick it up, what do they say? And then I can maybe vary
that, like try a red ball. And then, if something is in common … I mean, this is a very toy
example because it would take a lot more data than this. But if they something in common,
maybe they're picking up on red. And then pick at something else that's the same shape
as the cube, but a different color. And if there's something in common that they emitted
with the first thing, then maybe they were talking about the shape. So maybe this gives
me some indication of what their language is like, and some indication of if they're
picking up on color, or shape, or something like that.
Tell me about this idea that David had suggested with using math. Prime numbers, was the example.
Yeah. What do you think of this idea? What if we
just started, you know- So there's two things to think about when
using math. So some people talk about … His idea of using just a sequence of prime numbers,
I think for that, the question is: what do you want to do in communicating? Now, if you
want to just indicate that there's intelligent life here, then I think that might be a good
way to go. Alright, because if it's true that prime numbers don't occur in nature, you might
be showing: here's some sort of signal that there's something non-natural here, something
that had to be produced by an intelligent species.
They're not going to be in particularly impressed, are they? They're not going to be like, "Whoa,
they're sending me prime numbers, these humans!" Yeah, but if you want to do more than just
say, “Hey, we're here,” if you want to communicate, then you might have to go beyond
math, or beyond at least simple sequences of things like prime numbers.
The second thing, I think, to keep in mind, is some people talk about math as this universal
language. But math, itself, is not a language. When we're talking about mathematical concepts,
they still have to be encoded in some sort of symbolic system. That is, they're still
going to be these units of meaning that are somewhat arbitrary that match on to the concepts.
It won't be completely arbitrary, like in the sense of representing numbers, we can
do one beep for one, two beeps for two, or something like that. But once you get beyond
the numbers, if we want to encode addition, let's say, we encode it in our mathematical
system by writing a little plus. But that's just one of the many ways we could arbitrarily
encode addition, or something like that. And they're still going to have to decode it.
Or if they send a message to us about math, we're still going to have to decode it.
And there's still going to be a syntax. Our writing system for math, if we want to write
two plus two is four, first we write the two, then we put the plus in the middle, then we
put the two, equals and four. But there's systems, like in computer programming languages,
where you might put the plus up front. Right? That's just a very simple system. And so,
there's still a syntax, there's still a grammar to math, and there's still an encoding, and
someone's still going to have to figure that out. So I think it's solves some of the challenges,
because I think there is good reason to think that any … Especially if the aliens have
arrived on Earth, that they have enough understanding of mathematics to have built a spaceship,
and come here. And so we still have some of the systems because maybe that's the one place
where we share some concepts. It could solve some of the problems, rather, because that's
one place where we share some concepts, but we haven't solved sort of many of the layers.
If I could just add to that a little bit, it actually touches on the METI, as well,
the messaging. Because when the first messages were being designed, and Carl Sagan helped
design some of the messages, one example is the Arecibo Message that was very famously
broadcast from Puerto Rico, this giant Arecibo array. And another was these gold disks, and
carvings that were put on the Voyager spacecraft that Carl Sagan also had a hand in putting
on. And on them, there is a little bit of maths, and they're often designed to try to
teach you the syntax. So it gives several examples of two, two, four, and it doesn't
really matter what the symbols are. If they see enough examples, hopefully they can figure
out what the syntax is. And then also just diagrams. This what a human being looks like,
this is the local pulsars around us so you can locate exactly where the Earth is, for
instance. That was on these original messages. The downside of that is, though, with gold
disk it's kind of … You just hold it, and you can kind of just look at it, and there's
no way to decode it. You're just sort of really studying the content. The Arecibo Message
was a 23-by-73 pixel image. But if they didn't know it was that way around, if they did 73-by-23
instead, you just get garbage. So you have to know the key to construct the image.
So a visual representation seems appealing because you can teach them all of our maths,
and what a human being looks like, but if they don't know the correct key, they might
unlock it and it looks like garbage to us, and they're like, “Oh, that looks like something
I recognize.” And they might think that's the correct signal. But if they don't know
in advance what they key is, then they're kind of stuck.
May I add that I think that it's a huge assumption to think that the aliens think that 1 plus
1 is the beginning of math. Okay? That we are based on whatever, beings on sort of scale,
energy scale. We have fingers, we count on our fingers. We start with counting, okay?
If we have an intelligence who operated in the quantum mechanical regime, quantum computing
is fundamentally distinct from our mathematic computing. And they might not have the notion
of objects as, you know, counting objects as their primary method of counting. So it
might not be that an alien civilization considers one, two, three, five, seven, eleven, to be
proof of intelligence anyway. Okay? So even at this level, if you do not put a bound on
which kind of life you're dealing with, then you cannot conceivably put a bound on how
we are going to communicate with it. I think you're right, that in a way, you kind
of have no choice but to put a bound. Because otherwise
sufficiently similar to us. So when you take a baby, and you put them
in any culture, they can learn the language. So should we just give the aliens a baby,
and then wait for it to grow up? Let's check with the ethics board.
Child services may be called Could we just make a baby live amongst the
dolphins, and then could we then get it to decipher what's going on?
Yeah. That's going to work. if we were to discover and contact intelligent
life, it would be one of the biggest moments of human history, if not the biggest, how
do you think it would go over on Earth? Kathryn, what does happen next?
It depends. As an anthropologist, that's the only answer I can give. So it depends on what's
happening in the world at that time, it depends on who you are.
Say, right now. Say, tomorrow. Tomorrow, what time?
9:30. Early? 9:30?
Yeah, commute. Everyone's coming to work. Commute? Okay, alright. How does the detection
unfold? Twitter.
Twitter, okay. Alright. So we got Twitter, we got 9:30. Who's it coming from?
The aliens. Oh, it's coming straight from the aliens?
Do you guys want to participate in this hypothetical? Awesome, okay. Now this we can have fun with,
okay. So the aliens have hacked Twitter. Say it comes from the SETI Twitter account.
Okay, say it's coming from one of the SETI Twitter accounts, okay. Found it, “Hi.”
Okay. Yeah, little alien emoji.
Right. So I think, you know, here's the really interesting thing, then. I think we're going
to have a whole lot of human questions at that moment, right? So like, maybe in the
Q and A, we can talk about what your questions would be at that moment. Like what would you
want to know? So there are a lot of really important things that would affect the reception
of that signal. First of all, let's imagine you're in North Korea, and you've just heard
this news from the U.S. What's your reaction? Other places in the world, similarly. So would
they accept, say, the authority of a scientist coming out of the U.S. about, you know, we
really did find this thing. Given all the atmosphere around fake news
and all that, I think there could be a lot of distrust, a lot of confusion, and a lot
of uncertainty about who to trust, let's say. I should specify here, I'm Canadian. So let's
say that the president of the United States decides to get in the Twitter theme.
Kind of hard to- I know, it's really unheard of, but like,
what happens then? So does that contribute, or detract? You know, it certainly messes
things up creatively, and interestingly. Then, you know, there's the effects on the stock
market. So people are kind of going, “Okay, what doe we want to invest in? What do we
want to divest from? Okay, weapons, pharmaceuticals, prepping equipment.” You know. You can kind
of easily imagine things like that. From the surveys that have been done on people's anticipations
about extraterrestrial life, et cetera, some people are very anxious about it. Some people
are very excited. Some people are like, “Beam me up, please.”
Or like, “No, no, no, I'm heading for the hills.” So there could be a lot of different
responses, and I think when I said it depends, it depends also on what else is happening
in the world. So if you're in a war zone already, if you're recently recovering from a war,
if you been traumatized in any way, this might really be the last thing that you want. If,
on the other hand, you're just kind of very hopeful about what aliens might provide to
human civilization, you know … And there's also, from the surveys that have been done,
there's a real kind of difference in degree of likelihood to believe. So there are regional
differences, there are political differences, there are religious differences.
Can you be more specific? So who is more likely to believe?
Well. So there's also questions about, you know governmental authority, and how people
are more likely to believe in conspiracies, et cetera. So I mean, there is differences
between the West, the Midwest, the Northeast. There's male/female differences.
Wait, wait. So if there was a sign, who is more … Like the West, the East? Like Californians
versus New York, like a little more specific. I don't have the statistics right in my head,
because I wasn't the one who did the research. I think the point I'm just trying to make
is that there is variation, and then that's going to kind of affect kind of the overall
reception. And then there's the question of, “Oh my goodness, well, what do we do?”
Because, again, some people are very much in favor of sending a reply, and whether or
not there's a global response that's says, “Yes, let's write a message together, and
send it.” You know somebody is going to. It's just going to happen. And then other
people will be upset, because it'll be like, “I wish we had just stayed quiet.” And
I think there could be a scope for quite a lot of friction here. So the research that
has been done on potential receptions to contact, it indicates a lot of instability. So I think
one frame that SETI is understood within is just the idea that this would just be a continuation
of all the research that has indicated that we're not the center of the universe. So we
are just on a planet, orbiting a sun, among many planets orbiting many suns. So that's
been the huge contribution of astronomy over the last few centuries, has been kind of de-centering
us, right? So that's one frame of understanding. But
another is that, okay well, these are other sentient beings, it's not just about our place.
So then it all becomes about, well, what's the relationship going to be like? And how
does that play into existing relationships here on Earth?
So Marcelo, as someone who doesn't research this specific question directly, as a regular
civilian but rational thinker, how would you feel?
Well, first of all, the most important thing is to know what kind of signal we got. Namely,
if we got a signal from two thousand light-years away, okay, and these guys might not even
be alive by now, it's very different than if you have a huge UFO fly into Central Park.
Yeah. So it's obviously a different thing. In every
single science fiction movie which you have an arrival of a hostile civilization, their
UFOs are creepy. And whenever a friendly civilization comes, the UFOs are cute. And this is absurd,
okay? Namely, that there is no basis for thinking that we have a common aesthetic code, or that
they would make any devices for transport according to our preferences of what is creepy
or cute, right? So all of the sudden, here comes this huge, enormously creepy UFO, and
the guy says to us, “Hey, hello, how are you?” Right? We don't know. We're making
this whole thing up. There is actually almost a dress rehearsal
of exactly what happened, though. A real example of this, which is the War of the Worlds broadcast
in 1938. So that was radio broadcast by Columbia Broadcasting Systems, and it's H.G. Wells'
famous story that was made for radio with a narrator. And it's done in a way that's
like a news report, if you listen to it. So people who just tuned in halfway through really
thought it was an invasion, because it sounds … There's like journalist on the scene during
the moments when the aliens come out of the spaceship, and stuff, and start lasering everyone.
So people were pretty panicked about it, and actually the telephone switchboard of the
broadcaster got completely inundated with phone calls of concerned people. Police arrived
at the radio station, and then there was journalistic reports the next day. And The New York Times
had a headline about, you know, people confused thinking their radio broadcast was real.
So that was kind of like a one of the few insights, although that wasn't really contact,
that was a hostile invasion. So that was not surprising that people panicked, in that case.
But it's one of the few historical incidences where we have some insight as to how people
might react thinking it was a genuine event. That's an interesting one, too, because it
kind of spun out into this whole new kind of distrust in the popular media. Because
the feeling was: well, if you can pull that on us, that's not cool. So it actually started
an interesting trend. But there's also been a lot reanalysis of that one, about you know
just exactly how much people were panicked, et cetera. But there've also been echoes.
So there was a case, for example, a few years later in Quito, where the same thing was rebroadcast.
Unfortunately, it went really, really badly in that particular case, and it was because
they'd only recently come out of a war themselves, horrific invasions, et cetera. And the people
who had fought defensively in that war, didn't think this was funny. They torched the radio
station, people died. You know? And that doesn't get cited, but that's something that I think
of, for example, when I kind of think about potential negative consequences.
Just a question for everyone on the panel, what do you think of this idea that if we
know there's alien life out there, we'll all forget our differences, and like save racism
for the aliens? That's the usual kind of hopeful take on things.
It's part of the kind of Sagan-esque justification for shifting our frame of reference, and for
… And when I say justification, that sounds a little bit harsh. It's the cultural frame
of reference that says by having that confirmation, that again, another society has survived their
technological adolescence, that it could bring out the best in us, somehow. From what I understand
of world history, I don't really buy it. I think it has just as much potential to bring
out divisions, especially if there is actually some degree of actual contact.
I don't think it would be surprising to see jockeying, because this is something that
we've seen in real contact episodes on Earth. It's not just, you know, one side and the
other side. It's like, “How can I make this work to my advantage?” And so, it's people
trying to build alliances, and then it becomes my enemies enemy is my friend. It gets very
complicated, it's doesn't just kind of come down into, “Oh, we're all suddenly unified
in humanity, holding hands, singing Kumbaya,” et cetera. I think it's likely to be more
complicated than that, and not necessarily all so adorable, alas.
I was going to jump in. I agree. I think it's also just very unlikely that, even in the
presence of a new “other,” that's perhaps way more other than any of the ones we have
on Earth, like the alien being the new “other,” it's unlikely that we're going to overcome
thousands of years of racism, and xenophobia, and notice our commonalities in those moments,
rather than, perhaps, those differences being highlighted by the fact that we now have to
deal with some sort of eminent, potentially, harmful event. This is really, highly speculative,
maybe or if the aliens remained interacting with people of Earth over a long, long period
of time, they would be so different that there would be more alliances between Earth people
and they would be the new “other,” but I don't think that would be anything like
an instant reaction. And I don't even think that would necessarily be a likely thing to
happen over a long period of time. David?
Well, I just often say to my class that you could travel for a billion light-years in
any direction in the universe, and you will not meet another human being. That every human
being on this planet is extremely rare, and precious in the context of the entire universe.
Even though it seems like there is a lot of us, there's like maybe 8 billion, or 7 billion
people right now on the planet, if you divide that by the size of the universe, there's
very, very few of us. So I think just even forgetting aliens exist, or not, if you just
take a cosmic perspective, that you would maybe think of your fellow human being as
being a bit more worthy of your kindness and compassion, then if you just had this us versus
them attitude. How's it going to react when the aliens come? So I think it's almost … The
better approach is just to think about the vast, vast scale of the universe, rather than
to worry about interspecies relations. So if we haven't had the feeling of warmth
already, then forget it. We're done. Yeah.
Is that the bottom line? Marcelo? It's a tough one, right? Basically, everybody
goes “aw,” when they look at dolphins. So maybe there's hope for aliens unifying
us, but of course, it depends on which guise they come, right? If they're hostile, it's
okay, they see immediately an exasperation of all of your divisions. So and so is collaborating
with them. Okay? Or they are going to treason, or this, or that, and that's going to be inflamed
in no time flat, right? So I don't know. David, in the popular imagination, and even
in sort of scientific thinking, now, the pendulum has sort of switched with just with the numbers
game. That there is probably intelligent life out there, somewhere. Whether we would ever
communicate with it, we don't know, but it seems like the scientific pendulum has switched.
It's probably out there. What if it is not out there? What if we are alone? How does
that change your thinking? Yeah. So I'd just first say that I personally
challenge the idea that the numbers game proves that therefore there is intelligence everywhere.
I mean, this kind of goes back to the very beginning of the show, but there's no reason
why the probability couldn't be very, very tiny. People will often cite the fact that
life emerged early on the Earth as proof of the fact that, therefore, life must start
very easily. But it took four billion years of evolution to get to this point, and in
a billion years the Sun will make the Earth uninhabitable. So it kind of had to have started
pretty soon, else we wouldn't be here to observe it. So it's a bit of a circular argument.
So you really can't take the early start to life on Earth as meaning anything.
So to answer your question more directly, if it does indeed turn out that life is incredibly
precious, then I guess that just really reemphasizes my original point about how precious human
beings are on this Earth, that there is obviously a set of circumstances which happened here
in this solar system which makes it extremely special in a cosmic perspective. I would still
be pretty skeptical that forever, throughout the entire history of the universe, there
will be no life elsewhere in the universe. I leave intelligence aside, and just say life
elsewhere. And the reason is because in ten trillion years there will still be some stars
which are burning hydrogen, and will still have planets around them in the right distance
for life. In ten trillion years. And the universe is only about ten billion years old. So we're
at the very beginning of the story of the universe, still. And actually, most stars
are these small-end dwarfs, which will still be burning into the far distant future. So
I think maybe we're just, if we happen to be alone right now, it probably means we're
just one of the first, rather than we're necessarily gonna be the only ones that will ever, ever
exist. I'd probably take that perspective, a little bit more. I think the idea that the
fact that we're alone right now proves that's it, we're done, we're the only ones that will
ever be, I wouldn't quite buy that argument. So there's plenty of time left in the age
of the universe for other things to happen. We're gonna open it up to everyone in the
audience, now. If you have questions, just hold out until we have a microphone on your
mouth. With respect to David's point about being
early, do we think maybe A.I. could help us find them better than humans?
Yeah, sure. I think certainly machine-learning techniques, of which artificial intelligence
is sort of an extension of that, are already being used to help the search for extraterrestrial
intelligence. So this algorithm that you can download on your computer called [email protected],
actually basically does that. It essentially uses some machine-learning algorithms to scan
through these huge libraries of data, which have been collected, all the radio transmissions,
and see if there is anything that looks like a significant pattern amongst that data. And
those algorithms are improving all the time, and as we get closer and closer towards these
very sophisticated A.I.s, I have no doubt that it would greatly help us sift through
more and more data. So yeah, I think you're exactly right, that as our software more generally
improves, we can expect to be able to do a more complete job of surveying the sky for
advanced civilizations. So you tossed this idea in a haphazard way
of giving a baby to an alien, and I'm actually curious if there might be a sort of more realistic
implementation of using the natural resources that we have in our own children to bridge
languages with dolphins, or aliens, or other human civilizations. Is that something that's
been done, or that could actually be, you know, labor laws notwithstanding, used?
I guess I can take that one. So there has been a large number of what's called cross-fostering
experiments, and I'm nowhere familiar with all of that literature. But what typically
happens is that unless you're actually giving a human child to another human … And let's
remember that there really are, genetically speaking, no races, so it's just a member
of the same species, okay? That's not cross-fostering. But for instance, if you raise a canary among
zebra finches, the canary will try to learn to sing like a zebra finch that has a very
different song. And at some level, it will acquire many of the elements of their song,
and it will fail to acquire others because at some level there's a breakdown in how matched
their hardware can imitate the, you know … Canaries sing something that, if you slow it down,
it sort of Gregorian chant, where zebra finches are rappers. And there's simply no way in
which a canary can sing a zebra finch song. They just are ill-equipped.
So cross-fostering experience really run a whole lot of differences in hardware that
are insurmountable, right? Like in this particular case, you can't have a human baby breathing
underwater. So you can't leave it to dolphins. I mean, it's part of the joke, right? But
you really cannot … There's a limitation to how much you can cross-foster across species
that are actually physically distinct. So dolphins, for instance, they communicate
in another sound range, some of which we can hear, most of which we cannot. They see in
a visual range that, they don't see red, they don't see orange. Their vision starts in the
green, and it goes all the way to violet, and maybe beyond. And therefore, they see,
naturally, in a different spectral range, just like they speak and hear in a different
spectral range. There's nothing innate in a human baby that if a human baby is raised
with a species that speaks at a different frequency range … They wouldn't be able
to hear that, because they're ill-equipped in the same sense that we will never, no matter
who raises us, we will never see ultraviolet or infrared. It just the way our sensors are
encoded. So there's intrinsic limitations of how much you can do of this. And because
the physical environment determines so much how we perceive the world, our senses are
exquisitely adjusted to our sensory environment, and to our evolutionary history. So I don't
think there's anyway to actually do anything of the sort.
I just want to jump in on that and say another limitation on this kind of thing is that a
lot of linguists think that humans have something called universal grammar, which is something
to do with like an innate language faculty. Even though languages can be very different,
all human languages have some commonalities in their grammar. And in a sense, there's
some part of us, some part of the hard-wiring in our brain, that we're the kind of creatures
that are just born knowing how to pick up human languages. And then we're immersed in
particular language, and that's why babies can learn whatever language that they are
born into. But there's no real reason to think that an alien language … Maybe dolphin language
because at least we have some commonalty, I'm not going to speak on dolphins. But there's
no reason to think that an alien language is going to share the universal grammar. So
even if we could take one of our human babies, all the other concerns notwithstanding, and
send them to live with the aliens, it's not clear that a human baby would have the righWSt
kind of brain to even pick up the alien language. I was just going to say, following on, I think
one of the things that children have, and are encouraged in, is curiosity. And I think
that's the first place that any kind of communication challenge starts.
And the reason that I'm just thinking about this is because of laboratory mice. So one
of the most studied creatures on the planet, right? And it took decades for somebody to
notice that they sing. I know, right? So google white mice singing, it's going to be really
interesting. But you know, it's because they're outside of our frequency range, so nobody
could hear them. And nobody noticed that when the mice are doing this, it's like and they
have their little mouths open, they're singing. But it took somebody kind of looking differently,
and micing them, and then putting it through a computer to realize, “Oh my goodness.”
And now of course, there's this lovely study on what are mice singing, and when are they
singing to each other, and what does it all mean? But it took that kind of spark, that
moment of curiosity. And I think that's something that we can all kind of encourage in ourselves
as we address our many different communication challenges, aliens or not.
And with that, we've run out of time.Thank you very much. Thanks, everyone. And please
thank our guests.

Erik Verlinde Public Lecture: A New View on Gravity and the Dark Side of the Cosmos



Views:368928|Rating:4.58|View Time:1:9:16Minutes|Likes:3424|Dislikes:316
In his public lecture at Perimeter on October 4, 2017, Dr. Erik Verlinde explored the core ideas behind this research into emergent gravity, and examine the implications of this potential revolution in our understanding of the universe. Watch more Perimeter public lectures:

[Applause] thank welcome welcome to Perimeter Institute here in Waterloo Ontario Canada and welcome to perimeter Institute's public lecture series here live from the Mike Lazaridis theater of ideas my name is Greg dick come the director of educational outreach here at perimeter and it is a pleasure to welcome everyone here this evening both those of you here in the theater and those of you watching online the lecture will last approximately one hour and will be followed by a question-and-answer session so for those of you watching online dr. Kelly coil and a team of researchers are behind their keyboards ready to engage in conversation follow our Facebook or Twitter feed and use hashtag P I live and if you do have a question get it in early so can get all the way to my phone in time and now it is my pleasure to introduce tonight's very special guest speaker dr. ver Lind is a professor at the Institute for Theoretical Physics at the University of Amsterdam professor Burland is well known for his many contributions to science which include Burland algebra and the Burland formula he received his PhD from Huell trekked University in the Netherlands and completed his postdoctoral work at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton he was a staff member at the theory division of CERN and also completed professorships at both all tracked and Princeton universities in 2011 the Netherlands Organization for scientific research a water doctor awarded dr. Berlin the Spinoza prize the most prestigious prize a Dutch scientist can win dr. Berlin is also very familiar with perimeter as he was a member of our scientific advisory committee from 2010 to 2013 in 2010 dr. Berlin introduced a new approach to the idea of gravity that it's not a fundamental force but it's an emergent phenomena tonight dr. Berlin will explore the core ideas behind his research and examine the implications of this fast emerging revolution of our understanding of the universe ladies and gentlemen please join me in welcoming dr. Berlin to the stage thank you very much thank you thank you very much yeah it's a pleasure to be here and to be telling you this evening about what I think are exciting developments in theoretical physics in our understanding of gravity we are making progress and we're moving towards again a new theory a new view on gravity that differs from the old theory in the sense that it transcends it it sort of contains it but takes the next step and that's also because there I need important questions to be asked or answered about gravity which have to do with our universe in particular they're questions related to dark matter and dark energy which together I call the dark side of the cosmos I will be explaining that during the lecture it's also a timely lecture because yesterday the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded for three researchers working on gravity and who together did very important work in making it possible to detect for the first time gravitational waves and also that I'll explain later more precisely what was being done in this experiment but this was a confirmation of the theory of Einstein so Einstein already 100 years ago predicted the existence of gravitational waves so now the theory is confirmed you might ask well why do we need a new theory and this has to do with theoretical advances because theory always develops further it has to do with observations things we don't understand about gravity and I'll explain that but also there's a bit of a philosophical point of view and I'm gonna start with that one because the way that science progresses has very much to do with the times that we live in and also with the technology that we use and normally we would say that science helps us to develop technology but there's also the other way that our current technology influences the way we think about science so we go back to the Middle Ages or a little later we have cannons and think about ballistic motion like cannonballs and these are objects where we don't even ask the question what they're made of they just move and this is how Newton sort of started of course in the in the 19th century people made steam engines and this is where we talk about gases that have pressures and temperature even then people didn't think so much about what is really made of but slowly one started developing the atom picture but the revolutions that happened in the 19th century were very much related to this existence of the steam engine the previous century we well we develop things like televisions and other things and a television if you think about what that is it's actually a particle accelerator because it accelerates electrons which are moved around with electric fields and and are projected on a screen and then we see photons coming out so the ideas of forces and particles is really the language of the 20th century and they're they're our understanding of nature was in terms of the most fundamental building blocks which are elementary particles and the fundamental forces so we built the vertical physics using that language today we are very far in the 21st century and again we are having a different type of technology we're having smartphones we have computers big data and most of what we're doing every day has to do with somehow with information and that's again a new language and this is again also influencing the way we think about science so I'm going to tell you that today is that the new view on gravity has to do with information and because it's basically the language that we're developing in our current century so we live in an Information Age and but what is information you might say well it's what I read in a newspaper because I'm interested in certain things but there's also an abstract way to think about information as the way it's stored in terms of bits and then we don't even look at what is really written somewhere we just count for instance how many bits we have how many bytes and so I I will think about information in this more abstract way so we're gonna even talk about information that we cannot really access but we still have a way of counting it by saying how many bits are used there's also another development going on namely we've got to make things smaller and smaller and then we're going to look at even sub-atomic skills or atomic skills where things become quantum mechanical and then information even as another meeting because in quantum mechanics you get something called qubits so not bits like zeros and ones but there's things that are so much in between so this is Mike Lazaridis who's indeed already one of the people who invested heavily in the idea of developing quantum computers and I think here he stands in front of something that has many qubits in it and qubits are funny objects because they can do things that are only possible in quantum mechanics they can namely not just be 0 and 1 beta can be something in the middle and furthermore they can do something called and being entangled in the sense that one qubit here is doing the same thing as somewhere else and this is a two qubits that are integrals where the zero is on one it's combined with a zero on the other or the one on the other is also combined with the one this is an example of entanglement so this language we're going to use even in our universe so we're going to think about the universe in terms of information and also in terms of this entangled quantum information so my new view on gravity has to do with a new view on the universe built out of information and we're gonna understand understand what then the forces in particular gravity then comes from from this new language so this is immediately related to an other concept again it's sort of a little bit of a philosophical one namely we used to think in the 20th century that everything can be reduced to the tiniest building blocks like we have elementary particles if we know what elementary particles tune and their forces we can derive everything else this is a reductionist point of view on nature we're living in an age where things are changing where we start realizing that when we build things that are larger and much more many things are involved that maybe this reductionist point of view doesn't give all the answers so let me tell you ask you what is this you probably don't recognize it it's just a set of pixels but to show what it is let me just zoom out a bit but it's the same same set of pixels but a little smaller and now it's picture where we suddenly see what it is of course this land mountains is a lake and trees and so on no it's a collection of pictures pixels and here we have suddenly giving meaning to a collection of objects where microscopically doesn't exist and this is the same in nature if we ask what things are made of then some of the terms that we use like maybe even matter or space and time may not exist and this is sort of the way we are going to and there's of course examples in in nature that are more down-to-earth actually already mentioned this but let me tell you then what the term is it's called emergence mainly we use concept and observe phenomena at Marcus Copic skills which are derived from the microscopic skill but have a priori no meaning in that language so the language that we use at macroscopic skills is different than the microscopic and we do use concepts and things that are not meaningful so we have to derive them we have to define them in terms of what's on the line so this is an example of emergency physics if we look at a roomful of gas and molecules that are moving around then we can describe it in terms of temperature and temperature is a property of all of the gas molecules together but an individual molecule doesn't have a temperature because actually the temperature is defined as the average energy per molecule so there we have to define quantities that we normally use like pressure and temperature sizing in thermodynamics from a more statistical perspective on the microscopic this is an example of emergence and an important role in this is played again by what's called the entropy which is namely if I look at all the gas molecules in here I don't want to know what they're exactly doing but I can count how many possibilities there are and that's the entropy that measures the number of possible states that these molecules can be in and it actually tells you the amount of information that's needed to describe all those things so here we already see a link with information and equality called entropy that link has been made precise by Shannon bits so these are coins can be zeros and ones but can be ups and I mean all kinds of ways you can make choices but here I have a coin which has four heads or tails so there are four possibilities if I have two coins so there are four possible States that's two to the N if n would be the number of coins and if you take a logarithm and here I take the log two logarithm then you count basically the number of these bits so entropy can be thought of as counting how many bits can I assign to well do I need and also entropy can usually be thought of as sort of a measure of chaos that's what most people think about it if there's a gas that does all kinds of funny things and there's chaos the chaotic then we have an entropy associated this state where the yellow star in one side in the blue on the other side here they're mixed clearly this has more entropy than debt because they're more possibilities here also if all the gas molecules are in part of this box and here they can move around in more locations I have more entropy here also because there's more information needed to describe it so the link between entropy and information is going to be important so if I talk about information later on and you wonder what I really mean it's counting the number of bits I'm going to introduce this idea of qubits later also because it's going to be also quantum mechanical points are important and I'm gonna end this talk by of this lecture actually by explaining you what this has to do with a new view on gravity and also the dark aspects of the universe and let me show you ready a picture that I'm gonna explain it's almost like this picture actually came from the poster of my lecture it's a galaxy according to Einstein's general relativity curved space-time but I'm gonna think about this in a different way where there's information around it having to do with the dark energy in the universe and I'm going to explain phenomena that we don't understand about galaxies based on this idea of gravity from information now I'm gonna start over again I gave you sort of a summary an idea of where this lecture is going to but now I'm gonna start at the beginning and really start from gravity through the the centuries and then get to the end again in this picture so this was more a philosophical introduction but now at least know the concepts where I'm talking about so I'm going to start again with Newton when Newton told us how to gravity works of course Newton explained that the moon and the Earth's are rotating around each other by the same force that makes the Apple fall and he did this with a thought experiment he had an insight I told you already about cannons and actually he did a thought experiment with a cannon he thought about a cannon on top of a hill which if you shoot the Cannonball it will fall down and head to earth but he imagines shooting it giving more speed more velocity so that it starts falling and eventually it starts missing the earth so while it's falling it starts going around so there's a trajectory actually it's not drawn here which is sort of a falling down on the earth but if you make hit it fast enough you can actually make it go around and eventually come back here it never goes further down because the energy is conserved and they always comes back to the same point if you shoot at harder it becomes a circle and if it then logic and is an ellipse and then there's a trajectory where it never comes back it's a parabola and then you have things that are even further out and they that's then you escape away and this idea that falling and going around the earth was the same thing that is how we got to the idea that basically the moon is falling continuously but is missing the earth all this is what it makes it move around this thought experiment gave him eventually are they also where all these shapes of the trajectories came from and this gives you also a force law and this is Newton's famous law of gravity so the law of gravity is well probably familiar it has tells you that the force is proportional to the size of the masses I have too big a big mass a small one I did the Earth or the moon and order the Sun and the earth then you multiply the two masses so it's proportional to the two masses but it's inversely proportional to the distance between them so it goes like 1 over R squared and that's actually the same way that the size of the sphere grows and actually want to say enemy if I go twice the distance so this is one distance to the earth to the Sun if I go twice a distance actually the force goes down by a factor of four and this is the same way that the area grows or there's some way in which this goes like one over the area and actually this area plays an important role in what I'm going to say because it's gonna link to something that has to do with information of course Newton's law has been tested very well and this is also why people had initially didn't doubt it to be right because I mean you can test it by making its predictions namely looking at the prediction here the velocity is actually calculated using Newton's law and you find that the velocity goes down as a function of the distance so these are the planets and you find that at larger distance the velocity is less and this has been measured and this is precisely what the measurement does it follows the prediction of Newton so this works very well but then if you go to the planet that's closest to the Sun which is mercury there's a tiny deviation the Newton would have predicted that the orbit of any planet has this ellipsoidal shape and that these two points always are staying at the same location this does not happen with mercury it actually rotates a little bit like that and it rotates with a few degree per century actually less than agreed but this has to be explained either by changing the law of gravity or by postulating some additional mass and this is sort of what people did people thought there might be some additional dark matter or some planet closer to the Sun that would explain this and they searched for it for half a century they didn't find it of course we now know that this is an indication that there's something wrong with Newton's theory not really wrong at least it can be improved and this is what I signed it he explained this phenomena by changing the gravitational law not by dark matter but having a different view on gravity so his view on gravity and that's the century ago was that gravity is a consequence of how space and time are curved this came out of his theory of relativity where he introduced well motion comparable to the speed of light or he at least made sure that the relativity postulates are consistent with the way that we think about gravity for instance that a signal cannot travel faster than light and then the only way that can be done is if you think about space itself as sort of a dynamical object that can curve and mass then influences the geometry of space-time and curse it in such a way that objects no longer move in straight line but start going in elliptical orbits at least approximately because this if you put do this for mercury it would actually explain exactly what mercury is doing and he calculated this and it's confront and say his theory got confirmed even very quickly afterwards for another prediction namely he also predicted that gravity would bend light so if space is curves then light is also affected by gravity and if there's a star here then the lights would travel if there's a mass between us not in a straight line but in a curved line like that and that has a consequence because then if we look at it we don't see the store at this location we see it actually slightly shifted because we always think that light goes straight and so we do see the image there so light gets banned at a bit and this is in a consequence of Einstein's formulation of gravity and it got confirmed by looking at the solar eclipse already like a century ago the other prediction in the image and it was I said was the lensing effect is related to it because this is where you think about a source here behind the the object you see light going towards the earth but it can go in two ways or even in many ways because it can go up or down and then you see the light from something behind and actually it makes a ring because it can curve around in all directions and this is called the Einstein ring it's a beautiful information again of the way that gravity works according to Einstein now let me now come to the confirmation that I introduced at the beginning namely his prediction of gravitational waves so we're gonna talk about black holes later but gravitational waves are waves in the space the shape of space-time itself actually it's ripples in space and time itself that propagates with the speed of light I already told you that that gravity cannot be transmitted instantaneously because then it would go faster than light so if something happens to gravity it has to travel out and travel towards us and one of the most spectacular events that can happen is if two black holes they are rotating in around each other and they start spiraling inward and eventually they merge together at that moment gravity waves are traveling outwards and the last bit is such a enormous amount of energy in being emitted that those waves gravity gravitational waves can reach us 1 billion years after it happened that's really spectacular for that they had to do measurements of distances because the shape of the space is being changed a little bit and they had to build a interferometer to measure these distances and then they found a signal on about I think it's 14th of August a little more than two years ago and they had two detectors one in in in Livingstone and the other one in Hanford and they both found the signal and that is a signal where suddenly they saw that the shape of space changes it's a signal that oscillates because of the rotation of the the black holes but very fast so the frequency is very high but at the last moment it goes up even further and it suddenly makes a high frequency bursts with high intensity it's called a chirp and now I'll show you actually I'll show you but also let's you'll hear it so this is the signal where it goes this is sort of without bill so see you see if the time goes this way and then suddenly it happens so now if I go the next it's called a chirp because the the frequency goes up like a bird I mean I like the way that the New Yorker sort of made the cartoon the next date says was that you I heard just now or was it two black holes colliding of course it was a joke if you only know that the signals go through the chirp and so this is where you have to know some physics so this is a reward at the Nobel Prize yesterday and I'm actually going to tell you so you about a quote that I read that Reiner Weiss gave one of the laureates on the television the telephone interview namely this signal is a very tiny I mean it's really a very tiny stretch is less than a millionth of the size of the nucleus of an atom quite incredible that they could measure and the reason is that it's very hard to change the shape of space so space is very stiff stiff and this has to do also with that this phenomena they looked at has this very short time scale where it goes very fast and very strong gravity black hole so all these phenomena and tests of gravity here I summarized them a little bit are describes and testing their testing the equations of Einstein I've written down is these equations here you don't need to be able to understand what I'm right on but this is what Einstein wrote down as his law of gravity and it describes black holes it describes the radiation from binary pulsars bending of light and and things in the solar system many ways we've tested this so why again do you need a new theory and for that I'm gonna do a little experiment we're going to show that indeed there may be things that we don't understand if we think about it too simplistically and I'm gonna do an experiment with snot with gravity but it's with elasticity namely elasticity is also about changing the shape of a material and it has a certain way of describing what's going on by simply saying if I apply a force I know exactly how the material changes its shape so I can even measure a force so this is a material that bounces like a bouncing ball does it again course the bounce is very short but I can measure also the mass because if I put it down then they're going to be a small dent in here if I know the elastic properties I can calculate from the size of the dent how heavy it is so I'm gonna test if there's some dark matter in here because under a calcul to test where I put it down and we're gonna wait what happens to that if I apply the theory of this elasticity nothing should happen because the force doesn't change but something is going to happen very slowly so suddenly you start seeing that the laws of physics depend on how you probe the system and on what timescale I'm gonna say that what happens in our dark universe is something that happens at a totally different time skill am I gonna need a new theory namely that's not a theory of elasticity there well the theory of elasticity of course is only a theory that we know works when we look at the whole object because inside there are molecules and I have to understand what really the stuff is made of to understand what the material is doing so you have to go to the microscopic sand derive the loss of elasticity and I'm gonna do the same thing with gravity I'm gonna go to think about what is space-time made of microscopically and then depending on its properties it can either if gravity like general relativity all the time or can do something else and this materials going to do something else because it actually going to flow watch it it's gonna actually make a dent deeper and deeper because it's made out of a polymer that's changing its shape because this polymers are moving around but they do is very slowly is silly putty by the way you can buy it in the dollar store actually I do it once in a while I go to the dollar store a couple to buy a couple of done and so I did last week there are actually tiny acts that there are a little bit in it but I put some together to make a bigger bowl so if you want to do this experiment at home just go to the Dollar Tree store and then you buy it and and it's fun stuff so this is where I am gonna go now to galaxies so thus gravity worked the same at galaxy scale s general ativy would say well say yes of course was Einstein his right there's no way that he can be wrong and therefore we apply Einstein's equations here and we're going to learn things but the other way you might say well let's test it usually the way you should do things let's test it there is a galaxy we're gonna see how they rotate and we see what the velocities are as a function of the distance now here you see you sort of make a model where you think that everything is going in a circle we look at the color of the light we know the redshifts you can calculate the velocities and then we see that the velocity start doing this we look at the amount of matter and most of the matters in the center and the same what we did with it with the solar system would have predicted that Newton's prediction would go like that it doesn't work the same way I've showed you gravity doesn't work the same way because added measurement this is not what people say people say nade works the same way there must be more gravity here because it's going much too fast and it made a fix not a tiny planet that explains deviation of mercury now a most amount of matter is going to be headed there and they call it dark matter for it is search for it and you don't find it maybe there's another explanation so here is again the same experiment we look at the distance we look at the way that the velocity goes and we see a deviation so this is Newtonian prediction athletes very much like the planets were doing going down and indeed because most of the matter here is in the center so you expect the velocity coordinate stays constant it really goes much faster and it would not stay together if there would not be an additional tractive force of course people say that's because there is more matter but what is really happening here is there more mass that we are missing or is there another explanation so this is the dark matter hypothesis is really that there's some collection of particles around our galaxy and other galaxies that explains this faster rotation and this is called the Dark Matter halo it's shown in blue that's not the actual color because you cannot see it but is an artist's impression but there might be another explanation but this is sort of a representation of the fact that there's more gravity needed to keep a galaxy together so I'm gonna need say that this is something to do with the fact that gravity is emergent and we have to understand what is made of more microscopically as offered other evidence that people point out I mean there's Lansing again at much larger scale it is it's Lansing of galaxy clusters where you see a cluster galaxy on the background being repeated many times if you see these these arcs that's sort of the image and you can calculate how much mass is then needed to explain this and you find that a much more mass than we see in terms of these galaxies so this is again seen as evidence for a stronger gravitational acceleration and therefore people say if we apply Newton's law here as well or general relativity you should conclude as dark matter and this is then the picture that people develop is that at large scales in our cosmos there must be a web of dark matter and this has to do with how structure how the galaxies in all these things form and it did you can do these measurements using lensing again this this is called a weak lensing map where you map out where is the gravity and where is the matter and you see that is even location whereas gravity where there's hardly any matter and this is useless evidence back if we look at larger skills what we do when we look from our planet out into the universe light has to travel towards us and takes an amount of time to get towards that means that we look at objects further away which are further in the past so this is you might say an image of distances circles that are bigger but actually it's also times that are earlier in the past and there are some farthest distance where we can see where we see the light coming from what is believed to be the Big Bang afterglow of the Big Bang it's called the Cosmic Microwave Background and this is after that we cannot look any further so with a largest distance we can look and this is the way that people built a current cosmological model and you can then estimate what is the amount of energy in our universe and the amount of matter and the result is kind of shocking that if we understand the matter that we are made of ourselves like protons neutrons and everything in the planets and the stars and we add it all up it's much less than what is actually needed to explain this universe so this is the budget for energy and mass together actually I put energy mass together because e equals MC squared and then you see that 95% of the energy in the universe is not understood it's called a sort of missing the ordinary matter is this 5% there's this Cosmic Microwave Background that's also a lot of particles actually this is this bit that Syrian less than a percent level one hundredth of a percent of all the energy so that energy in the photons is very little but most of the matter is dark that means we cannot see it it cannot be the kind of particles we are made of and this is the the matter that people are looking for and then there's dark energy which also is not known really what that is but it plays a role in explaining the expansion rate of the universe so the universe expands accelerated way and that can only be described in a by adding this additional energy to to our space now this is already telling me that something may be wrong because we are deriving our laws of physics only based on this part but what do we know about this and Einstein describes this by the way by adding just a constant to his equation and that that's sort of like 70% of the energy of the universe I mean that's available a waste that the other thing I already mentioned this is observational reasons to go beyond the Einstein theory in my opinion but the other one is theoretical I'm gonna make a now case that equations that Einstein wrote down can actually be indeed derived in a way similar to thermodynamics and this is where this story of emergence gravity and the link with information are is going to come from and for that I'm going to go back to the topic of black holes namely black holes give us the hints of why there is a connection between gravity and information so black hole is where all the matter is located is in this very tiny part of space so small that the matter collapses on itself and gravity becomes so strong that life cannot even escape so black holes have a whole rise in sort of a imaginary sphere around it that if you would go beyond that then there's no way to escape so they have a size and that depends on the mass that you put in a larger black hole a more massive one is also bigger by the way the black holes that collided in these gravity bases are like 60 times the mass of the Sun so there's really a lot of mass in those and they are big objects like tens of kilo mega kilometers or or maybe much more even and actually they are in the center of galaxies even much larger ones so black holes exist that's a prediction of Einstein but as theorists we like to think about it as objects where we can learn a lot about gravity because they're the most extreme and this horizon is going to play a very important role in understanding more about gravity so let me give you a little bit of a feel what is going on so I told you that it if I take the shape of the space-time when we have a mass sitting there you can actually compare this to a sheet of rubber where we put some mass locally and we get some dent in it actually here's some analogy with elasticity already happening the mass is really creating this deformation of the space-time but when the matter gets more concentrated this gets deeper and deeper and there's some limit where you just get a hole that's where the black hole appears and then there is some distance where light can no longer escape so I want to show you a little bit what it looks like to be close to a black hole black holes also curve light just like other objects it and and a bent light so if earth would be rotating around the black hole it looks like this you might get worried that Earth is being deformed here that's not what happening this is the image of what it looks like because earth when it comes back to the front it's just nicely round but the image of Earth gets projected around with the light where you can see the ring but that was the Einstein ring that I talked about it's just a light going around now I'm going to show you what it looks like if you fall into a black hole I took from the internet I should have acknowledged the person who did this but I forgot but anyway this is a simulation we're not going to do it for real so it's on where the equations and actually no one has fallen into a black hole so I cannot really verify that this is true we have had all of a kind of discussions really what happens when we fall into a black hole whether the horizon is really something can fall through we're gonna see that we're gonna be able to do it so we're using Einstein's equations and then see what happens so a number of things are gonna happen so there's a picture and we're gonna go around it the black hole there's a certain this is where you can simply make circles you don't have to do anything but when you get closer there's some moment when you get drawn into the black hole and you have to use an acceleration it's like a rocket engine to stay out then there's a distance when there's no hoping anymore you falling in and you eventually will cross the rice and then when you cross the rice and you continue but you will go to the center and hit a singularity but the horizon is a special occasion because life cannot be emitted from that anymore and also because clocks starts going differently the time stops basically at Horizon so we're gonna see a clock here that's gonna keep track and that's gonna go slowly so I'm going to show you what's happening so here we go actually the picture or maybe I should show this first elves first well we do wanna see it again the pictures actually was the galaxy and it's being deformed by as a lens so we have here the horizon appearing strangely enough the North in the South Pole are a little bit off and that's because again of the curvature the bending of light and we are they're still in a safe regime which is yellow but now we have to start using the engine and we static closer and closer eventually we're going to go through it and then in Bakke you see that we have no connection anymore with the outside and this is where there's no stopping us from following almost singularity and eventually time stops I'm gonna show this again because most people want that so there we go again so this indeed was a galaxy and this is an Einstein ring because it's the way that the light gets around and then we see the horizon appearing and so this is where light actually is going around and there's one particular distance which is called the photosphere where light just make circles we see a flesh when that happens because that's not the horizon itself the rising is here and this way need to North in the South Pole and they're not drawn what's inside basically because it's unknown so now we're inside and we can only look outward and we can still see a bit of the light coming in actually light can still go into a black hole but it cannot go out so you can still see where you came from but there's no way to communicate back to people outside so it's fun to think about black holes and this is also why the theorists do thought experiments near black holes and two famous people Stephen Hawking well well-known here of course and jacob bekenstein they both thought about black hole horizons and they wanted to know more properties like the thermodynamic properties if I throw in a box with ready it with gas particles in it it has an entropy is where the connection with information is going to come from because we want that the laws of thermodynamics are still true turns out that also the laws of quantum mechanics are going to play a role and indeed what that can stand Hawking showed that if he throw in some radiates some matter in a box from gas the ricin gets bigger but the entropy in the Box disappears but entropy always has to increase and they made the assumption that was actually back in stein that the horizon area has to do something with the amount of information that you throw in the entropy bekenstein did this calculation using quantum mechanics and he found a very surprising result in the black holes nothing can escape but it turns out quantum mechanically it emits radiation and actually gets smaller and the reason is is that in quantum mechanics you have the uncertainty principle that there is a possibility of creating pairs of particles in the vacuum and they are pair a pair particle and an antiparticle where one drops in the black hole and the other one escapes normally an empty space they would reunite again and they just annihilate each other but here one Dobson and the other one escapes and you get radiation coming out so this is the picture here it's also where these two particles near the horizon they won't escape someone falls in but if they are not on the horizon then they can combine again and this is going to be telling us something about the properties of this black hole may be that it has a temperature because its radiation is thermal radiation and if we have a temperature and we have a mass and therefore an energy we also have an entropy and that entropy is a formula that bekenstein already wrote down name it that it's proportional to the area so it has thermodynamic properties precisely the quantities that I introduced as being emergent the temperature and an entropy and entropy for a black hole is proportional to the area of its horizon this is was one of the more important discoveries actually already 40 years ago they've made this and I think it is the first crack in Einstein's theory nothing is perfect and actually that's one of my story lines is that every theory eventually gets replaced by better one and you have to look at the right clues of where to look and you find that the black hole entropy formula tells you something about what is the microscopic origin of gravity by the way I already said that Newton's law had something to do with areas this area of the black hole horizon is the same area actually you gonna talk about so there is a entropy formula that tells us how much information is contained in a black hole and we're gonna think about this information s bits I told you information for me is bits it's also can be measured by entropy because that tells us how many bits there are and this is why this formula tells us how many bits we can associate with a black hole not ordinary bits by the way it's going to be quantum qubits a little later so the information that is associated with black holes is not the information that we have classically on a computer it's going to be the next computer actually a black hole is the best computer you can have because you can store an enormous amount of information on it namely the density here is the Planck scale by building a chip like that this is where the limit is this is how much information you can store on on the surface and it's as I said not ordinary bits it's quantum information and now let me explain a little bit more about what that is I already said that bits are zeros and ones quantum bits they are also zeros and ones but you can also think about it as the spin of an electron for instance the spin of an electron can be either up or down but it can also be something in the middle and we call that a superposition so it has to decide still whether it's up or down before I do a measurement and this is why a qubit has many more possibilities so a bit has only two possibilities there is on one a qubit can be thought of as a sphere all points on this sphere is a different state of a qubit and this is why if you do calculation with qubits you're doing many calculations at the same time many more bits then we normally have in a classical computer it'll call them calculation you do all these things parallel all calculations are being done at the same time this is why quantum computers are much more powerful more importantly these qubits can be entangled already mentioned what that is namely that if I measure two qubits that the outcome is the same this was discovered let me do the calculation is like 80 years ago by again familiar name Einstein together with two colleagues actually you may wonder why I sent us something with quantum mechanics because he didn't like it well this was also motivated to show that or something very funny about quantum mechanics namely that if it measure an object and you measure the spin here it can determine the outcome of a measurement somewhere else instantaneously he called the spooky action at a distance is that this cannot be paper was not that important at the time but in recent times it's one of the most important papers because it's the first paper where they explained entanglement very clearly and this is what makes entangled qubits it makes it's the power of quantum mechanics it's the essence of quantum mechanics that we have entanglement and our universe is very entangled and so this is why this is the kind of information we're talking about so it's a property of the Quantum's it's an actually it's something that is already there before you start measuring it it tells you that if you do a measurement here that something else happens tomorrow so there's already the cubits that I showed before I mean this is where neatly of a zero in a zero if you do a measurement of this one it can be either zero or one so here and the other one here the automation outcome might be your one but the the outcome is always the same so if I measure this one is a zero then this one will be zero as well and if it's a one the other one is one but a Peoria's 50/50 probability when I do the measurement so this is called entanglement and I'm going to denote this by this picture of a sphere by connecting a little line between it so and think of it as like a connection between two of those Cupid's so I'm connecting qubits together and this is the way I'm gonna build space-time so this is going to be my microscopic picture of the molecules of space so this is what bekenstein and Hawking calculated they calculated that there was an entropy associated to horizons and this has to do precisely with this pair creation because here we are creating a pair of entangled particles and they describe the amount of information so the entangled qubits is really what's being counted by by this formula so this is the answer so what is this entropy counting it's entangled qubits and they are the building blocks of space-time and they are measured by the area but I'm gonna say it's the other way around actually the amount of cubits is going to determine the geometry and it's going to determine the area so the geometry of Einstein is going to be derived from this language so on disco as far as I want to go at least explaining the ideas this is a current state of the art kind of development going on in theoretical physics thinking about gravity in terms of quantum information and deriving its laws just the same way as we derive the laws of thermodynamics and that's called emergent gravity and this is where I want to connect now final slides to the dark universe so there's a slight summary space time and gravity are emergent and this is actually a lesson we learn not from just black hole physics I didn't tell you about string theory because I've only that many minutes talk but string theory itself also actually hints in the same direction a lot of what we're learning nowadays comes from studies in string theory where we also see that this emergence of gravity from quantum information is very natural this is all theoretical physics and you might say well why are we doing it are we learning anything new and in particular is there observational evidence I have to mention is that we have to read your eyes first the laws that we already know on this idea this can be done and I wrote a paper already about seven years ago a little more which was called on the origin of gravity and the loss of Newton because that's one of the laws you want to derive and what I showed here in this paper that indeed if you assume that the amount of information this entanglement is proportional to the area that's an assumption by the way then you can derive Newton's law just by using the same tricks that we use to derive thermodynamics so there is Newton's law and here is this picture of the information stored on a surface and we find indeed the one over R squared law because the area it grows like the area this by the way as I said as an assumption you may wonder whether this assumption is true and this is where the possibilities are maybe to explain what's going on here so now I'm going back to my original question is there some way that something strange or different happens in this galaxy already told you that the observations tell us at something distance happens but can we also explain this theoretically indeed I'm gonna say there are different laws acting here because the laws that we have currently derives Einstein's equations are derived from observations that we have done in the previous century colliding black holes lots of stuff but if you think about this question here how long have we been observing the universe if you think about the history of the earth actually saucer former from a flight actually from the internet I could have put it at the University the history of the universe if you would take that to be one year then humans only arrived one minute before midnight on the 31st of December and how long have we been doing sinus science fraction of a second it's like taking a snapshot of the history of the universe and then drawing conclusion about its entire history I showed you this experiment the snapshot was the bounce what happens to the universe is this and there's a lot of dark matter in here because it's created an enormous dent if I would applied my theory of elasticity to this I would have drawn the wrong conclusions so if the universe has this kind of slow dynamics happening at very large skills we can explain these phenomena and now let me go back to the picture here about what we don't know about the universe this is what we have used and let me ask you the question according to current theory where is all the information city in this picture any idea that little tiny yellow stuff it's the photons in the CMB that carries most of the information according to current through I think that's wrong information is contained there most of the information and then we have a totally different way of thinking about it we've missing most of the entropy this number is 10 to the 90 that's the number of bits you would need to describe the photons number I claim is 10 to the 120 because that's the size of the horizon of our universe if we would have only dark energy so it is going to be the conclusion I'm going to think about our universe as if we are living inside a giant black hole which has a horizon except we are not inside outside the black hole we're inside think about the universe as a black hole where the horizon is because of the following fact we know according to Hubble that things move away from us with faster velocity when we go for the distances the objects further away move further with higher velocity so this is Hubble's law the velocity is proportion to the constant the constant of Hubble times the distance so there is a distance when this would become the speed of light and things that are moving faster than the speed of light we cannot see so there's a farthest distance we can see and therefore we have a horizontal I while you take the velocity to be C and divide by H so this is the distance to the horizon if he would be in a universe which is constantly just expanding according to the Hubble law this is Delta then the size of the rice and the size of the universe and actually also the size of the number of bits I need namely it's gonna be the size of this horizon again measured in flanking units I'm gonna claim this is any information associated not to the horizon itself but to the dark energy that's an observational fact B I should tell you the picture first so I'm gonna explain what happens in galaxies rotation curves namely there's information contained in the dark net energy the matter actually pushes it away it's like elasticity pushing it away it creates a hole in it but entropy wants to move back it sort of wants to increase it pushes back I've done a calculation if you don't believe me I should take this aside because all the equations are on the blackboard these are the equations of a paper I wrote them about a year ago that does a calculation where at the end of it I'm going to explain the data that are here and let me already tell you a curious fact that should be is been a smoking gun for why this is the right explanation if you look at this curve here so this is what Newton would have predicted and this is what we observe turns out that the deviation always happens at a very particular gravitational acceleration independent of the size of the galaxy if you calculate or measure I should say that acceleration turns out it's related to the Hubble experimenter which is very mysterious because a galaxy is a very tiny object so what would that relation be I explain that in that paper and the formulas are like here so I use entropy the temperature and tango month eventually a formula comes out that describes this behavior and precisely the flattening of this rotation curves with this velocity of acceleration in there so these ideas are connected to observations and I think this is proof that quantum entanglement is the origin of gravity then you may ask what is it good for I get that question a lot I always show this one one of those questions I think we're gonna change I do think that this is a new view of gravity but also of the cosmos and we are interested always have been interested in the question where did it all come from that's a question that drives our curiosity and it takes us from science to technology and back again and it brought us from the period of the caveman to our current time and it's therefore the driving force of what we are doing curiosity about nature and then in the meantime developing technology as well so this is I think also for me done my motivation and maybe what we learn about understanding about quantum information and the universe will help us also apply it in some real things that is good for us all right thank you very much all right let's open the floor to questions that was terrific to the microphone for the theater audience is right there you can form a line and the online audience if Mike phone works well I'll get that updated too but if I get to go first I'm happy to go first all right no questions that must be there will be questions okay so let's start with this one so what what first inspired you to to become a physicist and then the Part B is what prepared you to ID a id8 something that goes so against the grain I a teenager actually I watched the documentary where Stephen Hawking was already edit explaining about black holes and my future a thesis advisor here that host was in it explaining about elementary particles it was in the mid seventies its program was called the key to the universe I was 14 years old and decided I wanted to do this so this is what I started doing and in particular the question about black holes and an entropy is something that here at often Stephen Hawking disgusts around for many decades then I joined in and I felt a number of things that the connection with thermodynamics already told me something about the emergence of gravity but I have to admit I always felt a certain unease with the way that people have extrapolated our current laws of gravity to describe the evolution of the universe and come with a very illogical thought namely that there was a moment that suddenly from nothing it exploded so I think that is a question that I want to eventually understand differently and I think this idea of emergence sort of grass I find this philosophically much more appealing than the way that that's been done so I feel there's something to be done and I have been making progress on black hole physics and other people have with string theory that I feel that we are on the onto something so I'm excited about it go to the in the theater right here going against standard model of cosmology you must come across all the objections do you address in any of papers the objections like the power spectrum of the CMB and bullet clusters and all those other secondary evidence yeah so the bullet cluster I I already addressed actually gave a talk this afternoon where I explained some of more of the details about this but also what I explained here so one thing that happens is if you think about how Einstein changed gravity from Newton he didn't take Newton's law and write down a new force law he had totally different concepts on where it came from and so what people are doing now is excluding the possibility that we take Einstein's equation and write some other equation the thing that really is changing is that's a totally new concept and it has to do with the slow dynamics that's taking place so there's no immediate connection between the location of the matter and whatever the gravitational field is that can have a delay in it and actually the collision like the bullet cluster can be explained in that way and I also feel like the reason why people try to exclude these possibilities I think is in part because they allow themselves only a limited class of possibilities if you want X so how should I say this if you think already what kind of modification that could be to gr many of them are probably not correct but there might be one and we have to think I do think we have to think out of the box because these problems are our large ones and we don't know yet where the answer is entirely but I think to make a business out of excluding other people's idea somehow I don't think that that's my way of doing things I like to construct things not destructed theater if energy can't be destroyed then what happens to the energy contained inside virtual particles when they disappear ah good question so there's a certain moment though there is uncertainty and that means the following if I look at a system very long I know that energy I can measure it but if I look at it very short I don't know really what the amount of energy is in there and that's what Heisenberg told us that there is a certain uncertainty in how short you look at this object and what the amount of energy is in there so for a short amount of time bass can borrow a little bit of energy as long as it gives a deck little later and that's sort of the the way that it happens and it's like you cheat with energy conservation as long as hottes don't notice it we'll go to an online question so would the discovery of dark matter invalidate your theory or would some parts of it survive so that it's a also a good question I mean I don't say that there are no other particles to be discovered the Dark Matter particle has to be a very special kind name it has a particle that does not decay it has to stay around and we have to explain why there is the amount that we observe and many people say it may not be one particle so they can add one or the other so what I will say is that we can discover new particles but it should not give us so much more matter in the form of particles that it starts changing the way that my equations work because then indeed these ideas are wrong it's true that there are still many steps to be taken so but I can indeed quite confidently say that I I really think there will be no particle found and if it happens I will have to go back to the drawing board thank you in theatres this may demonstrate my ignorance but if information the amount of information is directly proportional to area can we explain space-time in terms of 2d rather than 3d also a very good question I mean certainly things that we have been working on as a model what we call holography so a whole log Rafi is indeed a projection of the three-dimensional space on a two-dimensional plane and then you would say that all the information that is contained necessary to describe what's happening in that space can be recast on in terms of two dimensions so this is a theory that came also out of string theory there's a space which has not positive dark energy but negative cosmological constants called instead of the sitter's called anti-de sitter this is precisely a space where everything seems to live on the boundary and we're trying to reconstruct what's going on inside for ready two centuries SOI two centuries four to two decades and that is also taking a lot of difficulty and and I say that's not a space we live in not universe we live in so what I did here actually was show that not all the information is actually really living on the boundary but it's also filling up the volume it still satisfies this area law that if you add it all up gives you exactly the size of your horizon so I think I would hate if the laws of physics would be eventually so that I have to construct what's happening in this room from some two-dimensional surface the boundary of our universe that would be not a very practical way of doing things and as a feeling that this is also not going to be the final answer anyway so there's it's a little bit of a subtle issue because we're still in the middle of this development maybe a crew trollese next fight even because there's a bit of this picture this is the picture I mentioned which is where there's a theory on the boundary that's describing something happening in the bulk which has the volume which is has gravity inside but this is then the hologram that we're talking about and string theorists are doing this kind of stuff ladies and gentlemen dr. Eric Berlin's [Applause] you

9 Rules of Personal Space



Views:1664672|Rating:4.95|View Time:12:34Minutes|Likes:35542|Dislikes:346
We discuss the rules of personal space. GMM #512!
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Produced by Stevie Wynne Levine
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today we speak of the unspoken rules of personal space let's talk about that a good mythical morning we have an imaginary bubble around us and that imaginary bubble is called personal space or imaginary bubble I like personal space we've got anthropologists Edward T hall now he defines he's here back at yeah we've got him here with us no I don't even know if he's alive back in 1966 brother DUP he defined personal space as the region surrounding a person which they regard as psychologically theirs yeah now people's opinions about personal space vary widely I mean culturally it varies yeah and then from person to person it varies yeah and it is largely unspoken so I thought today it would be fun to have a conversation about the unspoken rules of personal space so by speaking about them they're no longer unspoken I hope I'm not breaking anything yeah I thought about um so what I want to do is I want to propose rules of personal space for particular places and scenarios okay will you find yourself and hey this is just one guy's opinion I'm gonna run it by you maybe demonstrate some of these things you let me know what you think and let's see if we can arrive collectively at what are feasible rules we sit kind of of personal space is it kind of close yeah maybe closer than people realize yet the camera makes us seem farther but we're this almost this is two inches well people don't know that that's two inches plus the camera changes it since they don't sit on a GMM desk I'm going to make it more relatable and take it to an airplane so you sit down an airplane basically I think most people would agree you're pretty much in somebody's personal space just by virtue of your your ticket assignment right unless let's assume that we're strangers on a plane I got a couple of rules for us well first of all we should be a little bit closer because I mean yeah you're right up on the right the plane and let's say you're on the armrest first of all my rule is you can talk to the person but you should only glance at them you should never turn and face them yeah that's when maintain icon where you from I don't even know because you're staring right through my soul and it's making me uncomfortable okay you know where you hedid oh I know where I'm headed now cuz I'm not looking at you but I'm giving you a little glance wait where you headed I'm just yeah other side of the world man you gonna get some of those peanuts you're gonna get some of those pretzels I got both long as far as I'm gonna pick one I know I'm gonna get both overtime okay so that's it only glance no face-to-face I agree with that I don't think anyone's doctor I have one woman one time she had a worst breath and I was hoping she would start eating something because when you eat stuff sometimes it covers it up it pushes I didn't send it smell like rotten peanuts after she got through the peanuts what she was she looking at you want to talk where are you from where you heard it yeah don't square out to people and then the armrest there's never a scenario when you can share the armrest okay you might want to attempt that but it no halfsies it's not gonna work it first come first serve and then whenever they remove that thing like remove it you got to be totally ready to take over I'm one time there I'm locked in I don't go to the bathroom some time for that armrest – movies my first rule is don't sit down right next to a stranger unless you have to I mean don't we all agree with this but you were telling me last week that this happened to you I went to a movie by myself I'm not proud of it but I did in a whole family a family of eight came in and they've kid that all around you sit right next to me okay what's up kid well he's a kid but hey kid you in a row there was hardly anybody in the theater I'm gonna add this rule okay check this out at it you must leave an even number of blank spaces in between you and the closest stranger you should never leave one space because that's inconsiderate to how things work typically with movies people come in pair nobody goes to movie by themselves um so you got to leave an even number of spaces and then if you're forced to sit beside somebody because of it's just crowded all the rules of the airplane apply and you shouldn't talk during a movie anyway yeah oh yeah yeah armrests and everything okay you ready to go to an elevator how do you choose who gets to put the drink in the armrest though first come first serve now elevator you're pretty much forced to be in people's spaces and there's a genuine there's a general assumption that okay when you go in and then what you turn and everybody faces the door and looks at the number above the door and everybody's quiet okay I'll propose a rule that you can have a conversation with somebody and even face them a little bit if you can touch one side of the elevator with a part of your body any part and they're touching the other side of the elevator like with their hand or something that lets you know I'm far enough away from them that I can turn and look at them a little bit like I'm hold on to the side they don't have to be touching the side of the elevator but if they are right where you from this side of the elevator I kind of is it over there I live in here did you fart I'm not no dude it wasn't me and there's only one other person here I didn't but D smell it it was a guy before us it was me oh where you from decided the elevator okay and then there's kind of a psycho zone and all so my general rule which I think applies in an elevator is if you can smell somebody you're too close to talk to them well what it smells strong though some people hold it permeate the hole they ate garlic or something don't talk to him okay if you can smell somebody don't talk you're too close to talk to it okay agree or disagree agree I don't like smelling people in general let's go to the DMV line let's just say this is any line okay okay my rule that I propose in terms of personal space is you can't put too much personal space in between you because you'll get skipped in line okay the proper amount of space to put in between you and the person in front of you is slightly only slightly above the average human being body depth that way no one's going to skip you but if you go any closer than that you're gonna get mule-kicked about someone and who's angry about being in the DMV line the widest part of a person in that dimension is their buttocks did so you got to get well at least on me it depends on who it is you've got to go from the furthest most point to the bacchus most point of the average human okay all right and I'm just going by feel on that seriously edges but don't feel people okay I want to be clear I'm not saying feel somebody yeah it's because I use the words in some countries you're basically like chest to back extremely crowded subway which is basically like a concert mosh pit here's my rule for this if you are touching more than two places with an individual that you do not know like others shoulder touch there's a knee touch and there's like a risk touch because like we're slammed together in a subway it's kind of weird we wouldn't say like this probably in a crowded subway you might I feel like at this point the rule is you have to talk to hey man but you should do it with an apologetic looking I'm sorry where you from hey YUM I shall live in the subway which makes this even more appropriate I'm gonna move over here so you just have to embrace the awkwardness that's my rule for that you have to talk to the person okay I don't like talking it's strange if you're touching that much you have taught too and now I'm going to shift to people that you know okay so what we're going to do is we're going to move back and put your cheer in here all right let's say we're coworkers all right we're in the break room hey George the proper distance to stand from a co-worker is determined by out stretching your arm and barely touching your finger tip which is usually your middle finger because it's long as to their nose hey then then bring it down you see that news brain then bring it down do that mentally and then you see the new supervisor Sally yeah she's you you mean pantsuit oh-ho I call head stripe answer yeah just checking you don't want to be any closer to someone having that type of conversation unless it's Sally and if hahahahahaha your boss if Sally is your boss you got to touch their nose Holly Levin touching didn't shimmy back a little bit shimmy that that's it oh all right so now for friends say men friends are a little bit closer okay I say the rule for this to determine your optimal personal space is reach out like you're gonna grab their ears and now at this point here anything can you hear anything yeah okay yeah that you want to be able to talk to you friend this is all happen your mind by the way you see Sally today well I don't work with you I'm your friend yeah yeah alright you talk about her tonight yeah our friend so the hands come down that's mental and but you would imagine grabbing them opening that's how you know you're the proper distance from a from a friend like like that right that that actually you don't do that you just you imagine but if we're both interested in Sally right hey Sally and then I'm like I've never met a don't listen to him Sally never met a Sally ever what about a Tammy yeah lots of Tammy's okay all right so then move in a little bit more now we're on our first date we are we're waiting at Applebee's are you salad we're waiting at Applebee's to get our table you do the elbow reach we're in you touch right there that's how close you need to be on a first date you gonna get some riblets or what or basket a basket of Riblet yeah a basket I like you let's have a second day and again my hand should never be there don't ever want Sally to know that like you don't like me she's turned right all right and now finally say you been married a year now you PDA you can do whatever you want if you want to hang out with your wife or your whatever that's fine but when you're just hanging out having a normal conversation you know you're at the proper distance when you just give a little this and then the knee hits what the knee hills there's I go one at a time Sally I'm so glad I got it right you know you're at the right spot so the knees hit let me go to oh oh no I thought it let you go down one person is that okay right see you this is comfortable if we've been married to you yeah yeah right you say okay well it's like a mechanics in it there's a lot of mechanics and there's so much more we could talk about but I'll leave it to you guys in the comments thanks for liking this video whoa you know what time it is it's not well I know what time it is time spin the wheel make sure you head on over to our Facebook page we are doing our back-to-school contest over there you submit photos we have an assignment every single day this week and you can win amazing merchandise from rhettandlink video also click through to good mythical more where I tell you how to deal with the close talker two blades of grass here the lawnmower start hey Harry hey Bill just chilling out being grass yeah yeah how she's aged what do you hear that just that low Rumble yah yah yah yah aah familiar sound from mythology I think it's mythology well a mythological no mower sound is my tummy I'm hungry grass gets hungry you know how the grass stomach's how loud they can get you're right we eat sunlight and water let's just chop open up here comes the sunlight okay here's the deal that actually induced a burp are you okay with that oh and you're about to make it

The Riddle of AntiMatter



Views:1502929|Rating:4.81|View Time:24:3Minutes|Likes:9141|Dislikes:360
Explore one of the deepest mysteries about the origin of our universe. According to standard theory, the early moments of the universe were marked by the explosive contact between subatomic particles of opposite charge. Featuring short interviews with Masaki Hori, Tokyo University and Jeffrey Hangst, Aarhus University.

Scientists are now focusing their most powerful technologies on an effort to figure out exactly what happened. Our understanding of cosmic history hangs on the question: how did matter as we know it survive? And what happened to its birth twin, its opposite, a mysterious substance known as antimatter?

A crew of astronauts is making its way to a launch pad at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Little noticed in the publicity surrounding the close of this storied program is the cargo bolted into Endeavor’s hold. It’s a science instrument that some hope will become one of the most important scientific contributions of human space flight.

It’s a kind of telescope, though it will not return dazzling images of cosmic realms long hidden from view, the distant corners of the universe, or the hidden structure of black holes and exploding stars.

Unlike the great observatories that were launched aboard the shuttle, it was not named for a famous astronomer, like Hubble, or the Chandra X-ray observatory.

The instrument, called the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, or AMS. The promise surrounding this device is that it will enable scientists to look at the universe in a completely new way.

Most telescopes are designed to capture photons, so-called neutral particles reflected or emitted by objects such as stars or galaxies. AMS will capture something different: exotic particles and atoms that are endowed with an electrical charge. The instrument is tuned to capture “cosmic rays” at high energy hurled out by supernova explosions or the turbulent regions surrounding black holes. And there are high hopes that it will capture particles of antimatter from a very early time that remains shrouded in mystery.

The chain of events that gave rise to the universe is described by what’s known as the Standard model. It’s a theory in the scientific sense, in that it combines a body of observations, experimental evidence, and mathematical models into a consistent overall picture. But this picture is not necessarily complete.

The universe began hot. After about a billionth of a second, it had cooled down enough for fundamental particles to emerge in pairs of opposite charge, known as quarks and antiquarks. After that came leptons and antileptons, such as electrons and positrons. These pairs began annihilating each other.

Most quark pairs were gone by the time the universe was a second old, with most leptons gone a few seconds later. When the dust settled, so to speak, a tiny amount of matter, about one particle in a billion, managed to survive the mass annihilation.

That tiny amount went on to form the universe we can know – all the light emitting gas, dust, stars, galaxies, and planets. To be sure, antimatter does exist in our universe today. The Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope spotted a giant plume of antimatter extending out from the center of our galaxy, most likely created by the acceleration of particles around a supermassive black hole.

The same telescope picked up signs of antimatter created by lightning strikes in giant thunderstorms in Earth’s atmosphere. Scientists have long known how to create antimatter artificially in physics labs – in the superhot environments created by crashing atoms together at nearly the speed of light.

Here is one of the biggest and most enduring mysteries in science: why do we live in a matter-dominated universe? What process caused matter to survive and antimatter to all but disappear? One possibility: that large amounts of antimatter have survived down the eons alongside matter.

In 1928, a young physicist, Paul Dirac, wrote equations that predicted the existence of antimatter. Dirac showed that every type of particle has a twin, exactly identical but of opposite charge. As Dirac saw it, the electron and the positron are mirror images of each other. With all the same properties, they would behave in exactly the same way whether in realms of matter or antimatter. It became clear, though, that ours is a matter universe. The Apollo astronauts went to the moon and back, never once getting annihilated. Solar cosmic rays proved to be matter, not antimatter.

It stands to reason that when the universe was more tightly packed, that it would have experienced an “annihilation catastrophe” that cleared the universe of large chunks of the stuff. Unless antimatter somehow became separated from its twin at birth and exists beyond our field of view, scientists are left to wonder: why do we live in a matter-dominated universe?

an international race is picking up speed to see our universe for what it really is and how it came to be according to the standard theory that describes the origins of the universe it's early moments were marked by the explosive contact between subatomic particles of opposite charge scientists are now focusing their most powerful technologies on an effort to figure out exactly what happened our understanding of cosmic history hangs on the question how did matter as we know it survived and what happened to its birth to him it's opposite a mysterious substance known as antimatter a crew of astronauts is making its way to a launch pad at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida they'll enter the space shuttle Endeavour for the 134th and second to the last flight of the space shuttle little noticed in the publicity surrounding the close of this storage program is the cargo bolted into endeavours hole it's a science instrument that some hope will become one of the most important scientific contributions of human spaceflight it's a kind of telescope though it will not return dazzling images of cosmic realms long hidden from view the distant corners of the universe or the hidden structure of black holes and exploding stars unlike the Great observatories that were launched aboard the shuttle it was not named for a famous astronomer like Hubble or the Chandra x-ray Observatory the instrument called the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer or AMS is the brainchild of this man Samuel ting from Massachusetts Institute of Technology at the heart of the AMS is a large superconducting magnet and designed to operate in the pristine environment of space of which is the with its intensive power requirements the final version was attached to the International Space Station ation inside the cupola on the International Space Station being maneuvered into the promised surrounding this device II is that it will enable scientists to look at the universe in a completely new way you guys go as far as release never most telescopes are designed to capture photons so-called neutral particles reflected or emitted by objects such as stars or galaxies AMS will capture something different exotic particles and atoms that are endowed with an electrical charge among these are a theoretical Dark Matter particle called a neutrally no then there are the strangelets a type of quark that could amount to a whole new form of matter the instrument is tuned to capture cosmic rays at high energy hurled out by supernova explosions for the turbulent regions surrounding black holes and there are high hopes that it will capture particles of antimatter from a very early time that remains shrouded in mystery the chain of events that gave rise to the universe is described by what's known as the standard model it's a theory in the scientific sense in that it combines a body of observations experimental evidence and physical laws into a consistent overall picture but this picture is not necessarily complete the universe began hot after about a billionth of a second it had cooled down enough for fundamental particles to emerge in pairs of opposite charge known as quarks and antiquarks after that came leptons and anti leptons such as electrons and positrons these pairs began annihilating each other most pork pairs had annihilated by the time the universe was a second old with most leptons gone a few seconds later when the dust settled so to speak a tiny amount of matter about one particle in a billion managed to survive the mass annihilation that tiny amount went on to form the universe we know all the light emitting gas dust stars galaxies and planets to be sure antimatter does exist in our universe today the Fermi gamma-ray Space Telescope spotted a giant plume of antimatter extending out from the center of our galaxy most likely created by the acceleration of particles around a supermassive black hole the same telescope picked up signs of antimatter created by lightning strikes in giant thunderstorms in Earth's atmosphere a European cosmic ray satellite called pamela detected a huge store of anti protons in orbit around the earth created by high-energy particles striking the upper atmosphere then held there by magnetic fields that ringed the planet scientists have long known how to create antimatter artificially in physics labs in the superhot environments created by crashing atoms together at nearly the speed of light here is one of the biggest and most enduring mysteries in science why do we live in a matter-dominated universe what process caused matter to survive and antimatter to all but disappear one possibility that large amounts of antimatter have survived down the eons alongside matter that was the view of the german-born physicist Arthur Schuster who appears to have coined the term antimatter in 1898 he imagined that its opposite charge would allow it to act as a counter to gravity large tracts of space he wrote might thus be filled unknown to us with a substance in which gravity is practically non-existent until by some accidental cause such as a meteorite flying through it unstable equilibrium is established the matter collecting on one side the antimatter on the other until two worlds are formed separating from each other never to unite again the issue gathered dust until 1928 when a young physicist Paul Dirac wrote equations that predicted the existence of antimatter Dirac showed that every type of particle has a twin exactly identical but of opposite charge so for every proton there's an antiproton for every electron there's a positron for every neutron and antineutron within them are quarks and they're twins the anti quarks as Dirac saw it the electron and the positron are mirror images of each other with all the same properties they would behave in exactly the same way whether in realms of matter or antimatter in his Nobel Prize lecture in 1933 Dirac pondered a larger reality for antimatter if we accept he said the view of complete symmetry between positive and negative electric charge so far as concerns the fundamental laws of nature we must regard it rather as an accident that the earth and presumably the whole solar system contains a preponderance of negative electrons and positive protons it is quite possible that for some of the stars it is the other way about these stars being built up mainly of positrons and negative protons just the year before the physicist Karl Anderson had confirmed the existence of antimatter by shooting gamma rays at atoms creating electron positron pairs it became clear though that ours is a matter universe the Apollo astronauts went to the moon and back never once getting annihilated solar cosmic rays proved to be matter not antimatter traveling to every corner of the solar system our probes have not encountered any objects made of antimatter cosmic rays from the Milky Way are overwhelmingly matter if there are any large concentrations in nearby galaxies or galaxy clusters we should see gamma rays produced when particles and antiparticles find each other it stands to reason too that when the universe was more tightly packed that it would have experienced an annihilation catastrophe that cleared the universe of large chunks understand unless antimatter somehow became separated from its twin at birth and exists beyond our field of view scientists are left to wonder why do we live in a matter-dominated universe Dirac's symmetrical view of matter and antimatter which saw them as equivalent collapsed three decades later in 1964 the American physicists James Cronin and Val Fitch examined the decay of a particle called a k on to its antiparticle twin they found that the trance nation back to normal matter did not occur with the same probability that would suggest there must be small differences in the physical laws that govern matter and anti-matter to find out exactly what makes them different or asymmetrical would be a big step toward understanding how our universe took the shape that it did that's why physicists are hot on the trail of antimatter with new technologies designed to give them a closer look at this strange substance in nature and in the lab but if there is some antimatter out there escapees from the mass annihilation of the Big Bang still fleeing through the emptiness of space the crew of endeavor placed the AMS instrument on the International Space Station in May 2011 since then scientists have been combing the data for the signatures of antimatter particles striking its detector if they managed to detect heavier elements such as anti helium or anti carbon that would point to concentrations of antimatter in space large enough to a form stars where those elements are created and suggest that symmetry may not have been broken after all such heavier anti-atoms can exist at Brookhaven National Lab in New York scientists recently smashed gold atoms together at nearly the speed of light from about a billion individual collisions its detectors recorded the presence of 18 anti helium atoms atoms with two anti protons and two Aten neutrons the explosive potential of antimatter in this universe has long animated the voyages of science fiction it's the fuel of choice for getting beyond our solar system and out to the stars just to get into orbit the Space Shuttle had to be loaded up with some 15 times its weight in conventional rocket fuel the energy contained in antimatter is orders of magnitude greater in fact it would take just a coin sized portion to propel the shuttle into orbit because antimatter is so volatile with our matter filled universe the challenge for scientists is first to create it then to hold it for enough time to study it before it simply vanishes even as the shuttle Endeavour glided on to land for the last time AMS scientists were beginning to filter through the rush of charged particles in space meanwhile scientists on the ground were beginning their own intensive efforts to corral antimatter in their labs they are trying to do this at the giant European physics lab CERN in a little-known corner the antiproton deceleration lab a group of scientists is showing that you can actually trap and hold antimatter long enough to study the anti protons from the antiproton decelerator that's the machine that we need here at CERN come down this pipe right here and they come into our apparatus which is inside this large magnets this is a very strong magnetic field to help to confine the charged particles that make anti hydrogen we mix the anti protons with positrons inside this magnet trap and that's where we capture them inside the Alpha chamber the magnetic field holds the particles in place and isolates them from one another an electric field separates the electrons and positrons they are then carefully brought into contact when two positrons collide one falls into orbit around an antiproton forming anti hydrogen then the molecule is trapped by magnetic fields like a marble rolling around in a bathtub now remove the bathtub the magnetic fields the anti molecule smacks up against the wall of the detector and annihilates emitting a shower of particles so what we do is hold on to them for a thousand seconds and then release them to make sure they were there that's how you do this measurement that 1,000 seconds almost 17 minutes is a major accomplishment on the atomic life scale a thousand seconds is forever things on the atomic life scale are measured in nanoseconds or smaller perhaps so this is forever for an atom to be trapped the next step and that's what we're reporting now is to hold on to it see how long can we keep it around so that we can study it after all that's what we want to do we want to study the antimatter compare it to matter and see if they're the same and by study we mean interact with lasers or with microwave radiation to see what their structure is inside how do they behave do they behave exactly like hydrogen within the same lab the effort to pinpoint differences is already underway scientists working with the Asakusa detector are trying to measure the precise weight of an antiproton these oddball molecules contain one antiproton which would normally inhabit the atomic nucleus instead it orbits the nucleus in place of an electron it survives microseconds in the detector but that's enough for the scientists to hit it with a pair of lasers the molecule blows apart on impact and that enables them to calculate the weight of its components we've measured through a precision of nine digits and we found that the antimatter the antiproton mass is exactly the same as a proton mass 2 therefore our nine digits of precision if they find there is a difference it's bound to be subtle will it be enough to shed light on why matter survived and antimatter did not the differences may lie much deeper in the structure of matter that we've so far been able to go scientists are now preparing to throw a new generation of powerful technologies at the problem at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN they can send atoms whipping around a 27 kilometer tunnel and into ultra high-energy collisions looking at the zoo of particles that splatter onto the walls of the detectors they are hoping to find differences between quarks and their anti quark counterparts one recent computer calculation performed at Columbia University unveiled differences between quarks and antiquarks when it was assumed that these particles interact with dimensions beyond the four that define the universe we experience still its authors wondered whether the differences are enough to account for our matter filled universe understanding the asymmetry between matter and antimatter is one of the most important quests in modern cosmology because it would help expand or perhaps even challenge aspects of the standard model the clash of these opposite forms in the early universe parks back to William Blake's poem what's immortal hand or eye could frame thy fearful symmetry we now ask what in the chaotic birth of time and space could break nature's symmetry and set our universe in motion

How to take a picture of a black hole | Katie Bouman



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At the heart of the Milky Way, there’s a supermassive black hole that feeds off a spinning disk of hot gas, sucking up anything that ventures too close — even light. We can’t see it, but its event horizon casts a shadow, and an image of that shadow could help answer some important questions about the universe. Scientists used to think that making such an image would require a telescope the size of Earth — until Katie Bouman and a team of astronomers came up with a clever alternative. Bouman explains how we can take a picture of the ultimate dark using the Event Horizon Telescope.

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المترجم: Hani Eldalees
المدقّق: Mahmoud Magdy في الفيلم (إنترستلر)، نشاهد نظرة عن قرب لثقب أسود ضخم. في الخلفية يوجد غاز متوهج، قوة الجاذبية الهائلة لهذا الثقب الأسود تشكل الضوء على شكل حلقة. ولكن هذه الصورة غير حقيقية، بل رسماً تقريبياً
باستخدام الكمبيوتر تعبير فني عمّا قد يكون
شكّل الثقب الأسود في الواقع. قبل 100 عام، نشر ألبرت آينشتاين
نظريته عن النسبية العامة. وخلال السنوات التي تلت، قدم العلماء العديد
من البراهين المؤيدة لهذه النظرية. ولكن أحد الأمور الواضحة من تلك النظرية
وهي الثقوب السوداء، لم تتم رؤيتها بشكل مباشر بعد. وبالرغم من أنه يوجد تصور عما يمكن
أن يكون عليه شكل الثقب الأسود، إلا أننا لم نلتقط صورة لأحدها حتى الآن. ولكن، لربما تتفاجأون إن عرفتم
أن هذا سيتغير قريبًا. هناك احتمال أن نشاهد أول صورة
لثقب أسود خلال السنوات القليلة المقبلة. ستكون مسؤولية التقاط الصورة
موكلة لفريق دولي من العلماء، تيليسكوب بحجم الأرض تقريبًا وخوارزمية تعمل على
وضع أجزاء الصورة النهائية معًا. وبالرغم من أنني لن أتمكن
من عرض صورة حقيقة لكم اليوم، إلا أنني أود أن أعرض لكم
جزءًا بسيطًا من الجهد المبذول لالتقاط أول صورة. اسمي كيتي بومان، وأنا طالبة دكتوراه في
معهد ماساتشوستس للتكنولوجيا. أجري أبحاثي في مختبر علوم كمبيوتر وهي تهدف لجعل الكمبيوتر يبصر
من خلال الصور والفيديو. وبالرغم من أنني لست عالمة فلك، أود أن أعرض لكم اليوم كيف تمكنت من المساهمة
في هذا المشروع المثير. إن غادرت المدينة هذه الليلة
بعيدًا عن الأضواء، فلربما يحالفك الحظ
وتستطيع أن تشاهد منظرًا رائعًا لمجرة درب التبانة. وإن استطعت أن تقرب الصورة
متجاوزًا ملايين النجوم 26 ألف سنة ضوئية باتجاه
مركز درب التبانة المتلألئ سنصل في نهاية المطاف
إلى مجموعة من النجوم في المركز تمامًا. وبإستخدام تيليسكوبات بالأشعة
تحت الحمراء لكي تخترق الغبار الكوني، تمكن علماء الفلك
من مراقبة تلك النجوم طوال 16 عامًا. ولكن الأكثر دهشة
هو ما لا يقدرون على رؤيته. يبدو أن هذه النجوم تدور حول جسم خفي. بتتبع مسار هذه النجوم، توصل علماء الفلك لنتيجة أن الشيء الوحيد الصغير والثقيل
القادر على التسبب في هذه الحركة هو ثقب أسود هائل جداً وهو شيء كثيف جدًا لدرجة
أنه يمتص أي شيء يقترب منه حتى الضوء. لكن ماذا يحدث إن تمكنّا
من تقريب الصورة أكثر؟ هل من الممكن أن نشاهد شيئًا،
يفيد تعريفه بعدم القدرة على رؤيته؟ حسنا، تبين لنا أنه في حال كبرنا الصورة
على مستوى موجات الراديو، نتوقع أن نرى
حلقة مكونة من الضوء ناتجة عن الجاذبية الكبيرة
للبلازما الساخنة التي تدور حول الثقب الأسود. بمعنى آخر، يلقى الثقب الأسود بظله
على هذه الخلفية من المواد المشعة، ناحتة بذلك كرة من الظلام. تكشف هذه الحلقة المشعة أفق الثقب الأسود، حيث تكون قوى الجاذبية كبيرة للغاية لدرجة أن حتى الضوء
لا يستطيع الفرار. تنبأت معادلات آينشتاين
بحجم وشكل تلك الحلقات، لذا التقاط صور لها لن يكون مذهلًا فقط، لكن سيكون برهاناً على أنّ
تلك المعادلات صحيحة حتى في الظروف المتطرفة
التي توجد بقرب الثقب الأسود. إلا أنّ الثقب الأسود
على بعد كبير من مكاننا، فمن الأرض تبدو تلك الحلقات صغيرة جداً كحجم ثمرة برتقال على سطح القمر. هذا ما يجعل مهمة
التقاط صورة لها شاقة للغاية. لكن لماذا؟ يعتمد الأمر بمجمله على معادلة بسيطة. هذا سببه ظاهرة تسمى انحراف الضوء، توجد حدود أساسية لأصغر الأشياء التي يمكن أن نراها. المعادلة القاعدة تنص أنّه
إذا رغبنا في رؤية أشياء أصغر وأصغر، فيجب أن يكون حجم التيليسكوبات أكبر وأكبر. ولكن حتى باستخدام
أقوى التيليسكوبات البصرية هنا على الأرض، لا يمكننا أن نصل إلى الدقة المطلوبة لصورة جسم ما على سطح القمر. في الواقع، أعرض لكم هنا أحد أكثر الصور
دقةً والتي تم التقاطها من قبل لسطح القمر من الأرض. تحتوي على 13 ألف بيكسل تقريبًا، بالرغم من ذلك، يمكن أن يحتوي
كل بيكسل على 1.5 مليون برتقالة. بالتالي كيف يجب أن يكون
حجم التليسكوب لكي نتمكن من رؤية البرتقالة على سطح القمر وثقب أسود في ذات الوقت؟ بإجراء الحسابات الضرورية يتضح لنا، أنّنا سنكون بحاجة إلى تليسكوب بحجم كوكب الأرض. (ضحك) إن تمكنّا من بناء هذا التليسكوب
بحجم الأرض، فسنتمكن من أن نبدأ
في ملاحظة حلقة الضوء المميزة تلك التي تدل على حدوث ثقب أسود في الأفق. بالرغم من أن هذه الصورة
لن تحتوي على كافة التفاصيل التي نراها في رسوم الكمبيوتر التقريبية، ستتيح لنا أن نلقي أول نظرة ممكنة بكل أمان على البيئة المحيطة بالثقب الأسود. ولكن كما يمكنكم أن تتصوروا، فإن بناء تيليسكوب بطبق واحد
كبير بحجم الأرض هو أمر مستحيل. ولكن بتعبير ميك جاغر الشهير، "لا يمكنك دوماً الحصول على ما تريد، ولكن إن حاولت أحيانًا، فلربما تجد وتحصل على ما تحتاجه". وبإيصال تليسكوبات من جميع أنحاء العالم، فإن تعاون دولي يسمى تليسكوب أحداث الأفق يعمل على إيجاد تليسكوب
يدار بالكمبيوتر بحجم الأرض، قادر على تحليل تركيبة حدث بحجم أفق الثقب الأسود. هذه الشبكة من التليسكوبات
من المقرر أن تلتقط أول صورة لثقب أسود العام المقبل. جميع هذه التليسكوبات
في الشبكة العالمية تعمل معًا. وبربطها معًا من خلال توقيت دقيق
باستخدام الساعات الذرية، تقوم فرق من الخبراء
في كل موقع بتجميد الضوء عن طريق تجميع
آلاف (التيرابايت) من البيانات. ثم تتم معالجة هذه البيانات
في مختبر هنا في (ماساتشوتس). ولكن كيف يمكن لهذا كله أن ينجح؟ هل تذكرون أنه إن أردنا
رؤية ثقب أسود في وسط مجرتنا، فإنه يتوجب علينا بناء تليسكوب بحجم الأرض؟ لنتظاهر لثانية واحدة أنه بمقدورنا بناء تليسكوب بحجم الأرض. سيكون الأمر مشابهًا لتحويل الأرض لكرة كبيرة لامعة في نادي للديسكو. ستلتقط كل من هذه المرايا الضوء ويمكننا بعد ذلك تجميعه لكي نكون صورة. ولكن لنفترض أننا أزلنا معظم هذه المرايا وتبقى القليل منها. يمكننا الاستمرار في محاولة
جمع هذه المعلومات معًا، ولكن الآن نجد الكثير من الفراغات بها. هذه المرايا المتبقية تمثل المواقع
التي تتواجد بها التليسكوبات. وهذه أعداد صغيرة جدًا من القياسات
التي تمكننا من إنشاء صورة منها. ولكن بالرغم من أننا نجمع الضوء
من مواقع تليسكوبات قليلة، فإن دوران الأرض يمكننا
من رؤية حسابات أخرى جديدة. بمعنى آخر، أثناء دورانها،
كما كرة الديسكو، تغير المرايا موقعها ونتمكن من رؤية أجزاء أخرى من الصورة. خوارزمية الصور التي طورناها تُمكننا
من تعويض النقص في كرة الديسكو لكي نتمكن من صنع صورة للثقب الأسود. لو توافر لنا تليسكوبات
في جميع أنحاء العالم– — بمعنى آخر، في جميع أنحاء كرة الديسكو سيكون هذا قليل الأهمية. ولكننا نقدر أن نرى بعض النماذج ولهذا السبب يوجد عدد غير محدود من الصور المحتملة التي يمكن أن تكون متوافقة تمامًا
مع قياسات التليسكوبات لدينا. لكن ليست كل الصور متماثلة، بعض هذه الصور تتطابق مع تصورنا
لما يمكن أن تكون الصور عليه أكثر من غيرها. ولذا، فإن مهمتي للمساعدة
والحصول على أول صورة للثقب الأسود هي تصميم خوارزمية
تعمل على إيجاد أكثر الصور منطقية وتتطابق مع مقاسات التليسكوب كذلك. وبصورة مشابهة لكيفية عمل رسام الطب الشرعي
حيث يستخدم أوصاف محددة لتركيب صورةٍ ما
مستخدمين معرفتهم بتركيب الوجه، فإن خوارزمية الصور التي طورتها
تستخدم بيانات التليسكوب المحدودة لكي تدلنا على الصورة
التي تطابق ما هو موجود في كوننا. باستخدام هذه الخوارزميات،
تمكنّا من أن نجمع معًا قطع صور من ضوضاء البيانات هذه وصخبها. أعرض هنا مثال لإعادة بناء صورة
مستخدمين بيانات المحاكاة، عندما نتظاهر بتوجيه التيليسكوبات باتجاه الثقب الأسود في منتصف مجرتنا. بالرغم من أنّ هذه محاكاة
لإعادة البناء إلا أنها تعطينا الأمل أننا سنتمكن قريبًا من
التقاط الصورة الأولى لثقب أسود ونقدر من خلالها
على تقدير حجم الدوائر حولها. بالرغم من أنني أود الاسترسال
في شرح هذه الخوارزمية، إلا أنّه لحسن حظكم، ليس لدي الوقت الكافي. ولكنني أرغب في أن أعطيكم فكرة مبسطة عن كيفية تعريفنا لمظهر الكون، وكيف يمكن أن نستخدم ذلك
لإعادة تركيب والتأكد من نتائجنا. بما أنه يوجد عدد غير محدود
من الصور الممكنة التي يمكن أن تشرح بامتياز
قياسات التيليسكوبات، إلا أننا يجب أن نختار من بينها بطريقة ما. نقوم بذلك عن طريق ترتيب الصور بناءً على احتمالية
أنها تكوّن صورة لثقب أسود، ومن ثم اختيار الصورة الأكثر احتمالية. ما الذي أعنيه بذلك بالضبط؟ لنفترض أننا نحاول أن نصنع نموذجًا يمكن أن يخبرنا عن مدى احتمالية
ظهور صورةٍ ما على الفيسبوك. غالبًا سنرغب
في أن يخبرنا النموذج أنه من المستبعد أن يقوم شخص بنشر
الصورة غير واضحة إلي ناحية اليسار، لكن من المحتمل جداً أن ينشر صورة شخصية له كالصورة الموجودة على اليمين. الصورة التي في الوسط هي ضبابية، وبالرغم من أنّ
حتمالية رؤيتها على الفيسبوك أعلى مقارنة بالصورة غير واضحة، وهي أقل احتمالية أن نشاهدها
مقارنة بالصورة الشخصية. لكن عندما يتعلق الأمر بصور لثقب أسود، فإننا نواجه معضلة حقيقية: لم يسبق
وأن شاهدنا ثقباً أسوداً حقيقياً من قبل. في هذه الحالة،
ما هي الصورة الأقرب للثقب الأسود، وما هي الافتراضات التي يجب أن تكون لدينا
عن بنية الثقب الأسود؟ يمكن أن نحاول استخدام صور
ناتجة عن محاكاة أجريت سابقًا، كما الصورة في الفيلم (انترستلر)، لكن يمكن حدوث مشاكل حقيقية
في حال قمنا بهذا. ما الذي يمكن أن يحدث
إن لم تثبت نظريات (آينشتاين) صحتها؟ رغبتنا ستستمر
في إنشاء صورة دقيقة عمّا يجري. إن قمنا بإضافة معادلات (آينشتاين)
بشكل جيد إلى خوارزمياتنا، فسينتهي بنا المطاف لرؤية ما نتوقع أن نراه. بكلام آخر، نحن نرغب في جعل الخيار متاحًا لإمكانية وجود فيل ضخم في مركز مجرتنا. (ضحك) لكل نوع من الصور خصائص تنفرد بها. يمكننا بكل سهولة أن نميز
بين صور محاكاة الثقب الأسود والصور التي نلتقطها يوميًا هنا على الأرض. نحن بحاجة إلى أن تكون الخوارزميات قادرة
على معرفة خصائص الصور دون أن تطغى خصائص
نوع معين من الصور على الأنواع الأخرى. إحدى الطرق للتغلب على هذا، هي بفرض خصائص أنواع مختلفة من الصور ومن ثم نشاهد كيف يمكن أن تؤثر
على الصور التي يتم تكوينها. في حال كانت الصور الناتجة
من مختلف الخصائص متشابهه فيما بينها، عندها يمكننا أن نكون أكثر ثقة أن الافتراضات التي نكونها للصورة
لن تكون منحازة لخصائص نوع محدد. الأمر مشابهة لإعطائنا وصفاً واحداً لثلاثة رسامين مختلفين
في جميع أنحاء العالم. إن قام الجميع بتقديم صورة مشابهة للوجه، فإننا سنكون أكثر ثقة أنهم لم يقوموا بعكس أنماطهم المجتمعية
في رسوماتهم التي رسموها. إحدى الطرق لفرض خصائص صور مختلفة هي باستخدام أجزاءٍ من صور موجودة لدينا. نقوم بأخذ عدد كبير من الصور، ونقوم بتحويلها إلى قطع صغيرة جدًا
من الصور المتجاورة. ومن ثم نقوم بالتعامل مع كل مجموعة
من الصور الصغيرة كما قطع الأحاجي المتفرقة. ونقوم باستخدام أجزاء
الأحجية الصغيرة لدينا لكي نكون صورة تتوافق مع قياسات التليسكوب لدينا. والأنواع المختلفة من الصور
لديها قطع مختلفة تمامًا عن الأخرى. إذا ما الذي يحدث عندما نستخدم ذات البيانات ولكن نستخدم أجزاءً مختلفة من الأحاجي
لإعادة بناء الصورة؟ لنبدأ أولًا مع قطع أحجية
محاكاة صورة الثقب الأسود. حسنًا، هذا يبدو منطقيًا. هذا ما نتوقع أن يبدو عليه
منظر الثقب الأسود. لكن هل حصلنا على هذا لأننا قمنا باستخدام قطع صغيرة
من صور محاكاة الثقب الأسود؟ لنستخدم أجزاء أحجية أخرى لأجسام فلكية مختلفة عن الثقب الأسود. حسنًا، حصلنا على صورة مشابهة ثم ماذا عن قطع من صور يومية، مثل الصور التي تلتقطها بكاميرتك الخاصة؟ رائع، نحن نرى صورة مماثلة. عندما نحصل على ذات الصورة بعد استخدام
أجزاء أحاجي من مجموعات مختلفة، عندها يمكننا أن نكون أكثر ثقة أن افتراضات الصور التي لدينا لن تكون منحازة للصور النهائية بشكل كبير. شيء آخر يمكننا القيام به
وهو أخذ أجزاء الأحجية ذاتها مثل الأجزاء من الصور الملتقطة يوميًا، ونستخدمها لإعادة تركيب
العديد من الصور الأصلية المختلفة. لذا في محاكاتنا، نتظاهر أن الثقب الأسود
يبدو كجسم فلكي مختلف عن الثقوب السوداء، كما الصور اليومية
كالفيل الموجود في وسط مجرتنا. عندما تبدو النتائج
من الخوارزمية في الأسفل مشابهة لنتائج المحاكاة التي تظهر في الأعلى، عندها نبدأ في اكتساب ثقة أكبر
في الخوارزمية. وأود أن اؤكد هنا أنّ جميع هذه الصور تم صنعها بجمع قطع صغيرة من صور ملتقطة يوميًا، كالتي تلتقطونها باستخدام كاميراتكم الخاصة. لذا صورة الثقب الأسود التي لم نرها من قبل ربما نتمكن من صناعتها في نهاية المطاف
من صور نراها يوميًا للناس أو المباني
أو الأشجار أو القطط والكلاب. تخيل مثل هذه الأفكار سيتيح لنا أن نلتقط أول صورة للثقب الأسود، ونأمل أن نتمكن من التأكد
من صحة هذه النظريات الشهيرة التي يعتمد عليها العلماء يوميًا. لكن بالطبع، تخيُّل أن أفكار كهذه قد تنجح لم يكن ليكون متاحًا
دون فريقٍ مذهلٍ من الخبراء ولدي الحظ الكبير للعمل معهم. ما زال الأمر يدهشني أنه بالرغم من أنني بدأت هذا المشروع
دون أي خبرة بعلم الفلك، ما تمكنّا من تحقيقه من خلال تعاوننا الفريد قد ينتج عنه أول صورة للثقب الأسود. لكن مشاريع كبيرة مثل تليسكوب الآفاق هي ناجحة بسبب الخبرات
التي تنتمي للعديد من التخصصات التي يتشارك بها
العديد من الناس نحن مجموعة كبيرة من علماء الفلك، الفيزيائيين وخبراء الرياضيات والمهندسين. هذا سيجعلنا قريبًا قادرين على تحقيق شيءٍ كنّا نظنه مستحيلًا. أود أن أشجعكم جميعًا للخروج ومساعدتنا على توسيع حدود العلم، حتى وإن كانت تبدو في البداية غامضة
كما يبدو الثقب الأسود. شكرًا جزيلًا. (تصفيق)