Meet Germany's first robot lecturer | DW Documentary

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German University has hired a new assistant professor: Yuki, the robot.

Jürgen Handke is known as a pioneer of digital teaching methods. The German professor has an unusual assistant: a humanoid robot named Yuki. When students ask to speak to English language professor Jürgen Handke, they might encounter his robot assistant Yuki. The humanoid robot is 1.2 meters tall, very approachable and extremely knowledgeable. Professor Handke hopes his new assistant can help revolutionize German universities. For years, Handke has been using digital technologies to enhance his teaching: he has a YouTube channel with educational videos and an online platform where all students are registered. Robot lecturer Yuki can get a sense of how students are doing academically, and what kind of support they need. He can also have them take tests. Professor Handke insists Yuki is merely an assistant, and will never replace him as teacher. What do the students make the unusual assistant? DW’s Anna Goretzki spent a day accompanying robot lecturer Yuki at the University of Marburg.

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how much learning material can you retain Yuki is Professor Juergen hunt cos assistant at Phillips University of Marburg in Germany hunka is known as a digital teaching pioneer and one of the first professors to have a humanoid robot assistant the professor uses an interactive teaching approach which is made possible by Yuki it's Thursday just after 7:00 a.m. at Marburg University Thursdays always start early for Jurgen hunt ker and Patrick hunch this is Yuki's work day and he needs to be woken up it's the special media type so Albert Shanker does – to then publish often holiday encodes for the writers plus the additional here this intestine there are foliage Michonne what's the time he's ready now time to head to class Yuki needs help making the journey we need this push cart to go anywhere to help him get from A to B you he completed his test phase just a few weeks ago since then he's been working regularly at the University Patrick hunch programs Yuki it is thanks to hunch that Yuki is always learning it would be great if he could get to class by himself that's still missing but even in the future that's going to be difficult also because of the elevator when the university first bought Yuki and two other robots for 20,000 euros they couldn't do much now the 1.2 meter tall robot is more than a fancy gimmick for professor Juergen hunt cat Yuki's artificial intelligence is designed to help improve both teaching and learning ok ladies and gentlemen a very warm welcome to our in class meeting number 11 this is an English linguistics lecture I will take my linguistics phonetics class oh that's the wrong one did I what we have the wrong session we have the wrong session it's linguistics and phonetics shows history of English did Yuki make a mistake I have no idea what went wrong so it's this is whatever happens what always happens so if I go this if I if I click on linguistic linguist it's and phonetics chosen oh there we are so my mistake my mistake so here we are are you ready here is a question for him test number one how many vowels does the word incomprehensive contain you got two minutes Yuki is asking practice exam questions but students in honkers classes aren't supposed to memorize material instead they're instructed to use their tablets mobiles and computers to find information online this train skills and understanding rather than rote learning as you also wrote on eyes that's perfect we all right the food forms wonderful hunka things teachers sent it education is inefficient the professor prefers an interactive multimedia l'p roach which he can apply thanks to his assistant Yuki so just it's really a big help I can stay with them and help them while the robot has an eye on things I don't need to do anything it's great before I'd have to run up and down the class do the PowerPoint and the stopwatch now he handles all of that ok guess he's got it the technology works but is it helping to reach the students I feel I have to work a little bit harder when the robot is here so yeah I'd say it helps you learn and it's also motivating to have something like that standing in your classroom I think you don't need Yuki per se you could also just have a robot voice and online questions that would be the same for me it just doesn't make a real difference to have a robot standing up there compared with having AI running in the background hanka thinks Yuki's true potential is still in the developmental phase right now the assistant robot has a low-level AI he wouldn't be able to give a proper interview for example why do they have to go out because it's too loud in there for him to be able to understand isn't so knowledge were you satisfied with your students performance today did we have that question I don't think so spontaneous questions you can't answer spontaneous questions Yuka can only answer questions we email to public hunch beforehand rusty what's next on your scheduled performance either stored even there I hope your QR code hello efforts up you have completed everything you have achieves an average score of 80% okay did you know that already I didn't actually I knew I'd done all of my worksheets but I didn't know I have 80% I'm better than I thought Yuki's consultation sessions are still in the test phase a researcher evaluates them starting next summer Yuki will give regular consultations then it will become clear where the other students will also accept Yuki as a student advisor do you understand where some people are frightened of robots in industrial design but was he trying to take my hand I think he drew you a heart can humans and robots be friends some on campus aren't sure there are worries that the humanoid robot is likely to become more and more a competitor of humans in the end we won't be working anymore he'll be doing our jobs what if after studying for five years I worked for five years in a bank and then get told sorry you have no more work here we're hiring a robot to do your job that doesn't sound so great honkers team has heard those types of worries before for now Yuki is still a long way off from being able to compete with a human here he's practicing for a trade fair no human of you which ones they couldn't see see that ergun hunter is a techie through and through he's been experimenting with computers for decades Yuki is helping him get closer to his vision of digital teaching good robots at universities what else what else Yuki is on his way to his last seminar for the day it's a history of English class are you ready have you got your smartphone's ready all right so here's the first question go to England answer the survey reply within 45 seconds a study by the University of it's book found that Europeans have grown more wary of robots in recent years do people here in marble also feel skeptical about Yuki the beginning yes for sure it was really weird at first no has been around for several sessions yeah it's been this way for a year now so we've gotten a bit more used to it but it was definitely weird at first professor hunt cast plans for Yuki to take on more tasks what I imagine in the future is that in a room like this one there would be a cupboard with a robot in it I'd feed that robot instructions from my desk then I come into the room to say hello say hey mate how are you what should i do today you said I should quiz the students should do this and that point I'd say okay I'll give him a pat me off do you guns is our life it's time for the final exam for this course did you ki help the students learn I felt pretty confident solving the task Yuki posed so in a way he helped me relax around three quarters passed the exam more than last year it's unclear whether Yuki played a role we have one last question for the robot is the performance of your students satisfactory machines may be humanoid but people will never be machines Yuki is on break till next Thursday then he'll be back at work dehumanizing teaching all modernizing education

Amelia Bedelia- The Original Classic Children's Book

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First published in 1963, this is the book that started the beloved franchise. Written by Peggy Parish, illustrated by Fritz Siebel.

Amelia Bedelia is a hapless literalist with a bit of a lacking vocabulary. But none of that stops her from working hard, making darn good pies and being lovable! When my oldest two were small, they used to giggle every time at the “dressed” chicken.

For any teachers: This book contains some words and phrases that are very dated or close to out of use today. It could be a great lesson for expanding vocabulary and/or extrapolating meaning from context.

Some questions to ask after reading:
What does “dressing the chicken” actually mean? Do any of your parents ever “dress” chickens?
What is “dusting powder”?
Mrs. Rogers meant for Amelia Bedelia to cut the fat off the steak by using the word “trim.” What does “trim” mean to Amelia? Are there any other meanings for the word “trim”?
If Mrs. Rogers were to ask you to draw the drapes, would you have done what Amelia Bedelia did? What does “draw” mean to Mrs. Rogers?

What makes a good teacher great? | Azul Terronez | TEDxSantoDomingo

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I’ve been asking the question: What makes a good teacher great? for 24 years. I have collected 26,000 responses from 8 different schools and patterns have emerged.

For the last 24 years, he has repeatedly asked students the same question, “What makes a good teacher great?” Azul Terronez is the author of the best-selling book “The art of Apprenticeship” Azul has coached teachers and schools leaders around the world in Spain, Chile, Canada, India, United States and China and he is currently serves as a teacher coach at Shanghai American School.

This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community. Learn more at

Greek Philosophers ("Can't Get You Out of My Head" by Kylie Minogue)

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Floating heads, flying Greek letters, and lots of naked statues. Oh, and the Socratic method and Plato’s Cave are in there too. And Aristotle’s Golden Mean.
(original remake of the instrumental)

Geography Now! Germany

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Gluten free vegetarians beware. Watch at your own risk.

Thanks to Simon Zoltan for this image:

Image from Henrik Stötgen BlexTw11 at

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حسنا! يديرهوسين، شريحة والبيرة، مقانق والنظام والخبز والبيرة، التاريخ المعقد، والبيرة، لا الفكاهة، الرقص الإلكترونية الموسيقى، والدببة غائر التي من شأنها نوع من مثل تعطيك الإسهال لكنه مثل يستحق كل هذا العناء. قرف! تلك هي هذا فظيع
الصور النمطية بأن كل الألمانية مريضة جدا ومتعبة السمع. تريد حلوة الدب؟ ♫♫♫ ♫ حان الوقت لتعلم الجغرافيا! الآن!!! ♫ يا الجميع، وأنا المضيف باربي. لذلك قمنا غزا القلعة بلجيكا، قفزت من خلال بحيرة الدنمارك رقصت لقوة فرنسا والآن لقد وصلت الى
مدرب النهائي للاتحاد الأوروبي، المسمار ألمانيا! المستوى الاول! ابدأ! ♫ ♫ السياسية الجغرافيا ها، أنت تعرف لماذا أنا يبتسم! نعم، ألمانيا لديها الكثير من الحالات الشاذة الإقليمية. أننا سنصل إلى أنه في قليلا ولكن أولا، تقع ألمانيا في وسط أوروبا الغربية تحدها تسع دول أخرى، (لا ننسى لوكسمبورغ الصغيرة !) ذات السواحل الصغيرة على بحر الشمال وبحر البلطيق التي تملك حوالي 50 جزيرة صغيرة. الآن مثل ألمانيا والولايات المتحدة وهو ألمانيا الاتحادية التي تضم 16 مقاطعة أو Bundesländer، ولكل منها دستورها، ثلاثة منها المدن، العاصمة برلين وهامبورغ و بريمن الذي هو في الواقع نوع من مثل مدينتين بما في ذلك بريمرهافن على الساحل ولكنها نوع من يتصرف مثل كيان واحد. بففهه! ملاحظة جانبية مرحة: ساكسونيا السفلى هي في الواقع تقع جغرافيا اكثر شمال من ولاية سكسونيا منتظم. الآن دعونا القفز الى وسائل الترفيه. الآن ناقشنا بالفعل كوادرا نقطة جنغلز والجيوب السكك الحديدية فنبهن
مع بلجيكا والنمسا. ومع ذلك، هناك عدد قليل من أكثر. المدينة بأكملها من بوزنغن على هوخ راين
وهي تحيط سويسرا حيث جزء من كونستانز
وقطعت على نهر الراين وتحيط بها سويسرا، ومع ذلك فورا عبر النهر، رقعة صغيرة من الأرض الفارغة على الجانب الألماني في الواقع
تنتمي إلى سويسرا. أخيرا هم تقسيم جزيرة يوزدوم مع بولندا في الشمال. ألمانيا هي مثيرة للاهتمام لأن كل ولاية في البلاد لديها قناعاتها ثقافات متميزة، لهجة، والتاريخ، واكلات، والتقاليد. أعني الزي البافاري تماما يختلف جذريا
من شليسفيغ هولسشتاين ، مكلنبورغ-فوربومرن
مختلفة عن سارلاند. كل هذا لا علاقة له
التاريخ القديم والحديث. في الأساس، في أسرع طريقة
أستطيع أن ألخص هذا، القبائل الجرمانية،
الرومانية الحروب، شارلمان،
ثلاث ممالك، هذا الرجل يتزوج ايطالي،
خلق فوضى جديدة كاملة ودعا الإمبراطورية الرومانية المقدسة مصنوعة من ممالك منفصلة عن 300 الأصغر حجما، الدول والدوقيات التي
كان علي القيام به مع الرومان شيء، فرسان توتوني، أصبح Brandenburgs بروسيا، أصبح هابسبورغ النمساويين، قدمت ليتوانيا وبولندا ما يخصه، في حين أن الهنغاريين الانضمام النمساويين. الحروب والحروب والمعارك والمعارك، نابليون يأتي أكثر
وعبث كل شيء، والقومية الألمانية أخيرا العواصف وفي عام 1871، أوتو فون بسمارك يخلق أول دولة موحدة بروتو الألمانية، وانهم جميعا مثل. "يا دانغ،
وصلنا في وقت متأخر لهذه اللعبة، ونحن يجب التدافع ل
بعض المستعمرات "، وهذا هو كيف أن كل هذه الدول عند نقطة واحدة تحدث الألمانية. يا وأيضا أن نأخذ في الاعتبار قبل 300 سنة مثل هذا، الألمانية شركة مصرفية تم الحصول عليها حقوق الاستعمارية إلى فنزويلا لمثل 20 عاما. قد كانوا تبحث عن المدينة المفقودة من الدورادو. حتى من الناحية الفنية، يمكنك النوع من رؤية الألمان استعمار الأمريكتين، لكنه لم يكن مثل هذا الشيء الفتح تأميمها. FOWARD سريع حتى أكثر ثم تحصل الحرب العالمية الأولى،
النظام الملكي تنتهي، معاهدة فرساي،
فإنها تفقد الأرض، النازيين تأتي في، الحرب العالمية الثانية،
يقسم ألمانيا في اثنين لمدة 40 عاما، ثم أخيرا … نحصل على ألمانيا لدينا اليوم. ألمانيا الشرقية تتكون من هذه الدول اليوم لا تزال مختلفة تماما عن بقية ألمانيا احتلت لأول مرة وتأثر الاتحاد السوفياتي. هم انهم عموما ليست كذلك من الناحية الاقتصادية كما بقية البلاد ما تستطيع لا تزال ترى ممتلئ الجسم على النمط السوفيتي جلبت المباني في جميع أنحاء المناطق. في الواقع، تم تقسيم مدينة برلين في كان نصف والغرب الجانب الواقع جيب ألمانيا الغربية الوصول إليها إلا بواسطة القطار والطرق السريعة. يمكنك أن ترى حتى من صور الأقمار الصناعية للقسمة. برلين الشرقية لا يزال يستخدم ملون مصفر المصابيح بخار الكبريت، في حين أن الغرب لا يزال يستخدم الفلورسنت وعطارد القوس بيضاء المصابيح ملون. ومضحك الشيء هو، على الرغم من أن برلين هي أكبر مدينة في ألمانيا، أكثر المطارات ازدحاما هي في الواقع فرانكفورت وميونيخ ودوسلدورف، مع برلين-تيغيل الترتيب في المركز الرابع. خلاف ذلك، بعض أهم المعالم السياحية البارزة و أن البقع تكون بوابة براندنبورغ، في قاعة الولائم، وكاتدرائية كولونيا،
الكنيسة زير أولم، الأطول في العالم،
برلين عمود النصر، ومئات و المئات من القلاع في كل مكان. أكثر واحد ملحوظ ربما يجري نويشفانشتاين، المفهوم الكامن وراء ديزني
قلعة سندريلا. لديها ألمانيا أيضا أكثر 400 حدائق الحيوان، وأكثر من أي بلد آخر في العالم، وبالطبع، يعرف الجميع حول الطريق السريع، ونظام الطرق السريعة في وإذا كنت ترى هذه العلامة، فهذا يعني هناك لا الحد الأقصى للسرعة، وانها مثل ذلك ل جزء كبير من الطريق. و لا أتساءل، النظر في كيفية بسرعة وعلى نطاق واسع تلك يمكن الأرياف المزروعة الحصول عليها. الوقت المناسب لمستوى اثنين! ♫ الجغرافيا الفيزيائية ♫ حسنا أعتقد أنه من هذا الطريق، في ألمانيا، أكثر أسفل تذهب، وأكثر فأنت تتحرك. في الأساس، وتقع ألمانيا في المحيط الأطلسي الجرف في الشمال أن يبدأ السهول الطينية في بحر الشمال. على محمل الجد هذه الجزيرة هنا يمكن الوصول إليها إلا عن ساعات قليلة سيرا على الأقدام حتى يأتي المد في والفيضانات كل شيء. ثم كل شيء مجرد نوع من تزحف في جبال الألب والجنوب بافاريا و بادن فورتمبيرغ، وفقا لأعلى الجبل، زوجسبيتزي، ويقع على طول الحدود مع النمسا. كيندا مثل فرنسا، شغل في ألمانيا مع واسعة ري شبكة من الأنهار مثل والمرح، الالب، فيسيل، الراين و بالطبع الأقوياء نهر الدانوب الذي يبدأ هنا. نحو ثلث الأراضي الصالحة للزراعة وثلث آخر هو غابة، وبعد لآلاف السنين من الحضارة، الألمان المزروعة على حماقة من هم بلد! معظم الزراعة وبطبيعة الحال يحدث في السهول المنبسطة وشمال المناطق الوسطى من البلاد، والتي هي بالمناسبة نوع من مثل زقاق الاعصار في أوروبا، بسبب شطيرة موقفها بين انفجارات في المنطقة القطبية الشمالية من الدول الاسكندنافية و التيارات الهوائية الدافئة الرطبة لل البحر الأبيض المتوسط ​​أدناه، ألمانيا يمكن أن يكون الغلاف الجوي في منطقة حرب في الصيف. وهناك المزيد من الأعاصير في المتوسط ​​في ألمانيا أكثر من أي بلد آخر في أوروبا. وتحدث من الأراضي الزراعية مسطحة، ألمانيا هي أكبر شركة في العالم الجاودار والهيب المنتجة. الألمان abso-ينقط-lutely حبهم خبز! وهناك أكثر من 300 نوع مختلف الخبز في البلاد أكثر من أنواع من أي بلد آخر في العالم، و تقريبا كل وجبة تتضمن نوعا من شريحة أو كعكة صغيرة أو Brötchen من الخبز. "بيست دو خال من الغلوتين؟" "NEIN!" الألمان الذين يتناولون اللحوم الثقيلة، وتحديدا في لحم الخنزير، وهم يعرفون أساسا بكل وسيلة ممكنة لطهي خنزير. أكثر من 50 أنواع مختلفة من النقانق وجود لها، جنبا إلى جنب مع شنيتزيلس، Rouladen، سويربراتين، شوينشاكسي، وكبيرة حزب، قد تجد Spanferkel. البيرة عهد العليا في كل مكان، لتكون بذلك ثالث أكبر المستهلكين من البيرة بعد جمهورية التشيك، (حتى رئيسهم له
لا مشكلة مع تسمم عامة) والنمسا. ألمانيا العالمية-
تشتهر البيرة التي بالمناسبة، يتبع حكم Reinheitsgebot حيث انهم يسمح فقط ل استخدام المياه، القفزات، والشعير، وأحيانا الخميرة. ومع ذلك، توجد حوالي 1300 مصانع الجعة ضخ أكثر من 5،000 العلامات التجارية. الاكبر مصنع الجعة القائمة بشكل مستمر في بدأ العالم من قبل الرهبان البينديكتين في 1040 AD يمكن العثور عليها هنا. ألمانيا يأخذ البيئة على محمل الجد ول العقدين الماضيين، ظلت مستمرة على رائد الثورة الخضراء. اعتبارا من اليوم هم لدينا أكبر الطاقة الشمسية المثبتة القدرات والبنية التحتية الخضراء الممارسات مثل توربينات المنزل تثبيت والألواح الشمسية. رأيت ضخمة الجراحين في السنوات ال 10 الماضية. الغابات السيطرة على المناطق الجنوبية حيث المشهد يحصل هيلير والجبلية، الأكثر شهرة في واحد يجري الغابة السوداء أو شوارزوالد
في ولاية بادن فورتمبيرغ. الغزلان والدببة والخنازير والثعالب والغرير و الحيوان الوطني يمكن العثور على نسر مزدهرة في هذه الأجزاء. ومع ذلك، اقتصاديا، ألمانيا هو معروف في الغالب ل الهندسه استثنائية و إنتاج الصناعة. الشركات كنا جميعا سمعت مثل فولكس واجن، BMW، مرسيدس بنز، بورش، أودي، تليكوم، نيفيا، DHL، بوش. "شركة اديداس!" "بوما"! "شركة اديداس!" "PUMA"! نعم، انها نوع من مثل
كلها "Biscoto / Bolacha" -thing من البرازيل. تذكر؟ حسنا نحن لها السهول الطينية، والأعاصير، ولحم الخنزير، والبيرة، الجبال. كل ما هو مفقود الناس! مستوى 3! ♫ ♫ التركيبة السكانية المرح قليلا ملاحظة جانبية: في ألمانيا، هذا هو ثلاثة، وليس هذا. الآن، إذا كان الاتحاد الأوروبي وكانت عائلة، ان المانيا نوع من تكون مثل أبي الذي خرج من اعادة التأهيل، التوفيق مع زوجته وأطفاله، و أخذ حياته الجديدة على محمل الجد كما انه مسكون من قبل الشياطين من ماضيه كل يوم. أولا وقبل كل شيء، ان البلاد لديها حول 82 مليون شخص وهو الأكثر سكانا في الاتحاد الأوروبي، ثاني أكثر في أوروبا بعد روسيا ويملك رابع أكبر الناتج المحلي الإجمالي الاسمي في العالم. حوالي 80٪ من البلاد ويحدد كما عرقيا الألمانية والأوروبية 12٪ الأخرى، معظمها البولندية والإيطالية والهولندية، وهلم جرا، الأتراك يشكلون نحو 3.5٪، مصنوعة الآسيوية في 2٪، والباقي من مجموعات أخرى مثل الأفارقة و الأميركيون. كما أنها تستخدم اليورو، فإنها تستخدم C & F منافذ نوع وأنها تدفع على الجانب الأيمن من الطريق. ألمانيا بلا شك قوة عالمية. ومن أقوى اقتصاد في الاتحاد الأوروبي و تشكل حوالي ستة عشر في المئة من سكان الاتحاد. انها ثالث أكبر مصدر ومستورد للسلع في العالم، وبعد الولايات المتحدة، ألمانيا أيضا ثاني أكثر شعبية عالمية وجهة الهجرة. ألمانيا الخبرات على مستوى عال من المعيشة، الجامعات المجانية الدراسية، (إذا كنت تستطيع استعرض وهذا هو) على الأغلب العالمية التي تدعمها الحكومة نظام الرعاية الصحية. نحو ربع هو خصخصة والمعاشات ل التقاعد في سن 65. الآن عندما يتعلق الأمر للغة، الامور صعبة بعض الشيء. كل دولة لديها نوع من نوع الخاصة بهم من الألمانية، ولكن للحصول على معظم الألمان تعلم كيف يتكلم "Hochdeutsch" أو "الألمانية العليا" التي هي لهجة قياسية. إلا أن الميثاق الأوروبي يحمي لغات الأقليات الفريزية، الدانماركية، الروما، الصربية، الذي هو مثل السلافية اللغة الأساسية المستخدمة على طول Czech- الحدود البولندية، وPlattdeutsch، أو "الألمانية منخفضة" الذي يشبه إلى الهولندية وعادة ما تستخدم من قبل الأميش و المجتمعات مينونايت في جميع أنحاء العالم. من حيث التمييز الإقليمي، على الرغم من وتنقسم ألمانيا النوع من إلى خمسة المناطق الثقافية. راينلاند،
ألمانيا الشرقية والوسطى، شمال ألمانيا، بادن فورتمبيرغ وبافاريا. راينلاند على الغرب الجانب ولديه ثقافة إلى حد ما أكثر تتأثر فرنسا، أكثر كاثوليكية، احتفالات الكرنفال ضخمة هنا. كان الشرق الأوسط وألمانيا
الجزء الذي اعتادت ان تكون في بلده لمدة 40 عاما كما كان تتأثر السوفيات. (Sorbians يمكن كما يمكن العثور عليها هنا أيضا.) شمال ألمانيا لديها ثقافة البحر الساحلية التي يحدد أوثق مع الدنمارك و هولندا. انهم المعروف أيضا لكونها نوع من الهدوء ومحفوظة. بادن فورتمبيرغ ديه
ثقافة سوبايان مثيرة للاهتمام حيث يتكلم لهجة سميكة جدا أن 40٪ فقط من هو واضح أن الألمان الأخرى. وثم لديك بافاريا، التي يتم فيها الصور النمطية يديم المتأمرك عن ألمانيا جاء من مع يديرهوسين، dirndls والمنازل نصف الخشبية البيرة، و ساعات الوقواق. للسجل، والألمان المرضى من تلك الصور النمطية، انها مثل قائلا أن كل الأميركيين رعاة البقر مع البنادق والخيول. وبالحديث عن الصور النمطية، وبعض الصور النمطية في ألمانيا وتشمل أشياء مثل ساكسون يجري مترددة جدا، برلين يتبجحون دائما عن أنفسهم، شفابن هي شحيحة، البافاري شرب كثيرا،
أبناء إقليم هيسن نتكلم كثيرا هولستنر لا نتحدث بما فيه الكفاية، وهلم جرا. الكلمات تختلف عن المناطق ل. إلى عن على على سبيل المثال، في الألمانية عالية
كنت أقول "Wiedersehen Auf!" ولكن في ولاية بافاريا، تفضلتم
يقول "Pfiat di Gott". في كلش، لن أقول لكم "Tschüss". وفي راينلاند، قد يقول "Adjus". وهناك الكثير من الكلمات المركبة للحصول على حقا طويلة ومعقدة مثل – Ughhhh! وذلك لأن العديد من الكلمات
هي "mehrdeutig" أو غامضة الكلمات التي هي نوع من ممدود لإعطاء حتى معنى واسع. الألمان خيال واضحة جدا والماكياج كلمات لكل شيء. مثل كلمتي المفضلة: "Backpfeifengesicht". ليس هذه المرة! بالمناسبة، للسجل، وهذه الرسالة يجعل S الصوت المزدوج، ولكن الإملاء وقد حاول الإصلاحيون لخفض استخدام هذه الرسالة في السنوات الأخيرة مما أدى إلى بعض الاحتجاجات. الألمان أيضا أحب كل شيء من الدوبلاج وسائل الإعلام الأجنبية إلى اللغة الألمانية. بعض من هذا القبيل، البعض الآخر لا، ولكن في اي من الاتجاهين، انها وجدت لتبقى. حوالي 60٪ من البلاد
حددت على الأقل اسميا كما "المسيحيين" الانقسام بين البروتستانت و الكاثوليك. ألمانيا مع حتى مهد حركة الإصلاح البروتستانتي،
انفصلت عن الكنيسة الكاثوليكية مارتن لوثر. غير ذلك،
والباقي معظمهم من الملحد أو الملحدون مع مجتمع ملحوظا من المسلمين، ومعظمهم من من ضخم التركي والشرق الأوسط المجتمعات في حوالي 5٪، فضلا عن عدد قليل من اليهود والبوذيين، والهندوس إلقاء القبض على ما تبقى من 1٪. إلى كيندا الحصول على يشعر ما يشبه أن يكون الألمانية، لديك كيندا لفهم
حيث أنها قد تأتي من. بعد الحرب العالمية الثانية، لقد نوع من كان لديهم الكثير من العمل للقيام به. ومع ذلك لم يكن حتى منتصف الخمسينات وبداية الستينات أن "المعجزة الاقتصادية الألمانية" أو حدث عجب الاقتصادي الذي تقريبا حصل الجميع على العمل. في الأساس، هذا الرجل تصور وتنفيذ الاجتماعية اقتصاد السوق جنبا إلى جنب مع السوق الحرة الرأسمالية جنبا إلى جنب مع السياسات الاشتراكية أن المنافسة العادلة أنشأت في دولة الرفاه. ارتفع الناتج المحلي الإجمالي بنسبة 80٪، والاستثمار بنسبة 120٪، استخدمت القوى العاملة
إلى أقصى حد. بدأت الأمور الحصول على أفضل. في ألمانيا، جميع الأطفال تحشد في المدارس الحكومية العامة حتى سن 10 عندما تعطى لل خيار الانخراط في ثلاثة مختلفة أنواع المدارس المتوسطة. صالة للألعاب الرياضية، توجه نحو التركيز على أعلى غوية، الرياضيات والعلوم الحقول للجامعات. Realschule، وسطى نوع الأرضي من المدرسة. وHauptschule، مدرسة التي تتجه نحو مساعدة الاطفال التي يبدو أنها تبشر في مهنة أو الصفقات محددة. ألمانيا أيضا لديها أكبر سوق الموسيقى في الاتحاد الأوروبي والثالثة في العالم بعد الولايات المتحدة واليابان. أنهم يحبون المحافظة التراث والثقافة من خلال الموسيقى والفن. في الواقع، هناك حوالي 130 الأوركسترا الوطنية، ومعظمها بدعم من المال العام، والفنانين الحصول على ما يصل 50٪ تخفيض في الصحة التأمين من خلال نوع خاص من تقدم في النظام القانوني. الشيء الوحيد الذي لا يزال نوع من المفترض المحافظة نفسها في ألمانيا هي عقلية "Vergangenheitsbewältigung" ذبح تماما ذلك! أي نوع من يترجم إلى شعور العالقة بالذنب من الماضي. الألمان يقال بعض أدنى مستوى للفخر الوطني و إلا إذا كنت في لعبة كرة القدم، فرص و، وكنت تقريبا لا ترى أي شخص عقد العلم الألماني أو الانتظار في أي نوع من مثل وضع وطني. انها غريبة، ولكن هذا النوع من كيف تسير الامور. "انت وحش!" لقد قطعت شوطا كبيرا للمضي قدما من الماضي. أعلام النازية و "كفاحي" هي العناصر غير القانونية بشكل لا يصدق لامتلاك في ألمانيا. حتى لديهم قاعدة.
وVolksverhetzung، التي تقول في الأساس: لا يمكنك التحدث القمامة عن طريق حرمان الماضي الفظائع. بعض الناس يقولون هذا ينتهك حرية التعبير. ويقول آخرون انها جيدة لأنه حقائق المتصلبة. خلاف ذلك، بعض الألمان ملحوظة على مر التاريخ يشمل شارلمان، على الرغم من انه كان فرانك، ولكن إيه- واعتقد انه يهم كيندا. ألبيرشت دورر، كاسبار دافيد فريدريش، غوتنبرغ، باخ، بيتهوفن، كارل بنز، ألبرت آينشتاين، على الرغم من أن الأميركيين يحبون أن يدعي أنه انتقل إلى الولايات المتحدة، وأصبح الأمريكية، يوهانس كيبلر، يوهان فولفغانغ فون غوته، فريدريش شيلر، مايكل شوماخر، ألكسندر فون هومبولت، و وبطبيعة الحال، كارل ماركس وفريدريك إنجلز، شارك في تأسيسه الماركسية … * السعال السعال * لكن شيئا واحدا الألمان تفعل أفضل يجب أن تكون الدبلوماسية. حتى يومنا هذا، يحمل جواز سفر ألماني ل معظم الدول بدون تأشيرة من أي دولة أخرى بلد في العالم مجرد الضرب السويد. لذلك، يمكنك استنتاج أن كيندا ألمانيا يعرف نوع من كيف تتعامل مع اشخاص. ولمعرفة كيف في الجولة الأخيرة! المستوى الرابع! ♫ صديق المنطقة ♫ ألمانيا يعرف كيف لكسب الاصدقاء. لديهم أكثر من 220 البعثات الدبلوماسية في الخارج وأكثر من 350 المجالس الفخرية وديك موقف عالية بشكل لا يصدق السلطة في الاتحاد الأوروبي. أقرب صديق أفريقي ربما ناميبيا. كما الألماني السابق طريقة مستعمرة في القرن ال19، عقدت ناميبيا حول العلاقات وحتى يومنا هذا، الألمانية لا تزال لغة معترف بها في ناميبيا. الألمان تم دعم و تبادل العلاقات اقتصاديا و أيديولوجية لأكثر من قرن. الهند وكوريا الجنوبية الأصدقاء المقربين حقا في آسيا. الهند تدعم كل من الشرق والغرب ألمانيا خلال الحرب الباردة وبعد التوحيد كانوا مثل "فوردعالم! حتى أفضل!" وتعتبر ألمانيا إلى كوريا الجنوبية ما هو اليابان إلى فرنسا. انهم يحبون ل أصبع التراجع أفكار بعضهم البعض و الثقافات، وخاصة في السيارات صناعة. وأرسلت العديد من الكوريين الجنوبيين ل ألمانيا بعد الحرب الكورية للعمل في الخارج، ودراسة، وكانت الألمان تزايد الانبهار زيارة كوريا الجنوبية. الولايات المتحدة وربما كان الأقرب حليف من خارج الاتحاد الأوروبي. حوالي 30 ٪ من الأمريكيين يدعون الألمانية التراث وبعد الحرب العالمية الثانية، خطة مارشال تسمح للولايات المتحدة لإعطاء المساعدات بعد الحرب على ألمانيا، مما ساعد في بدء الانتعاش الاقتصادي. وكانت ألمانيا شخصية رئيسية في تشكيل دولة اسرائيل بعد الحرب العالمية الثانية وبعد المحرقة، تركت التزام للاستثمار في بناء ما يصل من الجالية اليهودية. تركيا هو على الارجح أقرب حليف في منطقة الشرق الاوسط حيث الأتراك يشكلون أكبر آسيا الديموغرافية في ألمانيا، على الرغم من أن العديد من منهم قد أو قد لا أيضا تحديد كما الأكراد، ولكن منذ الاكراد لم يكن لديك دولة خاصة بهم يذهبون عادة إلى جوازات السفر التركية عندما بالهجرة وهم موثقة على هذا النحو. انهم أفضل أصدقاء ولكن من المحتمل أن يكون … حرفيا كل جيرانهم! الشيء هو، والتفكير ألمانيا كيندا مثل البوسنة والهرسك التي افتراضيا، وأنها نوع من الحصول على أصدقاء على الخروج من التحالفات الإقليمية. البافاري الحصول على جنبا إلى جنب مع النمساويين، بادن Württembergs الحصول على جنبا إلى جنب مع سويسرا، كان ألمانيا الشرقية جيدة
العلاقات مع الدول السلافية، دول الراين الحب بلجيكا ولوكسمبورغ و فرنسا، ويحب الجانب الشمالي هولندا والدنمارك. فرنسا، رغم ذلك، هو كيندا مثل زوجة الكأس في ألمانيا، كما كان الاثنان بداية غاضب، ولكن بعد ذلك وانخفض في نهاية المطاف في الحب والعمل معا بشكل جميل. فرنسا مثل المتحدث باسم براقة جميلة للاتحاد الأوروبي أن تقف في دائرة الضوء الى المانيا تقف في خلفية إدارة جميع المال والعمل اللوجستي. في الختام، على الرغم من أن الشعب الجرماني كانت موجودة منذ آلاف السنين وفعلا ولاية ألمانية موحدة لم تظهر حتى كيندا مؤخرا، والوقت القصير الذي لقد تم حولها، وأنها قد ذهبت نوع من من خلال بعض دول العالم على أشده ثورة الأحداث التاريخية ربما يتصور، بعد فتخرج العمل الجاد وبناء وصولا إلى تصبح قوة عظمى العالم. عليك أن تعطيه لهم. هناك شيئا عن الألمان. ومع ذلك، مستوى رئيسه النهائي كاملة! ترّقب! دولة أفريقية أخرى ألمانيا لديها علاقات، غانا هو الخروج القادم!

The Truth about the Council of Nicaea

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What happened at the council of Nicaea? Was the Trinity made up there? Was the divinity of Jesus declared there for the first time? This video answers these question?

History of the Christian Church (Eerdmans, 1985)
Faith of the Early Fathers, Vol. 1 (Jurgens, 1998)
The Christological Controversy (Norris, 1980)
The Rise of Christianity (Rodney Stark, 1997)
The Church History (Eusebius)
Dialogus Adversus Luciferianos (St. Jerome)

Video links mentioned in the video:

Refuting the Christ-myth theory:

Video clips are from “The Da Vinci Code (2003)”.

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the Council of Nicaea before this occurred there were several different competing views of Christ then the Emperor Constantine assembled them all together to decide on one view of Christ they met for days fighting and bickering until finally the current view of Christianity won and the divinity of Christ was declared then the new Orthodox view used its power to stop out and erase all other competing views of Christianity or so we're told you know I hear this story a lot from atheist cults Muslims and several other non-christian groups they always give me this generic story to try to show me that the Council of Nicaea made up the divinity of Jesus and created a new version of Christianity however this is all I ever hear this generic story I never get any more details from skeptics and there's a good reason why because when we study the details of what happened before during and after the council met this fable is easily debunked and we see that Christ's divinity was not made up with the council so let's start with events that led up to the council on February 24th in 303 ad the worst persecution of Christians began into the Emperor Diocletian and lasted until Emperor Galerius finally issued a general Edict of Tolerance in 311 ad two years later in 313 ad with the Edict of Milan the Emperor Constantine finally legalized Christianity and allowed its practice and I want to stop here and make sure this point is clear Constantine did not make Christianity the official religion of the Empire he simply commanded official tolerance of Christianity he did however outlaw Jews from stealing Christians and gladiator shows although they did persist until the fifth century it wasn't until 380 ad under the Emperor Theodosius that Christianity was left as the only legal religion shortly after Christianity was made legal it passed her from Alexandria named arias began preaching the idea that Jesus was not God but a created being he gained the following and began disputing with Alexander the Bishop of Alexandria so in 321 ad a local council declared arias a heretic however areas just moved to pow time where he gained a larger following and over the course of the next few years the debate became so intense that he gained the attention of Emperor Constantine Constantine who had just unified the Empire didn't want anything that would threaten division he saw the debate between the Christians and Arian as a threat to the stability of the Empire so he moved to settle it he officially called the council in 325 AD there were no Gnostics involved there were no eben 'its involved or any other groups the council was called the settle disputes between Christians and Aryans only most other heretical views of Christian v-lite Gnosticism had mostly died out by this point and the majority of those professing to be Christians were Orthodox Christians so there was not a wide variety of different views of the council although Constantine originally invited over 1,800 bishops from across the Empire only around 300 were able to attend most of them were from the east with only about a dozen representing the West now it should be remembered what happened to these men less than two decades ago most of them suffered through one of the greatest Christian persecutions of all time many of them faced brutal torture and imprisonment for their faith so despite the modern view about the participants of the council they were not the type of men who were fine with compromising their beliefs especially if a few years earlier they were willing to die for them these bishops actually assembled in Nicaea to confirm what they had already believed in deal with areas his teachings now there were three parties at the council the smallest was arias and a handful of bishops that agreed with him that the father and Jesus were of different substance or hetero you seeis the second in much larger group was the Orthodox group led by Hosea's of Cordova and Alexander of Alexandria also in this group was a young deacon Athanasius this group held a long-standing belief of the church the Jesus was fully God and had existed eternally with the father they said Jesus was of the same substance or homo you seeis then there was a third group roughly equal in size to the Orthodox group called the you see being group led by Eusebius of Caesarea however this group didn't differ on theology from the Orthodox view they also believed Jesus was fully God and it existed eternally with the father they only differed on the use of the word homo you seeis the reason is because in previous centuries motorless heresies had used the word to teach it to the Father and Jesus or one person and not coexisting persons of one being so in actuality the Orthodox group in the UCB group didn't differ on theology or the deity of Christ the only differed on terminology now a big modern myth is that emperor constantine force Trinitarian views on the church but this simply is not historically supported although he presided over the council he did not push any particular view he was no theologian all he wanted was that both sides would come to an agreement and there would be unity in the church the Orthodox group listened to the views of areas and they overwhelmingly rejected his views as being new and distant from the view of the church Eusebius writes some of the bishops tore up letters containing areas his teachings he then writes at church leaders interrogated areas using Scripture but found he had a new way of interpreting every piece of Scripture they then pointed out that his views had to be wrong because it was new and it wasn't taught in any early church history that's an Aegis rhetorically asked how many fathers can you cite for your phrases they then formed the Nicene Creed which is a clear condemnation of area six teachings and a confirmation of the Orthodox Peter in the end all but arias and two bishops signed the Creed clearly showing there was no major divisions in Church theology the council then moved to deal with other issues such as which day to formally celebrate Easter they formally denounced Gnosticism in other minor sex publicized twenty canon laws and dealt with other minor issues the council did not decide on the biblical canon the Canon had evolved on its own over time however according to the merit orion fragment the canon was nearly complete by the end of the second century the council did not decide on the use of the word Trinity it dealt primarily with the divinity of Christ the word Trinity can be found in early Christian history as it was used by early church fathers in acceptance of a divine three can also be found in other early Christian writings now the results of the council did not actually please Constantine in fact he was very angry at the Christians he wanted unity and compromise not for one side that announced the other he actually took pity on the Arian arias was exiled and fled to alaria for a short time while his heresy began to spread and gain political power especially when on her deathbed Constantine's sister urged Constantine to support areas and he actually did areas found a new crafty way of interpreting the Nicene Creed in his favor and Constantine invited him back so he could force the church to readmit him however arias died before this could happen a follower of areas Eusebius of Nicomedia was able to sway Constantine more in favor of the Arian view just before his death Eusebius of Nicomedia baptized Casa team effectively symbolizing his siding with the areas after Constantine's death the Aryans continued to gain more ground against the Orthodox view the Arian bishops at Constantine in favor use their political power to fight against Christianity Constantine was succeeded by two Arian Emperor's in the East who work with Arian bishops in an attempt to override Nicaea and writing new Creed although Aryans were still in the minority they were given much more political power which they used to try to stamp out Christianity many Christian leaders were forced into subscribing the kree's that did not favor either side to Rome later described this time period as when the whole world groaned and was astonished to find itself Arian however despite the power of the Aryans one Bishop fought back almost completely by himself at the Nations of Alexandria continued to argue from Scripture and stand against the might of the Arian heresy even when he was banished and removed from his position five times he never swayed and stood for truth against the Arian political machine he was a popular hero prevented Christian theology from compromising and giving in to the area's so the area is turned to gaining more political power but just before the area is completely consolidated their hold over the empire they turned to internal fighting and destroyed themselves it wasn't long before all their political power was lost and the Christians were able to meet in 381 AD at the Council of Constantinople and reaffirm the Nicene faith the battle between the Aryans and the Christians did not end there after the council of nicaea many Aryan bishops headed north and began converting the Germanic tribes to Arianism they then eventually conquered the Western Roman Empire and the Christians had to deal with Arianism again however as we can see today Arianism died out and christianity is still going strong and growing so as you can see Christian bishops did not inherit absolute political power from the Council of Nicaea and use it to stomp out other competing sects on the contrary it was the Arian to gain the political power and tried to stomp out the true church so there is no evidence the council created Christianity the concept of the Trinity or the divinity of Jesus or use political power to erase other competing sects this myth about the council two complete fairy tale it astonishes me how many non-christians use the Council of Nicaea to try to claim Christianity was made up in 325 AD when historically there is just no evidence for

This Will Revolutionize Education

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Many technologies have promised to revolutionize education, but so far none has. With that in mind, what could revolutionize education?
These ideas have been percolating since I wrote my PhD in physics education:
I have also discussed this topic with CGP Grey, whose view of the future of education differs significantly from mine:

I think it is instructive that each new technology has appeared to be so transformative. You can imagine, for example, that motion pictures must have seemed like a revolutionary learning technology. After all they did revolutionize entertainment, yet failed to make significant inroads into the classroom. TV and video seem like a cheaper, scaled back film, but they too failed to live up to expectations. Now there is a glut of information and video on the internet so should we expect it to revolutionize education?

My view is that it won’t, for two reasons: 1. Technology is not inherently superior, animations over static graphics, videoed presentations over live lectures etc. and 2. Learning is inherently a social activity, motivated and encouraged by interactions with others.

Filmed and edited by Pierce Cook

Supported by Screen Australia’s Skip Ahead program.

Music By Kevin MacLeod, “The Builder” and by Amarante Music:

Toto způsobí převrat ve vzdělávání. Nic nebylo
předpovězeno tak často nebo tak špatně jako toto. V roce 1922 to byl Thomas Edison, kdo
prohlásil, že “Pohyblivé obrázky způsobí převrat našeho vzdělávacího systému a
za pár let nahradí z velké části, pokud ne úplně, použití učebnic.”
Ano. Sami víta jak to fungovalo? V 30tých letech to bylo zase rádio. Myšlenka byla,
že bychom mohli experty vysílat přímo do učeben. Zvětšila by se tak kvalita a snížila cena.
Také to mělo zmenšit potřebu kvalifikovaných učitelů—téma společné
pro všechny "revoluce" ve vzdělání. Toho mělo dosáhnout i použití vzdělávací televize
v 50. a 60. letech. Byli provedeny studie, které testovaly zda studenti raději vidí učitele naživo,
nebo skrz televizi, kam je vysílán obraz z té samé lekce zkrz televizní signál.
Co by se líbilo vám? V 80tých letech nebylo žádných pochyb—počítače
budou revoluce ve vzdělávání. Byli audiovizuální, interaktivní a
naprogramovatelné tak, aby uměli cokoliv. No, v té době na nich možná běžel
Oregon Trail. Jejich potenciál byl ale zřejmý. Vědci předpokládali, že když naučí
děti naprogramovat, řekněme jak pohnout želvou po obrazovce, pak by se jejich schopnost procedurálně
uvažovat také zlepšila. Jak to asi šlo? No, děti byly lepší v naprogramování
želvy, ale jejich schopnosti uvažovat byly nedotčeny. I v 90tých letech jsme se nepoučili
z chyb našich předpovědí a cituji, “Použití videokazet pro výuku
se zvyšuje každý rok a slibuje revoluci v učebnách zítřka.”
Videodisky? Jo, tyhle obří CD. Pamatujete si, kdy udělaly
nějaký převrat ve vzdělávání? Dnes je spousta věcí, které mají nakročeno k udělání
převratu ve vzdělání jako chytré tabule, smartphony, tablety, and MOOKy. Zkratka pro masivní otevřené
online kurzy. And někteří věří, že se blížíme k univerzálnímu stroji pro učení—počítači
tak rychlém a tak dobře na programovaném, že to je skoro takový osobní učitel.
Student může studovat v dobře strukturovaných lekcích vlastním tempem s okamžitou
a se zpětnou vazbou na míru, a všechno bez všetečného a drahého učitele.
Nezdá se vám, že jste to někde slyšeli? Za posledních 100 let spousta oblastí běžného života
byla úplně technologiemi přeměněna, až na vzdělávání. Většina studentů po celém
světě je stále učena ve skupinách jedním učitelem. A takhle revoluce nevypadá.
Někteří můžou vinit situaci a jiní setrvačnost našich vzdělávacích institucí.
Jednoduše je moc těžké pohnout touhle birokracií. Ale já si myslím, že důvod, proč
technonologie nezměnila vzdělávání je jiný. Je to něco, co je přímo v srdci
toho, co vzdělání je. Zvažme proces učení.
Řekněme, že chcete vysvětlit, jak srdce pumpuje krev. Co myslíte, že
bude názornější? Tahle simulace se vyprávěním nebo několik statických obrázků
s textem? Samozřejmě animace je lepší. Vždyť to přesně ukazuje to,
co srdce dělá. Po desetiletí se výzkumníci zaměřovali na otázky jako je tahle. Pomáhá ale
video více než kniha k učení? Jsou lekce naživo efektivnější než videa?
Je animace lepší? Správně postavené studie nenašly žádný
výrazný rozdíl. Pokud je obsah materiálů stejný, výsledky v naučení jsou stejné mezi těmito dvěma médii. Jak
je to možné? Jak může něco, co vypadá mocně jako animace, může být stejně
efektivní jako pouhá statická grafika? No, zaprvé, animace běží, takže je možné
při běhu nějaký obsah propást. A hlavně, protože je to již animované,
nemusíte si již představovat, jak se různé části pohybují. Vlastně tomu
nevěnujete dost mentální energy, abyste si obsah zapamatovali. Takhle může statická
grafika posloužit učení lépe než video. A já věřím, že tohle ukazuje na jádro
vzdělávání — nezávisí na tom, co se děje kolem studenta. Nejsme
limitování pouze zkušenostmi, které chceme studentovi předat. Co opravdu limituje
kvalitu učení je to, co se děje v hlavě studenta. To je, kde se odehrává to nejdůležitější
pro naučení. Žádná technologie takhle není lepší než druhá. Vědci tráví tolik času
zkoumáním různých technologií a médií a toho zda je jedna efektivnější než druhá
až zapomněli zkoumat, jak přesně ty technologie použít, aby podporovaly ty správné myšlenkové pochody.
Hlavní otázka tedy je, co podpoří ten typ myšlení, který je potřeba k tomu se
něco naučit? Nedávno, tyto aspekty jsou zkoumány a my zjišťujeme dost důležité věci.
Tohle vám může připadat přirozené — třeba se ukazuje, že učení s obrázky a videi
dohromady, jak s animacemi tak vyprávěním nebo obrázky a textem, funguje
lépe než slova samotná. Také vidíme, co "pro mozek cizího" by se z lekcí mělo úplně
vypustit. Například, text na obrazovce soupeří s vizualizacemi, takže student se
učí lépe, když je text úplně vynechán. Teď, když vímě jak nejlépe udělat výuková
videa, a cokoliv může být nasimulováno na videu, YouTube musí být ta platforma,
která nakonec udělá ten převrat ve vzdělávání. Počet výukových videí na Youtube se zvětšuje
každým dnem. Tak proč vlastně potřebujeme učitele? No, pokud si myslíte,
že hlavní rolí učitelů je přenést informaci z vlastní jejich hlavy do hlavy studentů
pak již opravdu nejsou k ničemu. Pravděpodobně si přestavujete třídu, kde
učitel plive fakta v tempu vhondém pro jednoho studenta, moc
rychle pro půlku, a moc pomalu pro zbytek. Naštěstí hlavní role učitele
není předat informaci. Je to hlavně vést sociální proces učení. Úkolem
učitele je inspirovat, ukázat výzvu, vzbudit vzrušení v jeho studentech pro učení. Ano,
učitelé také vysvětlují, demonstrují a ukazují fakta, ale to je dnes vlastně irelevantní.
Nejdůležitější úkol učitele je aby se každý student cítil důležite, aby
cítil se cítil odpovědný za odvedení té práce při učení. Nechci říct, že technologie nemají žádný dopad
na vzdělávání. Studenti a učitelé pracují a komunikují pomocí počítaču. Videa
jsou normálně používána ve vyučování. To je ale při nejlepším evoluce,
ne revoluce. Základy vzdělání jsou stále postaveny na sociálních
interakcích mezi učitelem a studentem. Pro tak obrovskou změnu, jakou se technologie jako
video, počítače, nebo chytré tabule zdají být, je nejdůležitější to, co se děje
uvnitř hlavy studenta. A pro donucení studenta myslet se zatím asi nejlépe osvědčilo sociální
prostředí s dalšími studenty a starajícím se učitelem.

The difference between winning and succeeding | John Wooden

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With profound simplicity, Coach John Wooden redefines success and urges us all to pursue the best in ourselves. In this inspiring talk he shares the advice he gave his players at UCLA, quotes poetry and remembers his father’s wisdom.

TEDTalks is a daily video podcast of the best talks and performances from the TED Conference, where the world’s leading thinkers and doers give the talk of their lives in 18 minutes. TED stands for Technology, Entertainment, Design, and TEDTalks cover these topics as well as science, business, development and the arts. Watch the Top 10 TEDTalks on, at

المترجم: Anwar Dafa-Alla
المدقّق: Mahmoud Aghiorly لقد قمت بصياغة مفهومي الخاص للنجاح في عام 1934 ، عندما كنت أدرس في مدرسة ثانوية في ساوث بيند بولاية انديانا. لقد كنت محبطاً بعض الشيء ،وربما مضللاً بسبب طريقة تعامل الاباء مع صغارهم الذين درستهم في فصول اللغة الإنجليزية لقد توقعوا من ابناءهم الصغار الحصول على "ممتاز" أو "جيد جداً" .هم يعتقدون أن "جيد" لا بأس بها لأولاد الجيران لأن أولاد الجيران كلهم عاديين لكنهم لم يكونوا راضين عن اولادهم وبهذا التصرف- بإمكانهم جعل المعلمين او الأبناء يشعرون بالفشل. وهذا غير صحيح, الإله الكريم في حكمته اللانهائية لم يخلقنا جميعا على قدم المساواة بشأن الذكاء ، إلى حد ما أننا متساوين في الحجم ، والمظهر. ليس بإستطاعة الجميع الحصول على ممتاز أو جيد جداً ، وأنا لم تعجبني طريقتهم في الحكم على الأمور لقد عرفت بالتأكيد كيف أن الخريجين من مختلف المدارس في فترة الثلاثينات حكموا على المدربين والفرق الرياضية إذا كنت الفائز بجميع الألعاب ،فأنك تعتبر ناجحاً بشكل معقول لكن ليس تماماً . لأنني اكتشفت — كان لدينا عدد من السنوات في جامعة كاليفورنيا ، حيث أننا لم نخسر أي مباراة ولكن يبدو أننا لم نربح كل لعبة على الحد الفاصل كان هذا بعض ماتنبأ به خريجينا. وكثيرا ما كنت — (ضحك) — وكثيرا ما كنت أشعر فعلا أنهم كانوا يبنون توقعاتهم بطريقة أكثر مادية. ولكن هذا كان صحيحا بالعودة الى الثلاثينات ،لكنني فهمت ذلك . بالرغم من انني لم أحب ذلك. ولم اتفق معه. وأردت أن آتي بشيء والذي املت ان بمقدوره جعلي معلماً أفضل ، كما يمنح اللاعبين الناشئين تحت إشرافي — سواء كان ذلك في ألعاب القوى أو في الفصول الدراسية الإنجليزية — شيئاً اطمح من خلاله, لما هو أكثر من مجرد العلامات العالية في الفصول الدراسية ، أو نقاط أكثر في بعض المسابقات الرياضية. فكرت بذلك على فترات منعزلة، وكنت أرغب في الخروج بتعريفي الخاص. والذي كنت أعتقد أنه سيساعد. وكنت قد عرفت كيف قام السيد وبستر بتعريفه : كتراكم للممتلكات المادية أو البلوغ الى موقع القوة أو الجاه ، أو شيئا من هذا القبيل ربما بعض الإنجازات الهامة ولكن هذا في رأيي ليس بالضرورة دليلا على النجاح. لذلك أردت أن آتي بشيء على طريقتي الخاصة . أتذكر ، لقد نشأت في مزرعة صغيرة في جنوب ولاية انديانا وحاول أبي أن يعلمني وإخوتي أن علينا أن لا نحاول أبدا أن نكون أفضل من شخص آخر. أنا متأكد – في الوقت الذي فعل فيه ذلك، أنني لم أفعله – ولم يكن — حسناً ، في مكان ما ، اعتقد في التجاويف الخفية من ذهني , لقد برز في سنين لاحقة. لا تحاول ابدًا أن تكون أفضل من شخص آخر ، ودائما تعلم من الآخرين. لا تتوقف ابدًا من محاولةِ أن تكون أفضل ما يمكنك أن تكون — لأن هذا تحت سيطرتك. اذا أصبحت منهمكاً ومعنياً ومهتماً في ما يتعلق بالأمور التي ليس لديك عليها سيطرة ، حينها ستؤثر سلبًا على الأشياء التي لديك سيطرة عليها. ثم مررت عبر هذه الآية البسيطة التي تقول : " عند كرسي الإعتراف للرب, روحٌ ضعيفة, سجدت, مطأطأةَ رأسها باكية " لقد فشلت" قال الرب , انت فعلت افضل مالديك, ذلك هو النجاح" من خلال هذا الأشياء, وربما شيء اخر قمت بصياغة تعريفي الخاص للنجاح. والذي هو: راحة البال تتحقق فقط من خلال رضا الذات بمعرفة انك قمت بالجهد لفعل افضل ماكان متاحًا لك. اعتقتد ان هذا حقيقي, إذا قمت بالجهد لفعل افضل ماهو متاح لك, تحاول, وتطور الموقف الذي كان قائمًا بالنسبة لك, اعتقد ان هذا نجاح. ولاأعتقد ان الأخرين سيحكمون على هذا. اعقتد انه كما الشخصية والسمعة" الصيت". سمعتك هي تصور لما انت عليه. شخصيتك, هي ماأنت عليه حقًا. واعتقد ان الشخصية اكثر أهمية من تصور الناس مما تحاول أنت تكون عليه. تأمل ان يكون كلاهما جيدًا. لكن ليس ضروريا ان يكونا نفس الشي. حسنًا, لقد كانت هذه فكرتي التي اردت توصيلها للصغار. مررت عبر اشياء أخرى, احب ان ادرسها, ولقد ذكر المتحدث السابق أنني استمتع بالشعر, واشتغل به قليلاً, واحبه. هنالك بعض الأشياء ساعدتني, اعتقد, جعلتني افضل مما كنت. أعلم انني لست ما ينبغي ان اكون عليه, ولست مايجب ان اكون, لكن اعتقد انني افضل مما كنت عليه إذا لم امر عبر هذه الأشياء المحددة. إحداها كانت أية صغيرة تقول, " ليست كلمات مكتوبة, ليست حججًا نتذرع بها, بإمكانها ان تعلم صغارنا ماينبغي لهم ان يكونوا عليه. ليست كل الكتب فوق كل الرفوف– إنه ماكان عليه الاساتذة انفسهم, ماترك انطباعًا علي في عام 1930. وحاولت ان استخدم ذلك قليلاً, او كثيرًا في تدريسي, سواءً أكان في الألعاب الرياضية, او في صفوف اللغة الإنجليزية. احب الشعر, و لطالما اهتممت به بطريقة ما. لربما كان ذلك, لأن والدي تعود ان يقرأءه لنا في الليل. مع فانوس زيت– لم يكن لدينا كهرباء في منزلنا الريفي. واحب والدي قراءته لنا, لذلك دومًا احببته. وخلال ذلك الوقت مررت عبر هذا الشطر, ثم مررت بشطرِ اخر, سأل احدهم سيدة معلمة, لماذا تقوم بالتدريس, وبعد برهة, اجابت انها تحتاج لأن تفكر في الإجابة ثم حضرت بعد ذلك وقالت, "هم يسألونني لماذا ادرس سأجيبهم, اين بإمكاني ان اجد رفقة باهرة؟" هاهنا يجلس, رجل الدولة, قويًا, عادلاً, حكيمًا. دانيال ويبستر اخر, فصيحًا وبليغًا. يجلس طبيبًا إلى جانبه, والذي يده الثابتة السريعة ربما ترمم عظمًا, او يحتوي تدفق الدم الحي. وهنالك بناء. في المقدمة يرفع قنطرة كنيسة يقوم ببنائها. حيث يتحدث كاهنٌ بكلمات الرب و يقود روحًا متعثرةً لتلتمس يسوع المسيح. وكل ماعليه الأمر, اجتماعٌ لأستاذة, مزارعين, تجار, عمال. اولائك الذين يعملون, ويقترعون, ويبنون, و يخطوطون, ويتضرعون لغدِ عظيم ولربما اقول, انني ربما لا أشهد الكنيسة او اسمع الكلمة, او اكل الطعام الذي لربما تزرعه ايديهم. لكنني لربما مرةً أخرى. ولربما لاحقًا سأقول, لقد عرفته مرةً, ولقد كان ضعيفًا, او قويًا, او جسورًا, او متغطرسًا, او شاذَا. لقد عرفته مرةً, لكن وقتها كان صبيًا. يسألونني لماذا ادرس وأجاوبهم, "أين بإمكاني ان اجد صحبةً مشرقةً كهذه؟" واعتقد ان مجال التدريس– هو حقيقي, لديك الكثير من الشباب. وكان علي ان افكر بالشباب الذين درستهم في جامعة كاليفورنيا– بضعةٌ وثلاثين- محامين, 11 طبيب اسنان و أطباء العديد, العديد من المعلمين, وأخرون مهنيين. ويمنحك ذلك قدرًا كبيرًا من اللذة, لتشاهدهم يمضون قدمًا. لقد حاولت دومًا جعل الشباب يشعرون بأنهم هنالك للحصول على التعليم اولاً. ثم كرة السلة ثانيًا, لسداد مصاريف الدراسة كما انهم يحتاجون القليل من الوقت للنشاطات الإجتماعية, لكنك تجعل النشاطات الإجتماعية تتصدر قليلاً كما انك لن تتخذ الكثير من الوقت. إذَا كانت هذه هي الأفكار التي حاولت ايصالها إلى الشباب تحت إشرافي . كان لدي ثلاثة قوانين, والتي كثيرًا, ما استعملتها معظم الوقت. تعلمتها قبيل مجيئي إلى جامعة كاليفورنيا وقررت أنها مهمة للغاية. أحدها– لاتتأخر قط. لاتتأخر قط. لاحقًا قلت بعض الأشياء– كان– لدي لاعبين, وإذا اردنا الذهاب إلى مكان ما, كان علينا ان نكون نظيفين وأنيقين. كان هنالك وقت عندما جعلتهم يرتدون بدلاتٍ وقمصان, وربطات عنق. ثم لاحظت قدوم العميد إلى المدرسة مرتديًا( دينميز) بناطيل ذات قماشة خشنة, وقمصان خانقة, وقتها فكرت, لايصح لي ان لأتركهم يرتدونها. لذا سمحت لهم بإرتدائها– لكن يجب ان تكون نظيفة وأنيقة. كان احد أفضل لاعبي, والذي لربما سمعتم عنه, بيل والتون, مقبلاً لأخذ الحافلة, كنا مغادرين إلى مكان ما للعب. ولم يكن نظيفًا او لائقًا, فلم اسمح له بالذهاب. لم يستطع ركوب الحافلة, فكان عليه الذهاب إلى المنزل ليتنظف ليلتحق بالمطار. إذَا لقد كنت صارمًا في ذلك الأمر, قد اعتقدت بضرورته. كما اعتقد ان الوقت هام للغاية. اعتقد انه عليك ان تأتي في الوقت المحدد, لكنني لم اشعر بأهميته إلاَّ عند التدريب نبدأ في وقت محدد, وننتهي في وقت محدد. لاينبغي للشباب الشعور بأننا سنبقيهم بعد انقضاء الوقت. عندما اتحدث في عيادات التدريب, غالبًا مأخبر المدربيين الصغار– في عيادات التدريب, ستصبحون تقريبًا اصغر مدربين في هذا التخصص. غالبيتهم صغار, كما تعلمون, ولربما حديثي عهد بالزواج. فأخبرهم, " لاتجروا تمارين متأخرة. لأنكم ستعودون إلى المنزل متعكري المزاج. وهذا ليس جيدًا لشاب حديث عهد بالزواج, ان يعود إلى المنزل في مزاجٍ سيئ." عندما تصبحون اكبر, لن يحدث اية تغيير. لكن الأن– ( ضحك) إذَا كنت اعتقد في الوقت. اعتقد في البدء عند الوقت المحدد, كما الإنتهاء عند وقتٍ محدد. وشيء اخر, مارسته, لم اسمح بأية كلمة وقحة. كلمة واحدة غير لائقة, ستطرد من التمرين لكامل اليوم. إذا شاهدتها خلال مبارة, فأنني ساستدعيك للجلوس خارج الملعب. الثالثة, كانت, لاتجرح ( تنتقد) لاعبًا في الفريق. لم أرد ذلك. كنت اخبرهم, اتقاضى راتبًا لفعل ذلك. هذا هو عملي.اتقاضى أجرًا لفعله. مذقعٌ للغاية, لكنني اتقاضى اجرًا للقيام به. ليس كما المدربين اليوم, بحق الرؤوف, لاتفعلوا. الأمر مختلف بعض الشيء عما كان عليه في زمني. لقد كنت صارمًا مع تلك القواعد الثلاثة كل الوقت. في الحقيقة, ورثتهم عن والدي. هذا ما أراد ان يعلمني واخوتي قديمًا. وقد خلصتُ إلى هذا الهرم, والذي ليس لدي الوقت للمرور عليه. لكنه ساعدني, اعتقد, في ان اصبح معلمًا أفضل. إنه شيءٌ كهذا: لدي طابوقات داخل الهرم. وكل حجر زاوية, يمثل قيمًا كالإجتهاد, و الحماسة, المثابرة في العمل, والتمتع بما تقوم به. يتواصلان حتى قمة الهرم. حسب تعريفي للنجاح. وتمامًا عند القمة– الإيمان والصبر. وأخبركم, في اي شيئ تقومون به, عليكم التحلي بالصبر لأدائه– نريد للأشياء ان تحدث. نتحدث كثيرًا عن عدم صبر شبابنا. وهم كذلك, يريدون تغير كل شيءٍ. يعتقدون ان كل تغيير هو تقدم. ونتقدم بعض الشيء في العمر– فنترك الأشياء تمضي بعض الشيء. وننسى أنه ليس هنالك تطور من دون تغيير. إذا عليكم التحلي بالصبر. كما اعتقد انه يتوجب علينا الإيمان. اعتقد انه علينا بالإيمان , الإيمان الحقّ , لا مجرد كلمات مكرورة لنؤمن بأن الأشياء ستجري كما ينبغي لها, موفرة لنا ماعلينا القيام به أعتقد أن لدينا ميل تجاه أن تسير الأمور كما نريدها أن تكون، في معظم الأوقات. لكننا لا نفعل الأشياء المطلوبة لجعل هذه الأشياء تصبح حقيقة. لقد عملت في هذا الإطار لحوالي 14 سنة، وأعتقد أنها ساعدتني لأصبح معلمّاً أفضل. لكنها جميعاً تدور حول التعريف الأصلي للنجاح. قبل عدة سنوات، كان هناك حكم في دوري رابطة البيسبول يسمى جورج موريارتي. لقد تهجأء موريارتي بحرف آي واحد فقط. ولم أرى ذلك من قبل قط، لكنه فعل ذلك. لاحظ لاعبو البيسبول الكبار– وهم مدركون جداً لتلك الأشياء، وقد لاحظوا أن لديه آي واحدة فقط في أسمه. ستفاجئون بعدد المرات التي أخبره بأن تلك أكثر مما لديه في رأسه في أوقات مختلفة. (ضحك) لكنه كتب شيئاً أعتقد أنه فعله بينما كنت أحاول إنجاز هذا الهرم. لقد أسماه "الطريق الأمامي، أو الطريق الخلفي." " أحياناً أعتقد أن القدر ينبغي له أن يبتسم لأننا ننكر و نُصرّ عليه بأنه هو السبب الوحيد لعدم فوزنا، هي نفس الأقدار الغائبة. لكن هناك إدعاءات قديمة: نحن نفوز أو نخسر داخل أنفسنا. الجوائز المرصوصة على أرففنا لا يمكن أن تكسب لعبة يوم غد. أنت وأنا نعرف أعمق الأعماق، هناك دائماً فرصة للفوز بالكأس. لكن حينما نفشل في تقديم أفضل ما لدينا، فنحن ببساطة لم نكن على مستوى الإختبار، بتقديم كل شئ وإدخار لا شئ حتى نكسب المباراة حق وحقيقة. بإظهار ما المقصود بالعزم والإصرار. باللعب والإختراق حينما يستسلم الآخرون. بالإختراق، و ليس بالتراجع. بالتحمّل للفوز بالكأس. بالحلم أن هناك هدف أمامنا. بالأمل عندما تموت أحلامنا. بالصلاة عندما نفقد آمالنا. ومع ذلك، لا أخشى الخسارة، إذا كنت قد قدمت كل شئ بشجاعة. حيث نستطيع أن نطلب من الشخص أن يعطي كل ما بوسعه. تقديم كل شئ، كما يبدو لي، ليس بعيداً من النصر. ولذا فالمصائر نادراً ما تكون خاطئة، غض النظر عن التقلبات والرياح. إنه أنت وأنا من نصنع مصائرنا– نحن نفتح أو نغلق الأبواب على الطريق الذي أمامنا أو الطريق الخلفي." يذكرني بمجموعة أخرى من "الثلاثات" التي حاول والدي تعليمنا إياها. لا تئن، لا تشكو. لا تخلق أعذار. فقط أخرج إلى هناك، وأفعل ما تفعله، أفعله بأفضل ما لديك من مقدرة. ولا أحد يستطيع فعل أفضل من ذلك. لقد حاولت معرفة ذلك — إن منافسيّ لا يخبروك — لم تسمعوني قط أذكر كلمة الفوز. لا تذكر كلمة فوز. إن فكرتي هي بأنك يمكن أن تخسر عندما تحرز نقاط في لعبة ما. ويمكنك أن تفوز حينما يتفوق عليك أحد بالنقاط. لقد وقعت في هذا الوضع في مناسبات محددة، في أوقات مختلفة. وقد رغبت في أن يستطيعوا رفع رؤوسهم عقب المباراة. لقد كنت أقول لهم عندما تنتهي المباراة، وترى شخص ما لا يعرف العواقب، أرجو أن يستطيعوا إخبارك بأفعالك سواء فزت بنقاط على الخصم أو فاز عليك الخصم. هذا هو ما يهم حقاً: إذا بذلت جهدا لفعل أفضل ما تستطيع بصورة دائمة، فان النتائج ستكون كما ينبغي أن تكون. ليس بالضرورة كما تشتهيها أن تكون، لكنها ستكون تقريباً كما ينبغي أن تكون، وأنت ستعرف فقط سواء يمكنك فعل ذلك. وذاك ما أردته منهم أكثر من أي شئ آخر. وبينما يمر الوقت، تعلمت أشياء أكثر عن أشياء أخرى، أعتقد أن الأمور تحسنّت أكثر بقليل، كما هو حال النتائج. لكني أردت أن تكون نتيجة المباراة هي النتيجة الثانوية لبقية الأشياء، وليست النهاية بحد ذاتها. أعتقد أنها كانت — قال أحد الفلاسفة العظماء — لا، لا. قال سيرفانتس ، " الرحلة أفضل بكثير من نهايتها." وأنا أحب ذلك. أعتقد أن ذلك هو — الوصول إلى هناك. بعض الأحيان حينما تصل، هناك ما يقرب من خيبة أمل. لكن هناك وصول للنتيجة يكون ممتعاً. لقد أحببت — كمدرب لفريق جامعة كالفورنيا أحببت أن تكون تدريباتنا هي الرحلة، وتكون المباراة هي النهاية. النتيجة النهائية. أحببت أن أجلس على المقعد وأشاهد اللاعبين يلعبون، وأقيّم إن كنت قد فعلت عملاً رائعاً خلال الأسبوع. مرة أخرى، جعل اللاعبين يحصلون على رضى ذاتي، بمعرفة أنهم بذلوا جهودهم لفعل أفضل ما يستطيعون فعله. بعض الأحيان يسألوني من هو أفضل لاعب لدي، أو أفضل الفرق. لا أستطيع الإجابة على ذلك مطلقاً، بقدر ما يتعلق الأمر بالأفراد. لقد سألوني ذات مرة عن، وقالوا، " لنفترض أنك بطريقة ما تستطيع إختيار أفضل اللاعبين. من ستختار؟" فقلت، " حسناً، سأفضّل الشخص الذي يعرف لماذا هو في جامعة كالفورنيا: للتعليم، وكان طالباً جيداً، يعرف حقاً أنه هناك لهذا الغرض في المقام الأول. كما أنني سأفضّل الشخص الذي يستطيع اللعب أيضاً. سأرغب في الشخص الذي يدرك بأن الدفاع عادةً يفوز بالبطولات، وسيعمل عملاً شاقاً للدفاع. لكني أريد شخص يعلب في الهجوم أيضاً. أريده أن لا يكون أنانياً، وينظر للتمرير أولاً وليس التهديف طوال الوقت. وأريد الشخص الذي يستطيع الإختراق، وسيخترق. (ضحك) كان لدي البعض بإستطاعهم القيام بهذا لكنهم لم يفعلوا، وكان لدي بعضهم خلقوا لكي يخترقوا ولكنهم ..لم يستطيعوا. (ضحك) أريدهم أن يستطيعوا التهديف من الخارج. أريدهم أن يكونوا طيبي الدواخل أيضاً. (ضحك) أريدهم أن يكونوا قادرين على التراجع في كلا الطرفين أيضاً. ولم لا نأخذ شخص مثل كيث ويلكس وندع الأمر هكذا. فهو لديه المؤهلات. ليس وحده، لكنه كان الشخص الذي أعتمدت عليه في تلك المجموعة تحديداً، لأني أعتقد أنه بذل الجهود ليصبح الأفضل. لقد ذكرت في كتابي، " يطلقون عليّ المدرب." أن لاعبين قد أعطياني شعور عظيم بالرضى. بحيث وصلا لأقرب نقطة أعتقد أن أي شخص يستطيع يبلغ: أحدهم كان كونراد بروك. والآخر كان دوغ ماكنتوش. حينما رأيتهم كطلاب جدد، في فريق الطلاب الجدد — لم يكن لدينا — لم يكن الطلاب الجدد يلعبون اسكواش حينما كنت أدرّس. وقد فكرت، " يا كريم، إن لعب أحد هذين اللاعبين، أو أي منهم"– كانوا في سنوات مختلفة، لكني فكرت حول كلٌ منهم في نفس الوقت هناك– "أوه، إن إستطاع أن يلعب اسكواش، فستكون الاسكواش لدينا بائسة حقاً، إن كان جيداً بما يكفي ليلعب." وتعلمون أن أحدهم كان لاعب مبتدئ لموسم ونصف. وكان الثاني — في سنته الثانية، قد لعب 32 دقيقة في البطولة الوطنية، وقد حقق عملاً مذهلاً لنا. وفي العام التالي، كان لاعب مبتدئ في فريق البطولة الوطني. وهنا فكرّت بأنه لن يلعب لدقيقة، حينما كان هناك — إذاً تلك هي الأشياء التي تقدمها بمتعة منقطعة النظير، ومن المُرضيّ أن يراها الشخص منا. لم يستطيع أي من هؤلاء الشباب التهديف جيداً. لكن كان لديهم نسبة تهديف رائعة، لأنهم لم ينموها ولم يستطع أي منهم القفز بصورة جيدة لكنهم كانوا — يحفظون الخانة، لذا فقد كانوا مميزين في التراجع. وقد تذكروا أن كل تهديفة مأخوذة، لقد افترضوا أنهم سيفقدوها. كان لدي كثيرون يظلوا واقفين وينتظرون رؤية إذا ما أخطأوا التصويب، ثم يرجعوا متأخرين جداً. ويكون شخص آخر قد سبقهم. كذلك لم يكونوا سريعين جداً، لكنهم لعبوا في خانات جيدة، وظلوا متوازنين. ولذا فقد لعبوا وأدوا جيداً في الدفاع لفريقنا. إذاً كان لديهم ملكات — أقتربوا جداً– كانوا أقرب ما يكون لأفضل أداء لهم من أي لاعب قد مرّ بي. لذا فأنا أعتبرهم ناجحين مثل لويس الكيندور أو بيل والتون، أو كثيرون مرّوا بنا — كانوا رائعين — لاعبين رائعين. هل تحدثت بما فيه الكفاية؟ كانوا يخبروني بذلك عندما أبدو بهذا الشكل، فإنه ينبغي عليّ أن أصمت. (ضحك) (تصفيق)


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MY TEACHING JOURNEY! Finishing Grad School and this is my final project! Thanks for all your support over the past year! xo Michele

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hello everyone and welcome back to my channel today's video is going to be a little different and it's actually a my grad school capstone project yes I am graduating this spring I am so excited of being in grad school and being a full-time teacher is not that easy so the theme of my capstone is making a difference in a positive impact in education and sharing my passions with others since this relates so closely to all of you who have made such a difference meant life I thought I would share my capstone here on YouTube as well this is mostly my reflection this is mostly the reflection piece as I am saving kind of like the boring research-based portion just for my classmates and my professor I hope you enjoy a little sneak peek into my capstone project and perhaps this could even help anyone if you're in grad school as well and you are about to complete maybe a similar assignment but without further ado let's get into the video I am very excited to be graduating this spring and receiving my masters in art education for my final capstone project I have gone back and forth between several different ideas but all pertaining to the question of basically what is my passion what is my purpose for some time I really focus on my love and nature of building relationships with my students and also how I value teaching the whole child socially and emotionally another passion of mine is to encourage my students to take risks and truly believe in themselves after reflecting on all these I realized I was missing the biggest one of all which is sharing my passion with others and using my voice to make an impact whether it be my students or fellow educators or future educators I want to use my voice to make a positive impact in education I want to help fellow teachers to ignite a love of learning into children and make a difference so over the course of my graduate journey I hit a low point in my career emotionally and I felt beaten down honestly by the negativity and education and then just the negativity that really surrounded me so instead of letting it win and become him down further I decided to do something about it and that thing was to start a YouTube channel my mission was to share my teaching journey share my art lessons but really just to spread positivity in the education system and to collaborate and meet with other positive educators I wanted to help other educators whether that was showing my success or showing my struggles in the classroom I just basically share my passion of teaching then starting this journey and this channel I have fun relationships with fellow teachers Future teacher's home school moms like it's amazing the relationships and what I've gained from starting this channel and starting this new journey so I'm brainstorming an idea for my capstone project I was going up back and forth between all these different things and then I finally had this aha moment why not do video creation video creation has been a passion of mine and a creative outlet for over a year now so why not use this skill to complete my capstone project and so for this capstone project I will be taking you along with me through past video clips and just my reflection basically of my I'm in my graduate degree but also just my journey in teaching overall obviously how I got here today what is my teaching philosophy now and how has that changed and what's to come in the future okay so let's first rewind back to right out of high school meet I was not sure of myself Sam today I was not as confident in just Who I am as a person I'm so opinions of others completely changed my own opinions and so instead of following my dream and following my heart to be an art teacher I started my freshman year actually as a dual major of elementary and special ed and while I liked that a lot it just something was missing it just wasn't really neat basically I feel like I chose that major out of sheer fear that was instilled in me and then I would not find a job as an art teacher the negative comments and the doubt that I perceived from other people just really flooded my own judgment then in the middle of my freshman year I grew new friendships and new experiences and these friendships and experiences really helped me to realize that I did not have to listen to the negative comments and doubt of others if I want something bad enough I could make it happen and so I switched my major from elementary ed and special ed to or an education and could not be happier I'm so happy that I did that I can't imagine not being our teacher today so after I graduated from college and had a wonderful college experience at my school I knew that the job market was going to be tough I knew it was gonna be challenging to get a job but I also knew that I had to kind of accept a job that maybe wasn't the job the perfect job right away and that it would all work out eventually but sometimes you know you have to take that first job that maybe it's not ideal but it will teach you a lot too well I knew this first job wasn't my dream job I also knew it was going to bring a lot of experience and homie grow as an educator which it absolutely did so my first job was an alternative education it was six through twelfth grade art our school was in the city and it was a second chance school for students who works about from their public school I knew the experience would be tough going in and it was it's a not disappoint in that category however I don't think that I had to actually wrap my head around how it would change me forever as an educator and as person my students they dealt with trauma daily and I played a role as a support system and a role model I would say more than an art teacher even I saw things that I honestly wish I couldn't see I heard things that depressed me I was coming home every day and crying not necessarily crying that I was in this job that I wasn't happy at but crying because I wanted to help these kids so badly and I just didn't know how also before this job you could say I was a bit naive I grew up in a small town you know break out college I didn't really have that many experiences yet so I have spent my college days gallivanting through the city and going into the nightlife and the art scene and not really diving into the true I don't know behind the scenes of the city and just kind of opened my eyes a lot to how there's a lot going on sometimes you can't see or you don't know about a lot of sadness and so it was really affecting me as a person working there and seeing these things experiencing these situations I was definitely naive to the hurt and to the pain that was in that city and was unseen by most people so like I said I knew that job was not forever job it did teach me a lot but from that job I took kind of a leap of faith and I went out of my comfort zone I moved out of state and away from my family and my boyfriend and I took another job in all my true position it was kindergarten through sixth grade but it was split between two schools it was definitely a culture shock for me um while this area is probably something that most people love because there's just so much around to do and to shop and experience it just it just wasn't my cup of tea I missed the country I miss like the slow feel of the country and the living and I just missed my home state in miss Pennsylvania also my teaching conditions definitely left much to be desired every two weeks or so I would have to pack up all the art supplies that I needed for the other school because only my home base school had supplies I was art in the cart at both schools until I got one of those like trailer classrooms at the one but it was falling apart like I said it was definitely not ideal but it did teach me the organization skills and my distribution skills that I have today teach end that cart is not easy but it really does make you grow as an educator and teach you so much so I knew that job wasn't my home but I wasn't gonna give up even though self-doubt definitely did creep in a lot I did not give up and I kept looking and kept trying to get back to my home state which brings me to my current job where I teach kindergarten through sixth grade art in Pennsylvania but definitely my past experiences have taught me the kind of educator that I want to be and also the type of school that I can call my home and just basically my values as a teacher so all these experiences and an addition to that my graduate school degree now has really shaped me as an educator and changed my teaching philosophy immensely okay so let's talk to June philosophy for a second we had to write one in our undergrad we use it for our interview don't know if they actually look at it to be honest but now I'm revisiting it again for my graduate degree and looking back on everything I find it really difficult to even try to write a teaching philosophy before you've experienced teaching yourself how can you truly reflect on what teaching means to you before you are in the trenches of it all I mean I have changed so much as an educator since I wrote my first teaching philosophy and I'm sure that five to 10 years from now my philosophy is gonna change again I will have evolved even more than so I know there's just even more to come with the growth of my teaching philosophy so let's simply call this my current teaching philosophy after six years of teaching or my ever-evolving I would say teaching philosophy so the first component of my teaching philosophy is building relationships with my students parents and the community whether that's the school community or the overall community and then on the back I wrote a little personalized note to each one of my helpers because I know like that it really shows that you care and it really shows that you're listening when they're talking it just so you have an interest in your students inability and that relationship is so important now I had this idea for a video about relationships and relationships with your students and how to make those stronger how to gain a really good relationship and why you should sit down with them and talk to them so basically just the organic form of building a relationship you can't get any better than that I do feel like though it is very important to make that a priority because it just helps so much with behavior issues and classroom and there's more to it than just decorate your classroom and taking a picture and putting it out in the Internet or decorate your classroom to make it look cute for you it's for the kids and we need to remember that and the whole reason that we do what we do is to make the kids comfortable to make them safe to make them inspired and that is why we do what we do and that is why the room looks the way it looks the second component of my teaching philosophy is to build a love of nature and art and incorporate that into my lessons as well as mindfulness I want to share a love of nature and art and how they intertwine and not only with my students but with other educators as well today I'm starting the kids in my gardening club on how to start seeds indoors so we are starting with peppers and tomatoes art is such a useful tool in teaching the content and it can really be integrated into so many different lesson I recently went to a teaching conference but I was just surprised at how many teachers out there don't have an art program at their school and that's heartbreaking for me so I just want to make it more of a passion of mine to share with you ideas and things you can do to bring art into the classroom that are easy that have a easy cleanup that are not going to be too demanding on you but just say does it like my goat cheese for like easy simple supplies that still get the job done and so our amazing teaching tools the last component and my teaching philosophy is to put social and emotional needs above the curriculum when it is needed so what I mean by that is social-emotional development is a big component in the education of our students and providing students time to explore and create and discuss and even debate are crucial to their success later in life my classroom is a place where my students can explore without fear of failure and if they do fail we work through it and problem-solve or even ask our community of learners so the big thing in my room is make a mistake into a masterpiece like I have the kids repeat me I say make a mistake in two and they say a masterpiece because I'm trying to get them to not shut down when they make a mistake not to throw away their paper not go on an eraser rampage and erase everything and instead of trying to get them to problem-solve and to make into something else I am obsessed with this one she chose to use my favorite group quote make a mistake into a masterpiece and then she said she really likes using markers that's her favorite one of her favorite art tools and make your mark and see where it takes you that's from the dots remember we have da day at school where everyone gets to work that and we celebrate being creative very funny said Vashti I just can't draw her teacher smiled just make a mark and see where it takes you you're a really great artist I wish I could draw he said well I bet you can said Vashti in addition to this promoting kindness and encouraging peers to help and support one another is so important to me it's just as important as the curriculum I took them out in the front of the school where kids get on and off the buses and we did positive motivating messages and images in Chuck I was just so like happy and amazed with their work I mean it's just such a great great feeling when your own students inspire you and that's exactly what happened the messages that they were writing were so sweet and I just I just told them like I'm so proud of you like this is exactly what everyday needs to be like you thinking about being kind to each other thinking about lifting people up how to make someone's smile and just doing your best work and and just making really great choices like I was just so proud of that my philosophy has also been shaped by the different courses that I have taken through my master's program so one in particular that stands out to me is differentiated instruction through art this class made me think differently about my art lessons completely so before this class I was scared of choice based art I just didn't quite understand how to manage that or what it would look like but now I use it regularly in my classroom it totally opened my eyes to new ways of teaching and that my students were desperately needing our student needs are constantly changing with time and we must adapt to these for the success of their learning through this class I created some of the most successful art lessons I've ever done another thing that I really enjoyed with this class that I took was it didn't feel like a class it felt more like a bunch of educators collaborating and learning from one another okay so what is next for me my teaching journey I have six years in I've been at three schools I've wondered graduate degree now so how will I continue to make an impact and carry out my mission and my passion first of all I could plan to continue connecting with educators whether that be retired teachers active teachers future teachers social media provides us with an amazing tool and a plethora of resources at our fingertips that we didn't once have we were not able to clever teachers across the globe I mean professional development is no longer limited to our school building I also plan to continue to document my teaching journey and spread positivity in education that is something that is very very important to me I believe that that doesn't mean to coding teaching all the time teaches challenging it can be hard you'll like that shirt that says I'm running on dry shampoo and coffee that's me no more art for you like you have lost the privilege you are done because I couldn't even have its supply in his hand he had licked the glue sponge guys he licked the glue sponge not in a good place like I was just miserable because my fifth grade and my sixth grade did not go well I felt like you know is it like this for everyone like am i struggling and it shouldn't be like this like I know how I want to teach and I know how I want my classroom to be and I felt like this morning it was not that and it was very disheartening and frustrating but rather it means helping others use tips and strategies just to stay positive and to know how to make self care a priority and to be able to be the very best for your student you cannot focus on the ones who are misbehaving you can't focus on the lessons that didn't pan out perfectly you can't focus on and maybe you know a staff situation like you just have to focus on the positives to get through especially late April and May everybody's burnout at this stage in the year I just need to do whatever I can to make a difference in my students and get you know my own mental health you take care of yourself in order to take care of your students and then another big tip I have is if something is not working it is ok to stop even myth lesson and Bria valuate specially with working with children you're not going to have things go smoothly all the time fairly rarely will you I'm so just being okay with the flexible with that and and stopping and saying what went wrong what went right how can I improve she said Congrats I love your positivity as a sensual teacher a social ed teacher sorry I daily face negativity and haters from colleagues people like you that allow me to take a deep breath and return to my classroom you should know your channel has such a powerful impact on the lives of others please keep doing what you were doing I could either join in on the negativity it let it surround me or I could branch out and do something different and try to make a difference and at least fight the negativity to hear the head I'm now helping others who are in that position it's just so rewarding beyond beliefs laughs if your lesson tight figure it out afterwards but just laugh it off seriously eat a cupcake on a Friday eat a donut on a Friday treat your self lastly I plan to continue my education and research in the I am passionate about there are so many excellent resources out there and research on growth mindset and social-emotional development I want to continue to improve my knowledge base of these topics so I can better share them with others this would also apply it to the importance that I hold on relationships with my students as well as art and nature in our curriculum so that is my story that's where I came from and how I got to where I am today I hope that can continue to collaborate with other educators and share my teaching journey to make a positive impact there's a quote by author Mandy Hale that I just absolutely love to make a difference in someone's life you don't have to be brilliant rich beautiful or perfect you just have to care thank you all for watching this video and everyone who has been on my journey thus far through that my youtube journey and my teaching journey you as my subscribers have influenced my teaching journey more than you will ever know and I am so so forever grateful for you I hope you have a beautiful day and I will catch you in my next video bye

Lectures From the Institute: David Diener and Virtue

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Dr. David Diener began his formal post-secondary education at Wheaton College where he graduated Summa Cum Laude with a B.A. in Philosophy and Ancient Languages. After putting his philosophical training to work by building custom cabinets and doing high-end finish carpentry for an Amish company, he moved with his wife to Bogotá, Colombia, where they served as missionaries for three years at a Christian international school.

He then attended graduate school at Indiana University where he earned an M.A. in Philosophy, an M.S. in History and Philosophy of Education, and a dual Ph.D. in Philosophy and Philosophy of Education. He has taught at The Stony Brook School and Taylor University and has served as Head of Upper Schools at Covenant Classical School in Fort Worth, TX, and Head of School at Grace Academy in Georgetown, TX. He currently works at Hillsdale College where he is the Headmaster of Hillsdale Academy and a Lecturing Professor of Education. He also is an Alcuin Fellow, serves on the Board of Directors for the Society for Classical Learning and the Board of Academic Advisors for the Classical Learning Test, and offers consulting services through Classical Academic Press. He is the author of Plato: The Great Philosopher-Educator and serves as the series editor for Classical Academic Press’ series Giants in the History of Education. The Dieners have four wonderful children and are passionate about classical education and the impact it can have on the church, our society, and the world.

the topic of today's talk is the cultivation of virtue and the Telos of Education before we can really begin digging into this topic I want to start by laying out a few basic definitions and grounding assumptions first of all the Greek word Telos means goal or purpose or end the goal toward which something is directed i cannot underestimate the importance of the fact that every model of education whether it's secular or religious progressive or classical whatever every model of education has whether it admits it or not whether it's implicit or explicit a tell us that is to say every model of education has a goal a vision of the good life that it is attempting to pass on to its students or to put it another way every model of education is based on a set of values there is no such thing as a values free or values neutral education every system of education is based on and inculcates certain values into its students and this truth has been recognised throughout history from ancient to modern from pagans to Christians to atheists basically everybody let me just give you one example the 20th century philosopher Bertrand Russell writes in his book on education we must have some concept of the kind of person we wish to produce before we can have any definite opinion as to the education which we consider best think about that before we can figure out what kind of education we want to put together we have to know where it's going what kind of person is it trying to produce and so the question is what should our goal or what should the Telos of education be now there are two problems with most contemporary discourse about education the first is that contemporary dialogue about education typically avoids discussion of tell us altogether there's just really not much talk about the purpose of Education out there the emphasis in educational research and policy development is overwhelmingly on the how of Education and why is almost completely overlooked so we get things like how to raise test scores how to increase graduation rates how to help students with educational challenges how to train teachers to use technology etc and there are unfortunately a plethora of teachers administrators and even educational theorists around our country who would be hard-pressed to give a clear definition of what the purpose of education is at all that's tragic because it means that as a society we are working hard to make sure that our educational train is running efficiently without seriously asking where that train ought to be going consider a metaphor used by David Hicks in his book norms and nobility he writes both policymaker as strategist and school administrator as educator resemble the farmer who tries to plow a field with his eyes on the plow rather than on that imaginary point on the horizon on which he must fix his gaze if he expects to leave a straight furrow when I was learning how to drive I remember one of the first lessons I learned is that if you want to drive down the middle of the road you can't look right over the hood right I would I would I started sort of looking right over the hood of the car and trying to drive to stay in the middle and my dad said no no you have to look up look look down the road and I said but I got to stay on the road right here and he said no no but when you look down the road it what you're doing right here will work itself out ok and David Hicks asthma is making the same point with with his metaphor of the plow if we want our educational system to take us in the right direction we've got to lift up our eyes away from just the how do I create a lesson plan how should we do assessment how how how how and ask the question of where are we trying to go what what is our goal what is the direction toward which we are aiming so the first step of the problem is that we don't talk enough about the goals of education the second step of the problem is that when we do talk about education goals we often unfortunately have them all wrong in the 21st century most people simply assume that the primary purpose of education if not its only purpose is to equip students with the knowledge and technical skills that they will need in order to go out into the world and be successful and generally if you push hard enough on what do you mean by successful you get something that's reducible to pecuniary plenitude in other words to be rich the idea is to put it baldly education is a means toward the end of making money thus when you ask the question for example why is k-12 education important you get an answer like well it's important to have a good education so you can get into a good college you say well why is that important well you have to get into a good college so you can get into grad school why is that important well so that you can get a good job well who cares who wants a good job well so that you can make a good living you know and and have a good happy successful life now note a couple things about that chain of reasoning first of all education is merely instrumental on that line of thinking there's nothing good in it in and of itself about education it's merely a means to an end it's not an end in and of itself and note also that there is a Telos in mind I said all education is directed towards some tell us there is a tell us or goal here the purpose of Education is ultimately to make money William tereska wits describes our situation thus we talked about national competitiveness the 21st century labor force technology and engineering and the outlook of our future prosperity but we never talked about the premises that underlie this conviction conversation as if what makes for a happy life and a good society were simply self-evident and as if in either case the exclusive answer were more money unfortunately this is how many people in our contemporary society think about education I have heard international leaders in education give talks about education in which the closest thing to any sort of teleological claim was something insipid like well school prepares students for college and career Sir Richard Livingston's 1944 read lecture he summed up this illiberal approach to education in a way that I think transiently depicts our current educational milieu as well he said this it is characteristic of today that when we discuss which subjects should be studied or which languages should be learnt the first consideration is nearly always utility we ask what is most useful for the machine not what is most likely to make a good human being at times the right motto for our education seems to be prop tier V Tom Vivendi pair dairy cows us that is for the sake of livelihood to lose what makes life worth living the material in life tends to dominate spiritual and moral life as forgotten wisdom and even judgment recede into the background in a 1975 essay titled a remarkable man Wendell Barry similarly writes that we think it ordinary to spend twelve or sixteen or twenty years of a person's life and many thousands of public dollars on education and not a dime or a thought on character there are many people however who don't bat an eye at the notion that the basic purpose of education is to teach job skills so that people can go out and find jobs and make money and even a cursory examination of of statements by public politicians our presidents government's governors federal state educational policymakers demonstrates that our leaders often view the importance of our country's educational system primarily in economic terms the goal of education it would seem is to prepare people for jobs so that they can have a successful career and contribute to our economy now there are two basic problems with this view the first is that it's just plain dumb and the second is that it runs contrary to thousands of years of profound educational thought and if you think that just plain dumb doesn't sound very sophisticated or nuanced you could substitute this it is philosophically theologically and functionally anemic in other words it's just plain dumb it doesn't make sense conceptually it doesn't work practically so what I'd like to do in the rest of our time today is to paint a picture of a much more robust understanding of the Telos of Education that has the cultivation of virtue at its center and I hope that you walk away from this talk convinced of two things first I hope that you're convinced that we ought to hold the cultivation of virtue to be a central goal of education and second I hope that you walk away being convinced that this indeed has been the standard understanding of education for centuries and that contemporary views of Education that neglect the centrality of virtue are historical anomalies now there's no way in our short time together today I can cover the central role that virtue has played throughout the entirety of the history of educational philosophy so instead what I'm going to do is first focus on the Greek philosopher Plato who is both the founder of the Western philosophical tradition and also widely considered to be the father of philosophy of education as a discipline as the 20th century philosopher Alfred North Whitehead famously quipped the safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato in other words Plato wrote about all the big questions he wrote about all the big ideas and for the last over two thousand years since then we've just been adding footnotes to what he wrote okay maybe a bit hyperbolic but the point is he's a central figure in this tradition so if we're going to focus on one thinker who's thought has shaped the last couple thousand of years of Education in the West it makes sense to focus on Plato and then after examining Plato's thought in some depth I will close by offering offering a rapid-fire sequence of other thinkers statements about the role of virtue in education to show that there is in fact a long tradition of thinkers who are basically in agreement about virtues centrality in education Plato who lived from 427 to 3 47 BC clearly understands education to be fundamentally teleological in other words he recognizes that all education again whether explicitly or implicitly has a goal or goals toward which it is directed furthermore according to Plato the primary and ultimate goal of education is to form people who are virtuous the primary purpose of education is not to transfer to students a body of knowledge the primary purpose of education is not to teach practical technical skills the primary purpose of education is not to prepare students for a specialized vocation rather the primary purpose of education is to cultivate students into virtuous human beings who are equipped to live well now I want to pause for a second and just unpack this word virtue and what we mean by this the Greek word for virtue r8a is broader in meaning than the English word virtue our essay is an interesting word that's usually translated virtue or excellence and while the word does have moral overtones it's not an exclusively moral term rather it refers to the capability of a thing to fulfill its purpose or nature so for example a knife can be virtuous insofar as it is able to cut well that is to say fulfill its purpose as a knife and function according to its nature a cow could be excellent or virtuous insofar as it is capable of producing milk that is to say of fulfilling its purpose as a cow so similarly the virtue of a person is the quality that enables a person to fulfill his purpose and live according to his true nature for what it's worth the latin word vir tous from which we get our word in English virtue also has a broader meaning the latin word vir tous comes from the Latin veered which means man so etymologically virtue means something like manliness and to be virtuous is to be manly now we shouldn't think of that in any sort of macho sense right the idea is rather to be virtuous is to be an actualized human being a person who lives with excellence and thus embodies all that human beings were made to be the co Supremes in his preface to the four cardinal virtues that these four virtues can enable man to attain the furthest potentialities of nature this isn't just moralism when we talk about forming virtuous people we're not just talking about people who do the right things right they don't cheat on their taxes they don't lie etc that's part of it but it's something broader we're talking about forming people of r8a of virtue or excellence who are enabled to fulfill their purpose and live according to their true nature who can be all that they were made to be above all else the truth for which Plato searched was truth about the nature of virtue if you read his dialogues it's really remarkable that all throughout them Socrates is continually conversing with different interlocutors to figure out that the nature of different virtues so in the Euthyphro its piety in the Republic its justice there there are others that in nummy know it's the it's the nature of virtue itself okay Plato lived in a context in Athens in which the Sophists had convinced many Athenians that the measure of educational success was one's ability to win an argument convinced a jury or please an audience they use rhetoric and their message was that the education they offered was valuable was worth what it cost because it could make students successful if you come to us we will train you how to go into the court and win plato's critique of this view as relevant today as it was over 2400 years ago is that utilitarian ends such as these are paltry substitutes for the true Telos of education the purpose of Education is the formation of human beings who are good throughout his works Plato is explicit that the purpose of education is to form people who are virtuous or good in the Republic for example he writes that the final outcome of education I suppose we'd say is a single newly finished person who is either good or the opposite nobody what he's not saying there he's not saying you can judge whether an education was well done or not on whether the student gets into college or whether they go out and get a job or whether they make a lot of money or whether they have lots of friends no he says what what determines whether the education they received worked or not is whether that person is good that's the key question he goes on to argue that the form of the good is the most important thing to learn about and that it's by their relation to it the good that just things and others become useful and beneficial in the laws he similarly explains that what he means by education is not training for a particular trade or business but education from childhood in virtue and he goes on to explain that this virtue consists in having one's loves properly aligned such that one adores what is good and abhors what is not he writes there is one element you could isolate in any account you give of Education and this is the correct formation of our feelings of pleasure and pain which makes us hate what we ought to hate from first to last and love what we ought to love call this education and I at any rate think that you would be giving it its proper name thus in contrast to the Sophists whose primary goal was to equip students with practical skills that they could go out into the world and use to be successful in Athenian society for Plato the ultimate goal of Education is right conduct not success as society defines it this understanding of the goal of Education significantly affects how Plato understands the value and purpose of various curricular subjects and he's explicit that the subjects he thinks ought to be studied should be studied not because of their content per se but rather because of their ability to turn the soul away from darkness and toward goodness and truth he admonishes that each of us must neglect all other subjects and be most concerned to seek out and learn those that will enable him to distinguish the good life from the bad and always to make the best choice possible in every situation so Plato recognizes that the various subjects in the curriculum are not ends in and of themselves rather they're educationally valuable only insofar as they promote the realization of Education ultimate goals that is the formation of virtue I'd like to just briefly point out as an example of this the rationale that Plato gives for the four subjects that later came to be known as the quadrivium arithmetic geometry what we call music he calls harmonics and astronomy the the the four subjects of the quadrivium are part of the liberal arts the Trivium is the other three of the traditional seven liberal arts so the traditional Trivium is grammar dialectic and rhetoric and then again the quadrivium arithmetic geometry music and astronomy those are the traditional seven liberal arts and in the Republic Plato gives a rationale for why certain subjects should be studied and he covers the four subjects of the quadrivium and I want to point this out because sometimes within classical education circles there's this idea that the math and science courses are a little bit less a part of the liberal arts right literature and history we say nurture our humanity and our character we get that they help us to become virtuous but math and science are technical they're not liberal arts they just help us do stuff build bridges and figure out which size of a jar of salsa in the in the grocery store is a better value etc okay Plato however disagreed and his rationale gives us insight into the true purpose of all areas of study so briefly arithmetic a lot of people don't understand why studying math is important and you know the students say why do we have to learn this when are we ever going to use this and then teachers try to come up with you know various reasons well you maybe you'll go into a field where you or well you know wouldn't it be nice if you could figure out whether the six ounce jar or the nine ounce jar is a better value at the grocery store whatever okay Plato though argues that arithmetic is valuable not because it enables us to carry out business but because it leads us toward truth and the ability to grasp being he argues that the true purpose of Education in arithmetic is not and I'm quoting here like tradesmen and retailers for the sake of buying and selling but rather for ease in turning the soul around away from becoming and toward truth and being have you ever heard that explanation given to eighth graders for why they should learn algebra now geometry he turns to geometry and he says geometry is knowledge of what always is he argues that geometry draws the soul toward truth and produces philosophical thought by directing upwards what we wrongly direct downwards the inscription above the door of Plato's Academy in Athens again as the founder of the Western philosophical tradition it that inscription is indicative of his estimation for geometry it said let none but geometers enter here in other words what he's getting at is when you study geometry you study shapes perfect triangles circles cubes okay etc you're able to abstract from the reality in which we live in which there really are no perfect circles or no perfectly equilateral triangles they don't exist actually oK we've never touched one or drawn one or seen one but nevertheless we mentally can understand it okay so what it does what it does is it enables us to see these eternal shapes and patterns truths that are true no matter whether we draw them well or not whether we imitate them or not and he says that helps us to understand the nature of reality in an important way astronomy Plato praises astronomy because it compels the soul to look upward and leads it from things here to things there and then finally harmonics or what we would call music Plato claims that the study of harmonics is useful in the search for the beautiful and the good but pursued for any other purpose it's useless and think about that the reason why we study music the reason why we learn to play music is because it's part of our search as human beings for the nature of the beautiful and the good it's not for entertainment it's not to make us feel good or give us a beat to dance to it's because ultimately Plato says it helps us to understand beauty and goodness and that's part of what it means to be a human being and live a virtuous life ok so note that while he understands that the subjects are very are valuable in practical ways as well knowing arithmetic does help you in the marketplace for example he recognizes that those disciplines do have ancillary practical value his essential point however is that these practical benefits are not the primary reason why they should be studied their purpose is not simply to provide technical training however practical they might be they nevertheless have a much deeper function in other words the disciplines of the quadrivium lead us toward truth and enable us to make sense of the world and our place in it and the same could be said of course of the other disciplines of the Trivium that's an important thing for us as a human as human beings to do it's important for us to understand who we are and the world around us and how we should live in it so for Plato the principal question that must be asked of any educational proposal is not how much does it cost or will it work practically the question is will it promote the moral formation of the students toward whom it's directed will it help them to live virtuously that's the question now before I stop talking about Plato and give you some quotes from other thinkers throughout history I do want talk a little bit about knowledge because obviously education has to do with acquiring knowledge right we give tests in which we ask students to to show that they've learned certain certain bits of knowledge that we have taught them it's interesting that according to Plato knowledge without virtue is worse than useless it's pernicious and the goal of education is therefore not merely to impart knowledge again that's a part of it but it's not merely to impart knowledge but also to nurturing students the virtue and wisdom that they will need in order to use that knowledge for the good education is most fundamentally concerned with conduct not with knowledge and the problem with knowledge says Plato is you can use it for good or for ill even if you have great knowledge of the world it still doesn't answer the fundamental question what then should I do how should I use this knowledge in the Republic for example Socrates explains that the one who is most able to guard against disease is also most able to produce it unnoticed and that the person who is clever at guarding money must also be clever at stealing it knowledge in other words is not intrinsically good for without a moral compass to guide its use it can bring about great evil thus David Hicks writes that where knowledge grows without wisdom and without reverence it threatens both our humanity and our world so think about the fact for example that the same knowledge of construction and architecture that you need in order to build a cathedral could be used to build a gas chamber the same knowledge the question is not what do you know but what virtue do you have that will enable you to use what you know for the good the purpose of Education is not just the assimilation of facts or the retention of information but a habituation of the mind and the body to we'll and act in accordance with what we know in the youth Adiemus Plato makes a similar point about supposed goods like wealth he says you know what are things that people think are good well money's good being healthy is good having good looks is a good Hey he says look unless any of those things is guided by wisdom they are greater evils than their opposites you you are better off being poor and virtuous than wise I'm sorry there's a second you are better off being poor and virtuous than rich and corrupt the rich person who's corrupt can do a lot more damage in the Meno Plato again claims that supposed goods like health strength beauty and wealth can both benefit and harm us and that whether they benefit or harm us depends on whether we use them rightly or wrongly think about all the harm that money can cause if it's misused think about all the harm that strength just physical strength can cause if it's misused think about all the harm that beauty can cause if it's misused he's explicit that the acquisition of these supposed Goods must not be taken to be the purpose of education in the laws he writes a training directed to acquiring money or a robust physique or even to some intellectual facility not guided by reason and justice we should want to call course and illiberal and say that it had no claim whatever to be called education a knowledge is not enough obviously education is partially concerned with giving students knowledge but according to Plato that can't be the whole story the purpose of education is intrinsically moral in nature and the ultimate goal is to form students who are equipped with wisdom with an understanding of the good with a love for the good such that they can use whatever knowledge they may possess in way that are virtuous so those are a few of the key ideas of this incredibly important thinker Plato with regard to the purpose or Telos of Education and in this last section what I would like to do is turn away from Plato and now look at some other thinkers who have in many ways echoed his thought up until the end of the 19th century so within the past 150 years or so something akin to the Platonic view that I've just described has been the overwhelmingly dominant view of the purpose of Education the centrality of virtue in understanding education –zz purpose is not particularly Plato nor to the Greeks nor to the ancients rather it has been a commonly accepted understanding of Education that endured for millennia and was supplanted really only in the second half of the 19th century and then in some cases into the 20th century I could trot out nearly endless examples to demonstrate that this is the case but I will restrict myself to a few that collectively offer a sort of inductive argument to demonstrate the point okay that these ideas I've been talking about from Plato are not are not unique to him throughout the history of education many people have thought something very similar so Plato's student Aristotle another Greek philosopher is highly critical of his fellow Greeks who failed to embrace a system of education with a view to all the virtues but in a vulgar spirit he writes have fallen back on those which promised to be more useful and profitable Hey with regard to what subjects should be taught Aristotle notes occupations are divided into liberal and illiberal and too young children should be imparted only such kinds of knowledge as will be useful to them without making mechanics of them and any occupation art or science which makes the body or soul or mind of the free man less fit for the practice or exercise of virtue is mechanical wherefore we call those arts mechanical which tend to deform the body and likewise all paid employments for they absorb and degrade the mind the object also which a man sets before him makes a great difference let listen to this last part if he does or learns anything for his own sake or for the sake of his friends or with a view to virtue that action will not appear illiberal so note that what Aristotle is saying here is not that learning mechanical arts is necessarily worthless what he's saying is that the reason for which something is learned is of the utmost importance in determining its value learning carpentry or engineering or economics can be worthwhile provided that it is learned with a view to virtue and not as we just saw with a view toward what is useful or profitable the Roman philosopher and orator Cicero similarly writes when to an excellent and admirable natural disposition there is added a certain system and training of education then from that combination arises an extraordinary perfection of character such as is seen in that godlike man whom our fathers saw in their time africanus and in Caius Laelius and Lucius furius most virtuous and moderate of men and in that most excellent man the most learned man of his time Marcus Cato the Elder and all these men if they had been to derive no assistance from literature in the cultivation and practice of virtue would never have applied themselves to the study of it well what Cicero is arguing in other words is that all these great heroes of Rome these great men understood that the purpose of studying literature is to cultivate a life of virtue he says if they wouldn't have thought that that's what they were gonna get from it that it would have developed virtue in them would have helped them to live more virtuously they never would have studied it of course why would you study something if it's not gonna lead you to be a more virtuous person the 14th and 15th century Italian Renaissance educational thinker Petrus Powell various wrote in 1404 we call those studies liberal which are worthy of a free man those studies by which we attain and practice virtue and wisdom starting to see a theme here that education which calls forth trains and develops those highest gifts of body and mind which in noble men and which are rightly judged to rank next in dignity to virtue only couple hundred years later in 1643 the founders of Harvard College wrote a pamphlet in which they expressed the mission of Harvard College thus let every student be plainly instructed and earnestly pressed to consider well that the main end of his life and studies is to know God and Jesus Christ which is eternal life and therefore to lay Christ in the bottom as the only foundation of all sound knowledge and learning like Plato and these other thinkers the founders of Harvard recognized that education is a fundamentally teleological activity it's directed toward something and the end toward which it is directed is one of an intrinsically moral nature the 17th century British philosopher John Locke writes in his 1693 book some thoughts on some thoughts concerning education I'll say that again the 17th century British philosopher John Locke writes in his 1693 book some thoughts concerning education that what all parents desire for their children assuming they take any care of their education at all he says is contained I suppose in these four things virtue wisdom breeding and learning I place virtue as the first and most necessary of those endowments that belong to a man or a gentleman as absolutely requisite to make him valued and beloved by others acceptable or tolerable to himself without that I think he will be happy neither in this nor in the other world couple more quotes coming across the pond to to the United States founding father Benjamin Franklin writes in a 1750 letter to Samuel Johnson I think with you that nothing is of more importance for the public weal than to form and train up youth in wisdom and virtue wise and good men are in my opinion the strength of a state more so than riches or arms think about that it is better for our country to have wise and good citizens then to be strong and have wealth and military power so education according to Benjamin Franklin is essential for the well-being of our society but not because it trains workers or equips us to help manufacture other countries rather education is essential insofar as it forms students into wise and virtuous beings as Tracy Lee Simmons writes in climbing Parnassus the healthy society begins with healthy souls and the healthiest souls are not formed without intellectual and most of all spiritual labour in 1787 the famous Northwest Ordinance was written in which the government gave its official support for the development of schools the Northwest Ordinance states religion morality and knowledge being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged here again the underlying assumption is that education is not merely about the acquisition of knowledge but also about the religious and moral formation of human beings the famous african-american thinker and activist w eb de bois writes of education in 1903 this if we make money the object of man training we shall develop moneymakers but not necessarily men if we make technical skill the object of education we may possess artisans but not in nature men men we shall have only as we make manhood the object of the work of the school's intelligence broad sympathy knowledge of the world that was n is and of the relation of men to it this is the curriculum of that higher education which must underlie true life and he goes on to declare I insist that the object of all true education is not to make men carpenters it is to make carpenters men education must not simply teach work it must teach life again the point is that if we just teach students to do a certain job in society we've not necessarily helped them to live well but if we teach them how to live well then they'll be able to do that whether they end up as carpenters or teachers or architects or go on down the line whatever career they go into education is not just career preparation it is to make people in whatever career they choose into virtuous human beings human beings who are able to live well the famous 20th century British mathematician and philosopher Alfred North Whitehead claims in a 1929 essay technical education in its relation to science and literature that the art of education is never easy it is the training of souls and finally Arthur Holmes another prominent philosopher of the 20th century wrote in 1975 the question to ask about an education is not what can I do with it but rather what is it doing to me as a person education has to do with the making of persons now I could go on giving examples like this all day long and the point I want to make is that the centrality of virtue in Plato's understanding of Education is not a historical anomaly in contemporary society many people are trying to make education into something that supposedly is value neutral but almost no educational thinker throughout history would have agreed that that's a good idea or even possible school schools are thus not weird experiments but rather a continuation of an educational legacy that stretches back for over two millennia and arguably even much further back if you go back into the Hebrew tradition throughout history education has almost never been thought to be a wholly secular enterprise but rather one that is intimately connected with the development of morality and virtue in students the contemporary charade of value and virtue free education is thus not only a philosophical and practical absurdity but also demonstrates an asinine refusal to accept the nearly universal recognition of the importance of moral training that has existed throughout the history of Education that's the fancy of way of saying it's just plain dumb ok I'll say that once more as we close the contemporary charade of value and virtue free education is not only a philosophical and practical absurdity but it also demonstrates an asinine refusal to accept the nearly universal recognition of the importance of moral training that has existed throughout the history of Education the cultivation of virtue has been absolutely central in the understanding of Education tell us or purpose for thousands of years and it should be in our own understanding of Education as thank you you

London School of Economics –

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tucked away in its own little Warren of side streets and surrounded by the Royal Courts of Justice is the london school of economics and political science known to all as the lse it's somewhat humble size belies its Fame which is of global proportions and serves to attract students from all around the world a little over half of the 9,000 students here at postgraduates either doing a masters or research degree I study political economy basically so that's an MSc total program I'm doing BSC in economics and I had the condition of three years i'm studying government in history and I needed a PB to get in it's January AAA to BBB that's a range of grade you need for the different subjects they offer here you

Lecture 13 : Start In Punjabi

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learn Punjabi
A START IN PUNJABI and A REFERENCE GRAMMAR OF PUNJABI were first published in the United States as Hartford Series in Linguistics in 1962. They were subsequently reprinted by the Punjabi University in 1970. The present editions are thoroughly revised and annotated by Professor Mukhtiar Singh Gill.

The Audio version of A START IN PUNJABI has been prepared at the Advanced Centre for the Technical Development of Punjabi Language, Literature and Culture under the supervision of its Director, Professor Gurpreet Singh Lehal and its highly professional staff working in close cooperation with Professor Mukhtiar Singh Gill.

For each example, word or sentence there is a corresponding pronunciation. There are extensive notes on the phonology, morphology and syntax of the Punjabi language. They are especially meant for the English speaking audience with frequent examples from the phonologic and syntactic patterns from Punjabi and English.

This series is also accompanied by twenty-one lessons presented by Professor Harjeet Singh Gill. They cover instructions and illustrations in the phonetic structure of Punjabi : the vowels, the consonants and especially the tones. There are numerous examples in different phonologic and syntactic contexts. There are two specific lessons on Gurmukhi alphabet with corresponding phonetic realisations. After the first ten lessons, each presentation deals with compact interrelated paragraphs. At this advanced stage, the students get demonstrations of syntactic correlations with simultaneous interaction of phonology and grammar. Very often these structures are compared with English and French to show linguistic and cultural differences amongst these languages. This obviously leads to the realisation of the unique linguistic characteristics of the Punjabi language. Legend, Phrase Structure, Gender Number Agreement

A Shady Plot – ep02 – BKP | Class 10 ENGLISH literature CBSE | explantion | by Elsie Brown

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Inside MIT's Nuclear Reactor

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Ever wonder what actually goes on, day-to-day, at a nuclear reactor? Get an insider’s tour of MIT’s!
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one of the highest powered nuclear research reactors in the u.s. exists right here that MIT so what's it like inside what is this okay thanks no problem sir they're all set oh that's my light that I turned on to let everybody know that I'm in the lab okay so what you might not realize is that the reactor has very specialized parts and if something breaks or something needs to be replaced as preventive maintenance we can't just get a catalog and order a new part we have to actually rebuild it from scratch so this is why we need machine shops here on site so this is where you do that yes I got started when I was a freshman in undergrad I was hired as a part-time student operator and I stayed through all my years at MIT and through grad school at MIT and now I work full-time here alright let's get going okay why is there this big imposing door so then containment building is airtight and this way any air that is going to leave the building goes past detectives and filters to make sure that we're not putting radioactive material into the atmosphere and Cambridge so right now we are research reactor so we don't actually generate any electricity we make lots of neutrons which we use for experiments and actually with the second highest power level research reactor on a university campus in the u.s. we have a lot of instrumentation running around us we have some radiation detectors so there's an air monitor here and we also have an area monitor on the wall up there and these help us to know what the radiation level is around us as we work because our body has no way of sensing radiation it's not something that we can detect as human beings so we have to have instrumentation to help us out how much is that what what is the point one me so it says zero point one right now and that's the reading in millirem per hour which is a unit of radiation per unit time and to put things in perspective you get about one milligram per day living in Boston from background radiation from space and from granite rock in the ground we get this thing we're standing 14 feet away from the core of a nuclear and the amount of radiation we're getting is the same as if we were standing on the street in Cambridge Frank how is that possible concrete shielding and I'll show you so this is the outside of the shielding around the reactor core this big cylinder of blue here yeah this light blue cylinder that you see here and it's about five-and-a-half feet thick concrete shielding that's heavy dense concrete so it's got metal punching in it as well as sand and water that makes it better for absorbing radiation so it's not regular yeah it's special concrete nothing is regular in the area no that's where the nuclear reactions are taking place so the fuel is loaded into the reactor core and the uranium-235 atoms are splitting and which releases some neutrons and those get absorbed by other uranium-235 atoms which spin and release more neutrons so all the neutrons that we use come from the core here hey Paul so what's what's the follow-through I was going to load some silicon into our silicon and radiation facility so one of the things that we do here at the reactor is we irradiate silicon to be used as semiconductors so silicon by itself is not a difficult doctor but by radiating it with neutrons in our reactor we can change some of the silicon atoms to phosphorous atoms which is called doping so we dope the silicon material so that it has a distribution of impurities that cause it to become a semiconductor so semiconductors can be used in all kinds of electronic applications but the way that we radiate silicon here means that we can be very precise so the silicon that we produce here ends up in very critical applications such as airplanes and the power grid let's go see the reactor top so this morning we're installing the new salt experiment that we've been working on for several months and this experiment will stay in the core for a thousand hours to be radiated by neutrons let's go this is the place where the tour is normally stopped yes that's right and um you're gonna let me just you so I'll show you what to do you need to need to grab some rubber booties and put them on your shoes and now I step over here yep yep anyone they're not there so we duct-tape our pockets closed on the reactor top area because that way we can't be tempted to put objects in our pockets and then lean over the core and have them fall out no it's very difficult to fish things out of the core and it could damage the fuel which is a risk that we just don't want to take has anything ever fallen into the core have you ever dropped anything I have not dropped anything in the core do you mind if I put this on you know yes so you can take a peek at the car the car is shaped like a hexagon and it's made up of 27 diamond shapes that fit together to make a hexagon and each of those diamond shapes is a fuel element one of those diamonds is going to hold a cylinder which we're using to hold a special salt that could be used in the future to cool down nuclear reactors the reactor is a really good tool for testing materials because the core itself is an extremely harsh environment there's very high levels of radiation and we can heat the experiment to really high temperatures to really stress test the material so we're standing five feet away from an open nuclear reactor core how are we not dead so in the core tank we have 10 feet of water between the top of the fuel and the top of the water level and the purpose of that service is to shield us from radiation when we're working in the core and it also serves as a reservoir for cooling from thousands of around for a second it's amazing why is water so good what is really good at absorbing neutrons success yes we're ready for the next step so the first thing we do is take our gloves off so this is one of our neutron beams that you can use to do experiments outside the reactors the neutrons come from the reactor along this beam line when you place your experiment sample on the beam line and detectors and you can do the experiment here so right now Gordon is explaining to his students how are they going to use the neutron beam for their in lab class for their experiment and so the students can set up their experiment here on the beam line and then they can collect the data that they need completely remotely from their dorm room yeah yeah we have a lot of student participation here at the reactor so what kind of experiments do students do with the new trophy so you can calculate the reactors power level based on the speed that the neutrons are traveling you can figure out how good and material is that absorbing neutrons and you can also figure out the shape of molecules based on the way neutrons bounce off them hey that's pretty awesome all right next so this is Mike and he's one of the experiment is working in the hot box Majorca not so what we're doing here is we're disassembling experiments that have been in the core of the reactor in this shielded box so the hot box is useful for storing and handling materials that have come out of the reactor they need to go in here because they're too radioactive to handle close up but we can handle them inside here because of the lead shielding in the walls how much radiation are we talking here so the radiation levels inside the hot box are about 30,000 times higher than they are out here and so that's why we have samples and the materials that we've taken out of the reactor inside here but we can work on them safely using these so what's that's happening the sample I've got there is a piece of silicon carbide with a chromium layer on the inside and it's a potential replacement for current reactor cladding and so we're testing it to see how well it does under radiation and temperature and conditions typical for a power reactor I have a question for you sir yes you can really know of course I never get to do this out of it actually you know they we've got a little poly vial in there sometimes the trickiest thing is closing the widths on the vials [Laughter] [Applause] [Applause] Tom's making gold radioactive for medicine wait what so we were actually going to be taking some gold pellets and using a rabbit insert them into the reactor into an area with a lot of neutrons and the neutrons will make the gold radioactive so when the sample comes out we can then ship it to a hospital where they can inject them into a tumor in order to cause radiation damage directly to that tumor so they're not real rabbits we have these Polly sample holders where we put the foal directly into so you put the gold in the rabbit and then so the rabbit would go from where we inserted it through this – and into the reactor and then when it's finished it will come down the tube and out into our field at hot cell so when the materials radioactive the radiation is all contained inside of our shielded area to work okay see you Tom let's go to the next stop okay so we're about to enter the control room and the control panel is on the right so please try to keep on the left so I shouldn't push any buttons No hey guys so this is the control room and the most important thing in the control room is the operator who is Sarah right now Sarah is actually a student operator and Paul is the shift supervisor currently so right now they're working on the startup checklist to start the reactor back up Oh weren't you doing something with silicone earlier I was indeed but you finished I finished that and now you're here correct isn't it weird how one person can move from one place to another do you have a favorite button yes the major scram button which I've only ever pressed during testing never actually had two major scram it's one of our emergency shutdown buttons and it automatically drops all the control blades in and it isolates our ventilation in case something were to get out but I just like it because it's the big stereotypical red button in the rear do you know what every single one of all of these buttons do experimental ones I recorded my training because I don't have to run the experiments but all of the regular operations what is high temp d2o reflector cleanup system the reflector system with heavy water has a cleanup loop where it flows through an ion column and if the water gets above 50 degrees it could potentially damage the resin in the ion calm so that alarm will go off to tell you that you need to cool it down or you need to bypass what does DP 330 PS IG me so that's one of our pressure gauges for our heavy water system that's of the D means that tells you the collector system is pressure and then freeze just the number of marking it what's this gauge do this is for auto control so using this gauge here you can set your auto control to tell the reactor this is the power I want to stay at and this gives you the percent deviation so if you're too high or low that needle will tell you you want to keep it at zero what's this knob so we have six different shin blades and you can only move one at a time so this is to select so right now three selected okay you can turn it and you can pick it differently just whichever one you want to move what is this this is the official can console o'clock so your student you said okay what year are you I am a sophomore so you're a sophomore at MIT and you are running a nuclear reactor that's pretty freakin awesome okay so what kind of training do you have to go through to be able to sit at this console so there's a lot of studying through systems manuals technical specifications all the alarms and procedures and then there's hands-on training where you come and you sit training watches and you will perform practice startups supervised by your training supervisor okay so you passed my test but please tell me there's a legit test you also have to pass right flying an examiner an examiner from the NRC and she'll come and she will watch me do a start-up in a shutdown she'll I'll give her a tour around the facility and she'll ask me a bunch of different questions about our systems and then she'll give me a written exam that covers safety procedures radiation protection reactor physics things like that so you have to be prepared in all areas of your training or the so did you pass so I have passed the exam which means I'm licensed by the government to be able to take shifts and be on console by myself to start up the reactor you still need your supervisor in the control room with you but I can perform all the operation duties in here all right thanks guys this is looking to work contamination that someone may have gotten to forward in containment dirty well first it'll tell you where oh so that helps right if it's your left toe or your right thing right hand it's usually pretty little level so to get the contamination off think of it like dust and so we'll use tape will have rifle hand washing and usually it's as simple as something on a lab coat cuff to say that somebody has been working with sample and we'll just take that lab coat and put it in a longer jacilla tea and get it clean this looks like you know that thing from the movie interstellar yes I love it yeah yeah we have to do though I have to get your de scimitar back oh right yes there you go thank you so it's reading still the same it's okay so wait a second we just spent all day inside a nuclear reactor and the radiation dose has not changed at all correct amazing thanks for coming thanks for having us come back anytime Thanks

Electrical experiments with plants that count and communicate | Greg Gage

Views:989095|Rating:4.93|View Time:9:31Minutes|Likes:34434|Dislikes:507
Neuroscientist Greg Gage takes sophisticated equipment used to study the brain out of graduate-level labs and brings them to middle- and high-school classrooms (and, sometimes, to the TED stage.) Prepare to be amazed as he hooks up the Mimosa pudica, a plant whose leaves close when touched, and the Venus flytrap to an EKG to show us how plants use electrical signals to convey information, prompt movement and even count.

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المترجم: Ehab Aboelkhair
المدقّق: Riyad Almubarak أنا عالم أعصاب، والمؤسس المشارك لBackyard Brains، ورسالتنا أن ندرب الجيل القادم
من علماء الأعصاب بأخذ معدات البحث في علم الأعصاب
من مستوى الخريجين وجعلها متاحة للأطفال
في المدارس المتوسطة والثانوية. وعندما ندخل فصلاً دراسياً، فهناك طريقة لجعلهم يندمجون في التفكير
عن الدماغ، الذي هو في غاية التعقيد، أن نسألهم سؤالاً في غاية البساطة
عن علم الأعصاب، وهو: "ما الذي لديه دماغ؟" وعندما نسأل هذا، سيخبرنا الطلاب فوراً أن قطتهم
أو كلبهم لديهم دماغ، ومعظمهم سيقولون أن الفأر
أو حتى حشرة صغيرة لديهم دماغ، ولكن تقريباً لا أحد يقول أن نبتة أو شجرة أو شجيرة لديهم دماغ. لذا فعندما تتابع لأن هذا يمكنه فعلاً
المساعدة قليلاً في وصف كيفية عمل الدماغ في الواقع فتتابع وتقول، "حسناً، ما الذي يحدد كون
الكائنات الحية لديها دماغ أم لا؟" وغالباً ما سيجيبون بتصنيف أن الكائنات التي تتحرك
عادة ما يكون لها أدمغة. وهذا صحيح تماماً. تطور جهازنا العصبي لأنه كهربائي. إنه سريع، حتى نتمكن من الاستجابة
بسرعة للمؤثرات في العالم وأن نتحرك عند الحاجة. ولكن يمكنكم العودة والاستمرار مع طالب، وسؤاله: "حسناً، تعلم، أنت تقول
أن النباتات ليست لديها أدمغة، ولكن النباتات تتحرك". أي شخص قام بزراعة نبتة قد لاحظ أن النبتة ستتحرك وتواجه الشمس. ولكن الطالب سيرد قائلاً:
"ولكن هذه حركة بطيئة. كما تعلم، فهي لا تحتسب.
فقد تكون عملية كيميائية". ولكن ماذا عن النباتات سريعة الحركة؟ حسناً، في عام 1760، قام (آرثر دوبز)،
الحاكم الملكي لولاية كارولاينا الشمالية، باكتشاف مبهر للغاية، ففي المستنقعات خلف منزله، وجد نبتة تنغلق بسرعة في كل مرة تسقط فيها حشرة. وقام بتسمية هذه النبتة
مصيدة فينوس (خناق الذباب)، وخلال عقد من الزمن،
شقت طريقها إلى أوروبا، حيث تمكن تشارلز داروين
العظيم من دراسة هذه النبتة في النهاية، وقد أذهلته تماماً. وسماها أكثر النباتات روعة في العالم. هذه نبتة كانت معجزة تطورية. هذه نبتة تتحرك بسرعة، وهو شي نادر، وهي آكلة لحوم، وهو نادر أيضاً. وهذا في نفس النبتة. ولكنني هنا اليوم لأخبركم أن هذا ليس أروع شيء
بخصوص هذه النبتة. فأروع شيء هو أنها تستطيع العد. ولكي أتمكن من إظهار هذا، فعلينا أن نفهم بعض المصطلحات. لذا فسأقوم بما نفعله
مع التلاميذ في الفصول. سنقوم بتجربة في الفيزيولوجيا الكهربائية، وهي تسجيل لإشارات الجسد الكهربية، سواء التي تأتي من الخلايا العصبية
أو من العضلات. وها أنا أضع بعض الأقطاب الكهربائية
هنا على معصمي. وعندما أوصلهم، سنكون قادرين على رؤية إشارة على الشاشة هنا. وقد تكون هذه الإشارة
مألوفة بالنسبة لكم. وهي تسمى بالEKG،
أو تخطيط كهربائية القلب. وهي تأتي من الخلايا العصبية في قلبي التي تطلق ما يسمى بجهود الفعل، والجهد هو الجهد الكهربائي والفعل
يعني أنه يتحرك بسرعة صعوداً ونزولاً، وهو ما يشغل قلبي، الذي بدوره يتسبب في الإشارات
التي ترونها هنا. لذا أريدكم أن تتذكروا
شكل ما سترونه هنا الآن، لأن هذا سيكون مهماً هذه هي طريقة تشفير الدماغ للمعلومات في صورة جهد فعل. فلننتقل الآن إلى بعض النباتات. سأعرفكم أولاً على الميموسا، لا أعني الشراب،
ولكن الميموسا بوديكا (النبتة الخجولة)، وهي نبتة توجد في أمريكا الوسطى
وأمريكا الجنوبية، ولديها سلوكيات. والسلوك الأول الذي سأريكم هو عندما ألمس الأوراق هنا، سترون أن الأوراق تميل إلى الكرمشة. والسلوك الثاني يظهر، إذا نقرت على الورقة، يبدو أن الفرع بأكمله سيسقط. إذاً فلماذا تفعل هذا؟ إنه شيء ليس معروفاً حقاً للعلم. قد يكون واحد من الأسباب
أنها بهذا تخيف الحشرات، أو أنها تبدو أقل جاذبية للحيوانات العاشبة. ولكن كيف تفعل هذا؟
هذا هو المثير للاهتمام. ويمكننا إجراء تجربة لمعرفة كيف. فما سنقوم بعمله الآن، تماماً مثلما سجلت الجهد الكهربائي لجسدي، سنقوم بتسجيل الجهد الكهربائي
لهذه النبتة هنا، هذه الميموسا. لذا ما سنفعله،
هو أنني قمت بلف سلك حول الجذع، وأين وضعت القطب الأرضي؟ في الأرض. هذه مزحة
مهندسين كهربائيين. لا بأس. (ضحك) حسناً. سوف أبدأ الآن وأنقر على الورقة هنا، وأريدكم أن تتابعوا التسجيل الكهربائي الذي سنراه داخل النبتة. مهلاً. إنه كبير جداَ.
علي تصغيره. حسناً. فما هذا؟ هذا فعل جهد ينشأ داخل النبتة. ولما نشأ؟ لأنها أرادت الحركة. أليس كذلك؟ ولذلك عندما أضرب مستقلات اللمس، أرسلت جهداً كهربائياً على طول الطريق
حتى نهاية الجذع، والذي تسبب في حركتها. وفي أذرعنا، نقوم بتحريك العضلات، ولكن النبتة ليست لديها عضلات. الذي لديها هو الماء داخل الخلايا وعندما يضرب الجهد الكهربائي الخلايا،
تنفتح، وتحرر الماء، مغيرة شكل الخلايا، وتسقط الورقة. حسناً. فها قد رأينا فعل الجهد
وهو يشفر معلومات للحركة. اتفقنا؟ لكن ما الذي يفعله أكثر من ذلك؟ لنكتشف ذلك. سنذهب إلى صديقتنا العزيزة،
مصيدة فينوس هنا، وسنلقي نظرة على ما يحدث داخل الورقة عندما تهبط ذبابة داخلها. لذا سأتظاهر أنني ذبابة الآن. وها هي مصيدة فينوس خاصتي هنا، وداخل الورقة، ستلاحظون أن هناك ثلاث شعيرات هنا،
وهن شعيرات إثارة. وهكذا عندما تهبط ذبابة سألمس واحدة من الشعيرات الآن. مستعدون؟ واحد، اثنان، ثلاثة. ما الذي نحصل عليه؟ نحصل على جهد فعل جميل. وعلى الرغم من ذلك، لم تنغلق مصيدة الذباب. ولكي نفهم لماذا هذا، علينا أن نتعلم أكثر قليلاً
عن سلوك مصيدة الذباب. أولاً هي تحتاج وقتاً طويلاً
لتعيد فتح المصايد، تعرفون، حوالي من 24 إلى 48 ساعة
إذا لم تكن بداخلها ذبابة. فهي تستهلك الكثير من الطاقة. وثانياً، أنها لا تحتاج أن تأكل
كمية كبيرة من الذباب على مدار العام. تحتاج مقدار قبضة فقط. فهي تحصل
على معظم طاقتها من الشمس. فهي تحاول أن تستبدل الذباب
ببعض العناصر الغذائية في التربة ليس إلا. وثالثاً، فهي تفتح وتغلق المصيدة بضع مرات فحسب حتى تموت تلك المصيدة. لذا فهي تريد أن تكون على أتم التأكيد أن هناك وجبة بداخلها
قبل أن تنغلق مصيدة الذباب. إذاً كيف تتأكد من ذلك؟ تقوم بعد الثواني بين مرات اللمس المتتابعة
لتلك الشعيرات. والفكرة أنه ستكون هناك احتمالية عالية، إذا كانت هناك ذبابة بالداخل،
أن الذبابة والشعيرة سيتلامسان، فعندما تحصل على أول جهل فعل، تبدأ بالعد، واحد، اثنان، وإذا وصلت ل20 ولم ينطلق جهد فعل آخر، فلن تنغلق، ولكن إذا نشأ جهد فعل خلال تلك الثواني،
عندها ستنغلق مصيدة الذباب. سنعود إليها الآن. وسألمس مصيدة فينوس مرة أخرى. وأنا أتحدث الآن لأكثر من عشرين ثانية. فلنر ما سيحدث عندما
ألمس الشعيرة مرة ثانية. فما الذي نحصل عليه؟ نحصل على جهد فعل ثان، ولكن مرة أخرى، لا تنغلق الورقة. والآن إذا عدت داخلها وكنت ذبابة تتحرك بالداخل، فسألمس الورقة بضع مرات. سأتابع وأحتك بها بضع مرات. وفوراً، تنغلق مصيدة الذباب. فها نحن نرى مصيدة ذباب تقوم بالحساب. إنها تحدد ما إذا كانت
هناك ذبابة داخل المصيدة، وبعدها تنغلق. فلنعد إلى سؤالنا الأصلي. هل للنباتات أدمغة؟ حسناً، الإجابة هي كلا. ليست هناك أدمغة هنا. لا محاور عصبية، لا خلايا عصبية. ولا يصيبها الإكتئاب. ولا تهتم بنتائج مباريات كرة القدم. وليس لديها مشاكل في تحقيق الذات. ولكن ما لديها،
هو شيء مشابه جداً لما لدينا، وهو القدرة على التواصل باستعمال الكهرباء. الفرق أنها تستعمل
أيونات مختلفة قليلاً عن ما لدينا، ولكنها في الواقع تقوم بنفس الشيء. لأريكم فحسب الطبيعة واسعة الانشار لجهود الفعل هذه، رأيناها في مصيدة فينوس، رأينا جهد فعل في الميموسا. بل ورأينا جهد فعل حتى في إنسان. إنه العملة الموحدة للدماغ. إنه طريقة تمرير كل المعلومات. وهكذا نستطيع استخدام جهود الفعل تلك لنقل معلومات بين أنواع من النباتات. وهذا هو جهاز الاتصال بين النباتات
من أنواع مختلفة خاصتنا، والذي قمنا به هنا،
هو أننا ألفنا تجربة جديدة كلياً فيها سنقوم بتسجيل جهد الفعل
الناشئ من مصيدة فينوس، ثم سنرسله إلى الميموسا الخجولة. وأريدكم أن تتذكروا ما يحدث عندما نلمس أوراق الميموسا. لديها مستقبلات لمس تعيد إرسال تلك المعلومة في صورة جهد فعل. فما الذي سيحدث إذا أخذنا جهد الفعل من مصيدة فينوس وأرسلناه إلى كل جذوع الميموسا؟ يجب أن نكون قادرين على خلق سلوك الميموسا بدون أن نلسمها بأنفسنا أصلاً. وإذا سمحتم لي، سوف أتابع وأثير هذه الميموسا الآن عن طريق لمس شعيرات مصيدة فينوس. فسنقوم بإرسال معلومات اللمس
من نبتة إلى أخرى. وها أنتم ترونها. لذا، (تصفيق) لذا، آمل أنكم تعلمتم اليوم،
شيئاً عن النباتات، وليس هذا فحسب. تعلمتم أن النباتات يمكن أن تسخدم للمساعدة
في تدريس علم الأعصاب. والنهوض بالثورة العصبية. شكراً لكم. (تصفيق)

How to raise successful kids — without over-parenting | Julie Lythcott-Haims

Views:961632|Rating:4.84|View Time:14:17Minutes|Likes:19225|Dislikes:619
By loading kids with high expectations and micromanaging their lives at every turn, parents aren’t actually helping. At least, that’s how Julie Lythcott-Haims sees it. With passion and wry humor, the former Dean of Freshmen at Stanford makes the case for parents to stop defining their children’s success via grades and test scores. Instead, she says, they should focus on providing the oldest idea of all: unconditional love.

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المترجم: Fatima Zahra El Hafa
المدقّق: muhammad Samir لم أخطط لأكون خبيرة في تربية الأبناء. في الواقع، أنا لست مهتمة كثيرًا
بتربية الأبناء، في حد ذاتها. هناك فقط نمط تربية معين في هذه الأيام يفسد الأبناء نوعًا ما، ويعوق فرصهم في التطور ليصبحوا أنفسهم. هناك نمط تربية معين في هذه الأيام يُعرقل الطريق. ما أريدُ قوله هو، أننا ننفق الكثير من الوقت في القلق كثيرًا حول الآباء والأمهات الذين لا يشاركون
بما فيه الكفاية في حياة أبنائهم وتعليمهم أو تربيتهم، ونحن محقون في ذلك. ولكن علي الجانب الأخر من الأمر، هناك أذى كثير يحصل أيضًا، حين يشعر الأهل أن الطفل لا يمكن أن ينجح إلا تحت الحماية والتدخل المستمرين
للأب أو الأم والتخطيط المسبق لأي حدث ،
وتسيير كل لحظة ، وتوجيه الطفل نحو نوعية
صغيرة من الجامعات والمهن. عندما نربي الأطفال بهذه الطريقة، وأنا أقول "نحن"، لأن الرب يعلم،
أنني وخلال تربيتي لولداي المراهقين، كانت لدي أنا أيضًا هذه الميول، ينتهي الأمر بعيش أبنائنا طفولة
مرسومة ومحددة. وهذا هو ما تبدو عليه هذه الطفولة. نحن نحافظ على سلامتهم وأمنهم، ونوفر لهم المأكل والمشرب، وبعدها نريد أن نتأكد أنهم سيذهبون إلى
المدارس المناسبة، والصفوف المناسبة في المدارس المناسبة، وأنهم سيحصلون على الدرجات المناسبة
في الصفوف المناسبة في المدارس المناسبة. ولكن ليس فقط الدرجات والعلامات، بل الأوسمة والجوائز أيضًا والألعاب الرياضية والأنشطة والقيادة. نحن نقول لأبنائنا،
لا تنضموا إلى نادٍ ما فقط، بل أسسوا ناديًا جديدًا،
لأن الجامعات تريد أن ترى ذلك. وضعوا علامة في خانة خدمة المجتمع. وأظهروا للجامعات أنكم تهتمون بالآخرين. (ضحك) ويتم كل هذا في أمل الوصول
إلى درجة من الكمال. نحن نتوقع من أبنائنا أن يقدموا أداء
على مستوى معين من الكمال لم نستطع نحن أنفسنا الوصول إليه، ولأن المطالب كثيرة، فنحن نعتقد، أنه يجب علينا طبعًا كآباء مجادلة كل مدرس ومدير ومدرب وحَكَم ونتصرف مثل بَوَّابً لطفلنا وراعٍ شخصي وسكرتير. وأيضًا مع أطفالنا، أطفالنا الغالين، نقضي الكثير من الوقت في تشجيعهم، والتملق وتقديم المشورة والمساعدة لهم
ومساومتهم ومضايقتهم إذا تطلب الأمر، للتأكد من أنهم لن يفسدوا الأمر، لن يغلقوا الأبواب، ولن يدمروا مستقبلهم، وقبول مأمول للذهاب لنوع معين من الجامعات التي ترفض كل المرشحين تقريبًا. وهذا هو ما يشعر به أي طفل يعيش
هذه الطفولة المرسومة. أولاً وقبل كل شيء، ليس هناك وقت للعب . ليس هناك فراغ في فترة بعد الظهر، لأننا نعتقد أن كل شيء يجب أن يكون مثريًا. كما لو أن كل واجب منزلي،
كل مسابقة، كل نشاط هي لحظة قرار حاسمة بالنسبة
لهذا المستقبل الذي نتصوره لهم، ونحن نعفيهم من المساعدة
في الأعمال المنزلية، ونعفيهم حتى من الحصول على
القدر الكافي من النوم طالما هم في طور إنجاز الأمور
المدرجة على قائمتهم. وخلال هذه الطفولة المرسومة،
نقول أننا نريد فقط أن يكونوا سعداء، ولكن عندما يأتون من المدرسة إلى البيت، فإن أول ما نسأل عنه غالبًا هو واجباتهم ودرجاتهم. وهم يرون على وجوهنا أن موافقتنا، أن حبنا، أن قيمتهم بحد ذاتها، مقرونة بتحصيلهم درجة "ممتاز". ثم نسير بجانبهم ونقَرْقِر كالدجاج بالثناء
مثل مدرب في برنامج استعراضي للكلاب – (ضحك) محاولين إقناعهم بالقفز إلى الأعلى قليلاً
والتحليق أبعد قليلاً، يومًا بعد يوم بعد يوم. وعندما يصلون إلى المرحلة الثانوية، لا يتساءلون: "حسنًا، ما هو المجال
الذي أرغب في دراسته؟ أو النشاط الذي أريد ممارسته؟" إنهم يذهبون إلى المستشارين ويقولون: "ما الذي يجب علي القيام به
للذهاب للجامعة المناسبة؟" وبعد ذلك، عندما تبدأ الدرجات بالانخفاض
في المدرسة الثانوية، ويحصلون على درجة "جيد جدًا"، أو درجة "جيد" لا سمح الله، فإنهم يراسلون أصدقائهم ويسألون: " هل استطاع شخص ما من قبل الذهاب
للجامعة المناسبة بدرجات كهذه؟" وأطفالنا، بغض النظر عن المكان الذي يذهبون إليه
بعد المرحلة الثانوية، يكونون قد استهلكوا أنْفَاسهم بالكامل. يصابون بالهشاشة والإرهاق. ويكبرون قبل الأوان، متمنين أن الأشخاص البالغين في حياتهم
قالوا: "ما قمتَ به كاف، الجهد الذي بذلتَه خلال طفولتك كاف." وهم يُدمَّرون الآن بمعدلات عالية
من القلق والاكتئاب وبعضهم يتساءلون ما إذا كانت هذه الحياة تستحق
كل هذا العناء. نحن، الآباء، نحن الآباء واثقون تمامًا أن
الأمر يستحق كل هذا العناء. إننا نتصرف – كما لو أننا نعتقد حرفيًا أنه لا مستقبل لهم إذا لم يذهبوا لإحدى تلك الجامعات أو المهن التي نريدها لهم. أو ربما، ربما، نحن نخشى فقط من عدم حصولهم على مستقبل يمكننا التباهي به أمام أصدقائنا وفي ملصقات على سياراتنا. بلى. (تصفيق) ولكن إذا نظرتم إلى ما فعلناه، إذا كانت لديكم الشجاعة فعلاً للنظر في ذلك، فسترون أن أبناءنا لا يعتقدون فقط
أن قيمتهم مقرونة بالدرجات والعلامات، ولكننا عندما نعيش فعليًا داخل
عقولهم الغالية الموجودة قيد التطوير طوال الوقت، مثل نسختنا الخاصة
من فيلم "أن تكون جون مالكوفيتش " نحن نرسل لأبنائنا هذه الرسالة: "يا ولد، أنا لا أعتقد أنه يمكنك
فعلاً تحقيق أي من هذا بدوني". ومن خلال مساعدتنا المبالغ فيها وحمايتنا الزائدة وتوجيهنا الزائد
وأخذنا بأيديهم، فنحن نحرم أطفالنا من فرصة بناء
الكفاءة الذاتية، التي هي مبدأ أساسي من النفس البشرية، أهم بكثير من احترام الذات الذي يكسبونه كلما امتدحناهم. إن الكفاءة الذاتية تُبنى عندما يرى المرء
أن أفعاله تؤدي إلى نتائج، ليس – هكذا بالضبط. (تصفيق) ليس تصرفات والدي المرء نيابة عنه، ولكن عندما تؤدي تصرفات المرء بنفسه
إلى نتائج. إذن وببساطة، لكي يكتسب أطفالنا الكفاءة الذاتية،
ويجب عليهم ذلك، فإنه يتعين عليهم القيام بالكثير من
التفكير والتخطيط واتخاذ القرار والعمل والأمل والمواجهة والتجربة والخطأ، والحلم واختبار الحياة بأنفسهم. الآن، هل يعني هذا أن كل الأطفال يعملون بجد ومتحمسون ولا يحتاج أي منهم إلى تدخل الوالدين
أو اهتمامهم في حياتهم، وأن علينا أن ننسحب وندعهم لحالهم؟ . قطعًا لا! (ضحك) ليس هذا ما أقوله. ما أقوله هو، أننا عندما نتعامل مع الرتب
والدرجات والأوسمة والجوائز باعتبارها الهدف من الطفولة، في سبيل تعزيز قبول مأمول للذهاب لنوعية
صغيرة جدًا من الجامعات أو الحصول علي عدد قليل من الوظائف، وهذا تضييق لمفهوم النجاح
بالنسبة لأطفالنا. وعلى الرغم من أننا قد نساعدهم على تحقيق
بعض المكاسب القصيرة الأمد عبر المساعدة المبالغ فيها- مثل حصوهم على درجة أفضل
إذا ساعدناهم في أداء الواجبات، وحصولهم على سيرة ذاتية أطول
لطفولتهم عندما نساعدهم – ما أقوله هو أن كل هذا يأتي
مقابل تكلفة طويلة الأمد لتصورهم عن أنفسهم. يجب علينا أن نكون أقل قلقًا حول المجموعة المحددة من الجامعات التي يمكن لهم التقدم إليها وأكثر قلقًا حول ما إذا كانوا يمتلكون
العادات وطريقة التفكير والمهارات، والعافية، ليكونوا ناجحين أينما ذهبوا. ما أقوله هو، أطفالنا بحاجة إلى أن نكون نحن أقل هوسًا
بالرتب والدرجات وأكثر اهتمامًا بتوفير طفولة تكون أساسًا لنجاحهم ومبنية على أمور مثل الحب والأشغال المنزلية. (ضحك) (تصفيق) هل قلت للتو أشغالاً منزلية؟ هل قلت ذلك؟
نعم. ولكن إليكم السبب. أطول دراسة مستمرة أجريت على البشر تسمى دراسة "هارفارد جرانت". وجدت أن النجاح المهني في الحياة، وهو ما نريده لأبنائنا، أن النجاح المهني في الحياة مرتبط بإنجاز
الأشغال المنزلية خلال الطفولة، وكلما كان ذلك مبكرًا، كان أفضل، أن عقلية المبادرة والمشاركة ، والتفكير الذي يقول:
هناك بعض الأعمال غير السارة، يجب على شخص ما إنجازها،
لم لا أكون أنا ذلك الشخص؟ التفكير الذي يقول: سأقدم جهودي في سبيل المنفعة العامة، هذا هو ما يجعلك متفوقًًا في مكان العمل. الآن، نحن جميعًا نعرف هذا.
أنتم تعرفون هذا. (تصفيق) نحن نعرف هذا جميعًا، ولكن خلال
تلك الطفولة المرسومة، نحن نعفي أطفالنا من القيام
بالأشغال المنزلية، وعندما يصلون مرحلة العمل كشباب لايزالون في انتظار قائمة مهام، ولكنها غير موجودة والأهم من ذلك، يفتقرون
إلى الدافع والغريزة للمبادرة والمشاركة والنظر حولهم والتساؤل:
كيف يمكنني مساعدة زملائي؟ كيف يمكنني توقع ما قد يحتاجه مديري مسبقًا؟ وثاني اكتشاف مهم جدًا
لدراسة "هارفارد جرانت" يقول أن السعادة في الحياة تأتي من الحب، ليس حب العمل، بل حب الأشخاص: أزواجنا وشركاؤنا وأصدقاؤنا وعائلتنا. لذا فالطفولة يجب أن تعلم أطفالنا
كيف يحبون، ولا يمكنهم أن يحبوا الآخرين
إذا لم يحبوا أنفسهم أولاً، ولن يحبوا أنفسهم إذا لم نستطع
أن نقدم لهم حُبًا غير مشروط. (تصفيق) تمامًا. وهكذا، بدلاً من أن نكون مهووسين
بالرتب والدرجات عندما يأتي أبناؤنا الغاليين
من المدرسة إلى البيت، أو نأتي نحن من العمل، فنحن بحاجة للإبتعاد عن التكنولوجيا،
وترك هواتفنا وأن ننظر إلى أعينهم وندعهم يرون الفرح الذي يملأ وجوهنا عندما نرى طفلنا لأول مرة بعد بضع ساعات. ومن ثم يجب علينا أن نسألهم: "كيف كان يومك؟ ما الذي أعجبك اليوم؟" وعندما ترد ابنتك المراهقة ب "الغداء"،
مثلما فعلت ابنتي، وأنا أريد أن أعرف نتيجة
اختبار الرياضيات، لا الغداء، فيجب عليك إظهار اهتمام بالغذاء. وتقول: "ما الرائع في غداء اليوم؟" هم بحاجة إلى معرفة أنهم مهمّون
بالنسبة لنا باعتبارهم بَشرًا، وليس بسبب معدلاتهم. حسنًا، أنتم تفكرون :
أشغال منزلية وحب، هذا يبدو جيدًا، ولكن فلنكن واقعيين. الجامعات تريد رؤية نتائج ودرجات عالية وتقديرات وجوائز،
وهذا صحيح نوعًا ما. المدارس الكبرى تطلب ذلك من شبابنا، ولكن ها هي الأخبار الجيدة. على عكس ما تُروج له تصنيفات الجامعات – (تصفيق) فإنه لا يجب عليك الذهاب
إلى إحدى المدارس الكبرى لكي تكون سعيدًا وناجحًا في الحياة. فالأشخاص السعداء والناجحين
ذهبوا لمدارس حكومية، وكليات صغيرة غير معروفة، ذهبوا إلى كليات المجتمع، ذهبوا إلى جامعة ما وفشلوا بها. (تصفيق) والدليل على ذلك موجود في هذه الغرفة،
في مجتمعاتنا، على أن هذه هي الحقيقة. وإذا ما تمكنا من توسيع رؤيتنا وصرنا مستعدين لأخذ جامعات أخرى
بعين الاعتبار، وتخلينا عن الأنا الخاصة
بنا من المعادلة، فيمكننا أن نقبل ونتقبل هذه الحقيقة
ثم ندرك، أن هذه ليست نهاية العالم إذا لم يذهب أبناؤنا لإحدى تلك
المدارس الكبرى. والأهم من ذلك، إذا لم يعيشوا طفولتهم وفقًا لقائمة
مهام مستبدة فعندما يذهبون إلى الجامعة، كيفما كانت، فسيذهبون إليها بمحض إرادتهم، مدعَّمين برغبتهم، مؤهلين وجاهزين للازدهار هناك. يجب علي أن أعترف لكم بأمر ما. أنا عندي اثنين من الأبناء كما ذكرت،
سوير وأفيري. هما مراهقان. وفي وقت ما، أعتقد أنني كنت أعاملهما نوعًا ما كأشجار بونساي – (ضحك) كنت أنوي تقطيعها وتقليمها بعناية وتشكيلها إلى إنسان مثالي مثاليًا بما يكفي لدخول إحدى الجامعات الأكثر انتقائية. ولكني أدركت، بعدما عملت
مع الآلاف من الأطفال – (ضحك) وتربية ابني وابنتي، أن أطفالي ليسوا أشجار بونساي. بل أزهار برية من جنس ونوع مجهولين – (ضحك) ووظيفتي هي توفير بيئة مغذية، لتقويتهما من خلال الأشغال المنزلية وأحبهما حتى يُحبا الآخرين ويتلقيا الحب والجامعة والتخصص والمهنة، ذلك متروك لهم. وظيفتي ليست جعلهم كما أريد، بل تقديم الدعم لهم حتى يصبحوا
رائعين في أنفسهم. شكرًا. (تصفيق)

Take a Virtual Reality tour of six REAL exoplanets (4K, 360° VR experience) | We The Curious

Views:4022445|Rating:4.78|View Time:11:8Minutes|Likes:58924|Dislikes:2692
What would it be like to stand on the surface of another planet? We teamed up with a group of astrophysicists to create a scientifically accurate, virtual reality tour of six planets discovered outside our solar system. So strap on a VR headset, surf the giant waves of Kepler-62e, and gaze across the lava fields of 55 Cancri e.

Narrated & produced by: Ross Exton

Special thanks to: Dr Nathan Mayne, Professor David Sing, Dr Tom Evans, Elisabeth Matthews, Dr Sasha Hinkley, Jessica Spake, Dr Stefan Lines, Professor Stefan Kraus, Lee Pullen, Anna Henley, Ollie Brown, Bridget Sealey, Josie Forsyth.

The University of Exeter Astrophysics Research Group

Animation: Engine house VFX

Funded by: The University of Exeter

If you wish to enquire about using parts/all of this film then please contact Jay Gasgoigne at the University of Exeter.


We The Curious is an idea and a place for everyone. We’re all about asking questions, being playful and testing things out. An educational charity that removes boundaries around science – connecting art, people, everything, in a united culture of curiosity.

Music: Provided courtesy of YouTube Audio Library

beautiful isn't she the Milky Way galaxy and to think each one of those hundred billion stars has its own planets its own strange worlds imagine what it would be like to visit some of those exoplanets beyond our own little solar system well today you don't have to imagine because I'm going to take you on a tour of six real exoplanets what you're about to see is based on the latest scientific research and as we travel across the cosmos will hear astrophysicists from the University of Exeter tell us about their search for planets beyond our solar system so if you want to experience what it might be like to stand on another planet I highly recommend strapping on a VR headset and a pair of headphones to feel truly immersed feel free to pause the video here whilst you get what you need to start your journey okay are you ready let's go I'm studying observations of debris disks and trying to find debris disks and giant planets so the planets will form over maybe four or five million years as the star form so the star forms out of a massive cloud of dust and gas and that collapses down and the center of that will fall inwards and become a star but then there'll be a whole cloud of dust and gas and stuff left and that kind of collapses down into a disk it's just made out of kind of the leftovers from the star formation and then that disk the individual bits of dust will collide to each other and they can sometimes stick together we don't really understand that yet sometimes they stick and sometimes they bounce off and no one really knows how they can stick together enough to start to form a planet but then as soon as you have a big core we call it a planetesimals so it's maybe ten kilometers across that's big enough that it's gravity starts to scoop up all of the rest of the nearby stuff and then it kind of slowly picks up more and more bits of dust and gas and they fall down onto the surface and eventually it grows into something like Jupiter or even bigger than Jupiter you [Laughter] professor David sang and I study transiting exoplanets and their atmospheres well hot Jupiters our gas giant exoplanets but they overran much much closer to its star than Jupiter does to our own Sun and crack the orbits so close that the dayside of the planets are heated up to thousands of degrees Kelvin and because they're so hot a lot of the atmosphere around the planet actually evaporates off sort of like when a comet gets too close to the Sun you see a lot of evaporation of the comet happen a similar process happens for these planets they orbit so close a lot of the atmosphere is being blown off because these planets are so close we expect them to be tidally locked which means the same part of the planet will always face the Sun and what that does is set up a very large day/night contrast in temperature it's very hot on the day side and it'll be quite a bit colder on the night side and this will in turn create large-scale weather patterns around the planet this planet is so close that the tidal gravity is starting to distort the planet itself if this particular planet was any closer it could actually break apart but what might it look like inside the atmosphere of one of these extreme gas giant exoplanets let's find out my name is Steph lights I'm an EXO mythologist which is someone who studies clouds on extrasolar planets so what we're looking at is planet the Cyrus otherwise known as hd2 and I four five eight B and these are extremely strong winds going from the west to the east of the planet from the date of the night side the wind speeds are reaching about five kilometers per second which is about ten times faster than concorde Osiris has a temperature of around a thousand degrees centigrade with these temperature ranges we're not really looking at water clamps like we have here on earth but at these much higher temperatures we have the sort of evaporation and condensation cycle of things like iron and silicates so these planets might actually have molten iron rain and silicon or glass rain which is incredible because with these wind speeds of five kilometers per second you're effectively going to be lacerated by this plan strain and molten iron so these aren't particularly great places to visit my name is Nathan me and I study the atmospheres of planets we've discovered around distant stars our next destination is the surface of a water world this is a super earth as it's called in our own solar system we have no planets which exist in the size range between Earth and Neptune but actually as we observe off into the galaxy we find this is one of the most common form of planets we think that many of these have kind of rocky cores at terrestrial planets essentially but they're likely to have a huge ocean now their super earth they're much larger than the earth they might have much stronger gravity and they probably have much thicker atmospheres that means any land features that are on these planets and in rocky features are going to be weathered and suppressed and effectively destroyed you can see there the surface is being distorted by huge waves as many reasons that could cause these ways you have an ocean which is not interrupted by land masses so many of these planets we expect could have moons or multiple moons even which create the same tidal effects that their own moon causes in our oceans on earth additionally actually many of these objects might be undergoing significant tectonic activity beneath the surface of the ocean and these waves have no landmass to crash into so they really can build to quite substantial sizes our next destination is the surface of 55 Cancri E this planet orbits so close to a central star it's incredibly hot we think temperatures of a few thousand Kelvin or few thousand degrees we know from how much this planet wobbles its star used to the gravitational interaction that this planet is about eight times the mass of the earth and we also know from it's sort of transit when it eclipses the central star that it's probably about twice the diameter of Earth so this planet is incredibly hot and has a very strong gravitational field so what you can see is a molten lava field underneath you where the surface has been disrupted and melted and much of that material could potentially be lofted into the atmosphere and what you end up with is a very suit an atmosphere full of particulate matter molten rock and condensing rock and raining for silica particles and you're going to have huge amounts of charged material flowing in the atmosphere and that will lead us to have significant on the storms so effectively this is a pretty nasty place probably as close to Dante's Inferno as you can imagine with a molten lava surface raining block and constant planet-wide my name is Jessica speak and I'm interested in studying exoplanet atmospheres toppest 1e is a fascinating system it was a wonderful surprise to find seven Feli earth sized planets so closely spaced together around this tiny star the star is actually about the size of Jupiter it's really like a solar system in miniature so here you can see the stars a lot cooler redder and smaller and you can see actually looks very big in the sky here that's not because the star is bigger that's because the planet is a lot closer to that star then we are to the Sun so these planets can be very close in and still be kind of about the same temperature as earth we have discovered over 3,000 exoplanets but we've only searched less than one millionth of a percent of our galaxy there are billions more worlds out there for us to find in the Milky Way and billions more galaxies beyond our own each new planet we discover changes how we view the universe and our place within it but so far we've only found one planet earth thank you to everyone who helped to make this video possible if you enjoyed it please share subscribe and check out our previous videos thanks for watching you

The Scientific Method (In Our Time)

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Melvyn Bragg and his guests discuss the evolution of the Scientific Method, the systematic and analytical approach to scientific thought. In 1620 the great philosopher and scientist Francis Bacon published the Novum Organum, a work outlining a new system of thought which he believed should inform all enquiry into the laws of nature. Philosophers before him had given their attention to the reasoning that underlies scientific enquiry; but Bacon’s emphasis on observation and experience is often seen today as giving rise to a new phenomenon: the scientific method.The scientific method, and the logical processes on which it is based, became a topic of intense debate in the seventeenth century, and thinkers including Isaac Newton, Thomas Huxley and Karl Popper all made important contributions. Some of the greatest discoveries of the modern age were informed by their work, although even today the term ‘scientific method’ remains difficult to define.With: Simon SchafferProfessor of the History of Science at the University of CambridgeJohn WorrallProfessor of the Philosophy of Science at the London School of Economics and Political ScienceMichela MassimiSenior Lecturer in the Philosophy of Science at University College London.Producer: Thomas Morris.

this is the BBC this podcast is supported by advertising outside the UK thanks for downloading the in our time podcast for more details about in our time and for our Terms of Use please go to BBC co uk in 1620 the Lord Chancellor England was the distinguished scholar Lord very l'm he was not just a lawyer born Francis Bacon he was also a philosopher and scientist and that year he published the book that has come to be seen as his masterpiece the Novum organum proposes a new approach to the investigation of the laws of nature a scientific method based on experience and observation my method wrote bacon though hard to practice is easy to explain I open and lay out a new and certain pass for the mind to proceed in starting directly from the simple sensuous perception Bacon's new and certain path is often seen as the beginning of the modern scientific method a set of rules guiding scientific inquiry which have been the subject of intense debate over the intervening 500 years some scholars have seen the scientific method as an essential part of modern scholarship others like the 19th century biologist Thomas Huxley regarded as an extension of common-sense with me to discuss the scientific method our Simon Schaffer professor of the history of science at the University of Cambridge John Worrell professor of the philosophy of science at the London School of Economics a Michaela masse me selector senior lecturer of the philosophy of science at University College London Simon Schaffer would you begin by giving us a slightly more precise idea of what is meant by the phrase scientific method well we would like our stories about the world to be true and as simple as they possibly can be and to have as large an extent as possible to be maybe even universal but the world as finance ministers for example keep on discovering is messy and complicated and hard to explain or predict and scientific method has come to be seen as a way of reconciling those two our stories about the world with the way the world works we'd like there perhaps to be a series of methods or recipes or rules that would as far as possible guarantee that our accounts of the world are what we want them to be these rules might include principles of observation experiment reasoning they're also very often going to specify who we might trust to produce such stories and indeed where they might be what kinds of places what kinds of tools they might use so scientific method in its widest sense is I think an essential part of perhaps a human desire to understand the way in which the world around us works where do we look for the first examples of the scientific method what else would we look where else we'll be presumably all great literate cultures have had these concerns with adequate accounts of the world and people and methods in which trust should be vested for the Western tradition the tradition to which Francis Bacon belongs one looks back to the Greeks to Plato and Aristotle to the transmission of their debates through Islamic and Latin commentaries in the Middle Ages Plato proposes a rather pithy version of the problem of method that if we're engaged in an inquiry says Plato and we already know the topic of inquiry then the inquiry is pointless and if we don't know the point of inquiry then the inquiry is useless to which Aristotle develops a very powerful answer which is presumably observing the world would give us an account of what problems there are that inquiry might address and for Aristotle there had always been these two kinds of issues facts things that happen in the world we'd like to know why we search for causes and things we'd like to know what there is in the world and we'd like to know their essences and there are methods that Aristotle and his commentators discuss which might allow us to do that now for Aristotle and for the great medieval tradition there was a model of how that kind of reasoning might proceed and that model came from mathematics and a lot of the Western tradition prior to bacon had focused on exactly how mathematical models of reasoning and natural philosophical models of reasoning that's to say reasoning about what there is in the world could possibly relate to each other and it's in that debate I think that it's interesting to put Bacon's intervention given that mathematics through Euclid was thought to be an instance of perfect truth yes if the premises of a mathematical demonstration are true and the demonstration is logically adequate then its consequences are true as we know and John Worrell Aristotle flowed through translated developed in the Arabic world into their own essence in Western Europe and so we're gonna move on just as swiftly as I've moved on but decided a method relies heavily on reasoning and scientists have adopted one of two or even three approaches can you tell us about the inductive method I think it's probably better if we start with deduction and then compare it with induction if you don't mind I don't mind just switch the question so question four becomes question okay yes thank you so in a deduction as Simon just mentions above methods of inference involves starting with certain premises and inferring certain conclusions from them in a deduction or deductively valid inference the conclusion is completely guaranteed to be true if the premises are can you give us an example so the old and famous example that people use all the time you know the mentoree logic is all men are mortal Socrates is a man therefore Socrates is mortal if it's true that all men are mortal and that Socrates is a man that of course it must be true that Socrates is mortal maybe some of his young followers would like to believe that Socrates was immortal but if they accepted that he was only a man and that all men are mortal they because in all consistency could not accept that so in a in a deduction really we're teasing out the consequences of what are already in the premises the process may surprise us but we're basically only going we're getting out of the premises what's already in so can we just dig in there a little bit more more I got plenty of time you know can you give us some more instances of these are sort of having an idea having a notion and then trying to prove it is that too basic not it how you get your starting point isn't it it's another matter but the the the the we started mathematics with certain axioms we can talk about how to arrive at those actions what we started nuclear gives us certain axioms for simple relationships between points and lines and spaces and planes and so on and then we in mathematics deduce from those axioms in in electable consequences like of interesting kind like the sum of all the internal angles of any triangle add up to a hundred and eighty degrees the main role of deduction in science is in the testing process where we take a theory there's a whole story to be told obviously and how we arrive at interesting theories but let's put that to one side we've arrived at some theory and we want to test it and we test it by deducing from it in this ineluctable sense often very surprisingly certain consequences are from it together with some background assumptions and extra principles but fundamentally from the theory so for example for Einstein's general theory of relativity you can deduce that if you look at the motion of mercury over time you'll see that the point where it reaches its closest point to the Sun it so called perihelion moves in a certain distinctive way and that turns out to be true this consequence of Einstein it has to be true if Einstein's theory is true and it turns out that it is again you can deduce some isolated general theory of relativity that two stars that appear to be a different distance apart in the night sky will appear to be a difference lightly different distance apart in the daytime sky when the sun's around now of course that's not not normally possible to test what you can test it in a solar eclipse which Eddington did and again what I had to be true at the empirically checkable level so you can't check Einstein's general theory litter directly can't look at speck curved space-time everything you have to deduce consequence for me that you can't share but again turned out to be true of course had any of them turned out to be false then by the flip side of any deduction if the premises are true the conclusion got to be true if the conclusion was actually false then something in the premises has to be false can we move to induction now okay what inductions much trickier and more controversial issue what you're looking for in an inductive inference is to do something that you're you cannot by definition doing a deductive inference namely become entitled to a conclusion that goes beyond the premises that tells you something more than is actually implicit in the premises so give us an example yeah whenever you go from any statement about or set of statements about the past or about so for tested cases to a generalization but in that covers not just past cases but future cases or contested cases then you're making an inductive inference so the classic bill I think in science and representative cases so-called simple enumerative induction one so 18th century Europeans saw thousands and thousands of swans all of which were white and they were tempted to infer that all swans are white well of course this may be a psychologically compelling inference have you seen enough swans but it's can't by definition be deductive because Captain Cook discovered on behalf of the Europeans of course the Aborigines knew it already when he landed in Australia that not all swans are white so the premises about the observations that Europeans have made were true but the conclusion was false but I think in general there are many cases where in science we do want to go beyond what we strictly know so for example if a theory has been confirmed enough as the general theory of relativity has we're inclined to say well it must be true must have be at least approximately true at least they've latched on to the way things are in the world and therefore to rationalize applications in future cases well then we're going from past tests to the future and of course there's a big big issue about what the justification for that sort of inductive inference is michaela that madami some people suggest that the starting point of the modern scientific method was help how I started this program with them Francis Bacon's work Novum organum why was that so important Francis Bacon was probably really one of the first philosophers in that crucial period of a transition from the Renaissance to the early modern period the broader text about the scientific method so it was one of the very first philosophers that very expressly thought that there is a method in science and he laid out what the method is and as you have already anticipated Bacon identified the method of science with induction with inductive method which was bound to remain very influential throughout the history and philosophy of science for centuries to come the inductive method michaela could you give some vivid instances doesn't think it does and his book was called the knot the new organ on the novel Morgan on in in Latin and was part of a much bigger project that bacon head at the time called the insta rat samanya which remain largely incomplete bacon wasn't just the philosopher he was as you said the politician eventually Lord Chancellor it was also an experimenter so it's against the background of the emerging experimental sciences that Bacon's reflection on on the method really took place and I think we have to bear in mind something really important about the cultural context in which is reflection on the matter that took place Bacon didn't think that science was a first and foremost pure theoretical formal knowledge he believed that science was also applied science experimental sciences it was a himself an experimenter he died I think of pneumonia by playing with high so doing experiment with Heights and of course when we say experimental sciences at the time we are at the beginning of the 17th century there was a very thin line between experimental sciences and alchemy and magic so it's very complexed like conflict in the sense that is experimenting his idea of observational experiment became fundamental to a group of very influential men a few years later who took him as a tutorial if a girl there have been a few decades dead and they became their the broth society so he's a observational experiment was a key in the nerve of Morgana and it became key to an extremely intelligent group of men exactly he called the book a new organ on because he was reacting against Aristotle Organon so I thought that we shouldn't start with first principle in deducing from first principle of our knowledge but as you said we should start with observation and daytime from data try to arrive at universal laws a universal generalization so for example a classical example that you find is the following if you want to investigate what's the nature of what we will now call thermal energy or heat you would proceed in the following way you would compile a series of tables what he called tables of instances a table of presents table of absence and table of degrees so in the table of our presence you would enlist all phenomena in which heat seems to be present say the Sun volcanic lava liquid boil and then you would have a table of absence where you would have all the phenomena that seemed to have some relation with heat effectively there is no clear sign of it and then you would have a table of degrees where he would rank those phenomena according to the higher or lower degrees of heat present in them and by comparing in a stepwise process two different tables you would arrive to the conclusion that heat is an expansive motion of the parts of the bodies which is in surprising similarity with what the much later kinetic theory would say about thermal energy and another founder of modern modern methods was Galileo can you briefly tell us what he brought to the table yes Galileo well obviously key figure of the Scientific Revolution of the time a contrast we bake on Galileo didn't didn't write a book on the scientific method so is reflection on the main are part and parcel of a scientific research and scientific endeavor Galileo mark a turning point I think in the history of the scientific method because for the first time science was no longer an enterprise of coming up with hypotheses that can save the phenomenal save the appearances but he was the first time the first scientist to say that the aim of science is to tell us the truth about nature which is reason why the old Galilei affair with the religious authority began so for instance the French physicist and philosopher pierre duhem in a 1908 wrote a beautiful book called to save the phenomena where he gives his own a reconstruction of the history of scientific method from ancient Greek science to the Middle Ages and he clearly said that Galileo was the person that put to an end the method of the astronomer that had been so overwhelming for century and astronomer consists in coming up with a hypothesis conjectures about planetary motion testing your hypotheses but never expecting your hypotheses to tell you really the truth about the oven it's only weakly now that we have dead and once we have that picture in place then the math would become essential because we want to know what what rules are gonna lead us for the truth my connection with sorry to interrupt and the connection is bacon is that his observation again Sam Java can you take us on to Isaac Newton he gave a lot of thought to this subject and in cranky beyond 1687 he includes four rules of scientific reasoning is he gathering together Bacon and Galileo and developing it are we on a line here yes I think to a large extent that's exactly what Newton was after there are a couple of features of the rules of reasoning that Newton develops in the 1680s which I think are fascinating one is the very first set of rules that Newton ever wrote down for reasoning are not about natural philosophy but about how to make sense of the apocalypse so in the early 1670s Newton was very keen on making sense of the revelation of sin John and he wrote down a long series of rules for a book he was writing but never completely published on how to make sense of a very complicated set of arguments that he found in this piece of revelation I think it's very interesting that Newton then shifts those rules to natural philosophy within natural philosophy the four rules set out a kind of program Newton began with nine and then in subsequent editions of Principia changed them to three and then four and his disciples and admirers treated these four rules as rather sacred read the first two rules set out an aim for natural philosophy which is that it must be about causes and that these causes must be true and that for the same effects we should use the same causes the third rule perhaps the most complicated rule is that there will be some properties of the world that we think are universal in the world and those will be properties but as he says don't suffer in tension or remission that's to say they don't roughly speaking suffer changes of intensity like the fact that bodies have shape that they move these are universal properties of bodies whatsoever the final rule is Newton's account of induction that we must derive our principles he says from as wide a possible induction as possible and we should not tolerate hypotheses which are simply concocted to explain away phenomena and principles that we've derived by induction these are ambitious rules Newton doesn't always obey his own rules and he doesn't use them explicitly very often but because of the triumph of Newtonian natural philosophy mathematics and optics those rules become something of a program in the Enlightenment young moral can we take this on as if all sorts of ideas are coming in and I think the supplementary and I almost contradictory in power but let's pretend as it were significant relations there's a driving argument and the next edge I want to get to is the 19th century the debate between John Stuart Mill and William Jewell on the subject of scientific reasoning can you give us an idea of what that debate was about and why it's so important mm-hmm well it's very wide-ranging debate actually uncovers interestingly not only scientific how to arrive at scientific truths but also to arrive at moral truths political choosers on in less interesting the interconnected you might think those were three quite separate things but familiar Huell they were interconnected even but even if we narrowly focus on science they were there differences were wide-ranging and rather complex it like I think just for the present Pope you just pick on what I think is the most fundamental and it touches on what we've talked about before namely at John Stuart Mill without of course being a naive empiricist who believed that you could derive all scientific theories completely from the data from observational and empirical data it was much closer to that end of the empirical spectrum of the epistemological spectrum I beg your pardon there was Huell conversely Hill without quite believing the sort of naive intuitionist or rationalist view that somehow the human mind could capture reality independently of any observation was much closer to that end of the spectrum and most of their detailed differences were because they would came from those two separate viewpoints would it be too simplistic to say it's in a way can be described as a contact between the the power observation and the power of inspiration yes I mean he'll for example believed that you couldn't that that and I think he was right that observation could not be done in a way that was revealing attenuate without bringing in ideas he talked about the idea laid in this of observation so not meaning of course that you can see what you what you like in the world depending on what your theoretical conceptions are but the way that you would group phenomena together so you know every two events strictly speaking a distinct so what but we nonetheless the science regard them often as a repetition of the quote same event well that could only be under a description that comes from that comes from some set of ideas that we have about the world so the idea that we could somehow start with bear observation was it was incorrect food for you and there I think he was right on the other hand he does go too far for me towards the intuitionist end of the spectrum by claiming that certain principles for example Newton's first law of motion that says that everybody continues in its state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless acted on by some external force although you actually need observation to to discover it once you discover it you see that it's an a priori truth it's true independently of experience our reason could have in some weird sense of could I think have known that in advance of any observation and there I think he's giving too much weight to inspiration as you will put it on an intuition on the power of the natural light of reason and too little too observation one of the key questions of the that debate that John's been talking about concerned the nature of scientific hypotheses hypotheses can you tell us about first of all water what do you think our hypotheses is and why is it significant scientific apotheosis is a proposition an assertion and that is taken as the starting point of a reasoning and which is what was truth has not been established so if you wanted that supposition it's a conjecture and in the history of the scientific method we have already mentioned cases of people like Newton who absolutely rejected the idea that we start with hypotheses in our scientific procedure but we had also other philosophers precisely people like William Yule that defended a very sophisticated form of hypothetical deductive ISM John mentioned this already at the beginning of this program so this is the view that says really signs starts with hypotheses no matter how we get those hypotheses we can get them by experience by analogous with other cases no matter how we get them and we then that try to deduce empirical consequences from your hypothesis that we can test them now the new thing about you well I think and the reason why they you will Mele debate is very interesting for this story of the method is that you will introduce the series of criteria for testing scientific hypotheses one of those criteria is novelty so a good hypothesis should be able to predict novel phenomena shouldn't just accommodate the phenomena for which it was originally introduced the other criterion is that the apotheca should be able to explain a variety of phenomena not just a one kind of phenomenon and the third criterion is coherence so we expect the hypothesis to be part of a growing scientific theory where eventually their policies will would be part of a simple unified and quieren body of knowledge and for instance the old debate that took place in the 1840s between a ul and Mill on whether we should really go for induction as the method of science or we should go for hypothetical deduction was very relevant for the sciences of the time it was very relevant for assessing the validity of the wave theory of light in the first half of the 19th century people believed that light was a wave in a medium called the ether and you will thought that he is method the hypothetical deductive method clearly vindicated the validity of the wave theory of light because the theory was able to predict a novel phenomena so it was a hypothesis okay it's a hypothesis that light is a wave in a medium like the ether but it's able to predict a normal phenomena there was this famous experiment that was around in the 1820s called the Poisson experiment was able to explain the different kinds of phenomena was originally devised to explain interference and diffraction but then was able to explain also polarization and was part of an increasing growing and body of knowledge from Kashi Torah go to Bo and support and another novelty that he'll introduce was the word scientist in 1832 but unto Charles Darwin Simon shop in 1859 on the Origin of Species now why did that seem to pose a problem for people those who are interested in the scientific method it certainly did I mean Darwin's project to his more expert Victorian readers seemed to many of them either to have violated the principles of scientific method or to be using methods with which they were completely unfamiliar so both Huell and Mill reacted quite directly to Darwin's work Darwin's book when it came out was treated by many of the leaders of Victorian sciences horror so Adam Sedgwick one of the most important geologists at the time said that Darwin's reasoning was like a pyramid upside down from one geometrical point Darwin had seemed to be able to construct an entire account of evolution and natural selection and Sedgwick thought that was horrific for Huell the huge methodological problem with Darwin's story is that we do not now see evolution happening so the pressure on Darwin from Huell was to show the processes he was describing actually happening around us Mill on the other hand notoriously while in many ways rather in favor of Darwin's Enterprise offers him a poisoned chalice and says Darwin's theory is a magnificent hypothesis mr. Darwin does not think that it's yet proved and of course Darwin thought exactly that it had been proved and then it was much more than a hypothesis and it was much more than a hypothesis because it hadn't simply been concocted on the basis of the phenomena that it was also designed to explain so Darwin's program has huge effects on science on culture on religion and on politics but one of its most interesting effects but perhaps is on what counts as an adequate method in the sciences and that I and that debate I think stays live right down to the present beyond world can we talk I move forward at nine Stein and the is and he's the effect he had on the notion of the scientific method particularly in relationship to sort of God like if I might use that word position that Newton's theory assert assume Newton and his theories had assumed yeah well I think the the impact of both the Einsteinian theory and quantum mechanics the principle one was that prior to the twentieth the turn of the twentieth century to a good approximation at least people in regard cite Sciences whatever them at finicky problems there maybe with induction and so on that philosophers can point out science has revealed the truth nature and nature's laws lay hidden Knight and God said Let Newton be and always light and that stuff so Newton Newton's theory of dynamics and gravitation was true science then built on this in a cumulative way kinetic theory of heat uses Newton's theory at fundamental fundamentals and develops it Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism extends physics without needing any correction from from anything that went before so there was this cumulative view of you know whatever the philosophical issues about justifying it science had developed truth and it had produced more and more truths as history science had progressed but then everybody saw that Einstein's theory was revolutionary at least in certain ways I mean after all Newton's theory says that there's actions a distance in the form of gravity it says that space is absolute and infinite it says that time is absolute so the two events either are simultaneous or they aren't and dollar Einstein I beg your pardon contradicts directly all of those things there's no actually the distance space is finite though unbounded to events can be simultaneous in one frame of reference and not in another and then when I scream simultaneous in time andand suppose they they can be simultaneous with respect to one observer and an entirely legitimate other observer can just see that they're not simultaneous but in his frame of reference so the the the issue that really raised together with quantum mechanics which is in deterministic introduces genuine probabilities into the world whereas previous physics had been deterministic give me a complete description of the state at any given time the laws of physics will dictate exactly what which state the system will be in later that doesn't happen in quantum mechanics made people face up to the fal ability of science at least at the highest theoretical levels and I think that posed the central question for science studies in the 20th and 21st centuries name namely how to howeve at all to reconcile the the traditional claim that science has special epistemic warrant with its demonstrated flammability at the highest theoretical levels demonstrated from within science itself by the relativistic and quantum revolutions Michaela I don't mess me did Karl Popper in 1934 in his book the logic of scientific Discoverer did he take on that argument yes popper in a way summarizes all these strands that we have already mentioned so far from from really baked on a nude on and so forth and that took the debate on the scientific method real in a completely different direction because for the first time popper realized that we cannot take observation and experiments as the basis of the scientific method observations and experiments are always what he called the theory laid and the camera is part and parcel of our scientific theory so and he suggested that a better way of looking at the method of science is not to go from observation and experiment by induction to universal generalization but instead to replace induction with a new criterion which he called falsification falsification yes so the key idea is the following no matter are many positive instances we find other policies their policies may still turn out to be wrong tomorrow so we can accumulate as many example as we like white swans the chances are we go to Australia tomorrow we find a Black Swan that falsify our hypothesis so popper thought that a better a more secured way of proceeding in science would be to look for that single country stance that could falsify hypotheses so it's starting point is again is a form of a political deductive ISM a kind of modern version sophisticated version of you once mentioned we start with hypotheses we start with both conjectures and then we try to test those conjecture as severely as we can we try to look for potential falsifiers of the theory statements that if proved true could falsify your theory and he thought that this was a much more secured matter than the other method I started with observation and preceded by induction samachar what influenced it and what infested poppers work have on the thinking of philosophers and scientists about the scientific method I think popper is to reveal my prejudice surprisingly influential he won a fellowship of the Royal Society he is much discussed was much discussed from the 1950s onwards in this country where he came just after the Second World War and I think poppers project raised two absolutely fascinating questions both of which we've already discussed one is um if the aim is strenuously to try to falsify one's theories what should the attitude to the theories one believes in in fact be is it that they've so far survived appalling tests can we say that they're true that's a very big question that's that that's the question as John said earlier raised by the apparent defeat of Newtonian mechanics by Einstein and a second question which is is the function of method to describe the way very good science proceeds or to recommend how there good science should proceed good example it's not at all clear that scientists in fact whether in the past or in the present set out strenuously to falsify their favourite theories maybe they should but many of them don't popper makes an important distinction between science and pseudoscience is it possible for you briefly to say what distinction that was and how important it was sure the basically it's that scientific theories are falsifiable though there are consequences that they have deductive consequences that they have that may turn out to be false pseudo scientific theories I theory that claims to be scientific but isn't really he's not truly falsifiable the main targets he had in mind as pseudo scientific theories were Marx Marx's theory of history and Freud's theory of the psyche both of which he felt could accommodate any phenomenon and therefore were strictly speaking unfalsifiable almost because of being unfalsifiable or untrue that's an interesting question they weren't right they weren't rationally believable whether whether they're true or not is the question that you would only society at the pearly gates Vegas but the the I think the the easiest thing is to take a better example maybe scientific creationism the theory that the world was created in 4004 BC it looks like it's in trouble with the existence of fossils and the existence of all sorts of evidence from carbon dating and other sources that the universe is a lot older than 6,000 years philip Gauss in this wonderful book called omphalos which is Greek for navel and just focused on the issue of why Adam had a navel given that editor came up with the obvious solution that God created the world with lots and lots of apparent fossils and lots and lots of apparently aged things in there right from the conceptual well you can see that if you allow yourself that sort of ad hoc maneuver within a theoretical framework then it is genuinely immune to any to any testing and I think rightly characteristic Erik tries the pseudo scientific well in this in Britain brief history of method Lalah in 1962 we have Thomas Kuhn offers a new picture because the scientific method keeps changing we have to keep saying that this is and they're very disputes about which is a scientific method whether it is a scientific method whether it is just an extension of common sense therefore what is common sense and so it goes so we're following one line but there are many unfollowed lines for programs to do in years to come anyway what did Kuhn bring bring to the bring to the feast and with Kuhn philosophers of science stop thinking that science was some sort of accumulation of theories which are more and more likely to be true you see the relevance of the scientific method emerged as I said with Galileo in the history of science when for the first time in Galileo there to say that the goal of physics is to give us the true story about the oven now when Kuhn came along in 1962 with the structure of scientific revolution and portrayed a completely new picture of science that said science goes through cycles periods of what he called normal science crisis and scientific revolutions so you have a series of paradigms they alternate we went from the Ptolemaic paradigm to the Copernican paradigm from the Newtonian mechanics to Einstein relativity theory but it's not the case that those paradigms are more and more likely to be true it's not the case that Copernicus is more likely to be true than Ptolemy or the Einstein is more likely to be true the Newton once that picture is gone of course also some implication arise for the scientific method which doesn't mean that Cunha dismissed the method II think the methodology is an essential part of a paradigm so the method become internal to each of those different scientific paradigms so consulted during periods of Norma's what he called normal science periods extends over centuries students learn say Newtonian mechanics over Newton's Principia and they learn how to solve the standard problem using a standard set of solution so they they have a method that method is part and parcel of the Newtonian paradigm but is not the matter that is gonna give us the ultimate truth about about the world so to summarize Simon's where are we now I think the question of whether there is a single scientific method is still extraordinarily controversial I mean there is an enormous amount of evidence that different Sciences use different methods and maybe the project to find a single scientific method that would embrace all the sciences might not be the best way to go furthermore the ever more pressing armed presence of the sciences in public life in public debate in questions of politics welfare economy and progress seems to me to make questions of what the appropriate methods are and where trust and authorities should be vested perhaps some of the most important questions in public life at the moment so over the millennia that we've discussed in this program the question of how we make stories about the world that compel seemed to me those issues remain absolutely crucial for us and finally John Warren yeah well I Simon and I would have lots to disagree about and also Michaela I think that one can restore a view of science as accumulating truths or approximate truths at any rate and I think that the question of whether there's one scientific method depends on how specific you want to be I think at roots you know that we somehow or other get two hypotheses and test them is still true and that of course the way that we do that we may learn how to do that better and better as science itself progresses thank you very much John Worrell Simon Schaffer and Michaela Massey me next week we'll be discussing something written 1,800 years ago the Kama Sutra thanks for listening if you've enjoyed this BBC podcast why not try others such as the forum the discussion programme about global ideas to find out more visit BBC World Service comm slash forum

CBSE Class 2 Science : Uses of Plants | Class 2 Science CBSE School Syllabus Videos | NCERT

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Please watch: “How to Set Time Table | Live Videos | NCERT | CBSE | Class 5 to 10 | For All Students”


Pebbles presents CBSE Class 2 Science School Syllabus Training Videos.

The topics are explained by a Teacher with the help of various teachings aids such as Live Teacher Explanation, Explanation with the help of Chalk & Board, Day to Day things & Computer Graphics.

Every section is followed by an activity which will keep the kids attracted and help them learn the topics better.

CBSE Class 2 Science (Environmental Studies) Syllabus is as follows

About Me
Growing Up
Health is Wealth
My Family
Recreation and Celebrations
Our Festivals
Our National Festivals
Our Houses
Cleaning the House
People who Build Houses
A Good House and Neighborhood
The School
Keeping the School
Safety Habits
Means of Transport
Our Beautiful Earth
The Air Around Us
The World Of Plants
Uses of Plants
Animal Life

Activities covered in the Videos are

Fill in the Blanks,
Match The Columns,
Tick The Correct Answer,
Answer In One Word,
Answer The Following,
Solve The Puzzle,
True Or False,
Cancel The Wrong Answer,
Multiple Choice Questions,
Name The Following

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Mentally Strong People: The 13 Things They Avoid -By Qasim Ali Shah | Part-1

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In this video, Qasim Ali Shah talking on the people who are mentally strong. He is sharing his experience, knowledge and wisdom that will be helpful for all of those who want to improve their lives.

Qasim Ali Shah is a Public Speaker- Teacher- Writer- Corporate Trainer & Leader for every age group- Businessmen- Corporate executives- Employees- Students Housewives- Networkers- Sportsmen and for all who wish everlasting Success- Happiness- Peace and Personal Growth. He helps people to change their belief & thought pattern- experience less stress and more success in their lives through better communication- positive thinking and spiritual knowledge.


– Qasim Ali Shah:
– Official Youtube Channel:
– Facebook Fan Page:
– Google+:
– Twitter:
– Website :

– Qasim Ali Shah has been associated with the field of education since last 18 years.
– He got his education from the leading trainers and scholars of Pakistan.
– He has trained CSP Officers in MPDD and thousands of government school teachers and headmasters in DSD.
– He has also trained many students and teachers of U.E.T, P.U and many other colleges.
– He has taught moral values to prisoners in jails and also trained Police Officers in Police Academy.
– He is the member of different HR and Marketing Forums and Literary clubs.
– He is included among the top faculty members of Bahauddin Zakariya University.
– SAMAA TV has presented a documentary of his Success Story.
– He has trained the faculty of Lahore College for Women University.
– He is included in the Advisory Counsel of different associations.
– Reputed sales and insurance companies hire him to train their employees.
– He has worked for the betterment of society with the co-operation of different.

Thanks for all your support, rating the video and leaving a comment is always appreciated!


Video lectures – flipping the classroom

Views:8613|Rating:4.76|View Time:3:5Minutes|Likes:20|Dislikes:1
To engage students we need to deliver academic content in new ways. For the past couple of years I’ve been replacing my face-to-face lectures with online videos. The students love them and it gives us more time in class to discuss and apply what is being learned.

it's no secret that educators are facing a number of challenges we're dealing with larger class sizes increased accountability and disengaged students I'm sure we've all seen this before students are sleep at their desk instead of paying attention in class now I don't think this is the result of poor teachers in fact I think the majority of teachers really care about engaging their students but I do believe that cramming students into lecture theatres talking at them for two hours and hoping something will stick is an outdated approach fortunately a movement is building to deliver academic content in new ways ways it grabs the attention of students increases class discussion and allows teachers to spend more time interacting with their pupils personally I've had great success with the use of online video lectures videos like this one and those on the screen that consist of rich media content I use these videos not just to supplement traditional lectures but replace them entirely in fact for several entire courses at RMIT University we have now replaced face-to-face lectures with online videos students watch the videos at home or anywhere else they want before attending tutorials in which we discuss and apply what they've learned in effect the lectures have become homework and what used to be homework is now done in class you might have heard people refer to this as flipping the classroom if you haven't yet I guarantee you will this approach is being incredibly well received by students by teachers and by educational institutions I believe there are three main reasons for this first of all we make the lecture content appealing to students making a video forces me to review and streamline my lecture material and on average a one-hour lecture will be reduced down to a 15 to 20 minute video second students can access lecture content when and where they want it today's students already seek out information online let's embrace this rather than fight it we've also found that students like to pause and replay is a significant advantage over traditional lectures and finally the use of online video creates more time in class we get the theory out of the way first and then in class get down to the real work of discussing and applying what's being learned so based on all these benefits I want to encourage you to look at how you could use video lectures in your course they'll help you do more with less improve the quality of your content and engage your students there are heaps of resources available to help you get started from a learning communities to instructional YouTube videos but the important point is you have to want to explore what's possible I hope this video has encouraged you to do so

10 Exam Tips for the Students of English Literature | বাংলা লেকচার | Bengali Lecture Education

Views:2452|Rating:5.00|View Time:18:34Minutes|Likes:138|Dislikes:0
10 Exam Tips for the Students of English Literature | বাংলা লেকচার | Bengali Lecture Amazing, Education, Learning, Teaching

10 Exam Tips

1. Take Watch, Pen, Scale, Pencil
2. Write clearly
3. Capitalize Poet’s and Writing name
4. Add introduction and conclusion paragraph in broad question
5. Make paragraph
6. Add quotation at least 2
7. Add quotation mark
8. Add source, context, description, comment in explanation
9. Don’t make short question long or vice-versa
10. Time management




Check number, capitalization, skipping questions, quotation marks, wrong poem & poet’s name.

To follow and ask me::

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Interactive Teaching Methods

Views:205668|Rating:4.78|View Time:3:50Minutes|Likes:200|Dislikes:9
Profile of Chandralekha Singh’s interactive teaching style.

all right so last time we were talking about constant theory and why don't we actually review some of the stuff that we had talked about last time before I actually start talking further about Pauli's exclusion principle so let me ask you a question here a few questions here about the stuff that we covered last time and again think about these questions yourself first and then I'm going to ask you to talk to the person next to you and then I'll pull the class the goal of this course is to really teach students some effective problem-solving strategies and also to help them develop some logical thinking skills and of course that has to be done in the context of teaching them some physics concepts d-ii okay it looks like that most people remember it correctly that the angular momentum can only take certain discrete values right once she introduces a certain topic she'll talk about it for a little while give us a bunch of equations on the board for our personal notes and then she'll put you know pose a question to the whole class she'll ask everybody to talk to each other the neighbors that people are sitting around and their friends or whatever and then she'll take a poll the whole class to see you know people are actually understanding the concept if people aren't really getting it she'll continue to talk about it and do it again until she understands that most of the people get what she's talking about okay it seems like that some people think that C is the right answer and some people think that D is the right answer the correct answer here is C I strongly believe that students have to be actively engaged in the learning process they have to always keep monitoring their own learning and I think that it's specially important in physics for students to be asked questions all the time you know so that they actually know what they are really understanding so this is the target material from which x-rays are going to be emitted now what really does happen what do you think will happen if I have a very very high voltage and notice that there is this filament here and there's vacuum in between here in this region there's just vacuum if you close this circuit as soon as you close the switch what do you expect will happen and I also believe that students can learn a lot by talking to each other because when students are talking to each other it gives an opportunity to first of all organize their own thoughts because when you have to you know articulate your thoughts you better actually be clear about what you want to say to other people you know in order to make it understandable to them that's one of the main reasons why I like this class especially since it's two hours you don't get like she makes it hard for you to fall asleep by getting you involved in it and by her moving around and that's one of the reasons why I like the class she also puts more emphasis on the concepts in physics instead of making it more of a plug and chug course where you basically have to memorize all the equations and know what each variable stands for it's not so much about that in this class it's about you know how how did these equations come about and you know if some variable changes how does it affect something else you can only stretch students knowledge a little bit beyond what they already know and so the thing is we have to always be very aware of where the students are at a particular time on an average so that we can actually target our instruction just a little bit above that and then a little bit above that a little bit above that it is particularly important that we keep in mind what students already know and how we can stretch their knowledge and make them come to exactly where we want them to be at the end of the course must have a higher frequency which means it must have a higher higher energy right does that make sense to everybody because energy is Planck's constant times the frequency focus should be on learning by students not on really teaching by instructors you know like it always has to be how can I maximize the learning

Chinese Alphabet

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Learn the Chinese alphabet!

hi my name is Becky welcome to learning Chinese gyeongwan just like in English Chinese has an alphabet – we call it pinging today's lesson will focus on the Chinese alphabet mean if you look up here there's no new letters they all look the same except for maybe this one but the letters are all the same it's just the order and in English we have 26 letters well in Chinese we have 29 so this is just a general overview of the entire alphabet I'll break it down so we can get the pronunciation down the first four we have four four more four we break it down like this because these four tend to have the same endings all right here so you substitute the first one be found 4p pour um more and last one up four four four more for the next few we have duh duh nuh nuh girl huh and this one once again they have the same kind of any like an O sound like you're saying duh well oh and you just substitute the first letter in so you have D duh gee tough and know L love G girl k cool and H huh the to know la girl uh-huh and then we have J Q and X these are gonna sound really different from the English pronunciation so we have G G see the ending sounds are an e yet to pull your mouse back and really make that sound e so you have G G XI and then we're gonna have for these three it's almost like you're dragging their individual sound out right here I've written like it's like a buzzing sound so but you have to make sure that it comes out long enough to have this down and then W and Y pronunciation down here and E almost so you're gonna say eek but without the case out and then we have these well you're gonna say wait but we already went over these we went over all of these letters already why would you combine them together well the truth is in Chinese they these three pairs are used a lot like you know see them at the beginning of words all the time and it makes more sense if you learn them in pairs so that you know what kind of sound they pronounce together since they're so common so up here we have G Chu Chu and any sound is an e which is what the R represents a choo-choo these are groups together because they all have the kind of our sound tagging along but what it might be confusing is that you don't see in art and these three pairs at all so just remember that it's choo-choo and now we've got our vowels AEIOU in English ae I owe you but then we have this one which is not very common so for a Oh II and then II so let's look at this one really fast for E and O the only difference are the two dots on top of E now he has a funny pronunciation it's almost like you're saying you but you have to keep your mouth in like a tunnel shape so you'd say e like you're gonna blow a whistle but with the bigger opening in your mouth E so up top ah oh a/e E now we're just gonna do a quick so okay now we're gonna do a quick summary of the entire Chinese alphabet called pinging so we're gonna have wool pour more for the tough no la girl huh see see see choo-choo-choo Oh II II that's it for today thank you for joining me