Study at Reykjavik University

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Our international students describe their RU experiences.

Reykjavik University, 2017

Reykjavik University is very closely
connected to the industry of Iceland. This gives our students a unique opportunity in
a very close-knit, advanced, developed industrial society to have access to industry, specialists and
opportunities that very few universities can offer. I really like the place. Everybody is very nice
and is always willing to help you. I selected Iceland mainly because
of Iceland itself, because of the nature. But on the other hand the
school is also very good. It’s a very high
energy environment. We have geothermal and
we also have a lot of water because it rains a lot,
hence hydropower. And there is
also a lot of wind. It’s an opportunity for me to learn a number of
innovative renewable energy technologies and be able to utilize
them when I go back home. In corporate finance we are few people,
small classes and a lot of discussions. A lot of interaction between students and teachers.
So it has a personal feel to it. Here in the computer science department
there is a very advanced course Here in the computer science department
there is a very advanced course for game design and virtual environments.
So that’s the main reason that brought us here. Classes are a lot smaller here and
you have a lot more regular assignments like group work
and presentations. I feel that there is a much more direct
relationship between teacher and student. With much more dialog which
can really help improve your studying. We really sit down with our students
and we tailor the program to each student. Our primary purpose is to educate the
specialists and the leaders of the future. I’m working in the subfield of mathematics
called combinatorics and I work with quite simple
mathematical objects. We’re teaching the computer how to prove
things about these mathematical objects. This is very new. You have study spaces
you have lecture halls and you also have a very nice
library where I study a lot. I think it’s really advanced, a lot of
access to innovative and modern stuff that really makes learning
and studying easier. It’s been really nice. We have met
a lot of different people and we are always doing
something. We have full schedules. We live in the capital and
there is always something to do a lot of cultural events, dancing and places
to meet people and just hang out. At one point it was
a hard decision for me. But when I came here then I knew it was the
right decision. So I’m very happy here. Something that I really liked
was that it was Iceland. So it was perfect, I could study and come
to an amazing place at the same time.


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This is a food review of the places to eat around university of Nairobi(Kenya)from the worst…….hope you enjoy

My biased university “exposed”

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My experience as a graduate student at a university in California that was far too PC & biased for its own good.

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hey guys what's up and welcome back to my channel so did I go outside for like 10 minutes and get a sunburn yes I did I know I should have put sunscreen on but I never leave the house so I forgot the whole protocol me being a white ass bitch today's story is not exactly a story time as much as it's a story time with very political implications and I used to talk about politics a lot more in my channel but I feel like everyone is always talking about politics in terms of like the news Twitter whatever and it's tiring it's draining this story is about my experience at graduate school to get my masters here in California I was in a program for English English literature and I'm not gonna tell you which school it is though in the past I have said where I went to school so it's not that hard to find but for legal purposes this is a school in the state of California my experience as an undergraduate student was fine in the sense that I was still in California I was at UC Irvine I didn't have like an amazing experience but compared to graduate school my experience at undergrad was like paradise and it was also a different time to be noted when politics were less polarizing because I'd started what in 2013 graduated in 2017 so it was just a different time altogether before I start my story just one thing when I got accepted to the school my expectations were that we were gonna talk about literature because it is a English program and most of the classes were centered on literature and I thought we were going to be having adult discussions that didn't happen honestly I don't think my standard was even that high to be honest because like I said I didn't have the best ever experience at UC Irvine I can talk about that if anyone's fuckin interested I still had pretty low expectations and somehow they still managed to disappoint me so first off I want to say I had a couple of really great teachers I had a really great mentor however however boy was that fucking overshadowed by teachers who were fucking in sane I'm sorry if I come off as really angry in this video but it's like if I pay a lot of money and I'm investing my time in something and I have teachers who are so unbelievably biased it just makes me angry because I don't want to make myself sound more important than I am cuz probably no one in the program gave a shit about me but I definitely had the unpopular opinion in most of my classes that turned political mainly because it was a fucking echo chamber and I see a lot of the conservative media talking about how college campuses at least here in California are very politically correct and very very obsessively left-leaning this being said I'm all for not being a dick okay I think that it's it's a good thing to not be a piece of shit however I think at least in California where I am political correctness has gotten to the point where everyone's fucking offended by everything and to give you a little example of what I mean by being offended by everything to show you that I'm not exaggerating my first semester we had a class that was called English 500 and in that class we pretty much talked about literature and kind of it set us up for our next classes it was kind of like a beginner type class where they're just kind of letting you understand what the workloads gonna be like what you're gonna be reading what's expected of you in class so on so forth at one point someone in my class who I actually really liked she was she was a really cool person she mentioned that she read a book that was written from like a dog's perspective so it was like a dog's view of the world does that sound problematic to you and I hate the word problematic but you have no idea how many times I heard that one in class mind you this is a literature course literature okay there is no political science nope nothing there's nothing that should be really political unless we're talking about politics inside of text this one dude who ended up being my fucking nemesis and if you've been watching my videos for awhile you know who I'm talking about Sam that's not a real name well fucking Sam had to be offended about a book that was written from a dog's perspective and he's like well I don't think we can assume what the dog is experiencing and I just don't think he had a problem with a book that was written from a dog's perspective like are you fucking kidding me and that's really when I was like oh dear God this is gonna be hell and the thing is you think it's just the students doing this right because surely teachers would know that it's usually best to remain fairly apolitical in your classes especially because doctrine also not be true and if you watched my videos have a couple videos about a queer theory class I happened to take which was something I think I'm gonna have flashbacks about for a long time very unpopular in that class they didn't like my opinion there either until they found out I'm bisexual and then all of a sudden I'm valid right because otherwise if I were straight it you know I can't speak on anything I want to talk about two specific instances that made my experience shitty and that underlines how this school has really big problems so I was waiting to release this video because I was like I what if like the department sees it I don't want them to like hold my diploma or fuck shit up for me but then I was like I have a lawyer try and sue me bitch I'd really like to see you try because I have some shit on you guys that would fucking destroy you but anyway sorry that got a little aggressive this I kind of discussed on live streams and I've brought it up before but I never really went to too much into detail because I knew I was gonna make this video and actually have a video that I made the day that this happened because I was so angry so there's a class that was a pedagogy class so in the pedagogy class they teach you about teaching it's not a class I wanted to take it was unfortunately mandatory and it came with a fun twenty hours of volunteer work at the tutoring center and it's not volunteer because you were forced to do it or you wouldn't passed the class and it was essentially free labor because I was volunteering next to tutors who were getting paid and also taking that class so they were knocking out paid work and volunteer work at the same time so that was really cool for me as a person with two jobs and being a full-time student that's also coincidentally when I lost ten pounds in two weeks because of intense anxiety so this class is pedagogy so we read about best ways to teach and how kind of to get around very common problems or with people who have English as a second language such as myself however the teacher in question she made everything political and I was like can I ever just get a fucking breathe air from this bullshit but also because the classes when I say echo chamber I'm not saying that to use it as a buzzword like Oh echo chamber that's a no-no it was genuinely because everyone agreed on everything and never questioned anything and I'm like even if you're all of the same party or on the same side I just don't understand how you always agree on everything either you're agreeing because you don't know or because you just want to seem cool and chill and like you're you totally get it or you're just agreeing because you don't want to have a conversation that might be slightly uncomfortable to be completely transparent here I'm Center okay I am NOT right or left I'm pretty much Center so my beliefs are in no way extreme just so we contextualized this but you'll see how extreme I am in a second apparently so we were talking about grammar and I was a teaching associate at that point so I was teaching a class of University students their first year of English or first semester of English which is called English 101 I was teaching them composition where I would teach them how to write essays how to format things how to cite their sources the basics and I structure the class entirely myself I decided what their homework was I graded them I chose what they read and I made my class entirely a political in the sense that I would not assign anything of political for them to read mainly because it's English 101 why would I do that but when they could pick their topic if they wanted to write about abortion you can do it but I'm not gonna force you to so I made my class a political and the department didn't like that for some reason like I remember one of my superiors just kind of looked at me like I was an idiot for choosing to not involve politics in a class that doesn't involve politics so that was interesting but back to the pedagogy class so we were talking about grammar and I was saying how I thought grammar was a very important part of teaching English 101 because I mean if you're grand fucked up no one's gonna understand what you're saying I think that's pretty basic right and it causes all sorts of confusion if you put the wrong tense I'm gonna think you did something yesterday when really you might be doing it tomorrow so I think that's pretty non-controversial me saying that grammar is an important part of language well it turns out that is an extremist point of view because my teacher said that grammar is a form of gatekeeping yeah she really used the term gatekeeping because it keeps out minorities and people of color mind you she's not white okay and I thought that was a fucked up thing to say because I was like people of color or anyone who's not white can still learn grammar like I don't understand why that would be gatekeeping a certain group of people everyone has to learn grammar nobody comes out of the womb knowing where to put a comma right so I was just kind of like I thought that was honestly insulting to imply that minorities can't learn grammar and so we should just let them not learn it or just assume they can't like I think that's fucked up especially cuz I had a bunch of kids in my class that were minorities and we're all getting fucking A's and we're great so I was just kind of like I don't understand where this like what is your your source of information for this she said that I was gatekeeping and then she what she implied was that I was gatekeeping and I was being racist towards minorities because I was teaching grammar and I thought it was important I don't know if I can accurately accurately explain how fucking angry that made me and honestly I think a little bit of my anger was partially irrational because at some point you just kind of give up on people like in that college campus at this point I had given up because this was one semester before my last semester so I'd already been there for two so I knew that this place is a fucking dead end for critical conversation like it's not happening here bitch so I shouldn't have gone as mad as I got but imagine someone implying that you're a racist in front of a class of people and all the people in your class white people and minorities it was an entirely mixed class they all just fucking agree with your teacher and just say that grammar should be thrown out the window and that we should just start they literally that we should involve slang and academic writing and I was like I was like if you're telling me now I went out of my way to learn academic English to write properly and in a professional way for then you to tell me that starting an essay with saying hey what up is cool then bitch I'm sorry like what universe are we in what universe and they were all saying that academic English is also not fair towards minorities and I'm like everyone learns academic English and everyone can learn I don't think it's fair to say oh yeah this group of people they cannot they do not have the abilities like how is that not racist I'm sorry like am I missing something here I cried angry tears which is kind of embarrassing but I mean not in front of anyone just on my way home I was just kind of screaming being like what is this bullshit and it was also because they were kind of questioning my integrity because well first they were implying I was a racist and second of all they were kind of implying that I was teaching my class in a wrong way which okay if I teaching grammar is wrong fucking sue me then because I don't know what I'm supposed to teach in a composition class that was the first instance and that really tells you kind of what campus you're on I was already depressed I was already anxious so feeling very much like an outsider where you go to school feels like shit I obviously found some friends and actually found out that a couple of people my classes agreed with me but they were silent because my opinion was usually unpopular so it made me feel better that when I said things like a couple of the people who are listening actually were like yeah okay I get what she's saying when the majority would always just try and argue back with me but okay so let's move on to the other thing about this school so the other thing is not necessarily political but kind of so the other thing that happened is that I was a TA a teaching associate but the thing is contrary to usually TAS they are in a class with a professor and they're just the ones who grade or do some other shit in my situation we were teaching class by ourselves there was no one in the room with us we were the only teacher we were the one grading creating the syllabus we did everything so essentially I was doing the same thing a professor would be doing so that job was very time-consuming because in the sum I had to come up with a schedule for 17 weeks of school that wasn't paid I had to read all the readings in the book of course in order to assign a homework that is appropriate for it that wasn't paid they didn't teach us how to do any of that they were like you have to write this and submit it by day X they literally did not train us what they ended up doing is having us pay them to train us so in during the semester while I was teaching I would also have to go to this class which actually was training it turns out that would kind of ask us like how we were doing and then we'd go over pedagogical shit this was another class it wasn't what the grammar is racist person we were paying to be trained which is fucked up because usually they pay you when they train you before you start the job not while you're doing it when it's too late like I can't change my entire syllabus overnight like bitch that took fucking weeks I was teaching Monday Wednesday Friday and I would teach from 9:00 to 9:15 then I had two hours of office hours every day after class and then I would grade their papers grading their papers on average would take five to six hours for me in the weekend which also wasn't paid because we were paid by salary which I originally thought was gonna be a good thing because I thought it was gonna be a good amount of pay I just need you to prepare yourself for what I'm about to tell you because every single person I've told has been flabbergasted by this let's remember one key thing as of right now the minimum wage in California is $12 per hour for this job to be a TA I needed to have three letters of recommendations from essentially people with PhDs then I also had to be in the master's program then you also have to have your you have to have a high GPA thank God for my 4.0 top of that you also had to interview with like a board of people which was honestly very intimidating so like this wasn't just like a job they would give to any person like they expected a certain level of qualification and with qualification I think there should be a pay that is respectful of that qualification however we were paid six hundred and thirty dollars a month before taxes I'm just gonna put this here – just contextualize in case you're not in California and don't know it's hard to anywhere in Southern California to find a place like a studio that's under $1500 and they were paying us $600 a month so at best they would be still paying me less than what the cheapest rent here would be also to fill up my tank of gas it's $70 and this place is 20 miles away so you can see that this was not a job that would really be paying me much at all this already was concerning but the reason I took this job like I knew it was gonna have not that great of a pay though I didn't expect $600 to be honest but I took it for the experience so the $600 thing I looked over because I was just like I need this because otherwise I can't get jobs in the future and that's why they pay you so little because they're kind of trapped because you need this job to get to the next job so what ended up happening is that I was supposed to teach two semesters so I taught the first semester and the second semester was coming up in a week before we start the second semester mind you I had changed my syllabus I had created 70 new powerpoints I changed the readings I put in so many hours of work into this to recalibrate it based on what I'd learned the past semester to make this semester work even better a week before second semester starts and I'm supposed to get back to work mind you they send us a two-line email being like hey like the program's cancelled sorry they genuinely don't explain why they don't tell us anything to the point where I was so confused I didn't even know if I was being fired or if we were all being fired like they worded it in such a weird way and I'll insert the email here somewhere I was like what what the fuck so I remember emailing my boss because this came from the head of the department I know my boss I was like yo like do you know what the fuck is going on here cuz what is this like what happened we come to find out that there's seven of us TAS two of which I'm friends with four of which I didn't really associate with cuz like our personalities just didn't mesh so one of those people decided to go to the Union and essentially what happened there I don't understand much about Union shit to be honest but what happened there is that instead of complaining to the department about what I told you that we were paying to be trained rather than them paying us which is breaking the law mind you so instead of going to the department to file a complaint with the department first this girl and her little friend took it upon themselves to go behind my back and my two friends backs and talked on our behalf like all of the TAS as if we were all in agreement about this and went to the Union and complained about this illegal circumstance I'm not mad at them for doing that as much as I mad that they didn't ask me or tell me and if you're speaking on my behalf you better ask for my fucking consent aside from that I'm like it would be obvious that we were going to lose our jobs because it would be easier to cut the program then pay us right so what I would have done personally is wait until the end of the semester we all get a year of experience we all get that pay and then at the end of the semester boom we hit them with a fucking lawsuit altogether and then we get money I already was looking into lawyers like the fact that they just didn't tell me like the lack of respect like someone a co-worker that you see every day I passed in front of their offices every day I'd say hello you see me like that every day and then you have the absolute fucking gall to go behind my back behind my to friends backs talk as if it's on our behalf as well and then have our jobs lost and on fucking top of that when I asked the other TAS for clarity because I was like hey do you guys know what's going on they were like no I don't know and then when I found out what happened they say I still didn't know who did it though I had my suspicions and when I asked them I was like okay who went and why like I just want to know since you lost me my fucking job I think I should be able to know and I'm not on the side of the school mind you I just kind of expect my colleagues to be kind of in the same boat since we have the same job or same lost job now thank you for that so I was like what happened like what happened like who said something and they're like oh it's anonymous and I was like bitch if you felt comfortable enough to go talk on my behalf surely surely surely you cannot be serious I am serious and don't call me Shirley we can have a conversation you can tell me what your fucking motivations were right right and then the best part was this so we ended up getting a settlement we got some money back and the best part is that guess who was talking as if they were the union representative the same person who pretty much was a snitch on me and the other two TAS and she was acting like she was the representative of the Union and talking to us as if she was from the union telling us what to do and instructing us and I was like five seconds ago you wouldn't admit that it was you who went and talked behind our backs but now you are the one talking to me being like oh you have to drop this paper off so make sure to do it this week like no sorry that's that's too much and the fucking irony of being too scared of to tell me that it was you but then five seconds later you're talking with the union rep and see seeing us as if like you're in charge of this I never signed off for her to speak on my behalf and I let her know I told her an email I was like do not fucking speak on my behalf you don't you don't stand for me and I don't agree with you so don't what the funny thing is that our boss knows that it wasn't me and the other two snitched because we we would sit just to represent myself my little group of friends and then the other girls just kidding but they would sit on one side of the table and we'd say on the other side so I think our boss knew that there was a clear division in the sense that they were tight we were tight and there was no real animosity until this shit happened and honestly I kind of thank God I'm on a green card because if I weren't on a green card I maybe would have gone a little bit crazy because imagine crossing someone in the hallway they're like hey how you doing and I'm like you lost my job like the fuck are you gonna ask me how am i doing like bitch jobless how about you it fucked me up because I kind of expected of my colleagues to be on the same page as me because we're all students we're all doing full-time we're all doing the same job we all have very similar struggles and our jobs a lot of us have similar goals it was shitty to see them just kind of like disregard it's pretty much half of the other people who had the same job in the same program it also fucked me up because the school was obviously complicit in all of this and they're obviously the guilty party mind you I'm not saying that these girls are guilty entirely because I wanted to sue the school but I wanted to wait until we all got money until we all got the experience cuz that to me is just what makes sense not trying to lose my job halfway and then you know how many teaching jobs are there realistically in January not many these two stories I know that they're not both political but what I want to talk about slightly and this is probably gonna be a fucking long video is that I genuinely felt like this school genuinely if any conservative newspaper wants to write about a school that is fucking toxic as shit pcs fuck just the echo chamber of people who are so misinformed like some of the people would scream about feminism and then I'd ask what wave of feminism are you talking about specifically they didn't know which wave they were talking about and they were like oh that doesn't matter see so like these are people a lot of them who we're kind of screaming about things because they saw a t-shirt at forever 21 that said something or they saw tweet and just took it as oh this is reality and then they just spew it back out at you not knowing what they're saying and that's also why it's an echo chamber because it's all these people who think they're informed but they're really not they're all be like yeah yeah yeah you're right I totally agree and it's just like did you like even just look at the Wikipedia patients what you're talking about most of time it turns out no so this place is really the stereotype of what they talk about when they talk about like liberal PC colleges and mind you most I'm Center but I have to say most of the time I'm left-leaning and even even my friend who identifies as liberal she too was like this shit is crazy like this is not normal and so if you have liberal people saying that the piece enos of this place is not normal I would say this this school is pretty intensely extreme there is a very toxic mentality going on and I'm not saying that to be like oh poor me I went there cuz no it's fine like I got over it like I'd get angry sure but it's not like oh poor me I went to a difficult College no I'm still grateful to have gone to grad school I'm so grateful for the experience I definitely have a higher bullshit tolerance now I didn't murder someone which is honestly surprising with the amount of insults and slammed doors in my face so I think I think I'm good but what I am saying is that I don't think that that is a healthy environment simply because you should not be in a class afraid to share your opinion you know look if you're an extremist you probably should be scared because people aren't gonna be happy with you but I'm saying if you want to say that grammar is important you shouldn't have a teacher turning to you and turning into this fucking political thing and then turning it into you're racist because then nobody wants to participate and in fact in that class ironically I was one of the only people who was consistently vocals anyway I really think that kind of the bottom line about this is to really look into the kind of environment of the school you're gonna get into I honestly never expected it to be that polarizing and honestly the fact that there were a couple of people in classes who just had to secretly tell me that they agreed with me because they didn't want to be like fucking shunned by everyone I think is ridiculous cuz like I said the opinions I shared and that I told you about I don't think it's extreme anything that I said was extreme and the thing is University especially graduate school or we've all been through university were all kind of versed in this shit I thought that we were gonna have meaningful discussions like there were plenty of times where myself and another student disagreed but we could have a conversation about it and it didn't turn into name-calling or implications of homophobia racism transphobia it never turned to that easy kind of buzzword so let me know what you think of the comments down below let me know what your experience was like if anyone had a similar experience feel free to scream in the comments thank you guys so much for watching and I'll catch you guys next time

Leonard Susskind | Lecture 1: Boltzmann and the Arrow of Time

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First of three Messenger lectures at Cornell University delivered by Leonard Susskind

Theoretical physicist Leonard Susskind delivered the first of his three Messenger Lectures on “The Birth of the Universe and the Origin of Laws of Physics,” April 28, 2014. Susskind is the Felix Bloch Professor of Theoretical Physics at Stanford University, and Director of the Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics.

it's a pleasure to introduce today's speaker my niece askin who is here giving a series of three lectures this week is one of the messenger lecturers the messenger lectures are described on the university website as one of the most important with Cornell's extracurricular activities I'll save the full description of the series for the public lecture on Wednesday night 7:30 that will be black holes the conservation of information and the holographic principle I'll mention here just that we've had stunningly distinguished messenger lecturers and physics and astrophysics at Cornell including RA Milliken in 1925 Sir Arthur Eddington in 1933 J robert Oppenheimer in 1945 Fred Hoyle in 1960 of course Richard Feynman in 1964 up to and including Steven Weinberg in 2007 Nemo coming event the most recently in physics in 2010 I happened to host Weinberg in 2007 and when I contacted him to ask you about the messenger lectures he told me of course I know about the messenger lectures I frequently referred to fineman's 1964 lectures which later became his book the character physical law what I happened to see Lennie about a year ago and asked him the same question Lenny said of course I know fineman's 1964 messenger lectures I was there so when he was a graduate student here he obtained his PhD from Cornell in 1965 under advisor Peter Carruthers he was it you see the university often from then until 1979 when he moved to Stanford where he's been sent I'll again save the long story for Wednesday night the short story is said since 2009 he's been director of the Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and his author two popular science books one about cosmology and the other about quantum mechanics and black holes he's also interested in teaching popular courses he's taught a series of modern courses about celery a series of course is about modern physics entitled the theoretical minimum which can be found online leading the MOOC movement and physics I first sort of met him while I was still an undergraduate he was in 1976 giving a series of lectures on course grade quantum field theory and I didn't attend those lectures I didn't learn about lattice QCD until I came here as a graduate student but I clearly remember that just before the start of one of the lectures this fellow who sort of looked like an Olympic marathon runner he was also taller than came out and asked me a virtual question to which I actually knew the answer down the hall first door clever so as you'll see money is the unique person to be giving this 50 years all along to violence lectures satisfying Forbes specific criteria number one he was there number two he's extremely eminent number three he still sufficiently compos mentis and pull it off we'll see and number four has a crest book to be willing thank you very much Paul oh yes hello am i here ah there we go can you hear me no okay let me say one thing to begin with I really feel sorry and sad for all the young physicists in the world who will never get to meet dick Feynman he was a close friend of mine I think the greatest inspiration that I ever had in my life was listening to the 1964 messenger lectures I never looked at them again I couldn't I said once is all you ever want to do this particular thing in fact I always felt the same thing with though with dick I never wanted to go back over the things I did with him once was enough once was so unique and so exceptional that to see them again not to do them again or to just seeing them something I didn't want to do so I haven't looked at the Fineman lectures again but um I do remember now I could be wrong about where I heard Fineman say this I think if my memory serves me right it was in the first of the messenger lectures I could be wrong it could have been another lecture somewhere else but as I remember Fineman once described theoretical physics as follows first you get an intuitive idea the house of how something works how to explain something then you find equations to quantitatively express your idea from the equations you make calculations and predict something new new number or new relationship after that somebody else usually somebody else goes out and does an experiment to test the prediction and if enough predictions turn out to be right then you've got a theory if the idea covers enough different cases the theory becomes a principle this of course is correct but I think it's not the whole story there are other ways the theoretical physics for pressors or physics in general progresses one I would call the Dirac way I'm specifically interested in theoretical physics one are we call the Dirac way their axons if an equation is beautiful enough that will be right well maybe it did work for Dirac then is the Einstein way sometimes principles these things we call principles collide when two things both of which are so deeply rooted that we cannot conceive of either of them being false but nevertheless when taken together seem to lead the contradiction then we have a conflict of principles it's when such conflicts are resolved the physics makes the greatest conceptual advances my lectures are about three related conflicts of principle I think it's fair to say that all have powerfully changed physics even though not one of them has been completely resolved today I will discuss Boltzmann struggle with the second law of thermodynamics on the one hand entropy always increases on the other hand Newton's laws are reversible we will come to what that means the outcome of the struggle was profound entropy is hidden information Boltzmann's insight deeply affected every area of science but in the end it did not solve the problem that Boltzmann originally set out to conquer why is there an arrow of time why does time go one way what's different about the future than the past I'm going to explain how modern developments in cosmology make this puzzle even more puzzling and how they also suggest a solution but be prepared to be very skeptical will be driven to extremely remote ranges of time and space way beyond anything we can hope to directly access nevertheless the arrow of time is a fact of nature and deserves an explanation so let me begin I will just come and that I think it's an absolute disgrace that a beautiful wonderful room like this in which physics can be presented does not have a permanent blackboard had I known that when Paul asked me I asked him explicitly Paul is there a blackboard in the room and Paul said of cost as a blackboard in the room he was lying to me I don't know if I would have turned down the opportunity to give these lectures I don't think I would have I don't think I would have but nevertheless I have to say I'm deeply saddened and disappointed by the lack of a blackboard in the lecture hall Rockefeller Hall I'm going to use this monstrosity of a machine I don't like using PowerPoint I will use it today all I did there's another interesting fact Paul said give lecture one two and three in that order first the first one in the second one the third one and I assume that this meant that the first lecture should be the first logically order ordered one and that it should be for the general public a broader thing that introduced some concepts at a not exactly a lower level but with fewer equations and fewer technical concepts and so I wrote the first lecture in the first lecture was about Boltzmann and and so forth I then found out just a couple of days ago that the first lecture is the physics department colloquium and the second lecture is the general lecture sorry buddies you are getting the first lecture because it's the first lecture I can't help it so if you find this a little bit trivial then I invite you to – what's that – the same if you're right but you said I was I didn't know what I was going to say next all right the lectures the entire series of lectures had some weird title that Paul made up had nothing to do with me the correct the correct the correct title should have been conflicts of principle I don't know if it's conflicts of principle or conflict of principles but one of the other and basically the three related questions of concept of conflict of principles okay let me start with an experiment this is a real genuine experiment I did this in my laboratory I took pictures of it and I have a hundred I have two hundred and thirty two slides on here incidentally and you'll see but most of my little movies little film clips the film clips are homemade film clips I make them myself and you'll see how they have it we'll see how they work all right we start with a room the room is the purple area it's a sealed room you can't get nothing can get into it or out of it and up in the corner of the room is a little bit of maybe a lot of a lot of molecules gas all stuffed into the corner of the room now I want you to tell me which of the following two little movies makes sense as physics and which does not okay so here we go that's one here's the other one should I do them again No that look pretty good I like that that looks very uncomfortable I don't believe that will ever happen mostly you don't believe that the air in the room will also rush into the corner so what's going on well we usually blame this on the second law of thermodynamics the second law of thermodynamics is that entropy always increases and if you know just a little bit about entropy you will know that the entropy of a room filled uniformly with gas and thermal equilibrium has a high entropy and when all the molecules are stuffed off into the corner it has low entropy entropy and clay increases end of story second law of thermodynamics tells us which film is correct the clash of principles the conflict of principles the second law says that entropy always increases Newton's laws of motion and for practical purposes today I don't want to introduce quantum mechanics but what quantum mechanics also says the same thing it says that the laws of physics and particular Newton's laws are reversible let's remind ourselves what that means what it means in the context of a very simple example incident R here it is the context of a simple example is that if a ball can roll a frictionless ball on a frictionless surface can roll from one point to another in a certain amount of time then Newton's equations say that there's another solution in which it can roll back to the first position therefore that cannot be a quantity which always increases if it increased going this way it would be creased going that way they can't be Boltzmann's effort to find the quantity and mechanics which always increases was doomed from the beginning and people told him that incidentally he struggled with it ok so that raises the question then what is entropy what is it that seems always to increase despite the what Newton might say about it what's the meaning of the second law and why is there an arrow of time ok let's begin with what entropy is so let's see yeah entropy according to Boltzmann in the end when he finally understood it is hidden information what does it mean that information is hidden well in the practical example that he was thinking about a gas information is hidden because it's contained in a collection of degrees of freedom which are too small to see and too numerous to keep track of when information is contained in to numerous a set of degrees of freedom too small to see that information is called entropy let's take an example here's an example of 64 coins now let the fact that nor the fact that they're on a lattice that's not the important point here I had to draw them some way so here's the 64 coins they might just be in a bag they might even be invisible to you but but there they are sixty-four coins and there each coin has two faces one face is red one face is blue here's a special configuration of the coins in which they're all showing red how many such configurations are there well the number is right over here there's one such configuration it's rather special incidentally if you saw it even if you didn't know where the coins were is those your sure those coins you'd recognize it instantly easily recognized here's a configuration with one blue coin it's less unique there are 64 of them let's just here's another one and there are 64 of them altogether you might not so quickly recognize which was which if it was flashed in front of your eyes 64 configurations with one flipped coin how many were to flip coins well you can work it out at 64 times 63 over two and the answer is 2016 numbers are going up fast rather fast here's another one three coins forty one thousand six hundred and sixty four configurations with three coins I suspect if I flashed that at you pretty fast you would not be able to tell me afterwards which three coins were flipped but maybe you could there's four the number is six better part of a million six hundred and fifty fifth or old or whatever some large number that's how many configurations notice they're going up really fast how about if half the coins are red and half the coins are blue this is a kind of generic situation the numbers are vast two times ten to the eighteenth configurations supposing you were just to pick a configuration randomly what would you be likely to pick you would be very unlikely to pick one you extremely unlikely to pick all Reds picking them at random you probably pick something like this just because there are so many configurations like this this technical definition of entropy for an ensemble a collection of states for a collection of discrete states of a system like the system of coins is this that the particular ensemble it's a technical world ensemble but just means a collection of states that are somehow recognizable in some way recognizable or not is the logarithm of the number of configurations that satisfies a certain criterion okay for example the state with one flip coin with no flip coins there's only one state log one is 0 it has no entropy and you go down the entropy s rise not as fast as these numbers on the left but the entropy goes up and eventually reaches a maximum all right now let's talk about something different let's talk about equations of motion what is an equation of motion an equation of motion is a rule for updating the state given the state the equation of motion tells you what the state is the next instinct think of it that way I'm imagining time is discrete but that's not important these for the authorities six boxes represent six different states how many states are there the 64 coins to to the 64 could with too many to draw I can't draw them all so I've just drawn 6 y 6 is a nice number ok those are six states but think of them as representing all the possible states of some system not the ensembles but the individual states what is an equation of motion an equation of motion is simply a rule which tells you given the state what's the next state 1 goes to 2 2 goes to 5 5 goes to 3 3 goes to 6 6 goes to 4 4 goes back to 1 and what happens next 1 goes to 2 2 goes to 5 and so forth and you cycle through these states this is a typical example of a simple discrete equation of motion it tells how the system moves forward in classical physics it's completely deterministic in quantum physics a similar thing is true it's called unitarity but let's just take the the the classical version of it here's a law of physics or a equation of motion which is also deterministic if you start with 1 you go to 2 if you start with 6 you go to 2 if you start with 5 you go to – that's deterministic I can tell you exactly exactly where you'll be after a certain number of steps something wrong with it what's wrong with it what's wrong with it is it's not reversible if you know you're at 2 you can't tell where you came from you can't retro dict if you know you're at 1 you didn't come from anywhere you couldn't have come from anywhere so this is what's an example of irreversible equation of motion the laws of Newton and the laws of quantum mechanics and the laws of every physical system that we know at the very bottom of its description are reversible all of them and so equations like this are forbidden do we know why well in something in some way we do know why but I'm going to ask you to trust me that this is one of the things that the laws of physics as we know them require what's the rule the rule is that every box has one arrow in in one arrow out an arrow to tell you where you were and the Naro to tell you where you'll be next ok that's the sense in which information in classical physics and in quantum physics if you work out the quantum analog of it that information is never lost you always know where you came from you always know where you go to and there is no contraction into a smaller number of states so that you lose information incidentally in classical physics it's called levels theorem and quantum mechanics it's called unitarity ok let's now ask what an evolution would look like now this is a made-up evolution the I'm going to assume that as you go from one step the next not too many coins are flipped simultaneously one two or three coins are flipped alright here it is the keep track of it because it's important to keep track of the sequence okay I'll go back over it let's do it a little more slowly alright we started with the lowest entropy state why I just decided to start with the lowest entropy state to see what would happen not too many coins get flipped simultaneously so the next step might be one blue coin which blue coin don't know but the law but the point is the equation of motion tells me which blue corn what's going to be next well it can't go back to all red why not because it has to cycle through all the states assumption is it cycles through all the system cycles through all the states it can't just go from red to blue or one red one blue to red one red two one blue so and go to something else let's go back man it might go to a single blue coin someplace else but there are many many fewer of those states than there are states with let's say 2 3 or 4 flip coins much more likely just for that reason that it will go perhaps the 4 flip coins remember though there's about a half a million more than a half a million configurations of that type from here it might go back to one coin it might go back to 3 coins but much more likely that it will go to more coins for the simple reason that there are more configurations like that and thus it goes once it gets to this point where the entropy is maximum where it's almost half-and-half give or take it'll simply rattle around in similar States for a long long time for a very long time much longer than we have to run through this but every so often a fluctuation will happen a Boltzmann fluctuation a rare and unusual configuration will arise here's one with only 3 blue coins what's the next one going to be maybe it's two blue coins now there was just so many more with 4 blue coins that it went to 4 blue coins and so it goes whoo that's getting interesting that's an interesting look I didn't go anywheres oh maybe we'll get back to the beginning not likely and so we go and so we go and so we go whoo whoops there's an interesting one how do we get there there's a star in it not a star not an astronomical star but has a little star in it one star that's a really interesting configuration how did it get there well it got there randomly it just accidentally got there remember you have to cycle through everything not so surprising that you've got something really rare and interesting but it didn't get there for a interesting reason didn't get there for a reason which you could explain by some inevitable law of physics that says that stars will emerge in some very very specific and organized way these the example of the star that I just described is an example of a recurrence you can call it a recurrence a punk a more or less a punk or a recurrence you can call it a Boltzmann fluctuation you can call it a freak unexplained happening they are a general property of finite systems because the system is finite it only has a finite number of states to cycle through and so weird things will happen weird things will happen over and over again and on top of that they will vastly outnumber than normal histories the normal histories are the ones that started with extremely low entropy I will come to why I say that in a moment but the normal history is the ones that we normally understand or think we understand our histories that start with very very low entropy there are many more ways to create that star than to start with low entropy just many many more random statistical ways to how make it happen roughly speaking in the real universe what we're talking about is very very freaked phenomena where a bunch of random dust molecules or gas molecules might simultaneously come together and make a gala see that sounds almost completely impossible but it's not completely impossible and what this tells us is that in a finite system the system that just cycles around itself it is much much more likely than any other way of making that star or that galaxy will go through it a few more examples to get the idea let's explore the idea further and suppose for a moment that the universe is such a finite system finite system finite number of degrees of freedom number one and number two contained in a finite volume if it's contained in a finite volume and it has a finite energy we describe it but we can describe it in any case by phase space the configuration of space of states is not a series of six boxes but it's a point in the phase space of some number of molecules for example 10 to the 10 to the 80th molecules or whatever whatever the right number is and so it's described by a phase space which is a plot of position and momentum and velocity now to make it a finite system let's assume that the positions of the molecules are bounded they can only go between here and here and that there's a brick wall here that prevents them from going any further furthermore let's suppose that the energy of the system is finite in that case the momentum of the particles cannot exceed a certain amount and so the whole thing is contained in a you know in a box now there's a region of phase space that's my target by my target I mean the thing I want to explain how we got there this is some region of phase space which describes the world let's say as we know it now it's got the certain abundance of Helium certain abundance of hydrogen a certain abundance of lithium it's got planets it's got stars it's got you and me and that's it it's not unique the state is not unique there are many many states that look like that it's an ensemble and it's an ensemble with some pretty significant entropy and entropy of about ten to the hundred in some units or other but still it's a very small region of the whole phase space most states are not like that so the question is then how do we get there and the standard idea of a theory for an explanation forget that we call that explanation inflationary cosmology right now we'll come back to that in a little while but the basic idea is that there's some special family of states not a unique state but some special family of states with a very low entropy very few of them as a starting point but if we follow the phase trajectory the trajectory of the system from any point within that little region there it always evolves into here that's called a explanation of our world if we can find such a thing if we can find a small region of very low entropy such that almost every point within that region evolves into the region where we are then we say we have an explanation the explanation is for reasons unknown we started out in here and for reasons known we evolved to here inflationary cosmology might be one such candidate description okay but once we get into this let's call this the zone of life just to give it a name once we get into the zone of life we don't stop world goes on we eventually will exit the zone of life sadly we will eventually exit the zone of life our universe will expand dilute we will eventually get out of the configuration space where we can exist and we will wind up outside it is that the end no that's not the end the phase point continues to wander around and for long long periods of time it evolved what it evolves around in what's roughly thermal equilibrium in this world in a box it evolved around in thermal equilibrium which is like the series of coins which were in this featureless configuration about half red and half blue and it stays there for a very long time not in any particular state but wandering around through the phase space the wandering phase space point featureless nothing interesting happening but notice over here the phase space manage the phase space point managed to wander back into the zone of life but it didn't wander into the zone of life from the trajectory that started with this low entropy state it wandered in from someplace else the zone of life is much bigger than the starting point here how do we know that we know that because entropy increases the reason entropy increases is because we went from a small region to a bigger region we wander around and then accidentally practically accidentally in a freak event we wander into here the people who live in here look around them and they see a world which is not explainable in this way that we're familiar with explaining phenomena in fact my guess is those people in there would not be too surprised they would say what would be overwhelmingly surprising would be to start from here there's almost no states there we know what's happening our phase point is just wandering around and every once in a while it wanders into the zone of life if we wait even longer we will find out that the phase point wanders in and out and in and out of the of the region of life very very rarely much more rarely does it actually evolve back through this point and wind up behaving in the way that we normally consider explainable what I'm telling you is the thing that we normally consider explainable is the most outrageously unlikely of all possible ways of getting where we are why because it starts with a very very low entropy state and low entropy states are very rare so in this world in a box what one should expect is that the typical example of life the typical example of a world which would support life would be what we would call a freak world we don't live in a freak world we know that inflationary cosmology back to some very low entropy starting point work so there's something wrong with this picture of go back there's something wrong yeah there's something wrong with this picture of living in a box there are ways out maybe we don't live in a finite box that would get us out of it perhaps the problem is that modern cosmology tells us that we do live in a car in a finite box in a finite and in a certain sense on growing box if the box grows then you can get out of this problem okay all evidence that we have about cosmology experimental observational points to the idea that we do live in a finite box the evidence that I'm talking about is the existence of a cosmological constant sometimes called vacuum energy sometimes called accelerated expansion and most often called dark energy they're all the same thing so let me go through in a few minutes what the arguments tell you what the equations tell you a good fraction of you have seen this equation before Murie assualt percentage of people have seen this equation probably about a third I would say something like that does so let me tell you what this equation is this is called the Freedman robertson-walker equation it's the equation for the expansion of the universe a represents the radius of the universe at any time when physicists put a dot on top of a variable it means the time derivative of it and the left-hand side is called the rate of expansion the rate of expansion a dot is the time derivative of the radius universe is expanding a dot over a is finite and this is called the rate of expansion and the equation says that the rate of expansion is proportional to forget this number here this is a number we'll set it equal to 1 in some units or other it really is equal to 1 some Clarkie and units or some sort of units it's equal to 1 this object is the energy density or the mass density in the universe e equals mc-squared same thing and what you can say about this energy density is at least the usual sources of energy the usual types of energy density particles photons all usual things let's call the particles matter those have an energy density which decreases as the universe gets big why because it dilutes energy density dilutes as you say as you make the universe bigger same thing with radiation radiation dilutes even faster for a technical reason that I won't bother you with but there is one form of energy it's often called very mysterious I think it's not so mysterious it's called a cosmological constant or vacuum energy it exists in the world it exists in our equations that exists in quantum field theory it must exist and it does exist what's queer about it is how little of it exists but we're not going to get into that today we're just going to say there is a vacuum energy and the thing about the vacuum energy is it doesn't dilute you take a box of a certain amount of vacuum energy and you'll grow the box what happens is the density of vacuum energy stays the same now you can ask where the energy came from who that's another that's another issue it is understood it's not mysterious but there is a vacuum energy and we know that it really exists it's been measured astronomically here's the number it's even bigger it's very small but it's actually bigger than the density of ordinary material throughout space that tells us that the Friedman robertson-walker equation just has a right-hand side which is just a number it doesn't change you can solve this equation a dot over a equals the square root of lambda and the and the solution is an exponentially growing universe now that doesn't look like a finite box of a certain size that looks like a growing box and with a growing box you can get out of this problem of the Boltzmann fluctuations but this is misleading let me show you let me take you through the arguments about why this is misleading and what the equations really tell us all right first of all the universe the entire universe described by this theory is expanding exponentially that means every point is moving away from every other point moving away according to the Hubble law and the thing that's exceptional about about a cosmological constant is that the Hubble number here the relation between velocity and distance this is velocity distance from you here you are right here I'm also pretty close to there and we're looking out at some distant thing it's moving away from us because the universe is expanding and how fast is it moving out a velocity proportional to the distance away there are the coefficient here is called the Hubble constant and the special thing about vacuum energy is that the Hubble constant is truly constant it doesn't change with time that's special now this is a strange equation if you think about it what it says is if you go far enough away where D times the square root of lambda is equal to the speed of light there will be things moving away from you with the speed of light moreover if you can go further out there moving faster than the speed of light trust me this is okay this is allowed all right things moving away faster than the speed of light but you can't see them when they send signals back to you the signals are also swept up and travel away from you and so the result is that there is a certain radius called the horizon the radius of the horizon and for all practical purposes everything that you can ever see everything that you can ever know about is within that radius that radius or that shell out at that distance is called your horizon and it's very much like a black hole horizon except looked at from the end not from the inside of the black hole but it's as if there was a black hole on the outside that when things cross over into this Neverland that'd be some beyond here you'll never see them again well that's not quite the way the black holes or cosmological horizons really work the way they really work is that if you with your telescope or following something moving out you would not see it cross the horizon why not you can never see anything cross the horizon first of all you can't see anything beyond the horizon you actually can never see anything cross the horizon what you do see or what your mathematics would tell you is that as time goes on the particles the dust the galaxies asymptotically within your horizon here asymptotically approach the horizon moving slower and slower and slower freezing at the horizon that's what the equations of general relativity say very much like a black hole so here is what either what you would see through a telescope or what or what mathematics would tell you there's all your galaxies how did they form they formed perhaps by starting with some low entropy state and creating galaxies in the standard way and they start to move out they start to move out and all the particles eventually arrive near the boundary near the horizon taking longer and longer and longer to get there let me draw a picture of one way of thinking about this think of all the particles in the universe being contained within this horizon so they're within this region here and there's a potential function a potential function which looks like this you're at the center here you're exactly at the center so you will neither fall off this way or this way but something which is over here will start picking up steam and eventually fall down to here something over here will fall down to here so if this region was filled up with particles they will all fall down to here they will all fall down to here that's what's going on here and from your perspective within your telescope you will see them simply freeze and congregate or pile up pile up at the horizon that's the mathematical description the general relativity tells us is what you would see now if we add some quantum mechanics now we have to add some quantum mechanics to go next if we add some quantum mechanics the main result of quantum mechanics is that a horizon like this cannot tolerate an infinite number of degrees of freedom or an infinite number of particles all piled up like that and in fact the pile up has a finite thickness the finite thickness is proportional to H bar things cannot get that close rather the pile up piles up at a distance which is comparable to a length called plunk length these particles pile up here and because they've fallen down they have some kinetic energy and therefore they're hot this system has temperature that's a well-understood feature of spaces of this type called the sitter spaces the sitter spaces have temperature and all the thermal junk is out near the edge that's your description of the world now of course every once in a while because these particles are hot once in a while one of them will get some extra energy and jump back up to the top one particle who cares about one particle it might jump up to the top two particles might actually make it to the top even rarer so here's what we would expect to see as we follow this system particles a few particles jump up they fall back down they jump up they fall back down they jump up you can see why I have a hundred and eighty slides I think it's two hundred and thirty this keeps happening over and over but every once in a while and except that this when I say every once in a while I mean a long while every once in a while the mathematics in any case tells us that there will be an exceptionally large number of particles that jump out of the horizon and congregate somewheres a dust cloud is formed a dust cloud is formed by no mechanism that you would recognize as a standard astronomical mechanism I random fluctuation that random fluctuation might collapse to form a black hole that's a rather likely thing that it would do and this process is well understood it's been studied for many years the creation of black holes out of out of the sitter space but before it forms a black hole maybe it will not form a black hole in my former galaxy the dust cloud that this cloud may then evolve into a galaxy what were the people who live on that galaxy think they would look out and they would say gee this is interesting we are alone in the whole universe why would they be alone well the probability of making one galaxy is incredibly small by random fluctuation the probability of making two galaxies is vastly vastly smaller so the most likely thing is if you found yourself in a galaxy you would say ooh a fluctuation happened but the likelihood that a double fluctuation happened is negligible so these people would not be all that surprised that they were alone if they understood the theory of fluctuations and if they believed that their birth was due to a random fluctuation they will have a very nice theory of the world so lesson over very long timescales everything happens freak events vastly outnumber the comprehensive Belen quotes histories the ones which start with small entropy and go where we're going and the reason that the comprehensive all of normal histories are so overwhelmed by the other ones is that they be they originate from low entropy configurations which are the most unlikely something is clearly wrong with this picture we did evolve out of a out of a inflating early low entropy state I don't believe that we are simply the one part in 10 to the 10 to the 10 to the 10 to the 10th the civilizations that were just so lucky that they were the first ones to be formed and therefore were not these crazy recurrences that I think is very unlikely so something's wrong there are various possibilities of what could be wrong perhaps this idea that vacuum energy means that we live in a finite box which just recurs and recurs and recurs maybe that's wrong maybe the mathematics the quantum mechanics the combination of ideas of quantum mechanics and gravity don't really fit together and this idea that everything piles up boy – lasers whoo oh wait wait look look one of them is behind the other alright this idea of pileup here maybe that's wrong maybe the use of thermodynamics is wrong on top of everything else the timescales that we're talking about are truly vast exponentially exponentially large can we trust anything about such enormous timescales aren't we being a little bit jumping ahead of the game a little bit by assuming that we know how physics works for 10 to the 10 to the 10 to the 10th years of course we're jumping ahead something unexpected may happen in between but that's just the point that's just the point what this is telling us very likely is that something unexpected that's unaccounted for by the equations as we now know them must come into play over these very long timescales and what kind of thing might it be that was intended but I'm trying to remember what the next one is okay let me let me go through the life that didn't help up there it is here is the standard theory of the evolution of the universe this is inflationary theory inflation is the theory which was confirmed over the last few months by this famous experiment which just took place the bicep2 experiment it didn't lead to this picture it confirms this picture I'm going to tell you what the picture is there is a field the field has a name it's called the inflow time it's a field in space in that field can vary the vacuum energy depends on the value of that field so if the field is at this value here there is a large vacuum energy remember what a large vacuum energy means it means a tremendously rapid growth of expansion but it also means that the horizon is very small because you don't have to go very far until you get to the point where things are moving away with the speed of light the smaller the expansion rate the further you have to go to get to the point where you reach the speed of light and therefore the bigger the horizon this pot this pot of particles here is big when the cosmological constant or when the vacuum energy is small and it's small when the vacuum energy is big so if we start up at the top of this potential where the vacuum energy is large the observable universe within a horizon is very very small and then the standard I'm going to give you the quick nutshell version of all of cosmology the universe rolled down to the bottom where there's a little bit of vacuum energy so the universe is still expanding it's still accelerating it's still in this phase like this but much slower expansion much bigger universe but it's stuck there what happens when it gets down to here incidentally everything interesting that happened in the universe happened on the way down here while it was out of equilibrium including us with somewheres down near the bottom but we're not really at the bottom yet once it gets to the bottom that's when you're in thermal equilibrium that's when the universe has evolved to where every thing has fallen down to the sides and the sitting there in thermal equilibrium and what does it do it jiggles around there with jiggles this is not my nerves this is my purposeful jiggling right now try to stop I can't okay jiggles around here jiggles around here for how long for an immensely long amount of time every so often though it might get a fluctuation which pushes it up the hill a little bit and then it will fall back down a partial incomplete recurrence it'll do it again and again and again over and over again very very rarely will it jump up to the top and when I say rarely I mean it's the most unlikely thing the entropy up at the top here is minimal it's like all the particles having gotten up to the top you don't need all the particles to get up to the top to make a galaxy okay so that's that's the history of the universe in a nutshell a roll from a high value of the vacuum energy down to the bottom sits there for long periods of time and then now and then jumps back what would it look like from the point of view of the pictures we drew well when we're up on the top the universe or at least the horizon the portion that we can see the portion which comes into the mathematical description a quantum description of the universe is very small how small I mean really small this would be really really small up at the top of the potential I can't remember what the number is but microscopic is a lot smaller than a proton and so we sit there with a very very small universe but it rolls down the hill when it gets down to the bottom of the hill the horizon is much bigger big enough for us to live in big enough for the galaxies to live in big enough and think of these red dots now as galaxies but then it evolves it continues to evolve and expands and everything goes out toward the edges and sooner or later gets the thermal equilibrium with all the particles down the bottom here they sit there they do things a knock against each other and it's quite boring nevertheless every once in a while a few particles might jump up out and then fall back in still boring but again with a very very low rate a dust cloud may form dust cloud may form make a black hole or may make a galaxy I'm repeating I didn't make these new these are the same ones again and then evaporate back to nothingness again this is the picture that we are now stuck with over and over again the vast majority of observers are these freaks the freaks who occur for no good reason other than random things happen they vastly vastly outweigh the number of times that the universe jumps up to the top where's the top the top is gone this is where we are was stuck there was stuck there with a theory which tells us that the vast overwhelming majority of civilizations they're physicists will correctly have a theory that says that they were born at a random fluctuation they will not be surprised to find themselves alone in the world and they would consider what we see or at least an attempt to describe the universe the way we describe it as deeply deeply misguided we don't expect crazy fluctuations and the craziest fluctuation would be back all the ways up to the top something's wrong now one thing that might be wrong I'd rather think it is what is wrong is that this phase space box is not really closed and sealed imagine had a little hole in it the hole cannot be arbitrarily small for it to do its work but imagine that there was a hole in the side of the box so that the universe phase point could leak out of a box then the history would be you start I mean we still don't understand why we started here which don't understand wheel but let's take it for granted that the cosmologists are right and we did start here what will happen is we will go into the zone of life then eventually we'll leave it we will rattle around a few times maybe many times and then find the way out of the box once you're out of the box finished once you're out of the box assuming the rest is infinite assuming the rest is infinite you will not come back into the box the likelihood of coming back into the box altogether over the infinite range of time beyond that time is negligible and so once you're out you're out you will not recur again if the box was open like this and we started let's imagine the Gedanken experiment where we maybe not we maybe somebody else starts a sequence of universes starts one here and follows it so that's another one follows it the overwhelming majority of them now will pass through the zone of life only once therefore the overwhelming number of observers will see a world which is consistent with being traced back to this very early low entropy state do the equations support this view yes actually they do remember I drew that picture of the potential well I'm not I'm not the world's biggest believer in string theory although I did have something to do with it but I'm not but nevertheless string theory tells us something and the thing might be much broader and a more general in string theory what it says is that there's always a way out of this minimum here there are always vacuums in the technical jargon there are vacuums with zero cosmological constant they're super symmetric doesn't matter what you call them they are configurations where which when you leak out of here you jump around you jump around here and every so often you go over the top and you leak out here when you leak out there you do not come back there's no way back after that why because these things have zero vacuum energy and zero vacuum energy means infinitely big horizon you've leaked out to infinity if this is true it would be a way out it would not explain why we start in a particular configuration but would get us out of this trap of the recurrent nightmare of Boltzmann fluctuations um the world would look something like this then or the evolution you would start small up on the top of the potential you would fall down to the bottom get bigger you would then tunnel through to the other side and simply get big an end of story you get one shot it's a one shot universe where you get one chance to have life in it and after that finished what I am essentially finished that is a possible explanation of what's going on as I said I don't expect you nor do I think that you should be unskipable about everything I said I think you should be skeptical about it we have very little chance of extrapolating that far correctly this is what current theory is pushing us toward will surprises come in between now and the time of recurrences or whatever time it will take for people to get these things straight I rather suspect surprises will happen but nevertheless let me just leave you with a statement that I deeply believe I said it before the arrow of time is a fact of nature and needs and explanation thank so the tradition of relativity started out to the point of view and joke about well we're here about that the horizon was faced at that point you it seems like another point of view would create a different trouble two bubbles will intersect somewhere now have super hot points well okay my next lecture will be about black holes ah I think you are asking the very simple question we could which week a phrase this way imagine somebody not at rest in the center of that bubble here but imagine somebody who was actually traveling within expect with a galaxy that was falling through the where are you yeah that was falling through would they see themselves passing through the superhot region and get themselves scalded no that's the puzzle of horizons which we will come to next time next time is the puzzle the conflict of principle between information conservation which is one side of this and the equivalence principle which is the other side the equivalence principle says that somebody falling down here sees nothing special when they cross that point but the conservation of information at least from the perspective of somebody at the center says in some sense nothing really can fall through so we're gonna this is this is going to be the discussion of next time let me just say again I'll have to say trust me that that the mathematical description that we've evolved that of a kind of largely the work of people like Hawking and bekenstein and other people that that the right way to think of our description at the center of all of this is in terms of a a finite box with all of the degrees of freedom contained within that box each one has a different description and then the region of overlap they have to agree I think that's what you're asking I'm not saying but I wait until the next lecture could won't say that the unit directionality of time is just a statement about the nature of consciousness a small like we see one time but yes I don't think so because I think there's a physical fact there that that's explain now I understand what you're asking I think I don't subscribe to that view of it I do think it's a physical faculties explanation but could consciousness be part of the way we perceive time serious of course is a part of the way we perceive time nevertheless I underlined it is so fat could be well looks like us and in fact I think the way all of the way Boltzmann finally formulated it is not that the entropy always increases whatever configuration you find yourself in the next configuration is most likely to have a larger entropy but it's also true that if you just find yourself at a random point among these configurations the previous configuration also was most likely to have a larger entropy so it does come they're always this term most likely the idea that entropy always increases was misguided as Boltzmann eventually discovered and at the right statement n you might say is that entropy almost always increases so does that it does that address what you were asking yeah close it's better than nothing yeah you didn't you didn't pay much to get in here so what the hell Andy the quantum mechanics and they provide I I don't know as I said I think there's a physical fact that it needs explanation that it's continuous no no I am I think there is always a level at which it could be discrete and we wouldn't notice it I don't think anything I said really depends on on the discreteness of continuity of time the pictures that I drew of evolution were discrete okay the basic set of ideas were a sort of summary of the logic of classical mechanics in classical mechanics it's not discrete upgrading its it's um updating its solving differential equations but the idea of one arrow in and one arrow out becomes what is called levels theorem in classical mechanics what that is you recognize I said not believe it so just so that we don't need people concerned as a final question you suggested yeah yeah jump yeah before I before I lay your concerns before I lay your concerns let me make you more worried jumping to a zero cosmological constant is not an innocent thing it's true if the cosmological constant if that's all that happened and the cosmological constant suddenly became zero I don't think it would affect us very much but you're jumping over this barrier to something new to a place whether we're the parameters of physics are different where everything is different there may or may not be electrons in that world that may or may not be photons in other words physics the properties of a physical world would be very very different than addition to the cosmological constant being different everything would be different in other words it could well be a world in which atoms don't exist so that's the bad news the good news is that such events are exponentially unlikely um the let's see where was it where was the picture let me redraw the picture over here a picture that we dump this and then we do that the time scale for the penetration through here is very very sensitive to the parameters of this bump it's all it's typically exponentially long times but it's ten billion years exponentially long yeah it's exponentially in something namely the log of ten billion so so there's no good reason why it couldn't happen tomorrow but if you take some simple reasonable parameters for the is coming out of various kinds of particle physics frameworks you might expect that the time scales are much much longer than the age of the universe but you know I don't think anybody has a precise theory of this could be come out of it I cannot not tomorrow that next lecture is Wednesday

Day In The Life Of A Singapore Exchange Student – NUS Dorm/Campus Tour

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University life in Singapore is incredible. As I attend exchange at the National University of Singapore, I want to share with you my ordinary school day, from morning to night.

Have questions about NUS life? Singapore? Exchange? Let me know in the comments below! Subscribe to stay updated!

SPECIAL THANKS to Reihan for filming!

Hunza Sundal:
Julyna Jadulang:
Judy Sin:

Prince George’s Park Residence (PGPR):
Mochtar Riady Building (NUS Business School):
The Deck:
University Town (UTown):
Stephen Riady Swimming Pool:
Stephen Riady Gym:
Mac Commons:
Fine Food:



so you want to know what a day in the life is like as an exchange student at the National University of Singapore close your eyes or days about to begin good morning another day and you pets rushing from a class as usual today's going to be an ordinary day nothing special I started off with my normal morning routine Singapore is hot so simple t-shirt and some shorts and I'm good to go thank goodness I don't live on the eighth floor although there is an elevator so it's not too bad for them I live at Prince George's Park residents this is one of the dormitories on the NUS campus and although being one of the older ones still pretty comfortable and relaxing to stay yet it's got a good mixture of both full-time and exchange students now NUS is so big that they run their own internal bus system I don't need to pay anything I just hop on and start my day this semester I'm taking a variety of different course subjects but as a business student I spend most of my class time at the NUS business school I'm in awe every time I come here this place is modern its sleek and there's always something going on here from hiring fairs to free stuff I'm lucky to have this building as my faculty home made it to class and us classes are pretty good there's some great professors and cool subjects and they usually last from three hours to two hours and they can get tiring sometimes after class a head to the deck or any of the many food canteens on campus all of them have unique stalls different cuisines and the food is generally pretty good they've got drinks and snacks vegetarian meat fresh fruits everything you want is here and it's all relatively affordable I don't call a good lunch unless I have it with some great people not only can I look at their delicious food but lunchtime is a great time to socialize all the friends I've met at NUS have been awesome they all come from different ethnicities and backgrounds and they all carry with them their own unique story after all my classes are done for the day I take a bus straight to this place every time this is my favorite spot on campus and is the hub for all things student life this is University town people always talk about the infinity pool on top of the Marina Bay Sands well NUS it's got its own infinity pool and it's open for all students Newtown is a great spot to study and there's always student life and activities going on here the stay in shape I go to the you town gym successful for all students and has all the equipment and tools I need to get a good workout after my workout I head over to the Mac Commons where I finally begin to study NUS provides some pretty powerful Mac's loaded with creative software so I edit my videos here too once it's dinnertime I head over to one of two new town food canteens fine food this place is fully air-conditioned and it is lively there are people here all the time and there's so many different types of food that there's no way that you can leave here without eating something after I'm done eating I return my tray to either the wall or non-halal shelf this place is inclusive nighttime in Singapore's warm there's no sun shining on you and it's relaxing I take one last bus back to pgp where I'm welcomed home every time I set my alarm clock hop on my bed and I close my eyes for the adventure tomorrow hey it's Jenson yeah I don't eat breakfast in the morning and yeah I don't sleep with the blanket because Singapore is so hot if you're planning to go to NUS or you're thinking of wanting to go here hopefully this video gave you a good overview and if you're not going here well now you know what I'm up to let me know in the comments below if you have any questions about Singapore and us you name it I'll answer them other than that be sure to like subscribe [Applause]

Day in the Life of an Oxford University Student #3 – First Year Archaeology & Anthropology

Views:56626|Rating:4.75|View Time:16:36Minutes|Likes:514|Dislikes:27
I decided to start the video at midnight of the day so it’s a full ‘What I do in 24 hours’. It shows how loopy staying up so late makes you 😉
What I wanted with this video is to show you all that it’s not purely stressful or purely academic, there’s always something fun going on and I’m usually involved in it!

I do not own any of the music used – the background track is from the youtube music library and the snippets of Twenty One Pilots are just off Spotify (unless you can’t hear any and then they’ve been taken off for copyright) – cry

Don’t forget to like, comment and subscribe – let’s try and get 150 likes on this one! xxxxx

Follow/message me on instagram: @just_a_little_roo

Anya’s instagram: @realhealthyfood
Anya’s youtube: Anya Sophie

Special thanks to Hamish, Louis, Polly, Lucy and Mark for starring in this video xxxxxxx

chicken neck up on a righty so this is micro and si I'm quite enjoying it although I've done like a really long time so it's like 1500 words and I tend to do that because it helps when you write it thing is I always seem to get stuck on the introduction it takes like an hour to write the introduction and that's just because I can't have a wording right hey guys welcome back to my channel I am filming another what I do in a day as you can tell there's no natural light which is because I have decided to film my what I do in a day from midnight the night before because I'm already awake I'm currently writing an essay still that was Gio at 5 p.m. I think the only reason I haven't handed it in yet is because I've been procrastinating for hours but I did make a masterpiece you see I have been learning I have this big book have this big book and it has a lot in there and a lot pictures and I just need something I just need a thing and I was very very proud I'm going to attach it to my ass and hope my teacher likes it so basically I Facebook to myself with different hominids picture starts will you do when it's nearly one o'clock in the morning and you're an archeology student I've written a lot I've written more than I'm supposed to write I haven't finished yet which is really annoying because it means a lot carry on even though I've done like too much honey but I can't stop now there's still got all of these bullet point units to do I'm actually going to check if I throw cool things because it sounded thinking oh my gosh in my thighs I did exercise I think it's yes so we'll just put that back now Rivera is a because honestly one eternity later what just finished earn it five to five obviously though it didn't feel like it took that long and I'm genuinely only just getting tired so everyone Dubrow sleep in my shoots not until 1:00 so I can sleep in all morning if I want to yes fine I finished it and I'm happy with it and that's all that matters really I guess so I'll carry on this video once I wake up okay so it's I thought you had stuck in morning and so it's now about 10 to 12 and I woke up about 4 past 11:00 on a nice sleep in and put my washing away well most of it and then tidied up a bit and started kind of pressing some things I need ironing when I go home because it's a hassle to iron here is not really equipment you have to buy yourself which is annoying so that tend to hide anything but while it's out I will so now I'm going to have a shower and then probably even after you straight to my tube from there but I might have a bit time talking to hope so yeah I will see you when I finished the copper it is so funny it's not been funny in a long time it's gorgeous hopefully it's skills for me in the north I am our solemn Omaha and then about 45 minutes if have something to eat um some premature I just like to do a bit of reading because I said I was gonna do some reading and finish another essay today but I'm obviously started with using up soil as my Atma sleep so well we'll get to it now Oh I know this is really weird but it actually tastes amazing and with a lot of protein in it so I have no regrets upstairs it's not very hot cuz I don't cook the beans for long enough because I checked my clock and it caught us one on my cheats a half past so I've literally got to inhale this and then run but yeah high protein and high carb so it will get me through which is quicker than my breakfast or lunch chef I think it Mac it's very hard now what you totally counsel so I didn't actually to rush my food and now I get to spend an extra hour and a half working on my breathing which is good so I'm going to be doing that all the way through until probably about how us for when it will be getting ready to meet Anya and go to the union to watch some women's rights speaker I actually call them in the name after a bad book yeah it looked interesting so I'm gonna take onion so this is the reading list for one of my essays next week the read writing is what I am doing and then the other different colors of what different people in my class are doing because we decided to split them so that it's more efficient as you can see I've highlighted one because I've just finished that one and it's up there and yeah I'm going to do the next one I get back from seeing a Nia and hopefully now I I just realize that on the whole thing really close so I'll try that again and basically one unit rindy this week is to my reading for both my essays to you next week kind of along side each other so that I'm not bulking them all up in a big pile and then having to do the night before because it's really not an efficient technique and I need to learn from my mistakes so now I am doing raised me onion roses doing did not fall and meeting our court v just that psychology when I watch this talk did I actually explained how honey is gonna get in so Amelia did make you name it a while ago and she is real healthy food on Instagram and alia Sophie on YouTube and she's amazing and she walks through doctor too so I'm doing the best I can to kind of help her have the best chance of getting is what I was trying to say because I feel like was the point in being at an institution like this if you can't kind of reuse your opportunity to help others that makes a little I'm doing my youtube like I don't know anything really about authors how to get in different colleges at all before I got here so I think that there really needs to be more of that on the exercise just to help people who haven't kind of been conditioned into going to offer the whole lads I have parents and siblings that are there and know that what what what are they actually doing that they know that it's not something that's all available to them and that they can do it yeah that's that's my vision don't suspect I've not actually filmed in here yet Oh Oh okay so it is about twenty five or six and I just returned back from spending a couple of hours of amnio so I've now got about half an hour to get ready for my domestic social which is called sticky and stir-fries with just a film and stir fries basically but I'm not going to save the film because I have another social which is a bar crawl but I'm just going to join it back here at half the fun can I say yeah I mean like there's my doggie door it was a very bright color yeah poor multi-coloured bit wrong with it I think they do a stronger I'll burn your way home dude you wanna hit our cotton like get in the bin let me smell your sausage so this awesome I think I'll go like amazing who can someone will see your blinders back six chickens back up on your life tape job and loving it you need to come on the little birdie you in the bed know is the best cholesterol high but I will go ahead why do your job is strong like purple whole mess I've got nothing apart from something with a slogan on it so right you know I mean yeah I've never been so gay clubs for quickly yeah discussion in sorry Malik going to mail although I'm not there the satisfy the canvas but you want much garbage Michelle all rub into the bed of you like just don't let the shirt hey okay I really used to be time for me look you made of of God give some mr. teenage just a baby since you I made and baby with me oh do I need this no I don't know so they have all gone out to the Dragonite which is a plush which is a gay club and it is probably one of the best clubs for liveliness and like events that they put on ever actually be into any yet but as you can see hey mister stop LuAnn closer allure is based on the girls in it run them too and that's just the general vibe they have like live act and sing as well and if I wasn't going home at 9 o'clock tomorrow morning and I was definitely going to but my family comes first so I don't want to be tired for them as I've got seeing them Anita so all those up obviously really flying and so I just need to get that so I've packed and yeah this is me signing off so I hope that you enjoyed this video then it showed you a bit because I know that you will very academic sense doesn't really show what it outside of that so I hope this shows that also can be fun as well as stuff but at the same time this video has shown how late people stay up to try this at work so yeah balance balance is key and I didn't film my giraffe so when Leslie social because I forgot my camera and then we didn't film in a bar because I it was Timoney and I would have dropped it or some wouldn't have wanted to be film or something else not fair so yeah thank you for watching if you if you enjoyed it please give a thumbs up if not if not then olive to watch it but comment down below any requests 500 subs on YouTube requests any video style any hints or tips etc etc and make sure you subscribe for more content so thank you for watching love you bye nice

Study With Me IN UNIVERSITY! (4 HOURS) #122

Views:46312|Rating:4.88|View Time:4:4:47Minutes|Likes:675|Dislikes:16
Today I’m in at the library!
Each time AFTER 45 MINUTES, I take a 5 MINUTE BREAK 😀
So I’ll take breaks at :
I’ll be studying for organic chemistry today! 😀

Study with me! This is a live event. You are surrounded by many other studying students.
This video is intended to motivate you to study or get started studying. I can do it, so can you!

My study calendar :
(aka when I’ll be live streaming)

Subscribe to become a study buddy and be part of the study buddy community!

If you find this helpful, reward me with giving this video a thumbs up! 🙂

• MUSIC to listen to while studying:
– My favorite playlist on Spotify (calm piano music):

– Great classical music to study to by Mozart:

– Classical music + rain in the background:

This calms me down so much!
– My favourite calm soundtrack:

– Soundtrack of Simcity 4 (calming or lifting the mood)


I use this noise to mute all other surrounding noises that might distract me from studying.

• You can FOLLOW ME on:
– Twitter:
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• FAQ:
– Age? 19 years old
– Degree? Industrial Engineering (Chemistry)
– High school or collage? 2nd year of university
– Where are you from? Belgium

You can do it.

I love you guys so so much and see you soon 🙂 ♥

Heleen ♥

PS If you’re reading this, write ‘I found a bonus point!’ in the chat 😀
Good luck, I love you ♥♥


Views:270567|Rating:4.92|View Time:34:39Minutes|Likes:9179|Dislikes:148
Sooooo I may have gone a bit crazy buying stuff for my first year of university! I hope you enjoy this #backtoschool #backtouniversity haul!

everybody welcome back to my channel so today's video is going through the video that I think everyone has Loki been waiting for like don't even lie and he is my university hall shopping vlog so today I'm with my mom and she's taking me to Donnell IKEA on the range why do you steal music so loud I actually don't dance a sec after being slightly deafened by mom's loud music we're gonna go and buy everything that I need I have my university packing list here and I have my 10% off Janelle here and yeah I'm gonna take you along with me and then show you what I bought when I get back so this is gonna be a very long video like a food in our book yeah all you will abou be there we thinking this one so single they've got double if what King they've got sued King got single come on that's unfair or they have the oxygen pillows as well on to the nice ladies yeah oh yeah for sure that's nice does it come with a pillowcase can we get one of these ones then as well yeah yeah will do I get to spine expressed I've lots of cushions on your bed picking out duvets now mom knows a lot more about this than I do we've done the bed in not bad that was actually what I was going for but I think actually it might be quite nice to have a different color to my room don't you think – my main room we're gonna get a 15 top do though because the party is supposed to get a nice warm one for university I think we'll go for I don't know which one do you think well 13 an hour if you repeat it I don't know socks worth they're probably in like old rooms and then do Barry's got to do Bay's and you can take them out that's quite fun you know what these ones super full springs back I want big fluffy full ones they feel quite nice this is the important bit this is what will make my life or break my life that you know on a luxury map yeah that looks nice doesn't it yeah can I wash it you have the air machine washable yeah great dark this is the boring stuff so that was successful you had not too bad not too much never done more now we're off to ikea ikea ikea yeah yeah IKEA it's gonna be round because it's a Sunday we're going to do super speedy shop Oh God look at it so busy where people go to die oh my gosh I just met a lovely Bavarian IKEA Oh JA to say because I edit them it's lovely to meet you anyway get some sleep um so much to choose from there that's the poplar do you want everything don't ya it's very busy today isn't it mom [Applause] edit to the range this one's a lot less busy than IKEA so hopefully this one will be a little bit better oh sorry mom I'm going out to the range have hidden them a bit sort of all over the place because they're having a real gig but it's still really cool look at when this is the conclusion of that shop whoopsie Daisy oh my gosh so much now I suppose I better fill the hall there I'm now back and oh my gosh there's so much to show you just a disclaimer first off this isn't everything obviously there's a couple of bits and bobs that I still need to get like hangers and then launcher basket which you know like so don't use this as a packing list because that would be a waste of time but I always say yes it's a lot of stuff and no it didn't exactly come to a very cheap amount but that being said this is all gonna last me for the whole atomic uni so it's an investment and who doesn't like a bit of shopping – goodness so I'm just gonna get the expensive thing out the way and so I bought myself a Roberts radio I bought this one myself like my mum didn't – this is my mom's one actually but my one hasn't come yet so I thought I'd just add this in i if you know me I listen to the radio like constantly I have Spotify I just prefer the radio so I wanted to get myself a nice radio for while I was away and it also acts as a portable speaker as well so I can like use it to connect to what's it called to my phone and use it as a portable speaker for parties and things – and so I got myself one of these and this was 130 pound which is very expensive but I have I literally keep using my mom's I use it so much that she was like just get your own one please because I never get to use it so it will get a lot of use out there and when I'm at uni I can imagine I'll be listening to the radio a lot and this color because it kind of matched the most of my color scheme why don't you have a kind of scheme but I like this kind of the most so yeah so I'm gonna start with done our mill I'm not gonna dwell too much on each item because there's so much that we've behaved ever but I have kept the receipts so I can tell you exactly how much everything was because I feel like with a video like this you're gonna want to know obviously if you're watching this you're probably looking to go to Union yourself or you just like home Wells either it's fine with me okay so the first thing I got from dollar mill was this little basket here this is because I'm probably like 90% gonna have a shared bathroom so I wanted to get a little basket that I could take all of my like shampoo conditioner and things that I need to take with me into the bathroom and this I think it was 4 pounds on yeah this was 4 pounds so I thought that this would be really really useful just to carry stuff back and forth from the LA through the next thing I got was this cushion here this was 14 pounds it's just a really big fluffy cushion that I thought would look really nice on my bed I bought quite a few cushions because I want like a really nice bed area because I'll be spending a lot of my time there so yeah there's almost 14 pounds and it's the chunky wreckin cushion in navy I also got this one cuz I quite like long cushions as well this one was I can't see it on here I think it was around the same price as the other one this one's a slightly longer one and I really liked the design of this one and it matches really well with the bedding and with the other question I suppose I also got this fitted soft touch sheets this was $9.99 and I bought two of these I bought a gray one I don't know where the grey one is it's down there somewhere but I bought this one and I bought a gray one because I thought I'm probably gonna want to change my she liked to like light or dark dependent on summer winter and I don't know I just really like this one and you'll see why in a sec when I show you the bedding but yeah this was only $9.99 so this was the bedding that I got so it's a it's the 18 pounds and it's the soft handle capillo papilio duvet set so I don't know if you can see but hold on trying that the reflection wait that's what it looks like on the bed and yet I just got this one because I absolutely loved it I thought it was gorgeous and I thought I wanted a different sort of patterns what I've got at home and yeah this one's reversible as well so on the back has a different pattern I'll show you that pattern when I show you the pillowcase but it's reversible so I can either have this like floral pattern or if you can see in there that's like a blue floral pattern I'll show you in a sec so it's this pattern basically I've got one of these and it's the oxford pillow that's good right I didn't actually notice that until now but it has like the rim around the edge like oh I can't show you so it looks like that really really pretty and that's too much more do they set the duvet I actually bought was this one so it's the fog 8515 talk do they so 15 talk is like the thickest one you can get but I bought the All Seasons one so not only is it machine washable it's basically to do they stuck together so in the summer you can literally just rip one of them off and then that means that you've got a seven-five duvet which is what you have to job in the summer so I bought this one because I thought it would be quite versatile and this was 30 pounds which is quite a lot but I thought I want a decent do you babe because apparently rooms Oxford because the colleges are quite old can get very cold so I got that one because I thought would be good then I also got this cushion which is my favorite one it was do not know how much it was 20 pounds was just so much precaution to joke by so pretty and I thought again it matched the duvet and I can't cope without one cuddly cushion because I like to cut a look at night and this one is just so gorgeous and matches really well with this sort of theme I was going for so yeah the last question I got was the one that went with the duvet set so this is like made to go with the duvet set and it's just this one it's really really pretty and it was 15 pounds these cushions are so expensive I know but I thought well my mom thought invest in good bedding because that's kind of what makes your room feel like your house in a way so yeah this one's 15 pounds and again just to go with the teal maybe grace or theme and then blanket wise I just got this one on the end so this was reduced to 8 pounds and it's just a black a great dark grey place a throw it's just a fleece there are nothing special just to go on the end of the bed I'll probably end up getting another blankie because I get very cold but we'll have to see how Dube is like yeah from Danelle my also got this this is a mattress topper it's the rebound mattress topper it's springy and it's machine washable and it has like elasticated as well so basically this is just to make sure that a my bed is comfy and B that I don't know there's like a layer between the actual mattress and me this is 26 pounds I really hope I have a single bed because if not we may get ourselves in some problems for her usually I think it's a single bed so yeah what pillow wise I got this same brand so the Fogarty super full pullo's pillow so these were two for 10 pound which I thought was reaching and they're quite like springy and they're like spring back to shape which is what I like I don't like ones that keep it down in them so yeah there's nothing really much to say but they're just pillows this was the other sheet that I got it was a non iron fitted sheet fitted sheet fitted sheet and this was $8.99 so yeah that one this is gonna be really hard to show without basically got this error or clotheshorse or whatever you want to call it so it's a three tiered one because I have a lot of clothes I do get like a heated war anything I think it was necessary but this is just pretty and it folds flat which I liked and it's very easy to clean so I remember how much this was hold on let me see it was 10 pounds that's quite good to be fair I think 10 pounds for that then I got some towels so I already have and as I'll show you in a bit to beach tiles I'm taking with me for my hair cuz I like using those on my hair but I got myself a hand towel in this sort of dusky gray color cuz I really like this color and it's a Gyptian cotton and this is in the color of stone and then I also got a big big towel in those colors so these are both in the color stone and these were the small one with six pound and the big one was 18 pounds so very very soft and hopefully will last me the whole time I'm at uni then I got this little ironing board for 8 pound its tabletop worn so I can just put it on my desk and I hopefully this will be good because I will have to do ironing it you need for like four walls and just when I need something that not crease and I don't just want to leave it to decrease itself so yeah this was eight pound and I thought that the pattern was really pretty and it's just got little legs to put it up on the table top the next thing I got was this iron I think this was a tenner I'm pretty sure let me have a look it's literally the essentials the cheapest iron I could find this was eight pounds like what a bargain probably won't be the best tire but does that really matter probably not and the last thing I got from Donnellan was this extension need this was like 15 pound I think which is so expensive but it has them USB ones so it's got four plugs and two USB ones which will be really really useful and I'm gonna get another one from Wilco I think but yeah 15 pounds not bad need to get a slightly longer one though because this one's only 2 meters so that's not really like gonna cut it but it'll do for now so that was everything I got from to now I also got 10% off so I managed to save like 25 pound I think so yet Jonin was the most expensive place we went but that was where I kind of got all the bedding and stuff from but we got everything else from Ikea or the range because it's a bit cheaper than delao usually so moving on to the range because that was the next well that was the third place to learn but it was the closest stuff to me so this was a little bit cheaper but still quite expensive I didn't realize how expensive uni shopping would be but it was so busy everywhere that we will it's just grabbing stuff throwing it in the basket and thinking that'll do that'll do that'll do and so first thing I got was this mixing bowl I don't really need to explain that do I how much was that issue do you not remember how much any of these things were and I bought them like 20 minutes ago this was a pound so really not and breaking the back too much there then I got a kettle right you guys know how much I love my tea so I want to have like a little tea station so bought like a tray and then like a tea caddy and then a kettle so that all of my tea stuff is in one place so I got this black one doesn't really match anything but I really liked it and it has a rapid boil function which is good for me so it just boils for like one cup of tea rather than you happen to wait and this was oh gosh this was 20-pounder thing yeah this is 20-pound say quite a lot but I wanted one that I could like rely on I feel like this is gonna be a good one for that then I got to nonstick oven tray I got a slightly smaller black one so that I could put it in without taking up too much room I'm actually catered so well no I'm catered Monday to Friday but I only have one meal on a Saturday and Sunday so I'm gonna have to cook myself that weekend so I have bought kitchen stuff but not loads of kitchen stuff because obviously if I am cooking it's going to be something basic like pasta or like ready meal food so yeah I got this medium one here and then it also got this one and these were Lord knows how much these are honestly this one was $2.99 and this one was a pound so these were super cheap the next thing I got was not an essential but everybody said you needed a doorstop so I thought I was looking for a door wedge like just a little cheap one and then I saw this little guy he's a fox I'm gonna call him the freshest Fox because apparently you're supposed to keep your door open during freshers so that people can socialize of you so this is mine he was 599 and he's very very cute and I know that's a total waste of money but he's adorable so I'm not complaining I already have a lot of photo frames but I have a few photos that I don't have like any frames for so I've got these really really cheap photo frames I got a 8 by 6 inch one and a 6 by 4 inch one I thought these literally would go with any color scheme any room because I mean look at them they're gorgeous and these were 2 pound 19 for the small one and 299 for the big one which I think was a very good value as you can tell done Elm was really expensive compared to the range and the same with Ikea like don't Elm is just so much more expensive than everywhere else but I wanted good quality bedding and I've had IKEA duvets before and I don't like them that much so I thought I'd invest in decent quality bedding and then get everything else cheaper I also got a measuring jug because you never know when you're gonna need this if it's just to make pancakes or whatever and this was 79p bargain I also got a sponge so this is just a big sponge of it was to actually again super super cheap I think these what h9p so very very useful because obviously I'm going to be needed to do some washing up at the weekends I also got some dish cloths these were around one-pound 79 I'm pretty sure yeah one pound 79 so I just got two dish cloths because I thought I'll probably lose one of them so these were super super cheap got a set of three tea towels and these were these were $4.99 that took me so long to find just three tea tiles very very simple very very easy and everything is falling apart by me great I also got two sets of oh these are different ones I don't mean to do that okay I've got some heavy-duty command hooks and some normal command hooks these are just good for hanging up like fairy lights and things which I'm probably gonna buy from Argos later so these are just for putting stuff on the wall without being problematic essentially and with that I also got some like normal command strips for the wall as well to have got flags and posters and what-have-you because those are very very useful and they were all $2.99 each which is quite expensive what you don't want to lose you to pass it on the room or whatever you pay in and because that would not only be disrespectful to way of saying but like annoying you know so then I got this which was $1.99 it's literally just to hang over the door hopefully I'll have like enough space to handle this somewhere at least and that's just my dressing-gown because I need my dressing down in my life then I got this slotted spoon which was 1 pound 38 reduced from one pound 72 and because apparently my mom says that this will be very very useful yeah this wasn't very expensive it's actually just a slotted spoon and dishwasher safe not that I'll have a dishwasher but then I got its really wrapped up in bubble wrap you can't really see it but it's just a tea holder this was like $5.99 I think yeah $5.99 and this is because I wanted to put this on my cute little tray which I'll show you in a minute just to put my tea bags and things in you know and finally I got a reed diffuser it's just a Kashmir flower box you're not allowed candles and this was $4.99 and I just thought this would be nice to have in my room to make sure it smells nice I am gonna buy like Febreze and all that close to the time but obviously all of that is just gonna come from supermarkets oh yeah so oh and the last thing I forgot but I got from the range was this over the door mirror so you can see my room there but literally this is just a giant sort of mirror that folds over your door which means that I can have it on the back of my door because I really uniform at premier everyone was like you need a full-length mirror so I thought I'll get myself one and this was only ten pound I thought that was so good so yeah that's what I got from the range I've never been to the range before but I absolutely people have been loving it the next place I went was IKEA we literally did like here in 30 minutes because it was so busy but we literally did like a stealth mission trying to get all of these so hopefully I'll be able to tell you where everything is from but there's a lot here so you have to bear with me a little bit so I've got two plates – two big plates and two bowls so the balls I got with these ones because they're literally beautiful I thought that these would be in like distinctive enough that you know that they're mine but they also much like everything else I've bought and these are two-pound 25 each which I thought was really good and then I also got these plates these were also two-pound 25 each I just got two of those and then I also got the big plate account these were two pounds 75 each so that's what these look like so it's a kind of a matching set I didn't think I'd need much more because obviously I'm catered so I'll only really need it like for like maybe some quick cereal at night or just to make a quick meal so that was really really well priced I thought next thing I got was this colander because let's be real if I am gonna be cooking for myself it's gonna be pasta I literally can't remember how much this was it was very very cheap indeed this was one pound fifty which I thought was a bargain then I've got this wok well okay it's like a big enough frying pan that I can use it as a walk as well as a frying pan so because I thought there's no point in going to because if I'm making a stir for I can make it in this but if I'm frying some french toast I can also make it in this and this was 15 pounds which is quite a lot I thought I've already got my mom's already got pots and pans so I'm not buying all of that like I've already got quite a lot of my kitchen stuff so I thought may as well splash out on a nice pan / wok / whatever that is then I've got two chopping boards I didn't think I'd need much more than that just a little small one maybe for me and then the big one for vegetables and this was I'm really struggling you know there's actually so many things on here to pound so very very well-priced then I'm assuming I'll get a wardrobe I really bloody hope I do and if I do get a wardrobe I got one of these skub like storage drop-down storage trays because I get really stressed having to leave my clothes in piles so I thought this would be quite useful to put like things in that I want to put in my wardrobe but I don't want to have sort of hanging about and this was this was 7 pounds so hopefully I'll be able to use it and if not I'll put it in my wardrobe at home because I will use at home then I've got this oven mitt just a simple of a mitt it was like the cheapest one they had just in case I need to use that this was Lord knows how much this was it's just three pounds then I got these filing trays because I thought I'm gonna want something on my desk to organize my desk so I just got these really really cute little white foiling and not what they called like the things that you put the papers in like in out and shake it all about and this was 9 pounds 50 which is quite a lot of I thought they were very cute then I bought this tray because I thought this would look really cute with like the cattle on the tea caddy it's a bit big and I'm not gonna lie I don't know if I've got just the drawers I'll put it on there but if I don't have a chest of drawers this may be slightly problematic because yeah but hopefully I'll be able to have someone to put this and if not I'll just use it as like a food tray for what I'm bringing cups of tea to people or whatever I'm doing and this was all Lord knows like this doesn't even have a document number name this was 7 pound I thought this was really really nice and it's quite heavy duty it doesn't feel like tacky or anything so yeah I really really like to start then I got this set of six glasses oh I already have quite a few like just glasses hanging about but they are just like sort of indented like really really nice and these with four pound for six passes and I thought I'm not really gonna need more than six left as am i I'm not even gonna need more than one but I thought I'd get six just in case and people want you to drink or something now for the most useless purchase of the whole thing but I wanted it so I got it anyway this is a mug tree this was seven pound fifty this is to hang my mugs on because I didn't buy any mugs because I have so many of my own but I thought this would look cute on the trades like hang all my mugs on and yeah that was my vibe I also got some food containers so I got a deep one this one and then I got two because I thought like if I'm freezing pasta sauces and things these might be quite useful and these weren't very expensive I'm pretty sure they were like ordinary the lids were one pound each and then the actual boxes were one pound each as well apart from this one with one pound 75 so again very very cheap I got these knives for chopping things I suppose these again were not very expensive these but eight pound three 9 which I thought was decent and I'm not going to need anything more than that realistically started to get a bit ridiculous but I wanted some greenery in my room so I got this fake plant which was like one pound fifty I think it was this whole video just gonna be me looking at this receipt two pound fifty what a bargain and then I also got the plant pot that was with it because it matched my duvet well that's that and this was this was six pound what a waste of money but hey hey so I've got these three tubs as well which one 95 P just for taking sandwiches and stuff out with me if I'm going to lectures or doing whatever students do I then got this 12 7 o 16 so I've got her in which I'm not going to need but they didn't have anything smaller than 16 set these are the cheapest ones that they had and these were gone for how much they were three pounds 75 16 which I thought was decent and I think got this potato masher I cannot remember for the life of me how much this was I don't know what it's going to be called on here it's definitely not going to be called potato masher oh it actually is five pound which it's ridiculous amount to pay for potato masher but it's the only one that they had I then got these this little pack of just a wooden spoon and a spatula and a fork and these were about a three pound I think and then I also got to a little pen containers to my desk I didn't again I wasn't really fussed about these look like as long as they contained pens that's all that matters and these were I can't find how much these well I am actually really struggling to find how much all these things were then because I'm extra I also got this like hanging plant which I thought I could put hopefully I'll have a wardrobe but I can like hang this over just to make my room look a bit greener because I don't you look dead this was six pound and then I got this little silver pot to go with it like that thought it looked really cute and silver pot was TP what a bargain I also got like a bikie a bag I don't know how much this was I think it was two pound fifty but I thought this would be really useful for carrying laundry or something I don't know but my mom was like get one of these and it's pink so I mean I'm not saying no to that I also got a spatula do you not know how much this was I think it's like one pound fifty something like that very very cheap very very nice good for my fish fingers time because I'm extra I also got this pie plan this one was too expensive probably it was six pound again and the pots was one pound 75 so that's enough plants I think hopefully my room will look green enough now then I also got I'm not gonna like go through the prices for these these were all under two pounds but these got a pad to the book pair of scissors well two pairs of scissors a can opener a bottle opener and a potato peeler because they're all just things that I feel like I'm probably gonna need at some point so that was everything I got from Mike here and the last thing I have to show you is a miscellaneous bag full of things that I've been collecting for university obviously I still have bits to get I still have like a laundry basket to get which I'll insert here I've ordered it it's coming today and a printer insert here I've got a very cheap printer and I'm just doing instant ink so I pay like three pound a month and I can just print a certain amount of page and then just deliver ink to your door because although my college has printing it's quite expensive and like I just don't want that last-minute stress or I'll just have a printer in my room I can use myself so yeah I'll insert those here and I'm gonna show you some of the random stuff I've got now I feel like this video may actually been along this video on my channel a part for my a level vlogs so when I went to Germany and we went to McDonald's and they were doing their free glass deal and because we all got a meal I'm asked to get four of them so I've got the red coat curved glass the gold coated bars the orange coca-cola box and the blue one so that's why I only bought six classes for thought I've got these as well so I didn't like too many but these were free so well free with a free chicken select meal I'm summer in the city I actually got a Mamma Mia goodie bag and this in here is a Mamma Mia here we go again beach towel it's just the same pattern us on here I would not go take out it took me ages to get it back in but I thought I'd take this because I like these sort of towels on my hair rather than thick thick towels so yeah I've also got this Mamma Mia here we go again a bag which I'm going to take because laundry or something I don't know it's gonna come in useful I can feel it whether it's just to take it to a picnic or whatever I know that I'm gonna use this also got some pin badges are these useful absolutely not am I going to take them I absolutely am that's what they look like there's the the world this life is short the world is wide some dungarees and some sunglasses that's it useless but I'll find something to pin them on I'm sure I've also got some clusters from Tiger don't know where these came from but they'd be useful now I have mugs so I have my Mamma Mia mug and what a surprise I have my zoella cozy vibe smug because I like this mug it's a nice size I have my favourite mug which is my globe ever bridgewater RSC one which has got loads of Shakespeare quotes on it because I've wrapped them up already I have this mug which is a Germany rudesheim mug it's just a see-through one I really like see-through mugs I like being FC ot this was six euros I also have this one from some tant on which is apps it huge and it says in German and if you're not happy and you don't feel great pack your stuff and go to Tirol which in german rhymes and this is huge and I thought this one was just really pretty it's obviously not gonna fit on my mug thing but I love mugs I literally have got nine mugs to take to uni even though obviously I only need one because I just like having them like on show I've also bought and I can't show you this one properly but it's like a Verona mug so this one's just got loads of the sites from Vernon on because Corona was very pretty the next thing I got which isn't very easy to show you because they've all fallen out now so I got this triple frame from Amazon and inside there's three of these there's like quotes from The Tempest which I got from Stratford when I went so imagine these three postcards but in the frame so that's to go in my room and it's just nice like design I thought the design was really pretty and again matches with my bedding so win-win situation there I've also got this which I got for four euros and it's a light-up e again Thor would look nice somewhere I'm sure I'll be able to fit it in my room somewhere and yeah it was very cheap and pretty I also got the flag which is all of the German federal states because I thought it would look nice on the pin board while the pin boards a bit empty just have something colorful in my room and also to show that I am a linguist and I do in fact know something about Germany yeah and I've got this ravenclaw coaster because I have about nine coasters but I'm only gonna take two with me and this is one of them it was from the Harry Potter shop at Kings Cross and I'm a Ravenclaw also thought that would be nice I've got another tea towel this is more of a decorative tea towel and it's a bit thinner so it probably went with that useful but it was only 2 euros and it's from from Lake Garda so it's like an Italian tea towel that shows the whole of Italy again I just thought this was really pretty I like to take like souvenir II sort of stuff to uni so I can feel like remind myself of places that I've been and inspires me to study languages you know I got this from a service station it's in German and it says some things are better left alone or better left to lie me in bed for example thought that was good I've also got these mini clip string lights which I'm going to take with me don't know where I'm gonna put these but I thought if I print off some Polaroids these would look nice and they light up different colors if you can see so I thought those were really really nice and would be a nice effect to my room I'm not gonna open this up but I also got a lake garda towel so it's just another beach towel because they're really really nice on my hair and like they don't feel horrible I actually don't know what half of this stuff is it's like a surprise for me as well but honestly cotton and what I bought have all of my shot glasses because I thought I'm going to need shot glasses at uni so I have one from Dublin one from Paris one from New York and another one from Venice these all from the Hard Rock Cafe I did I did like I was going to collect them one from each Hard Rock Cafe I went to but a lot of the time I kind of forgot so I have four but yeah I thought those would be useful at uni very expensive shot busses but that's the cheapest thing you can buy from the Hard Rock Cafe so table loads of tickets and things that I want to put up on my wall it's like a pin board to remind me of places that I've traveled also have a pack of cards because you can't go to uni without a pack of cards I also have this spoon which I'm going to put on my little tray to put tea bags on because I thought it was cute and it's from Lake Garda again really really nice and I also have quite a few things of the shpigelsky I'm gonna say I haven't read a lot of them yet and they were quite expensive so hopefully they'll come in useful at uni I thought this would just look nice on the desk or something I don't know to make me look like I'm literate and I'm actually interested in what are happening in Germany and then it finally I just have six bottles of Jager because these were one euro each and a corner shop in Germany so I thought what better way to start Union than to take 640 Jager oh and the last thing I've got there's loads of them in here but I have lots of photos so these are to go in the frames just like photos I can't show you this one properly about photos from my school and photos of me and photobooth photos and things just to make sure that my room feels a bit more homely I have quite a few upstairs as well and I also have like tickets and stuff that I can just put up on my walls and stuff to make my room feel a little bit more like home so I hope you enjoyed this haul obviously this is an insane amount of stuff I really hope you enjoyed it and got something from it obviously I haven't got everything yet but I'm sure I'll share my packing list with you guys at some point if you did enjoy this video give it a big fat thumbs up and comment down below what you think I should take to uni what you think I don't need what you think I do need and yeah I'll see you very very soon with another video bye guys

What will it be like to study at a university?

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The way you’ll study at university will probably be different to how you’ve studied in the past. In this video we’ll explain what some of the differences are and talk about what will be handy for you before you start your degree.

If you’re starting a degree with us at the University of York, you can find everything you need to know at

Animation by Hugo Brook,

hi and congratulations if you're watching this video it probably means you've got your results and you know you're coming to join the University of York welcome so what will it be like to study at a university where ever you've studied before at school college or further education studying at a university is a very different experience in many ways we'd like to explain what some of the differences are and talk about what will be handy for you to understand before you start let's begin with the fact you're about to become a member of a university being at university means being part of an academic community suddenly you'll be surrounded by people with a real passion for your chosen subject you'll be taught by people who are experts in their field and study alongside like-minded students you'll also be encouraged to have your own opinions and to learn and think for yourself rather than expecting someone to tell you everything you want to know that sounds scary at first but many students think this is the best thing about studying at University let's pick up on what it means to think and learn for yourself at University you'll start to take responsibility for your own learning for managing your own time and for making the best of the opportunities available at York before you might have spent days in the classroom being taught everything you needed to write assignments or pass exams that's not how it works at University here the lecturers will give you a sort of taster or overview of the topic and the areas you need to explore the rest is up to you to research and find for yourself it's called being an independent learner with independent learning comes different ways of working at university full-time study means you study full-time that's around 40 hours a week your study time will be split between tour time and self-study time you'll attend lectures seminars and tutorials some of you will also attend rehearsals laboratory work or field trips self-study is your time spent in the library computer rooms and study spaces giving you the freedom to learn in ways that suit you best our students love the flexibility to choose how where and when they study and the space to research consider and present back their own work for assessment which leads us nicely on to assessment in exams the way you're assessed may be quite different to the ways you've been marked or graded before at the beginning the marking system might seem tougher and how you'll submit your work may vary – for example long essays or practicals you'll need to be prepared for the jump between a levels and university grading as it's a big step up but don't worry or get stressed if your first piece of work comes back at a different grade – those you're used to getting that's normal it's all about progression the study journey throughout your degree program means you should see yourself steadily improve and your grades get better over time now a quick word from our sponsors about study behaviors at university there are strict rules and regulations about good study behaviors is what we call academic integrity these ensure it's clear whose work and thoughts you are presenting it's rules like don't cheat don't copy and don't collaborate in the wrong ways and good academic behaviors like referencing your work properly by saying where you got your information from don't worry we'll tell you more about this when you get here and there's an academic integrity tutorial you have to complete in your first term to help you understand what you should and shouldn't do that wraps it up there's lots of support at hand to help you make the jump from higher education to studying at University you'll have the support of tutors and lecturers and a supervisor to check how you're doing with your studies is easy to contact or visit them we've also got loads of study support systems courses and drop-in centres to help you learn more about things like research writing academic papers referencing math skills or you can even learn a language if you'd like to so in summary being at a university is a new way of learning it's challenging and rewarding and we're there to help you make the most of what will be a great experience see you soon

Master's Degree Programme in Biomedical Sciences and Engineering

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Dive in to TUT’s Master’s Degree Programme in Biomedical Sciences and Engineering and see what professor and students say about the studies.

Hello! My name is Jonathan Massera. I am a Professor in Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering and I'm also the Head of the Master's program in Biomedical Sciences and Engineering. A growing and aging society needs modern and innovative medicine and stem-cell technologies. To answer to these challenges in well-being and health care our faculty promotes high quality research that brings new innovations for the benefit of mankind. The industry is in need of talented students with versatile backgrounds to provide expertise to the growing health tech sector. Some continue as Academia researchers. We have high record in attracting public and private funding. if you are an entrepreneur at heart, this program and its environment will give the necessary tools to transform your idea into a product. When applying to the program you can choose from these three majors They are in the core of the expertise of our staff members and the research performed in faculty. Lectures are held by world-recognized scientists with knowledge of the most recent technological and scientific progress. I would like to mention three points: First, the degree program is associated with BioMediTech Institute and the Center of Excellence on Body-On-Chip Second, Tampere is ranked the best place to study in Finland Third, we are an international university with people from over 60 countries How great is that! Once I got to know TUT learning environment and amazing infrastructures and also the supporting staff I knew that this would be one of the best Investments I could ever do for my academic career! It's a very lively University and very lively university life and you really feel like you're studying with the other people and are not just competing with the other students You do things together, you get your voice heard if there's something, so I really appreciate that about TUT!

Dissertation writing (how to) – Lempies

Views:6037|Rating:5.00|View Time:13:9Minutes|Likes:232|Dislikes:0
This video is about thesis writing, how to write a PhD thesis fast, How to write a doctoral thesis fast? Tips for thesis writing

ciao guys and welcome to lamp is as you can say today I'm not in my kitchen because I would like to talk about something completely different from cooking the Thai job for this video is how to write a PhD thesis fast as a PhD student you know how difficult and how long it take to contact those experiments and then at the end of the day you have to compile those thick documents that you have to submit for marking it's just so stressful so turning my thesis writing I've come up with a method that helped me write faster better make the writing process easier and I'm going to share those tips with you today the first section is organizing and planning do not skip this step because is really important before you start writing it's important that you think about how many chapters you are going to write in your thesis and they're pointed in each chapter it's also important that you already start selecting the writing tools the citation tools as well as the statistical tools that you are going to use when you are writing your thesis another important theme which is the thesis writing is different from what you have time before suggests masterpieces and pasta theses because especially at the University of studying they are not due dates so it is important that you set those due dates for your soul nobody's going to give you those days not even your supervisor for instance set up a due date when you want to finish with chapter one once you want to finish with chapter two when you want to submit your pieces so when February or when that time comes you know if you are ahead or behind your schedule so you can start working hard and put in more time another important tip that people use to pretend to forget is before you start writing check if you have met all the university administration requirements that I need it for the pieces to be submitted imagine if you have completed all the writing then just before you submit you discover that oh you have missed a course and that course is gonna take you six months to complete before you submit is going to set you back six months just think about that and make sure that you compile those or your soil those things out before you start writing what I did in my thesis I had a separate word file where I have outlined or where help dealt with organizing and planning and I outlined my thesis structure in a different file and I have done that before I start writing so that one it is time to write I have a clear mind on what and how I'm going to do the writing the next step is quantifying have a method to quantify or to measure your performance when you don't have a method like that you are not sure if you have contributed how much you've contributed or if you have not contributed anything every day my objective was to contribute 500 words every day and what I did is that I had I had an excel file with the two color codes and also with different columns where I have recorded certain information and one of those was the dates and the part of the thesis where I have written or we have wet on that day how many ways have I written in a day and where to continue the next day and then the color codes were like my favorite color and my least favorite color the favorite color I highlighted all the lines or all the days where contributed something always make my objective which is 500 words per day and then the least favorite color was for the days where I have not made my objective maybe I did not write anything or I've written fewer words than what are suppose to you can also make it fun for example are some rewards and Punishment think about it say ok if I finish my if I finish writing chapter 1 by the end of January if I have Flint I'm going to add myself and by myself my favorite book or go to the club with my friends without feeling any Quixote like ok I haven't written my things I haven't finished just have that method it is important that you know you're quantifying and you know how much you're contributing and you can pace at which you are compiling this document I invite you to check the link in the description below there you can download my thesis writing tracking templates for free the next step is actual writing it is important that you separate writing from editing writing is actually when you are composing your text and editing is when you are correcting and modifying your text if you don't separate the two it will be very discouraging when you write a whole page in one day and in the end you TD like 50 to 90% of that because you editing the same day and you feel really frustrated and discouraged so set some days where you are just writing and then after we have done or you have completed writing the chapter 7 chapter move on and say someplace for editing only the thing about writing is also fine and appropriate time that works for you for me it was always I write in the morning because that's when I'm most active so I had thesis writing was the most difficult task during that time I was doing this and I try to make sure that I tackle it in the Pony before I start any other task so that I'm John and I can continue in the day and do other table just without feeling any guilt also have a retry that where for you or that much villager that put you in that action mode start writing some people start adding with the cup of tea a cup of coffee for me is always a cup of tea and some motivational code I had this up my phone that I read every morning it takes about 20 minutes I'm done with that and I can get into my writing writing for me was always every day about two to three hours and that was very appreciated because in the day SS PhD student you still have other daily tasks our to continue that a hackney they do other tasks that I have to contribute to my departments like a scientific seminar other experiments meetings and research proposal writing at the end of every writing day it is important that you indicate where you are going to or what you are going to write next or at which content or at which page you are going to continue writing the next day the next step is keeping the momentum once you have started writing you want to continue until you finish because if you take a long break during your writing this session or during your writing time then you send to you sometimes back again imagine you take a vacation for a month in that one month you didn't do anything about this is writing when you come back you need some time to refresh your mind about the traffic and everything you are writing on the property means that will be just time wasted I had three ways that kept me going that was every single day I made a schedule of way to continue the following day that is really important imagine for instance the next day you want to write about introduction to chapter one what I would do is the day before is think about what do I want to introduce in Chapter one and how many program – I want that chapter to contain and what information I want to provide or what information I would like to provide to my old is in each program that is important because the next day when you start writing your mind is clear and has a straight direction what kind of literature to look for because you are sure of what you want to say to your audience you your writing will be easier and will be way faster another thing that kept me going in my case was I wrote every single day I also wrote during the weekends on Saturdays and Sundays but this worked for me very well because I was working in the morning every day I woke up at 5 or 6 a.m. and I wrote not longer than two hours or not longer than three hours so two to three hours if I woke up at 5:00 in the morning I would wake on till 8:00 and by 8:00 when my family member wake up I've already done with my writing we can continue the day as usual have breakfast together and still enjoy the weekend I didn't miss out on anything and I also wrote when I was on vacation because I had still I would just wake up in the morning and I had already selected tools that did not make me which is that I had also selected two that were flexible that I would have I had them on my personal computer and I used those everywhere I was I wrote when I was on the train who knows on the bus when I was on vacation it was possible another thing that kept me going then I had to make waking up early every day you have it once you get into that then you keep the momentum every single day you add 500 wet it's going to be faster before you know it you'll be done with a thesis writing and get it out of way the last step here is reviewing once you've completed everything you have the phone document from chapter one to the last chapter send it to a reviewer as soon as possible and the Muslim probably the best person to send it to then be your supervisor in that case the person will give you the second opinion as soon as possible so if you need to to major changes you can do them as soon as you can if you you can go ahead and review your document as many times as you want but you have to understand that that is all your opinion do not waste time doing that first CQ supervisors opinion and then he or she is going to tell you if you are in the right direction before you waste a lot of time just deleting and adding things when you're not sure what to ready to and if you need a professional if you're like for English or anything whatever language you're you're writing in this will be also the best time to look for a reviewer so that you can already booked an appointment for sometimes in I Prince put that person to reserve time to work on your document because reviewing a speaking from a personality exam plan it means this document is actually a very large document with about 150 to 200 pages so you need to book for reviewing in advance in summary to make your thesis writing easier and faster organize the thesis outline and have a time plan before you start writing do not skip this step it sound ridiculous that you just want to jump in and start writing but if you're not sure about what you're going to write then take you a whole lot of time and slow down your writing process and bring a lot of and frustration during this process second thing is split your writing into smaller section that are manageable you can just say I want to write and you don't even have an outline you don't set out the chapters you can't digest that much weight you have to speed it down into sections that are manageable and the last step is or the last point is have a clear mind about what you want to communicate to your audience when you have a clear mind about what you want to communicate you also have a clear direction about what kind of literature research article you want to look for and you want to read an ask to your document and that guys will help you write faster and easier and get your PhD as fast as possible tip the given time so guys that was it for today thank you so much for watching I hope you find these tips useful during your thesis writing if you have also some extra tips that I haven't spoken about please leave them in the comment section if you enjoy watching this video please give us a like and subscribe to our channel for more and I wish you all the best with your thesis writing


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GUYS. This is it. I got my final uni degree results recently and opened them live on camera. Here’s how I did…
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I can feel my heart in my flight my god I'm really fuckin nervous oh my god I feel sick I just don't want to do this I just don't wanna know I don't actually know if you can see how much I'm shaking but I'm shaking quite a bit right let's just do it so hey guys first of all this outfit is accidentally very symbolic I was actually wearing this exact to jumpsuit in like my video my first video like 4 months after I finished my dissertation obviously if you guys watch my channel you will have seen it but I'll have it linked in the video and this is also exactly the outfit that I wore when I was taking my dissertation picture obviously you guys can get the relevance from the title of the video this outfit wasn't planned I've just got back from work and it just happened that I was wearing this jumpsuit today don't like filming videos a lot of the time if it's like something really short sleeves as I just don't like I don't know I told my arms like out so I always put something over it and I just quickly tuck this on and then I realized wait that's my exact dissertation picture so yeah as you can tell by the title of the video today today I've got on my results my University results this is the dissertation results but my dissertation is the only thing I haven't gotten more results for so essentially after I know my dissertation grade I can pretty much figure out what my overall literal like whole university degree mark is whether I got the first one to one I've got T to whether I got third whether I failed so I'm shitting myself basically we got told that we'd be getting our grades on Friday and today's Tuesday and so I've just you know not been expecting it I was just checking my emails earlier today at work it was around 2:00 p.m. and I just want email saying third year English single subjects combined some plates whatever dissertation grades are in and I was like are you fucking kidding me I'm not prepared when I was 2 p.m. I've still got 4 more hours of work and yeah I'm just oh I'm guessing like a lot of people watch these kind of videos who might have like search these videos all I come across this kind of video so if you haven't you know watch my videos before I am Alicia I am was just you know a third-year English student and that's like English Literature at the University of York so I finished my degree you know unless we you know find out these grades and I realize I need to do my degree all over again but yeah final year I basically finished my degree in May my dissertation was the singer submitted and yeah that's that and I'm just about to open on camera live my dissertation results which would determine my whole degree results and so I'm fucking shitting myself oh god I can feel my heart in my throat so yeah I don't really know how I've done I feel like towards the end of my degree as I've talked about before watch my videos I was kind of gauging how to write good essays like I was like oh okay it seems like these things like when I did focus bit more on this I was talking about this actually in my last a live reaction video which if you haven't seen that maybe you want to see that that was me opening my essay grades so when my first ever first ever essay grades of third year and there's a big frost because every essay we write is a hundred percent of that module so every essay is you know obviously a big deal because it's like like a fifth of my you know my grade for the years I did kind of start to figure out like how essays work whereas a dissertation obviously I played this applied the same things but a dissertation is on a completely different scale it's a whole you know project God saying that just his making Susak so yeah you just you just I don't know essentially I'm hoping them don't I've done well I'm kind of sitting at a local 67 ish and the way ours works is if you like two marks off the next kind of boundary so if you get 58 that meets your two away from a sixty which is a to one and 68 that means your two offices seventy which means you would get you'd get first so if your two off they kind of just the shifting to see if some of the the waiting has basically brought your grade lower usually the split is this is common for most universities what in first-year no grades count second-year is forty percent and third year is sixty percent but they can the shift map waiting to kind of be at your advantage if you get sixty a or 58 or 48 whatever or above so that you take into the next grade boundary so I'm kind of possibly going to be on that grade boundary but I problem I don't really think so because I'm it's weird one because this year I think so far my essays I think I calculated I'm averaging like a 68 if I'm not wrong about obviously for a second year grades count as well I think I got 66 overall last year I did another video on that as well like talking about my whole second year grade again it will be linked if you want to watch that I'll link all of these kind of videos in the description as well that might be helpful but they'll be in the cards when I mention them but yeah I was on about 66 so essentially I'm in a pretty secure to one kind of level say now obviously my dissertation could have been really shit and I could have gotten like 30 and I could get dragged all the way down to like a 2 – I think it's just time that I actually open it I've got my laptop right here and I'm just gonna open the brain oh my god I'm really fucking nervous so ok I'm laughing but like oh my god I feel sick I feel fucking sick I feel like I said that that exact phrase in my last video oh my god oh my god I'm so I just don't want to do this I just don't wanna die I just want to live in my bubble of yes okay so I'm only evision the portal where all our grades come in and I've seen this page way too many times and felt this way too many times on this web page and I'm happy this is the last time hopefully Oh God God is okay some of the page guys okay I'm on the page this is the really shitty thing because on this page you can actually see all the grades that you've gotten since the beginning so it's that moment of scrolling down slowly I feel really nervous now I don't actually know if you can see how much I'm shaking but I'm shaking quite a bit right let's just do it okay okay so I've got a 68 in my dissertation oh my god look how much I'm shaking I'm actually not disappointed that because that means I've got a t1 so I'm not disappointed I'm a little bit I'm not that disappointed it's like a decent ground it means I've got a t1 overall and that makes me happy hey guys so I'm back after like literally two hours it'll probably tell I feel like the lighting might have changed a bit the quality of my makeup might have changed a bit but essentially right after I literally said the grade I can't remember I feel like I said I've got a 68 I'm pretty happy with that or something like that my phone people waiting downstairs in anticipation so I was like you know what I can't do this to them we need to go downstairs and then we just had a whole massive like chat about it and everything so two hours later I'm back and also actually what I had to do as well was calculate Oh God I've just done too much math to my brain hurt and I see in the end I had to use an unknown weighted average calculator which I don't know why I didn't try and do that in the first place but obviously I've got different modules each individual like you know module has its amount of credits which make up that whole year and then each of the two years second and third year also I'll split like I was saying 40 60 so there was a lot of maths that needed to be done for me to kind of calculate it but I figured out that in total overall my grade under some really fucked up somewhere which I really don't think I'm home I got sixty seven point three nine recurring so pretty much 67 point four which obviously I'm super happy about war like no I am super happy now I I'm just so happy with that my whole you know time I've always said if I just get a 2-1 I will be so so happy with that and obviously I've got another pretty you know secure high t1 as well so I'm really happy with that it's just a little bit frustrating because the way our course is set up like I've explained it earlier if you're like within like two months of the next boundary they'll shift your grades up to see if you can get pushed up so I've got sixty seven point three sixty seven point four as I said if I'd gotten 68 they could have shifted up my grades around to see if I get a first guys if you know me in real life and I feel like I must on a video I've been saying from the beginning of this degree that I am going to be that person that's like one mark away from getting a fast I know that sounds pretty cocky but I especially like to the point where it lot till its second year where I kind of realized I was always in that high to one kind of mark and get some first I always knew I was gonna be teetering around that like two one first again we still don't have our actual final grades obviously like I said my dissertation was the only one left so obviously I've calculated myself but the final kind of decision comes on Friday so actually I'm gonna do is I come back like this video I'll upload it after I've done I've got that I'm gonna come back and I sit down and film and tell you my final thing because like I'm still hoping there's someone out there that's like okay do you know what she got 67 point for that she's up to a 68 which means that we can cut like I don't know if that actually works because I feel like in that case like loads of people could just get shoved up to like you know the next road boundary so maybe they will be really strict with it needs to be a 60 a in which case I could have been like I couldn't let you be 0.6 marks away from a first which is so frustrating but yeah like I said honestly I'm really really happy I've just got a – one night I've got good quality like high level degree grade from Raqqa top university so obviously like I'm really grateful and we were just talking about as well but like I'm actually so grateful for the support everything I got from like my family from friends and like my boyfriend Luke so many times I felt like I can do it and it was just having support from people and even from you guys like always with my emotion we know you've done really well like congratulations any time I talk to my my grades people be like you're really smart like you've got this so it's all you guys as well I am just so happy and I'm just so happy that that chapter is closed I'm graduating end of July and it's just gonna be yeah and hopefully it's gonna be super nice so I'm I'm gonna end this bit and like I said you'll see me again on Friday to you know talk about the actual kind of final degree grade we'll see if I've got pressure up to offers I really don't think I will be I'm not gonna lie like I said I'm happy Amy hey this video is gonna be all over the place you know how in those other clips on the day that I actually got my results I said I'd come back on Friday and kind of you know finish off the video is actually the next Wednesday so it's about a week later and here we are you saw that I got my actual grade for my dissertation but they were like right so the final results of like we was she getting your degree is gonna come on Friday but realistically it was the only greater had left so I could easily work out what I got anyway so as I explained in that video I ended up at the t1 the Friday was a manic day because it was also the same day as my sister's prom and she needed to leave for prom at like 20 to 7:00 on Fridays I finish at 5 and get home pretty much like just to sex a few minutes the sex medically like did her makeup her prom was great for anyone who wonders yeah essentially I actually opened that final kind of degree decision in the back of the car on the way back after dropping my sister off was and exactly how I expected to open it was the whole day had been very very long I was just like you know what I know the grade anyway so like there's nothing Bank something about opening this email even though like I was pretty sad and I was gonna say was the two one that was like this little bit of me which was like maybe the 67 point 4 gets rounded up to a 68 and that 68 obviously means that and they'll shift it around for me to get first that didn't happen I was got well like I feel like to be honest I would didn't seem that excited about getting a t1 if all that my reaction was very like muted and that's simply because I'm kind of knew I was gonna get a t1 from the beginning like not from the beginning being and what like like I said the dissertation was the last grade I got so I kind of had worked on my averages obviously over the last two years my average for this year was actually pretty good it was my highest which is great because obviously you feel like 30 years like the year I guess you want to do the best thing I actually got sixty eight point three so if it was just you to this third year I would have been pushed up to her first I suppose but my 66 in second years what brought me down so obviously laughs percent averaged out to sixty seven point four yeah it was only the dissertation that was left to be graded so I'd already worked out that I was pretty much guaranteed a 2:1 like unless I completely and flopped my dissertation it would be very hard for like my average to get dragged all the way down to like below 60 to get a tutu so I was like I really don't think I'll get a tutu unless I have really fucked up this dissertation and also I knew that I'd have to do quite well and to get the first in the distillation I got the 68 like I said so it would have had to be like more of like a security wall it would have had to be a first I think and it would have had to be quite a secure kind of first so I was like that's a bit more like you know it could happen I mean it's not like I've not written first essays before but it's not like yeah definitely do that and get the first so I was like you know what I feel like I'm gonna get to you when I feel like I'm guaranteed this to one and that's what I'm gonna get so I'd kind of like accepted that I was gonna get a to one from like very very low you know since when I got my grades for my last two essays say after those two essays where I got again kind of like high to 2 to 1 sorry I think there is 66 and a 68 I kind of just realize I think I'm gonna get a few more like I'd accepted that so I thought that's why when I got the actual grader was it like oh my god I got to one I was just you know lt1 I kind of knew that would happen I'm still very happy with that like a couple of things that I was like oh my god it's really bloody annoying that 0.6 more and my grade could have been you know and joked around they would have like once with my grades you know see if I could get that fast so that was really really annoying it's weird because I knew I was gonna be so happy with the t1 I feel like I would have been happy I would like a 2:1 that was like a 63 or something or like something that was just like right okay securely in the 2-1 but it's the fact that I was so close to that first it's so frustrating I wouldn't have thought that deeply about it if it was just like a 65 that would have been I can't call got the two one but it was the fact that I was just that tiny bit away from her first was very frustrating but you know what can you do I'm still very happy with you know the grade it's a 2-1 from a good university a good cause so yeah that's it that is my degree done and dusted oh I should say yeah got rounded down I guess to be honest it could have been might have been rounded up to like a 68 I guess it was like 60 7.5 but cuz I've got 67 point for my final you know mark was was just a 67 I got like the final email which was like what was it a decision from the Board of Studies it's very serious that was like the final official thing saying yet this is your grade it was a 67 they took that 0.39 off Max's law to me in 67 second class honors in the first division so yeah that's my degree I hope you guys enjoyed this heckle difficulty video let me know if you guys are maybe like lower year university students or maybe even you're just about to get into university and you want to see any you know videos you think could be quite helpful for uni because obviously I guess now I'm finished maybe I have some like tips and you know myself probably not I'll just pretend that I knew I was doing hitting the whole time so yeah let me know if you guys enjoyed this video please do give it a thumbs up I'm sorry dent and also don't forget to subscribe so you see more videos from me click on about to turn on your post notifications at the you don't miss a video and yeah thanks for watching guys I'll see you in the next one bye you

Meet Germany's first robot lecturer | DW Documentary

Views:26093|Rating:4.49|View Time:12:32Minutes|Likes:358|Dislikes:41
German University has hired a new assistant professor: Yuki, the robot.

Jürgen Handke is known as a pioneer of digital teaching methods. The German professor has an unusual assistant: a humanoid robot named Yuki. When students ask to speak to English language professor Jürgen Handke, they might encounter his robot assistant Yuki. The humanoid robot is 1.2 meters tall, very approachable and extremely knowledgeable. Professor Handke hopes his new assistant can help revolutionize German universities. For years, Handke has been using digital technologies to enhance his teaching: he has a YouTube channel with educational videos and an online platform where all students are registered. Robot lecturer Yuki can get a sense of how students are doing academically, and what kind of support they need. He can also have them take tests. Professor Handke insists Yuki is merely an assistant, and will never replace him as teacher. What do the students make the unusual assistant? DW’s Anna Goretzki spent a day accompanying robot lecturer Yuki at the University of Marburg.

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how much learning material can you retain Yuki is Professor Juergen hunt cos assistant at Phillips University of Marburg in Germany hunka is known as a digital teaching pioneer and one of the first professors to have a humanoid robot assistant the professor uses an interactive teaching approach which is made possible by Yuki it's Thursday just after 7:00 a.m. at Marburg University Thursdays always start early for Jurgen hunt ker and Patrick hunch this is Yuki's work day and he needs to be woken up it's the special media type so Albert Shanker does – to then publish often holiday encodes for the writers plus the additional here this intestine there are foliage Michonne what's the time he's ready now time to head to class Yuki needs help making the journey we need this push cart to go anywhere to help him get from A to B you he completed his test phase just a few weeks ago since then he's been working regularly at the University Patrick hunch programs Yuki it is thanks to hunch that Yuki is always learning it would be great if he could get to class by himself that's still missing but even in the future that's going to be difficult also because of the elevator when the university first bought Yuki and two other robots for 20,000 euros they couldn't do much now the 1.2 meter tall robot is more than a fancy gimmick for professor Juergen hunt cat Yuki's artificial intelligence is designed to help improve both teaching and learning ok ladies and gentlemen a very warm welcome to our in class meeting number 11 this is an English linguistics lecture I will take my linguistics phonetics class oh that's the wrong one did I what we have the wrong session we have the wrong session it's linguistics and phonetics shows history of English did Yuki make a mistake I have no idea what went wrong so it's this is whatever happens what always happens so if I go this if I if I click on linguistic linguist it's and phonetics chosen oh there we are so my mistake my mistake so here we are are you ready here is a question for him test number one how many vowels does the word incomprehensive contain you got two minutes Yuki is asking practice exam questions but students in honkers classes aren't supposed to memorize material instead they're instructed to use their tablets mobiles and computers to find information online this train skills and understanding rather than rote learning as you also wrote on eyes that's perfect we all right the food forms wonderful hunka things teachers sent it education is inefficient the professor prefers an interactive multimedia l'p roach which he can apply thanks to his assistant Yuki so just it's really a big help I can stay with them and help them while the robot has an eye on things I don't need to do anything it's great before I'd have to run up and down the class do the PowerPoint and the stopwatch now he handles all of that ok guess he's got it the technology works but is it helping to reach the students I feel I have to work a little bit harder when the robot is here so yeah I'd say it helps you learn and it's also motivating to have something like that standing in your classroom I think you don't need Yuki per se you could also just have a robot voice and online questions that would be the same for me it just doesn't make a real difference to have a robot standing up there compared with having AI running in the background hanka thinks Yuki's true potential is still in the developmental phase right now the assistant robot has a low-level AI he wouldn't be able to give a proper interview for example why do they have to go out because it's too loud in there for him to be able to understand isn't so knowledge were you satisfied with your students performance today did we have that question I don't think so spontaneous questions you can't answer spontaneous questions Yuka can only answer questions we email to public hunch beforehand rusty what's next on your scheduled performance either stored even there I hope your QR code hello efforts up you have completed everything you have achieves an average score of 80% okay did you know that already I didn't actually I knew I'd done all of my worksheets but I didn't know I have 80% I'm better than I thought Yuki's consultation sessions are still in the test phase a researcher evaluates them starting next summer Yuki will give regular consultations then it will become clear where the other students will also accept Yuki as a student advisor do you understand where some people are frightened of robots in industrial design but was he trying to take my hand I think he drew you a heart can humans and robots be friends some on campus aren't sure there are worries that the humanoid robot is likely to become more and more a competitor of humans in the end we won't be working anymore he'll be doing our jobs what if after studying for five years I worked for five years in a bank and then get told sorry you have no more work here we're hiring a robot to do your job that doesn't sound so great honkers team has heard those types of worries before for now Yuki is still a long way off from being able to compete with a human here he's practicing for a trade fair no human of you which ones they couldn't see see that ergun hunter is a techie through and through he's been experimenting with computers for decades Yuki is helping him get closer to his vision of digital teaching good robots at universities what else what else Yuki is on his way to his last seminar for the day it's a history of English class are you ready have you got your smartphone's ready all right so here's the first question go to England answer the survey reply within 45 seconds a study by the University of it's book found that Europeans have grown more wary of robots in recent years do people here in marble also feel skeptical about Yuki the beginning yes for sure it was really weird at first no has been around for several sessions yeah it's been this way for a year now so we've gotten a bit more used to it but it was definitely weird at first professor hunt cast plans for Yuki to take on more tasks what I imagine in the future is that in a room like this one there would be a cupboard with a robot in it I'd feed that robot instructions from my desk then I come into the room to say hello say hey mate how are you what should i do today you said I should quiz the students should do this and that point I'd say okay I'll give him a pat me off do you guns is our life it's time for the final exam for this course did you ki help the students learn I felt pretty confident solving the task Yuki posed so in a way he helped me relax around three quarters passed the exam more than last year it's unclear whether Yuki played a role we have one last question for the robot is the performance of your students satisfactory machines may be humanoid but people will never be machines Yuki is on break till next Thursday then he'll be back at work dehumanizing teaching all modernizing education

Darwin Lectures Series 2011: Professor Lord Robert May

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James Cox interviews Professor Lord Robert May regarding the global issues that he thinks pose the biggest threat to our civilisation.

Lord May was in Cambridge on 21st January 2011 to give the first lecture for the 2011 Darwin Lecture series, entitled “Beauty & Truth”. For more information:

during the latter half of the 20th century a lot about the world and the issues that we face today such as climate change dwindling energy supplies and global food security are both unprecedented and posed perhaps the greatest challenge that we've ever had to face as mankind I'm here today with Professor Lord Robert May of Oxford he was had an illustrious career in science both within academia and beyond he's held posts it's Harvard Princeton and Oxford universities as well as having been the UK government's chief scientific adviser let's see what he's got to say nothing now so when would you say the biggest issues that we face as a civilization today we have a tendency to pick an issue at a time if you'd asked me that 30 40 years ago we'd probably have said population you asked me today I'd probably say climate change but in fact there's an interlocking set of issues mrs. Darwin College we're recording this you go back 150 years to Origin of Species the population in their hundred and fifty years the world's populations increased Sevenfold and the ecological footprint energy consumption per person on average has increased Sevenfold so the impact we have is 50 fold and that's a combination of too many people consuming too much energy putting burning a million years worth of fossil fuel each year putting carbon back into the atmosphere climate change and intersecting with all of that thus our problems of feeding tomorrow's world without pressures on the water supply and the disruption of habitats creating new diseases the intermingling and moving helping the revival of old diseases we have a concatenation of problems that I think it's unhelpful to think of one at the time even though it's understandable okay so the underlying problem appears to be it's too many people and too much impact per person it's not one or the other it's both yeah or may we do to solve this problem I mean necessarily slow down population well we need one can do things and they're often politically incorrect things if China had not acted as it has to slow down population growth you'd it be heading for two billion roundabouts now there are things you can do and there are things equally you can do to inhibit people thinking about it you can run round in Africa as the Vatican has energetically been doing telling lies about the inner faith in efficiency of condoms in preventing transmission of HIV because you have an ideology that says more and more people is good there are lots of things you can be doing about each of these problems but almost all of the things you could be doing are not necessarily in in the interest of individual people or individual groups of people you have tensions between what is the interest of the community and what is the interest of the individual of course it has a real effect yes and in fact some countries I could give you the statistics for if I haven't be aware of for one of the major banks as to what is the ecological footprint energy consumption rather per person employee in different countries that varies by a full order of magnitude so partner and that's not just living standards that's partly the habits of behavior it's cultural things the real problem goes back to day at Darwin's great still unsolved problem of how did we evolve as we have so successfully societies in which people cooperate often making small sacrifices individually for the good of the whole if we're small bands of hunter-gatherers as we were for most of our history we're all related to each other so you can explore but that general problem of the evolution of cooperation why each prairie dog takes its turn giving an alarm calls of risk which is a much greater grep net benefit to the colony in and is not destroyed apparently by cheating prairie dogs taking the benefit without paying the cost that's course they're all related but once we got to be complicated it's harder to understand it may well be that many of our systems of belief and the origins of religion very positively was a kind of glue or belief in an all-seeing all-wise individual that it was just as well to be on the good side on was a powerful mechanism for helping create the complex societies we have but uncle we have a much better understanding of what binds us together and what created our institutions of cooperation it's very hard to see how we'll overcome the resistance for I will if you will dissolving into I won't because you won't yes yes society that is segregated into the separate countries and separate communities that's kind of that is fundamentally going to make things harder not necessarily if we've gone a set of fundamentalist religious communities each in separated into various things as long as we've got at the level of individuals or the level of communities a focus on the close and the individual and a failure to recognize that ultimately that's going to be a cost to them as part of the whole we have a problem that we're not dealing with very well climate change is a perfect example of this is though if you just look at the major divide between the haves and the have-nots most of the carbon that's up there and causing the problem already 80% or more of it was put up there by the OECD countries and yet many of them insist they're not going to do anything until the development developing countries start to do something an equitable trajectory the one the UK is committed to climate change committee's recommendations that the government's accepted asks by 2050 what's got to be the carbon footprint per person around the globe which everyone has and that would mean the UK is going to aim is aiming to go down to that while China and India one recognizers will come or be it we hope more slowly up to them and not overshoot it and that means different things different places where but there are some countries whose insistence is we're not doing anything until just an or that or the other country and it's understandable yeah because because if we have a segregated society then there's no particular reason why you would trust what in it in a sense there's no reason why you would trust somebody else to reciprocate if you made the first move it's sort of some sort of maybe some sort of stalemate general problem yeah it's a problem I mean if you take a more immediate example how should we reform the banking system so that we realise all the many benefits of delivers without the system fragility that it manifestly has as a tension of interest there because the way the banking system works at the moment is just great for the banks yes and the focus of each Bank is on either its employees and the money they take home but ultimately you want a system that has paid deliberate attention often at the expense of the behavior of individual banks for the stability of the system as a whole understandable tensions there all around you in any context you care to look at so in your in your role in the UK government's climate change committee what what's what's the sort of current state of affairs how much do we know and do we have any chance of solving the problem or making incremental steps toward first of all it's unfortunate that the general understanding of what science is we tend to get from primary school secondary school even University a science is presented quite sensibly as a set of things we really know that's how else could you organize the syllabus and on quiz shows and want to be a millionaire you can't have ambiguity about the insistent questions but real science at the frontier is a journey of discovery and on any subject and climate change is no exception it was fairly clear in broad outline a hundred years ago what was happening but we only had the computational power to begin to flesh flesh that out in detail beginning 30 40 years ago and getting better all the time even now there are uncertainties about the speed of certain complicated nonlinear processes so what are what if Tundra thor's and methane's relay released what is actually the speed of the mill of the melting of glaciers there's quite a few elements of significant uncertainty in the timescale of processes but there's no longer any significant uncertainty in to the fact that the massive amounts of fossil fuel carbon we're putting up into the atmosphere which are carrying us to a thickening of the greenhouse gas blanket that hasn't been seen for tens of millions of years and when it was last seen ended up when the oceans equilibrated which itself takes centuries had the oceans about 100 metres higher that's not gonna happen in anyone's lifetime or even anyone's grandchildren lifetime but that's what we're committing ourselves to and it's very hard to take that on board when the daily weather fluctuates so yes it's very hard to confuse it's very easy to confuse how high the next breaking wave is going to wash up the beach with the movements of the tide so and many people focus on the tiny details of local events weather is different from indeed and when it snows we have people saying so it's a fact and we are doing some effective things about it we need to be doing them faster and more consistently but there are feasible trajectories to coming to a globally equitable solution sometime around the middle of the century whether we'll get there is another question altogether so there are two directories there are some ideologies in place there's some technical project lots of things we could do but it requires everyone to be doing it we make it good start in lots of ways it's an interesting and complicated things there are a few countries who have done better than Britain in the intellectual leadership and the recognition of the problem but even there interestingly there are other countries in Europe who while they don't even have the legislative framework we now have and nonetheless doing a better job of actually getting things done because they're more comfortable with a form that could be unkindly characterised as command and control yes rather than seeking liberal fiscal instruments yes they may be behind us in the rhetoric but they're ahead of us in the action ok the signs are not unhelpful yeah talking about something you're quite quite interested in have been involved in for a long time in infectious diseases and epidemics what would you say this sort of current state of affairs is with regards that so are we are we facing any problems are there anything there anything sort of lurking that we should be concerned about I think of all the problems we're facing oddly enough this is the one that worries me least in fact yes why is that it's not that there aren't going to be an increasing number of problems arising because the combination of more people and more interactions of more disturbance of other animals the internationalization of what was once a all scale cultural habit of eating Bush Mead the globalization of that to do I mean SARS was the product of commercialization of bush meat to serve posh exotic animal restaurants in southern China yes no way there's gonna be more things happen but why am i optimistic against that the increasing understanding we have that are still accelerating rate that is reaching down to the molecular machinery of life itself is still a long way off giving us a complete understanding of the immune system okay I mean most of many of my molecular biological colleagues are doing unimaginably clever things in characterizing the molecular machinery what's going on but at the same time very many of them don't realize that they still don't understand actually the somatic details of how the immune system assembles itself in the first few years of life why doesn't it go on a bit longer why doesn't go on a bit shorter is the hygiene hypothesis about the rise of allergies associated with not challenging it enough by playing in the dirt when you look at that right or is that rubbish and are the allergies an epiphenomenon of the immune system in its years of early assembly not being challenged enough and looking for an inappropriate work to do that's an interesting example of the fact that our extraordinary brilliant understanding of elements with the molecular machinery that enable us to keep drug make drugs that keep people infected with HIV alive while we still don't understand the pathogenesis of HIV I the text of immunology today are still brilliantly descriptive complicatedly descriptive but they're still more they're still more like ecology in the 50s which was description of what happens in the room outside rather than of striving to an understanding of the complicated dynamics of nonlinear systems of many entities but I I'm sure that's changing and I might I believe in this is why I'm optimistic about this element I'd say the ecology the immunology text 20 30 years from now and look quite different and 20 30 years from now we'll be able to give you really good answers I believe to the how usefulness how useful will a generic vaccine against flu the questions like that so that we'll be able to respond quicker more accurately we'll be able to produce vaccines quicker that is one thing where I think our increasing mastery the external world is going to give unambiguously good consequences that's the least of my worries because that's one where although I see the problems increasing I do see a feasible plausible technological answer yes and that's not quite the same as what do you do about the ocean rising and that not nearly so easy and the idea that you can geo engineer your way around it scares the devil out of me because we've got to this situation by doing things without thinking of unintended consequences and chucking all sorts of stuff into the ocean and for example to see if we can modify the way it behaves does seem to me a very dangerous thing to be doing so is it something to do with the fact that the biological system is a lot smaller scale something we can deal with whereas the the climate changes many body basically I would say yeah the molecular biological understanding of individual viruses interacting with individual amuses themselves for all its brilliance and technical description it's just a hell of a lot easier than these other larger scale nonlinear processes where it's much harder to bring him into lab yes it's been extremely I'll tell you what before I go away are you saying what I'm supposed to be talking about the Darwin series on beauty and I have made them I made what may well have been the mistake of agreeing of the first talk on Beauty and mathematics because I thought be an interesting challenge and it is true that the talk again givers getting destroyed is much an away from beauty and mathematics as this interview I am going to try and say there's a difference between mathematics as such where much of it you can really prove things you make the assumptions it's theorem by the lemma exeunt lemma theorem proof science itself is more contingent journey and I'm going to try and talk about the things like that but I'm also going to try and persuade people that mathematics is beautiful you

Beginners guide to writing a dissertation

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This video goes through the different sections of a dissertation, both at undergraduate and master’s level. Degree dissertations, Structure of a dissertation, research dissertations for beginners. Dr. Charlotte Meiedirk. Course Leader MBAs, Brighton Business School.

okay what I'm going to do is I'm going to go through the basic layout for our dissertation and that's the same at undergraduate and at the Masters level via my teacher education my teacher a master's degree in educational leadership and management and the dissertation sections are actually still very similar to those undergraduate level they're just of course a bit there's a more depth and the sections are longer so dissertations tend to be undergraduate level around ten thousand words masters level around fifteen thousand words so Jerry speak can you'll start with an abstract now people ask you well what what's an abstract what is an abstract an abstract is done pretty much basically summarizes were the way I do them is kind of summarize each chapter including the conclusion your recommendations I would say for a ten thousand words fifteen thousand word dissertations it's around the abstract for me about a page long and no longer it shouldn't be like two or three pages for that kind of length it really just summarizes very briefly each chapter and your recommendations okay next then you have your content page and I won't go through all the different sections because in the content page you also have Biggers and diagrams of where they are and next you'll have your introduction chapter that just introduces what your actual research is going to be on what the main literature is in that area but of course briefly it might give some background to that research it also will tell the reader what your movie overall aims are of your research so you might have let's say for example three aims of your research what you tend to achieve is going to be telling those within your introduction and actually revisit them later but I'll come back to that okay so that's your introduction chapter next you have your literature review mail it's your review do I tend to teach it is it may not just be one chapter it could be one chapter with different sections depending on the length of it or it may actually be a couple of chapters but again it depends on the length of this patient and the literature you're covering so what you're doing there and your literature review another video on what is a literature review and what you should do but you're going through the main let's share the arguments are there any different sides those argument any ideological underpinnings that go with that literature one side versus another and like I've got another video on what makes a good literature review but that's your lecture review so you establishing who the main theorists are within that area of research and what the arguments on the side and with the Masters dissipation I might even expect you to see where the gaps are and where are the gaps in the literature and and why therefore are you doing what you are doing okay such your literature review next is kind of like your methodology now your methodology will go through what well at masters level it might go through your epistemology what your kind of ideology is your underpinnings for doing the type of research you are doing you might be looking at different research approaches for example interpretivism and positivism and again I've got a video on that but I only expected to that at masters level not at undergraduate level although sometimes I do sit but you wouldn't necessarily have to do things like epistemology on ecology in your dissertation and some of you would be very happy to know that is the case but at masters level I expect you to touch in it I expect you to then go into what kind of research methodology you're using so I use in there for example a case study are you doing a survey are you doing at an action research which a lot of teachers for example do so within the methodology also expect you to go through your research methods what methods you are using questionnaire etc advantages disadvantages literature introduced literature on those methodologies and also ethics section will be in with your methodology as well which is really very important if you're doing an empirical research so after the methodology ends you've told your reader what research methods you are using to meet your aims of your research next what you have is actually research analysis so it might be the research results first and then the analysis okay sometimes they can go together in a chapter because that makes sense and then other times they might be separate chapters depending on the length again of your dissertation and again I'll go through in a later video what makes good research analysis I mean generally speaking the better your what's called a conceptual framework your better and your analysis so if you actually base in your analysis on a some kind of framework but again I'll come back to that that's more likely to occur at masters level rather than undergraduate level as well so after your research analysis and and you've analyzed all your research then what you'll have is your recommendations so I'm going to run out of room here from recommendations and conclusions now depending on your type of dissertation so it might be for example you are doing a recommendation for something may be action research and you're trying to find better ways to teach English grammar or better ways to teach maths with at Key Stage two then your recommendations are from your research that you recommend whatever approach you might be to teach him for example and then you'll have a conclusion now generally speaking dissipations do have some type of recommendation I suppose not all but then you have a conclusion chapter as well in the conclusion chapter is really most importantly you revisit those aims your initial aim and say to what extent you actually met those aims throughout your research and also within your your recommendation conclusion if occlusion chapter you might also look at limitations to your research now generally speaking the limitations are very similar especially for undergraduate masters students that are doing a part-time usually as things like time not surprisingly best if you're for example in full-time job and also things like maybe money would limit how big perhaps a survey is that you undertake etc okay and then of course after that you'll have your references and your appendices which will go at the end as well that's pretty much basic structure to your dissertation but each section of course you need to think about in a lot of detail so good luck

History of Nalanda University नालंदा विश्वविद्यालय का इतिहास UNESCO World Heritage site

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A Day in the Life: University of Southampton PhD Student

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Shawnee is a PhD student in Ethnography at the University of Southampton in England. Crimson is the world leader in global admissions consulting. Find out more, and apply for a free education assessment here:

The University of Southampton is consistently ranked one of the 100 best universities in the world. Shawnee pursued her Masters and PhD studies at Southampton because she was drawn to the three-year structure of their program and the one year of anthropological field work that the program required and facilitated. She has recently published her first work, and hopes to become a Professor in Social Anthropology. Follow a day in Shawnee’s life and learn all about student life at Southampton and their world-renowned academic programs!

(calm piano music) – Hi my name is Shawnee, I'm
a third year PhD student in ethnography, I'm originally
from Wisconsin, and I came to University of Southampton to
ultimately become a professor in social anthropology. (upbeat music) – So right now, we're on
Highfield Campus, it's one of two campuses in the University of
Southampton, we just came from The Bridge, that's one of
the many campus cafeterias, restaurants, there's bars
right behind you, there's bars all the way around, and I
typically like to come here to do most of my work, I'm quite a
social creature so I like that white noise of people having
fun and talking while I work, and focus on reading and writing. (upbeat music) – So, I came to the University
of Southampton because it's maximum three year study, and essentially my research is a continuation of my Master's
Degree, so going into the field, or this field in particular,
I knew I could finish in about three years, and the University
of Southampton is completely structured around completing your thesis. What I did is I did all
of those courses within the first year, I did that because I am a social anthropologist, so
I study culture and people, and that required me to go on
at least one year's worth of fieldwork, so that's
what I did the first year on the University of Southampton campuses, and then once that was done, I did six months in Lille,
France, hanging out with French internationals, as
well as people from Brazil and Germany, and just generally
a young adult friend group. And from there, I did another
six months in Edinburgh, doing about the same thing. So it was very nice that I
got all of the credits out of the way the first year. I've published recently, my first article in the
GradNet program at the University of Southampton,
which is a cohorts of all the PGR students, and they put on
a conference, and then they have a journal, and it's
called the Emergence Journal, and so it's basically geared
into making you a better researcher, and overall
a better academic writer. (upbeat music) – My favorite thing about
the university is just how diverse it is, I mean most
universities nowadays are quite diverse; Southampton
has more than 135 countries represented here. It's very easy to get involved
in cultural activities, from your own cultures
and from your own ethnic backgrounds as well as
participating in other peoples'; there's the Brazil Society,
and they host a fiesta every year, and it's a really big
party, everyone gets involved, there's all kinds of clubs
and sports, and pretty much any genre you want to
participate in, you can, and another good thing about
the University, it's very student-run as well, so the
Southampton Student Union, or the SUSU, if you have an
idea for a society or a club, and you want to start one,
well it's actually quite easy to do that and get faculty support and administration support. And it's probably the biggest
reason for me coming here, is how supportive they are, and primarily my supervisors have been amazing, and if I have any suggestion for people who are looking to do a
post-grad degree, like a master's or a PhD like me, it is don't make the university
location your primary goal, I chose Southampton first because of my supervisor and then because of location. It's an hour away from London,
we have an international airport here as well, so it's
easy to get to Scotland or Ireland or anywhere in Europe. I'm really glad that I came here. I was part of the GradNet
conference, and for this the theme was innovation versus tradition. And so, because my research
deals with youth culture and recreational drugs, which
includes alcohol, I decided to present on craft beer and how
popular it is and how global it is for being such a
local, authentic product. Using the term 'millenial',
that's what we are, ages between early 20's and mid-35, we are the generational cohort that's pretty much
responsible for the reasons you're seeing craft beer popping
up all over the world, so even though it was
Generation X that started craft brewing, within a US context, because it was so new in flavor, and bold in flavor, with roots in locality and regional authenticity, and essentially
community support, I'm a big defender and a big
believer that today's youth culture is the reason why
there's craft beer in Mexico, there's craft beer in the
UK, which already had a very strong beer tradition,
but now we're seeing more colorful labels, and
more exciting flavors. So, that's what I do. (upbeat music) – If you liked the video,
and you wanna learn more about top universities, please
click that link right there. (rock music)

🐻EVERYTHING to know about Cornell University (for Prospective Students + Freshmen!) | Katie Tracy

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Are you interested in applying to Cornell University? Curious about life at an ivy league college? Maybe you’re an incoming Cornelian freshman or transfer student worried about adjusting? This guide is for you.

What’s in this video?
1. Cornell’s Campus (North, West, Central, Collegetown) 1:11
2. Cornell Food (Dining Hall Meal Plans, Best Restaurants, Cafes + Recommendations) 1:36
3. Residential Life (Best Dorms, Choosing Single vs. Double Rooms, Roommates) 6:51
4. Transportation (How to get to Cornell, TCAT Bus, Uber, Lyft, Transportation) 9:19
5. Lifestyle (How to stay fit, PE Fitness Classes, Gym, Sleep) 10:44

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If you see this, comment “Cornell has the best food in all colleges??” 😉
(It’s actually true. It’s rated in the top 5:

I am done with my freshman year of college Aloha its Katie and I'm finally back home oh my god today's video is a very exciting much awaited one it is going to be the first of a three-part series called or not the classified College Survival Guide so original Elena the idea is I wanted to make a whole series for you incoming freshmen for you prospective students for anyone interested in what life at Cornell University is like I want to talk about super popular questions I have gotten about food dining hall meal plans residential life you know dorms transportation the essential things I wish I knew as a freshman coming into Cornell the third video is gonna be about college in general so transitioning from high school to college everything nobody told me about college that I wish someone had told me I'm really excited for these three videos make sure you are subscribed to my channel I'm trying to upload two videos every week this summer and to make sure you don't miss them you should cut the balance here my notifications on or follow me on social media I love when he DX for updates without further ado here is everything you need to know about Cornell University colonels campus is divided into four main sections North Campus which is where all the freshmen live West Campus which is where the sophomores live and also sometimes upperclassmen central which is where all the classes lectures school activities are usually held in college town with their apartments restaurants cafes you name it you will hear those words a lot sometimes people will just caught c-town some people call it south don't call it south it's weird this is gonna be a long one because this girl is a foodie and she takes her food very seriously but first things first meal plan a lot of you guys ask me what to get the two most popular is either bear traditional or bad choice bear traditional comes with 14 meal swipes a week so you can guarantee you cover all our lunch and dinner meals bear choice is 10 meal swipes a week the bear traditional comes with $400 of a gred bucks or be Arby's bear choice on the other hand comes with 500-yard ease now I started off with the bear traditional pan which is more expensive than choice because I wanted to cover all my meals what enough happening was I barely finished my meal swipes I would usually use seven or eight meal swipes a week because one thing I didn't realize was on Central there is only one dining hall it became really inconvenient try to go to that one dining hall where you could use your meal swipe on called Oakenshield and oakenshield's is a very controversial dining hall some people call oaken and say the food is trash but also know just another issue is one thing go to central campus for classes in the morning they are probably gonna stay in central the entire day but trust me on this one you will end up using a lot of your PR views throughout the day what ended up happening was I would use my midwife's Monday Friday every lunch and then my meal swipes monday to friday dinner same thing for weekends I would use my meal swipes Saturday and Sunday but at night I would probably go out with some friends to treat ourselves at a restaurant in college town or the greater ethica which I'll talk more about later I think once you get on campus you'll get a better feel for this but the good thing is you can always downgrade your meal plan before a certain amount of time so that's why I would suggest if you are leaning towards their traditional then go for it and you always have the option to go down to bare choice if you're already convinced that you're gonna be on a bare choice then stick with bare choice but I changed mine to bear choice in the end because I was using a lot more beer B's and that pun gave me plus $100 beer geez and it reduced my meal swipes so I wasn't wasting them as much for freshmen North has three dining halls appel our pcc a robert personal community center and grizzly a pal and our pcc have a long-standing debate or whatever about which dining hall is the best and my person piñon Appel is so much better than our PCC okay I think a pals fruit is way better there's a lot more diversity and maybe as an international student that's why it appeals to me more but but really it's always changing you can get Mexican Asian Southern they really have a very keen at Appel reasons people do like our PCC the armies of location depending on their dorm and also it is more customizable so they'll have make-your-own scrambled eggs waffles pasta and you can choose your toppings and everything where's Lee is the third dining hall and it is a vegan dining hall so everyone feels much healthier eating there gives these and Thursdays you can get stir-fry vegetables and on Monday Wednesday Fridays you can get PO cables but I'm gonna tell you a very helpful app that you can download on your phone that's called eatery and it has all the list of dining halls tells you what time it's open tells you the menu for that to you so if you take your food Sears that you can consult that app first is Terrace and their salads are iconic you're probably thinking create a salad it's basically because you choose so many toppings to the point that the sod is not really salad anymore there are sesame ginger dressing is amazing and you just have to try it you're gonna spend so much on it second is the Mac's cafe there are flat breads amazing I'm not usually a pizza kind of person but these flat breads are delicious especially Mediterranean and sun-dried tomatoes I would also try the green smoothie it is my favorite green smoothies have stigma you know but it's so good and you feel so happy do it third is Trillium which is a food court and I love their barbecue pork fourth is sage Hall which doesn't the business grad school I love their curry on Wednesdays and the fifth is not my favorite but it is a very popular spot for late nights after parties it's called nasties and it has all the Gracie food you could probably imagine Cora also has food trucks my favorite was a sushi burrito one there's also Louise which is again all the greasy snacks and junk you can imagine our number one Koko's or four seasons which are both Korean barbecue restaurants second so poom which is another Korean restaurant I love their kimbap third oh you see Bowl which has really good Japanese rice bowls fourth is mat which is an Indian restaurant and number five poke a lava for pokeballs pokeballs not pokeballs and six college town bagels or abbreviated CTP is a really pip sir hub spot that students go to it's a pretty popular thing in Ithaca and dessert insomnia cookies I cannot say enough about insomnia cookies so Fran good snickerdoodles oatmeal raisin hey on me or join me only raisins are good there are also three milk tea stores actually my favorite is UT second is kung fu tea which is cheaper it has a fair number of branches around America I will give them they're both either boba is by far the best out of all the multi places but taste wise UT wins third one panda tea lounge some people like it is cheapest it's powdered milk tea so it's not fresh but those are the options if you're interested and if you want to be healthy Chatty Cathy for acai bowls I get asked a lot should I do a single or a double I chose to have a double in cod because it's an important life skill to know how to live with someone else and also because it's your first year you'll probably want to have some company not isolate yourself so those are my reasons for choosing a double and I was lucky enough to find a roommate before I got here so I actually got to talk to her about our lifestyle habits to make sure we were compatible and we'd be good friends I think that worked out amazing this year shoutouts and I went bout some reasons for a single are if you know you need your space if you don't even want to risk that because you think you could really jeopardize your productivity or your health but then you can go for a single if really picky about your own space but otherwise I would really go for a double just for the experience the two best dorms are cork a Bauer Hall or ckp or amuse I was very lucky to live in ckv my freshman year it is air-conditioned can't say that about every dorm facilities are much nicer five people share a one bathroom because the dorm style is in pod so each pod will have two doubles on single and bathroom so five people share that this is different from other dorms like mulch which is at the all-girls dorm because they just have one communal bathroom with I don't know eight ten stalls that all the girls chair in the entire floor it's what you see in movies Donlan is the social dorm people that are known for doing really whack things and a lot of times you will feel really pressure to continue the legacy of living DOM and so people flip refrigerators almost all the time smell weed when you're passing that dorm it can either be a very fun experience where you make a lot of friends or you could just be really upset and grossed out by the hygiene situation because more often than not vomit is gonna be in the bathrooms Dixon just has a lot of singles it's fairly old Jameson is pretty good and it has a similar pod style but they call suites I admittedly don't know much about them but I know they're relatively farther and facility wise they're not as new as say CKB Muse or Donlan but I hear the community is pretty nice there are also town houses which are pretty far away but are really good facilities there like house style living so I think people will have kitchens and a living space among for people or so and they're also program houses where it's not just freshmen it's open to any year level and it's based on interest so there is one called Jam which is the music house and attracts a lot of musicians grizzly is a performing arts one milk is an international one and there are a few others all freshmen at Cornell get free bus passes if you've seen my vlogs right a watch again an app that will be really helpful for you to map out the bus system is to download ethica transit which is also my app dev shout outs my friend Maya actually whose team lead for that app and she is just an iconic such an inspiring woman along with that I would also download my stop mobile because my son mobile will give you the most accurate live tracking of where the buses honestly walking from North to your farthest class is probably gonna take max 15 to 20 minutes but trust me when it's winter and it's cold and some days you're just lazy you will want to take the bus and it's pretty conveniently located once a freshman normally take are around 82 and 30 so keep that in mind Cornell also has a lot of buses especially if you want to get out of the city go to New York City work use Boston and in that case they will either take T to C which is Cornell's bus most expensive or coach us a short line which I think is the most reasonable uber and lyft actually has a decent presence at Cornell if you're wondering how to get to Cornell you can also take flights actually because Cornell has its own in the airport which is very small it's pretty good a lot of people told me it was not reliable especially during the winter it was always late but my experience with the Ithaca Airport has been pretty dang good alternatively Syracuse is an hour drive away which is the next biggest city that has their own Airport so some people take that or some people will take the four and a half hour bus to New York City and fly out of JFK get a gym pass the main one on north is Helen human but pal also has a mini Loki one they also offer a lot of fitness classes that is so exciting guys your fitness membership will come with fitness classes quitting yoga Pilates muscle pump hit cardio kickboxing swimming one sorry there's just so many fun fitness classes that I highly recommend you just try a lot of people also run especially because Cornell's campus is beautiful there are so many lakes during the winter Cornell has a lot of winter sports – they have skiing snowboarding cross-country skiing it is an essential that you try out some of the pieces they have the coolest things especially if you want to get out of your comfort zone explore the outdoors hiking sailing snorkeling in the Bahamas fishing ziplining and ball climbing caving so many kinds of dancing so many kinds of martial arts circus skills massage and that is on top of all the basic ones like beginner intermediate advanced volleyball squash tennis it's crazy if he looks at class roster which is the directory of the class that Cornell oh my gosh you'll be overwhelmed because that was one of the biggest perks of Cornell I'd say because of its size and because of its number of colleges there's just an incredible array of courses offered that will likely cater to one of your interests or allow you to explore something you've always wanted to sleep varies greatly personally I prioritize my sleep and social life this year but I just want to show you that you are gonna meet people like you no matter what I at first thought the nobody would gym at 8:00 a.m. before classes because who does that but you know when I went one day I saw so many people and it was so inspiring to see it motivated me same thing you going in the morning it's a great way to start your day not for everybody but your lifestyle is what you want to make of it and I promise you you will find other people who follow that same lifestyle that was all the information overload I'm giving you today give a thumbs up if this was helpful if you want to see more videos like it down below so you know when I upload part two we're going to talk more about academics quartile culture and the social scene who's her bright Ida watch worn by news and follow me on social media advocating X we don't miss out on any updates every lesson week with another video bye guys


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FINALLY!! here is my college move in vlog 2018! I will be going to Ryerson University in Toronto, Canada and I can’t wait!! Hope you enjoyed this video as I had so much fun showing you guys everything 🙂

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hi guys it's moving day well my half movement day I guess so I got early move in so today's Sunday the 19th and I'm just gonna drop my stuff off and then I can actually move in and live there next Sunday so I'm with my best friend Diana she's gonna come and help me and she's gonna film everything so it's 11:00 now and almost so I'm in and we're gonna get going on the road we're gonna pack the car and head to Toronto this is my lovelies look how cute it is yeah and it's so fun like honestly I'll fit a lot of stuff in here it's really skinny because I think I'm space in between my bed and the wall zucchini legend perfect that's all are you guys excited to move me in oh also you guys I like from about to show a lot of stuff in my dorm hall but this is my laundry basket I got it from the store called JISC and it's like a star and like it like squishes down but like obviously I filled it with all my stuff yeah that's really cute if you're wondering I'll do an outfit of the day my tank top is from brandy of my sweater so brandy I'm wearing rule em and leggings and my white tee does enemies so yeah babe make a sound – am low we're finding parking and we have an hour to write in okay yeah it says this way I have to know such a big closet that's more ok let's see who this is the fridge oh wow they did give us a lot of stuff every night oh we have little glasses oh my god we have a cutting board that's a nice toaster you microwave all this stuff oh my god I totally forgot that I have to decorate a whole living room I don't know he might I feel go go good it's right here oh my god it's big how do you turn the lights on Wow and there's my other roommates oh then there's stairs oh this is like different moment of truth to see if I need a mattress pad it's so oh my god it's so soft I know yeah we I literally don't need a mattress pad this is like a memory where are you bringing this over and the first one to suborn it out okay here's my oh oh thanks so much right now yeah okay these are my sheep Oh guys I also got a new lamp from my off hey I'm almost white or gray but this is white and this is gray I'm hopeless should we have tickety-boo no just my command hooks like a big tip bring the scissors with you thanks for doing my bad guys okay wait oh this will fit in that hole oh okay so I have a huge bin and I put all my clothes on so like PJ's and things shoes I might yeah first time on the bed you should bring your bin stuck over here the gray bins so I like a great thing going and my wall is gray and then like the rest are white and yeah so good boy I should take this up another bend down and then now it's all my products we can put this on the bed maybe I should forget what I put in here oh my calendar indigo they all hang this up now with my commander yeah that's so cute but then I can't really write on it no like cuz it's right on my desks and be hard to like go and write oh yeah and it on my polaroid Oh guys wait when we put my lights up they're gonna be so cute oh wait I don't think I brought my lights I did it why did you bring that I forgot you know what for now we break I would just leave all this little bag dang it I wanted to put my light oh I didn't bring my wall flower start writing that down on your nose but I thought I could put all my makeup stuff and like shake I put in my drawer and I forgot my command hook so I can't even hang up where okay okay then we can do that at least I also forgot to show these in my dorm hall but I got command hooks I'm just sit down and tell me where you want it like if you're looking at me and they're actually comfy then they hide out like the shamans yeah Wow we'd be good mighty Foreman oh yeah guys my one card picture is so bad I had like I have like a twitchy eye and I was like you know it's fine whatever and it looks really bad so wait it's focus well doesn't need to focus perfectly but yeah so my pictures very ugly so when you're taking your photo ID picture make sure it's nice because you're gonna regret it I like how I literally don't have anything like my Kleenex box and I thought I was bringing so much today it's fine okay I'm gonna give you like an official apartment or you walk in and then it's re moving thing and then my theme each like floor has a theme so mine's like greyish blue and I love it and then I'll go down this hall so this is the first bathroom so I have as I said I there's four of us so two of us I'm Sarah each bathroom so let's see that this is kind of like a bigger shower and then there is one two three four rooms and then this is the other one I have no clue where the lights are right here yeah okay oh wow there's a little fan how nice so it's the second bathroom and this one kind of has like a smaller shower that looks like that okay and then down this is a huge storage closet which I'm so excited about to put all like winter coats and our extra stuff and then this is my room so this is like my closet area I've these two great bins from Canadian Tire that I got and then that's like my closet this I'm not keeping here but it's all my bathroom stuff and I don't want to put it there and then I put some things like here and this little thing I haven't put it up there this is probably gonna put in the living room and then in this little area I put my laundry basket I have a plug there and then I have my bed and my cute rug and then I like this like mini dresser kind of so my sister and Diana kind of put stuff here and then also I'm gonna get more storage for under the bed because a lot can fit there and then my sheets you guys saw about these from Ikea and then my dad and I window and I have a little ledge which I'm excited about this is my desk my chair that's actually comfortable and these are like pretty small but I'll just put like my essentials and then my lamp so far that I have literally a Kleenex box and my cute calendar and that's it this is my view but that's all I have Kuwait I actually love that I have my own little haul that's so nice all in there stairs there's this little sitting area cute it's cute yeah cute this is like a study area oh my god I can write something right what are you saying oh no oh my god Diana it sixteen no you're gonna see well we're gonna notice I'm not done we're going so this is like my mail and yeah I guess wow this is what I'm gonna be doing my god it tells you how to do laundry okay fat mood oh wow look at it he listen I'm so excited to use this mail thing and you clean it be like money we just try to literally do parking at that stupid meter for 20 minutes and didn't work so we're moving the car but now I'm all moved in and I my roommate she's really nice I'm gonna show them around my campus and stuff I have never seen you guys ok so right now we're in the Ted Rogers School management building which is like where I have one of my classes you guys I can barely hear swingers but now we're just looking all right and then I'm gonna go to the engineering building because I have a summer class there in like two days and I want to find okay I'm looking for my classroom right now heads 14 maybe it's the other way yeah I found my classroom they're not that bad they're kind of comfortable my first time in electro did you elect your host like this guy yeah okay so I just wanted to end this vlog I'm really hope you guys enjoyed it I just got home I'm so tired miss sit down and edit this video because I'm so excited I think I got pretty good footage and yeah so basically this was early movement as I said so obviously I can't stay there because I'll actually move in the 26th and I don't think I'm gonna film that because number one I don't have like many more things to bring obviously I'm gonna like to finish my bathroom bring more kitchen stuff but I don't know if I'm gonna vlog it because all of my roommates will be there and everyone will be there from the building like today there so they no one there like it was just me and a couple other people but then obviously next week will be everyone so be really busy and yeah but of course I will be doing a full dorm tour don't worry I'm so excited to do it but yeah I literally love my little apartment so much I'm so excited I'm so thankful like it's literally beautiful and I'm just I'm so excited so I hope you guys enjoyed this video I'm sorry I'm really so tired right now but yeah thank you so much for watching and I'll see you guys all next time bye

A Day in the Life: Brown University Student

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Alaena Roberds is a sophomore at Brown University, studying Applied Mathematics. Outside of her rigorous academic work in the Applied Math department, …


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hey guys i’ve watched so many college decision reaction videos while I was applying to university so I thought I would film a compilation of my reactions for y’all …

Erasmus School of Economics 100 years of impact

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Meet Germany's Top 10 Universities 2019

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Where are the world’s top universities? Find out with the brand new QS World University Rankings 2019! See the full results now: …

Is Time Real? – Philosophy Tube

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A general introduction to the philosophy of time, explaining the distinction between A-theory and B-theory.
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time is against us time waits for no man times change time runs on time flies time stands still and I'd take time to spend time talking about time any time but what is time what I want to do in this episode is give you all a very general introduction to the philosophy of time and the state of the debate today so when it comes to time philosophers are broadly divided into two camps called a theory and B theory a theorists believe that time can be divided into past present and future and there are temporal properties so the Peninsular war has the property of pastner's the war between the Mayans and the schedule has the property of Futurity past present and future actual real distinctions that you can make and time passes as it flows from the future into the present and into the past B theorists believe that all times are equal and often – an analogy between time and space in space there's no such place as here that's just the name we give to this bit where we happen to be there's nothing spatially special about here no property of hereness similarly B theorists think that there's no such thing as the present it's just the name we give to the bit of time where we happen to be but all times actually exist equally and some people believe the time is cyclical and some people believe the time is cyclical and some people believe the time is cells a joke the distinction between a series and B series comes from the pleasingly named John McTaggart Ellis McTaggart who rejected the B series because he thought it ruled out the possibility of change imagine a hot pie that cools down if a theory is true then the pie is currently hot and then it becomes cool the moment at which the pie is hot moves from the present into the past and then into the further and further past whereas if the B theory is true McTaggart thought there isn't any genuine change if the pie is hot and then it cools then the time at which the pie is hot is always in the same earlier than relation to the time at which the pie is cool saying we have a pie at time t1 and a cold pie at time t2 doesn't describe change any more than saying there is a chair over there there is not a chair over there describes change the b-series involves permanence relations whereas the a-series is more dynamic McTaggart thought that time necessarily involved change so he rejected the b-series he thought it's not even a legit view of time at all he thought that if time exists it has to be like the a-series and he also rejected the a-series weirdly he thought it was contradictory because of something nowadays known as McNuggets paradox paradox imagine the universe is a ish there really is a metaphysically distinct past present and future and there really are properties of pathless prisoners and Futurity every event will have past nurse present nurse and Futurity they'll start off a Futurity amount of prisoners from it and then they'll move into having passed us but the a properties are mutually exclusive nothing can have passed nurse present 'no sand Futurity that's a contradiction now the obvious response is well nothing has all three a properties at the same time they start off having Futurity then they have presents and then they have past nurse and there's nothing contradictory about having a property at one time and not having it at another but McTaggart goes one step beyond if an event is in the future then it is currently in the future but it will be in the past that means it has second order temporal properties it has present Futurity ie it is presently in the future and future past sness ie it will be in the past and when it is in the past it will have past Futurity ie it used to be in the future but again we get a contradiction no event can have future pastner's and past Futurity that would mean it both is and isn't in the future which is a contradiction so again we say they don't have them at the same time it currently has future partners and then it will have past Futurity which is to say it has third order temporal properties it has present future pastner's and future past Futurity but again some of the third order temporal properties are contradictory so we have to invoke for four and fifth order and so on and so on and so on in an infinite regress which goes on forever solves nothing and is incredibly grammatically confusing no matter how many levels you perceive them to the contradictions in McNuggets paradox always come back and the reason for that is we have invoked time to explain time we said there's a contradiction with a properties to try and get rid of the contradiction we appealed to a properties we said that nothing has the contradictory properties simultaneously simultaneously means at the same time we try to fix the broken thing using the broken thing for this reason McTaggart rejected the a theory he thought that if time exists it has to be like the a theory because it can't be like B theory that doesn't account for change but the a theory is contradictory so the only conclusion is the time is unreal and he was late for every appointment from that day forward not really he thought the time was illusory we all partake in and operate according to the illusion of time but it doesn't actually pick out a real feature of the universe and that's really the beginning of the modern metaphysics of time the distinction between a theory and B theory is still used today there nowadays their broad classes of views nobody's just an atheist or just to be theorist they all split down into their little factions and make Taggarts paradox isn't really thought of as being particularly good argument anymore but I think this is one of the coolest areas of philosophy and there's loads more questions to ask like does time pass if it really exists and to the past and the future really exists or were they kind of imaginary or what's going on there but we shall have to save those questions for another time what do you guys think about this general introduction to time do you believe McTaggart that there couldn't be change in a b universe if you want to send me your questions comments screws comebacks fan mail fan art fan fiction fan dances or anything you want stick them underneath the video are sent to me by Facebook Twitter or by email next time we could eat a stick with the topic of time and talk about does time pass if it exists or we could talk about some international politics and economics and something called the resource curse which is all about who do resources belong to and what should we do about them leave a like if you enjoyed this video and if you don't subscribe to philosophy tube you and I have a bad time I am beautiful the matter what you say because there's no objective criterion for aesthetic judgments let's see what the floss parents have to say about whether beauty is in the eye of the beholder Dante asked what if two equally ideal art critics had conflicting opinions that's a good question and I'll show what you would say to that I guess in that case either opinion would be fine because he's not saying there's an objective answer which only the ideal critter can get out we're just judging judgments so maybe either judgment in that case is okay Donald said that whether somebody's an ideal art critic might actually be a subjective thing we did try and rule that out when we were listing the ideal critics attributes but I agree with you that maybe something would want different things out of their critics so maybe we should see the attributes Hume lists as things that are necessary for being an ideal critic but not sufficient relatedly Joseph hall-patton yeah I think that's probably a pretty good way of reading Humes I say maybe we should read it as a list of things which if you don't have then you can't be an ideal art critic like if your taste is prejudice or it's not delicate enough then your opinions shouldn't be considered authoritative maybe it's a way of ruling out bad aesthetic judgments rather than ruling in really good ones Jose Maria Ruiz said that may be the true test of whether something is beautiful is whether or not it's still considered beautiful outside of the cultures and contexts in which it was created I don't know whether or not that's true but I thought that the picture of the ancient Egyptian thing that you sent me was really really cool so I will put a link to that description thank you for that I was interesting mr. pon top and Michael Rua grok said that if you couldn't understand Shakespeare then you could legit judge Twilight to be better because I mean Shakespeare's not even a live option for you you can't even access it or appreciate it as a work of art I think you might be might be onto something there I mean as an actor I obviously rebel intuitively against that and maybe a future drama school admissions panel will hold this against me but yeah yeah I think you might be onto something with that too Tommy Wilson Google pudding ball where's my gun and all the other people on Twitter who are asking me who those two comics were who I said were my favorite this guy is Stewart Lee he's a big inspiration to me when I write my stand up he's very very mad and this guy he's okay he's pretty he's pretty funny pretty decent comedian he's got his own hour at the Fringe this year it's pretty cool he's my brother that's all we've got time for this week thank you very much watching and I shall see you in the next episode bye

The Einstein Lecture: The Quantum Computing Revolution

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Michelle Simmons, 2018 Australian of the Year, shared her insights into quantum physics and atomic electronics, at the recent Einstein Lecture: The Quantum Computing Revolution, 14 August 2018.

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if I look inside a computer I can actually take out the chip inside and that's how big it is so though it's roughly the size you know a couple of inches square and the amazing thing about this chip is there are now 14 billion transistors on this chip so you imagine the size of the smallest transistor I'd have to break that up 14 billion times so you can imagine how small it would be it'd be smaller than anything I can see [Applause] okay so good evening everyone I'm very excited I've got a slightly different lecture what I normally give which I'm very excited to give to you but I guess one of the things it's very important to start with this is National Science Week and that's a very important week for Australia because I think science is critical for our future and if you step back and think what a science mean you know scientists aspire aspire to be people that generate fundamental knowledge and fundamental truths it's a global community of people that work very closely together we get on incredibly well and they work together because they're trying to make the world a better place and what you find is generally their values of working together actually transcend the national values that they grew up with so you form this international community of people that try strive to make the world even better than it is but by working together in a collaborative nature diversity is absolutely critical to there so you'll see large research teams across the world that collaborate with everyone because it's the concept of ideas from all those different nationalities different genders that help you to understand the way the world is and really that's what science is all about in this in this lecture tonight what I hope to do is to take you through the world of quantum physics leading into quantum computing and to bring those ideas of community with it about how working together how trying to get to the fundamental truths lead us to new knowledge and new knowledge leads us to understand the world in a better way now for me what's fascinating about this journey I'm going to take you back in time more than 100 years is to look at some of those first communities that developed over 100 years ago and so look at those people and realize that actually they used to play music together they used to go for drinks together they used to sit around the coffee table in pubs in cafes and talk about science but what's amazing is at that time they were understanding the world was very different to what we have now and so there were ideas concepts that they came up with but they never knew where they were going and they never even knew they were real or concepts so they debated heavily and science is all about debating to try and understand the fundamental truths one of the things I find fascinating some cases more than a hundred years before those ideas and concepts could be tested and used for something that they thought 100 years ago would be useful and so I'm going to take you through that journey of of quantum theory and how it evolved to the point where along the way people started to make technology better and better to be able to design and build devices at the level that could actually test those theories and turn them into reality I'm going to give you two equations I'm going to give you some ideas of some of the experiments that we do and I'm gonna all the way through this highlight how Australia is in a phenomenal position to benefit from this so Australia back in 2000 set up some of the first centers in quantum computing and they've been going for a long time they're the envy of the world other people are trying to replicate them and what that means is for the last 20 years we have been building our workforce in our capacity to be ready for the quantum revolution where it comes and finally what I do hope to do is to encourage younger scientists to realize some of the skills they're gonna need if they want to join this field so I'm going to start with this picture taking you all the way back to 1927 now I've come to love this picture for many reasons it's a conference that was held in Brussels in Belgium I'm going to look at some of the people there these are the people that used to go and have drinks together and they were playing music together and if I start to zoom in and highlight some of the people you might recognize we have earring Schroedinger who was famous in quantum physics for the Schrodinger wave equation we have Wolfgang Pauli and Pauli talked about the idea that electrons on atoms could have a spin and he came up with this idea that little bio magnets if they were in the same orientation you tried to pull them together they'd repel so he came up with the power exclusion principle we have Verner Heisenberg who came up with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle so you could either know the energy or the location of a particle but never both at the same time we have pizza to buy who's famous for the Debye links which is looking at the scattering of electrons and x-rays and materials we have William Bragg who looks at solids with x-rays and determine their crystal structure we have Dirac who work with Schrodinger to develop fundamental quantum theory we have Compton who's famous for constant scattering although these people have had things named after them Louis de Broglie who looked at the wavelengths of particles of radiation Max Born who looked at the statistics of how things interacted Niels Bohr who looked at atoms and realized that atoms had shells and electrons could move between the shells in quantized energy levels we have oving Langmuir he was a chemist this films called langmuir-blodgett films named after him we have Max Planck Max Planck is famous for the photoelectric effect we have Mary Curie who discovered radiation we have Heinrich Lawrence who looked at the Lorentz force the magnetic properties on own particles we have Albert Einstein after this lectures named and most people are aware of we have Charles Thomson reason Wilson who realized that you could see charged particles moving if you put them in a vapor and then we have own Williams Richardson who looked at the thermoelectric effect now so what's amazing about this picture is there's 29 people at this conference and 17 of them won Nobel Prizes that's phenomenal discuss to show they were all together all discussing things at the same time that there's a community of people who have set off and kicked off the world of quantum physics so let's go back and look at those Marie Curie 1903 she was actually the first of those to win a Nobel Prize and she won it for radioactivity so she was looking at uranium she went it with a husband Pierre and Pierre had designed something called an electroscope that can tell whether they've got charged particles and she took his design and she put it near a mineral of a wreck of uranium and she realized that the air around it was charged and there she discovered radiation she won the Nobel Prize for that discovery but then she won this second level price many years later about eight years later in chemistry so she's won a Nobel Prize in Physics and one in chemistry and there she discovered polonium and radium and polonium was named after the country she came from which is Poland and with radium she found that radium could be used to treat people that had tumors and it would kill the tumor cells faster than the healthy cells she's had a pretty big impact then we look at Max Planck and Planck's constant their funding Max Planck was employed by an electric company and he was told take a light bulb make it as bright as you can with as little energy as you can and that was his challenge in the company so as a physicist we always get us to do the impossible and he came up with the idea of blackbody radiation he realized that radiation was emitted from a solid a black solid one that's normally opaque that you can't see through but it only comes out at certain frequency and he came up with the equation e is equal to H mu where H is now off the Planck's constant shortly after that Albert Einstein won a Nobel Prize because he came up with the photoelectric effect now he's obviously synonymous with genius and there are many things he did and normally equation you're most related to his is equal to MC square to the equivalence of mass in energy but he actually won the Nobel Prize for the photoelectric effect so when you shine light on something it emits energy and the energy is quantized and actually linked together with Planck's constant then we've got a ring Schrodinger and he kind of really followed up from born and so born looked at the idea that electrons in atoms move around between the different shells and they emit radiation and once that was great and it could explain how high Jonathan worked when you get to more complex atoms it no longer work because electrons can behave both as particles in his wave annoing Schrodinger really came up with the concept of wave particle duality and then finally one of the people I like a lot is Richard Feynman and Richard Feynman was someone that came up with what's known as the Fineman diagrams he took how particles interact and he represented them graphically so something that was very mathematical he decided to put in a picture to describe how those interactions could occur and that's helped people understand things in a very different way now a lot of people like flamin firemen actually has his lectures which were recorded back in the 1950s and 60s he actually has them online at the Caltech web site so you can actually see him talking and he's incredibly charismatic but one of the other reasons I like Richard Feynman which he was one of the earliest pioneers of quantum computing so back in 1982 there was a conference at MIT on the physics of computing and he really started the idea that actually if you could somehow use in computers quantum you could actually get a way of doing calculations in parallel he was really the first person that came up with that concept and it wasn't until 1994 that Peter Shore came up with the idea of an algorithm a quantum algorithm so actually a mathematical way of using quantum physics to do something very valuable now the algorithm he came up with is what's called the factorization algorithm so when you go to a bank and you type in your four digit PIN code it takes your number and it encodes it in a very large prime number and if anyone wants to try and figure out what your four digit PIN code is they have to work out what the prime factors of those numbers are so a prime number is a number that's only divisible by 1 and itself so if you take 7 & 7 multiplied together get 49 it's an easy calculation but if I said his 49 what are the prime factors relatively simple if that number is any two digits 49 but if I had a 768 bit number and I asked you to work out what the prime factors were it actually took us about three years in 2010 with all the computing power we had at the time to work it out so that's what keeps the security of all your banking systems and this quantum algorithm is predicted to break that almost instantaneously what that was great but there was a thing called the no-cloning theorem and that's the idea if you have a quantum state you can't replicate the quantum state and to give you a sense of why this is important in classical computing when you do a calculation you run a calculation through and you run it through four or five times in parallel and if one of the transistors is not working you look at the out all the answers and if the most likely answer is four out of five you know that's the one to go for and so that's what we call quantum erica is a classical error correction you need to run it in parallel many times but in the quantum world it was believed that you couldn't run it in parallel because to create another quantum state you actually have to ask the quantum state something and the process of asking takes information away from it so the view is there's no way in the quantum world that you could do error correction and in 1995 andrew Steen working with Peter shor came up with a theoretical way where you could take a quantum state you could interact it with other quantum states and then uninterrupted and bring it back to its original state and in such a way you would be able to do Eric so as a threat evil construct shortly after in 1996 Lou Grover came up with another album called the Grover a broom and this was something called the fast database search so another quantum algorithm that suddenly people realized was incredibly powerful so imagine you have a database with a billion entries roughly on average in a classical computer you have to look through all of them and roughly 500 million times you will find the answer with this quantum algorithm you would only have to do for 30,000 lookups so it's an incredible increase in speed so suddenly now there are these two very powerful algorithms but just that niggling problem can you solve error correction is his theory right and in 1998 raela from from Canada actually did an experiment we took a trichloroethylene molecule he broke up the quantum information into different states brought them back to go again and showed that you could actually do quantum error correction and there the field of quantum computing was born now the fascinating thing about that is that's all just the theory of quantum so you can see it's taken them almost 100 years from some of the earliest concepts of quantum physics which is how the world behaves that they're very small whether it's a particle or whether it's a wave a hundred years before they come up with something where you could actually use it for computing in the meantime we've got the classical computing industry the technology is developing in parallel and of how we now have to go back 1940 vacuum tubes some of the first computers use vacuum tubes you can see the slides of them by the size of his hand and this is 1946 one of the world's first computers using vacuum tubes it's called ENIAC electronic numerical integrator and computer that's what it was called and there were over 19,000 of those vacuum tubes in their system they were very inefficient systems and if something went wrong it would take on average 20 minutes to a couple of hours to find the vacuum tube that didn't work you'd have to cycle through all those tubes you see it's the size of a room and so one of the big revolutions in the semiconductor industry came in 1947 where people realizes that vacuum tube which is a glass tube where you've got pump everything out to give a vacuum you've got anode and cathode new switch something between on and off States you could actually replace it with a tray sister and this here is a tiny sliver of germanium it's a very Keith Robinson experiment there's a glass slide there and that is a safety clip that goes up but you're basically passing current through the germanium transistor and they found that they could switch the current between on and off it's actually about the size of two centimeters in size so that was the world's first transistor made out of a semiconductor material that could go from conducting one States to insulating off state zero States that actually also won a Nobel price but it took them about several years almost a decade before they realized they could put lots of different components onto that chip so instead of one transistor they got the world's first integrated circuit by putting lots of components on one piece of germanium material and then shortly afterwards so now instead of having these big vacuum tubes with all kinds of different materials they can now put it in one slab monolithic materials where they caught it and they suddenly started putting more and more transistors on until 1981 they mailed the world's first personal computer an IBM computer now that industry is phenomenal and I've had the pleasure of going to the US and seeing these manufacturing plants and seeing what they're like and so nowadays if I look inside a computer I can actually take out the chip inside and that's how big it is so it's roughly the size you know a couple of inches square and the amazing thing about this chip is there are now 14 billion transistors on this chip so you imagine the size of the smallest transistor I'd have to break that up 14 billion times so you can imagine how small it would be it'd be smaller than anything I can see and what's happening with these chips now is they're building server farm so Facebook of companies like that are building these massive server farms with lots and lots of these computers to give you cloud computing in that massive parallel computing power this is one of Facebook's plants sitting up in Sweden so they generate so much power now that the air conditioning they need to keep it cool is quite costly so they're pushing them up to the Arctic Circle where it's nice and cold so they don't have to put air conditioning they just have to open the windows I think that's quite amazing and the amount of power that these consume can actually power up city in America a small city in America so that gives you an idea but behind those you know server farms that are now growing up all over the world you also have the semiconductor manufacturing plants for this is one that was built in South Korea it cost about fifteen point six billion dollars to make it actually is the size of four hundred soccer fields all connected together and for me the amazing thing about these is most of them are run by robots so when you go in there you do a process to take your silicon wafer all the way through to your transistors with those billions of transistors it's about five hundred step process they have pods that run along the ceiling with all the wafers stacked in them pods come down to a particular tool where they perform some kind of process to turn it into the transistor chip as the tools come down the wafer pod comes down a robotic arm comes out picks up a wafer loads into the tool lets it do the process comes back puts into the pot it goes up to the ceiling and along to the next tool it's absolutely phenomenal to see that process happening incredibly high yields and some of the people that earn some of the most money in the world are the people that troubleshoot those lines so their job is if it goes down it's literally millions of dollars to a day they have to get in there quick fix the tour to get the line back up and running so what's amazing for me is why she's got this quantum theory coming along you've got this massive change in technology happening internationally and these manufacturing plants now they're in the u.s. they're across Asia there is actually one in Australia called Solana not as big as the is the South Korean one but this is technology coming on it's expanding it's getting better our ability to see and control the world is getting better and better and so it comes along Moore's law so Gordon Moore who was the co-founder of Intel he looked at the smallest feature size on a silicon transistor as a function of time and he realized that you could put it literally and the linear graph so you've got the number of transistor components on the left-hand side and you've got your feature size of the bottom here and you can see as a function of time you can draw a line through it and this was quite amazing it was a phenomenological law it wasn't a real law but he said every year you can predict how small it's going to be in in fact what we need to do is as a community is to write down all the technical challenges along the way to make our transistors smaller every year and so came along something called the ITRs roadmap the international technology roadmap for semiconductors and it was opened up to the world all their technical challenges every year and people would put in trillions of dollars to solve those technical challenges so that every year you would get your faster computer or a latest iPhone whatever it might be so it was a self-fulfilling law but it went on for decades and so the reason why this is significant for me as you can see as you go from the left to the right you cross over from classical physics where everything behaves in the way you expect to quantum physics so if I have a tennis ball and I throw it at a wall it bounces off I know where to put my hand to catch it that's the world of classical physics I can write down equations to describe that if I make that tennis ball very very small and I throw it at the wall it behaves like a wave and it can actually toll through the wall and come out the other side and so that's the transition that's happening as devices are getting smaller smaller their quantum behavior starts to dominate so if we look at a typical transistor now this is what we call a 22 nanometer node it's the distance between chips on a on a silicon wafer it basically has a very thin fin in here it's like a shark fin that's why it's called a fin that is our silicon wafer that bright region is an oxide around it that's like an insulator and then we have this gate wrapped around its called a wraparound gate so if I apply a positive voltage to that gate I suck all the electrons up into the silicon fin and I turn the transistor on if I play negative voltage I puts all the electrons away and I turn the transistor off and that's my digital one and zero of digital information and there are 14 billion of those on that silicon chip so you get an idea what's happening now in our world is realizing one of the things Australia did back in 2000 was recognized that this law is being gained for decades so we're gonna buy into that we're gonna assume that it keeps going all the way to the top right-hand side of that screen and on the top right-hand side is when the smallest feature size is a single atom and so back in 2000 what we decided to do is rather than iterate along this line we're gonna jump to that endpoint and build a transistor out of a single atom back in 2000 there was no technology to do that but here's some example in our labs we've taken single atoms on a silicon surface and been able to manipulate them incredibly closely together now the fascinating thing is during all this time that the semiconductor industry is taking off quantum computing is starting to come along and for me as a scientist you know I spent my career moving around to different places I was actually working in England looking at what we call gallium arsenide transistors so the industry the silicon industry dominated all the research in silicon devices and as a consequence researchers at universities were looking at new materials materials that might be better in the future and gallium arsenide was always another semiconductor was always predicted to be the material of the future and so as in Cambridge looking at these devices realizing there are much faster but they're much more expensive and then quantum computing came out and the challenge was if you want to build a quantum computer what's the best material to build it in now gallium arsenide at the time was fast but it's got gallium atoms and Scot arsenic atoms it's got different isotopes and to build a computer in that was actually quite complicated and so what's happening is silicon is dominated by the industry and all the researchers in universities start looking at what they have and adapting there and what Australia did that was quite unique was it said we're gonna look at the theory that says what's the best way to build it and actually the theory says ironically if silicon is a really good material to build a quantum computer in and that's really where Australia got into the race very uniquely at a time when most people were not looking at silicon we jumped in and we said we're going to develop a technology to build single apps and devices to see if we can encode information what's a single item device I've talked about that chip having 14 billion transistors you imagine you chop it up 14 billion times it's beyond the point at which you can see so in order to be able to build devices we've got to have tools that allow us to see what atoms look like and to just give you a sense of microscopes you know most people will be aware of a light microscope where you literally pass light through a very thin sample and if you look at an onion skin you can see the scale bar there about 0.1 millimeter that's much you can see it's difficult to see with the eye but under a light microscope it bends as you can see it if I take that same onion skin and I put it in an electron microscope here I've got higher energies shorter wavelengths I can actually things much more clearly so I can see the outside of the wall of the cell and the nucleus in the middle if I take a sliver of hair and I put it in the microscope it's about 50 microns on average size so it's been point oh five millimeter you could all see your hair if you pull out your hair you can see it now imagine the transistors that we're making we're going down now and using a different kind of microscope called a scanning tunneling microscope this is a microscope you can see it's a large piece of stainless steel we pump out all the air in the middle so it's a vacuum system and we use a very fine needle to actually measure the atoms on that device and here is a silicon surface so you can see rows of silicon atoms the bright features or one atomic blue and you can see the atoms of perpendicular on the layer below that's the stacking crystal planes of the silicon crystal and if i zoom in I can see individual atoms so this was a technology developed in the 1980s it also won a Nobel Prize but those are my individual silicon atoms but I can see on the surface and I'll describe how that microscope works in a minute but it's basically 50 thousand times thinner than a width of a human hair so I do want you all to look out here right now it's good pick out your hair hold it up and if you hold it up and look at it imagine chopping that up fifty thousand times it's in tiny it's incredibly small you just cannot see it with the eye but with these microscopes you really can start to see individual atoms so the question is why would we go there's these theoretical algorithms that say we can do things a certain way but how do quantum computers work what's the difference so now we're just going to compare classical to quantum so in a classical computer anyone that's written code will know you go from one line to another so you can tell you have to work through it and go very very fast but you've got to go one line so now they can't miss it out of the whole things falls apart so if I'd written a telephone number in a piece of paper and asked whose number was in a classical computer with search through the directory if I wanted to go faster I'd split a directory in two and have two computers working if I wanted to go faster side split into three and that's the kind of basis of power of computing in the classical world in the quantum world however we check many possibilities at the same time and that's the thing that people don't like so just try and imagine how can you and this is where my two equations come in imagine now I'm in the quantum world and I'm an electron on an atom have you put me in a magnetic field at low temperature I'm like a little bar magnet you can imagine me sitting in the middle of the earth I can either be pointing to the North Pole of my little bar magnet or I can be pointing to the South Pole but it's my digital one and zero of information but in the quantum world I can actually point anywhere on the surface of the earth and when I write that down here's the first equation mathematically this what's called superposition I'm in the combination of some fraction of the Upstate and some fraction of the downstate at the same time and to describe now my bit in the quantum world is called a quantum bit or a cubit to describe my qubit I need two classical bits of information anywhere alpha zero and my alpha one now something amazing happens when I bring two quantum bits and I get into salt together so two qubits I now have something called entanglement and I now have four different states I can have my down-down States up-up States up-down or down-up States and to describe that I form one entangled state and there are now four classical bits of information to describe it there's my our four zero alpha 1 alpha 2 and alpha 3 now the important thing here is if I do any operation on that state I do it on all the individual states at the same time that's where the parallel approach comes from but the other thing is every time I add a quantum bit I'm doubling the amount of information that it contains and so by the time I get to 30 quantum bits it's more powerful than the world's most powerful supercomputer and that's the race at the moment to get to what we call quantum supremacy where classwork what quantum computer can outperform a classical view and if I could get to 300 cubits it's be predicted that's more than all the computers in the world connected together so that's the race now 300 or 30 or whatever 100 quantum bits will outperform 14 billion classical bits so how well quantum computing changed the world now this is obviously a new field we know there's too powerful guns I've already talked about but there are other ones there are optimization algorithms what people are getting into this we can't see the future but we can start to predict some areas where quantum physics will come in and so the United Parcel Service in the US has recognized if they can shorten the delivery distance of each of their drivers by just one mile a day they would actually save the company fifty million dollars a year so they're very keen to look at how to optimize the routes optimizing the way that workforces are organizing all those kind of optimization problems there's machine learning on Big Data obviously nowadays we're taking huge amounts of data if we're looking at self-driving cars they've got a huge amount of information that's coming through they have to sort through quickly is that a pedestrian is it a tree and so quantum computing is predicted to be very powerful for machine learning whether it's predictive and accurate weather forecasting huge number of applications in that space then there's quantum simulation and so one of the first things people think are going to come about is a process called the harbor Bosh process which turns nitrogen from nitrogen gas into nitrogen that you can use for fertilizer it's a high energy expensive process it takes huge amounts of the world's energy and cost and people reckon if you can find a better catalyst you'd be able to solve that much better using quantum simulation so drug design is another area looking at sensors on airplanes for aircraft design huge numbers of areas of quantum simulation and then finally that prime number factorization I talked about before so that kind of code breaking application there are over 50 different quantum albums ten years ago everyone talked about – there are now 50 and it's growing and what's fascinating for me is watching this field evolve is there's huge numbers of software engineers and algorithm developers even before the hardware has been built quite amazing everyone's waiting for that hardware now this is a very busy slide and this is just to talk about the different ways you can build a quantum computer I'm going to highlight three areas the smaller your physical system the longer it holds the quantum state the larger it is the more interact with its environment and so you can see here we have essentially atoms molecules and ions of very small systems we have electron and nuclear spins on atoms and on the right hand side we have what we call superconducting qubits these are loops of material where you pass a current and you create a magnetic flux now one of the key things you can see is all these small atoms they're tiny and as whence the coherence time how long can they hold that quantum state is long and if you look on the right-hand side you can see for the sleeping 13 qubits because they're physically large that coherence time is short but it's not that that matters there's another thing that matters how fast can you operate the qubit we've got a longer hearings time and a very fast operation time that ratio is the biggest and it's that ratio that we're really keen on the higher that number the better the system is likely to be and the more qubits you can build more powerful computer and so you can see for electron nuclear spins in solids there are some of the highest ratios and so that's really why you know you see now lots of different people building different qubit systems superconducting qubits they're coming at first-to-market they're very large they actually made with technology that was back in the 1990's first atomic scale systems are much smaller they interact less with the environment and hopefully they'll produce larger scale quantum computers so there are now five what I would say leading contenders and the reason I've chosen these five is because those are the five that actually have companies set up in their space so you can see silicon spins superconducting qubits iron trap some of the first qubits diamond vacancies and topological qubits and they're those metrics up there how long can it last what's the success rate how accurately can you operate it and how many qubits are up there that they've actually demonstrated in town one so you can see we're right at the beginning of this field we're still less than 50 cubits yeah we're all racing to get to that point we can prove that quantum out performs classical each one of them has positive in negatives I won't go through them all but there's always nothing comes in life for free but what's fascinating is you look at the companies on the bottom the number of companies is growing rapidly so again go back 10 years there'll be one quantum computing company a company called D way from Canada now there are probably about ten Hardware companies there probably about thirty software software companies or software / consultancy companies and it's really growing incredibly rapidly almost every week you hear of a new company coming up in this space it really is a race so let's just go back to those semiconductors I talked before about the industry captured silicon and so when quantum computing came out most people at universities that had the ability to look at quantum states where it's which operate at low temperature where can't get a mastitis as soon as the field came out in the 1990s I like this builds a qubit in gallium arsenide and it took them a few years before they could get down to a device where they have one electron that's your quantum bit or qubit at the same time people working in silicon germanium structures another crystalline material another University of the search area they took a few years to get down but the single atom qubits had to develop the whole technology of how to put a single atom in place so it took slightly longer and it's that journey that I want to take you now as to how we build those qubits so here was the first concept Bruce came back in 1998 said if you could build it in silicon you can encode information on that single atom this is the kind of unit cell of what the quantum computer look white so you can see we have phosphorus atoms in silicon phosphorus has one extra electron compared to silicon and we're going to encode information on that extra electron we're going to cool it down to low temperature that stops all the vibrations from the lattice affecting our quantum state and we're going to put it in a magnetic field so that we get this spin up and spin down or we can rotate the spin on that sphere now the advantage of silicon is it's almost like putting your quantum bit into a vacuum all the atoms around it in silicon all the electrons in the Sigma's are used to bond to each other so they essentially neuter out so the only electron spin is that extra one you've put on the phosphorous atom they have the highest ratio of how long it lasts the operation time it's in a material that unit that the industry has for 50 years purified and made better and figured out how to manufacture and it has very low noise so because it's in that nice crystalline environment that qubits in there and it's nice and safe so that was that was Bruce's idea back in 1998 we're now trying to build that in Australia and this is the kind of technique we're using instead of having that kind of three-dimensional diagram on the right-hand side and on the left-hand side well we've got meth and gates on the surface like that transistor I showed you before controlling the wave functions of atoms beneath the surface we're actually going to put more on one atomic plane we're going to get rid of as many variables as we can and we can end up with a device where there's only two atoms phosphorus and silicon to make it as simple as we can to get rid of all the things that we can't control now the thing that Bruce originally said is these voltages on these gates we could use those to control the wave function Bo so every qubit has a gate and by putting a voltage on that we can move the electron away from where the nucleus spin of the phosphorus is and therefore we can chew each qubit individually with a gate voltage we have another gate called that J gate sits between them we can put a voltage on there and get the two wave functions to talk to each other and in that way we can create entanglement so this is the kind of operation of the qubit that he originally envisaged but what we're going to do is we're going to put more and one atomic plane so those red atoms or qubits those blue atoms are our leads to it and we're going to try and build this architecture with just those two atoms now we talked about scanning tunneling microscope how does actually work so now we want to get to the point where we can actually show how we can see atoms and how we can manipulate them and that microscope is essentially a very fine methyl tip like a needle that you bring down to the surface of your material and at the end of the tip this red tip here there's a single atom and when it gets close enough electrons is in the ultra high vacuum system the electrons will tunnel through the tip through the vacuum onto the sample surface and you'll get a current flame that's called a tunneling cone and if we keep that current constant and we move the tip over it will deflect in height as it goes over the atoms so we can literally move it across the surface and pick out the topographic height of the atoms on the surface so raster scan it like a television screen and that's how we image those individual atoms now the amazing thing was technology developed in the 1980s and 1990s IBM said actually we put certain methyl atoms on a metal surface we can come down with that tip and if we put a voltage on there we could pick up and act and move it along and pass it off so we can actually form the world's smallest logo which they did IBM out of individual atoms and it was really that concept of using that tip to move atoms around that made people think maybe we could apply this to semiconductors and maybe we can make devices with single-item precision now there's a big difference here in the semiconductor we already talked about all those bonds are strong you can't pick up an atom because they're actually bound into the substrate so we have to come up with another idea and that's really what we've developed here over the last 10 fifteen years we're gonna use that microscope to manipulate atoms but we're gonna do by making a mask now the key thing is we can only see the atoms in the microscope once you take it out you can't see anything so if I took a chip put it at a min took it out again it would look exactly the same so the first thing we do is we have to make edged holes in the surface and that's the metal tip we're bringing down there that helps us find where we're putting in the atoms we then put down a layer of hydrogen on top of the silicon surface and what that does is it forms an atomic scale mask and when we come along with that STM tip we can remove hydrogen atoms exposing this silicon underneath and that is very very bright up here that's where the silicon is exposed we now want to bring our phosphorus atoms in we use phosphine gas and it will only stick where the hydrogen is removed and it won't stick to the hydrogen surface we then heat it up we find the phosphorous likes to go in and kick silicon out so you can see the phosphor is going in here we then take it to another chamber we grow silicon on top to encapsulator we then come back with our estions and we can image and see that the atoms are still there so we make a certain pattern even though it's encapsulated with silicon we can find out where the atoms are sitting and then we use those markers and we take it out of the microscope to go through to a conventional clean room like an Intel clean room to put down contacts to the Buried device so that's the process that we developed and when we put that out about a decade ago back in 2000 people were quick to say none of those stages has been realized and the chances of getting all through to the end of those stage and everyone working is pretty slim so good luck to yours is see how you go and that was really a challenge for us and we actually loved that change because every time we hit one of those milestones it was a great win for our team not to do that we had to bring together two different technologies we had to bring together a microscope that allows you to image atoms and what we call a crystal growth system that allows you to grow atoms and they were very different technologies one had lots of pumps vibrating away and the other one you're trying to manipulate atoms so our first system we designed it was a big risk of three and a half billion dollars was these two technologies in different rooms connected together and we had if this big chunk of concrete here 3 tons of concrete weighing it down in the middle so the vibrations didn't get it was something that took three and a half years to different companies working with them overseas building the lab to make it it took about a year and a half before it arrived no one knew that was gonna work and it actually worked out attractive six better than we designed it for so that allows us to build some of our first devices and what I'm going to show you now is a movie about how we made the first single atom transistor so I've already talked through this process we take a silicon substrate we put the edge registration markers in load it into our ultra-high vacuum system terminate the surface with hydrogen so it forms an atomic scale mask we only want to get one phosphorous in now so we open up a hole with our tip that is exactly six hydrogen atoms bigger we're now going to bring in the phosphine gas the phosphine will only stick with the silicones exposed and we can force three phosphine fragments into that hole we do a controlled chemical reaction we heat it up a pH two likes to grab a hydrogen and come off and dissociate get phosphine gas it allows another pH to dissociate to pH another pH two grabs the hydrogen off it goes and our phosphorous atom now a little bit more heat goes in and kicks the silicon out you can actually see the whole process in the microscope we know our phosphorus has gone in because that ejected silicon atom is there we now take it to either a chain when we encapsulate the silicon to give it a nice protective environment to protect our kuia but the interesting thing is that we also want to be able to address our atoms and we actually use the same process to make conducting leads out of phosphorus doped silicon and we can patent them with Sutton anomie to precision to where we put that Aten once we've encapsulated we take it out of ultra high vacuum system through to a cleanroom and we put down metal contacts using those registration markets so that's how we make our single asome transistor that's what the lithography looks like so you can see our little hole there these are right bright regions where the silicon is removed and if I step back a little bit and look at our device under the microscope that's what it looks like so you can see that there are these little wavy bits these are their terraces as step terraces of the silicon surface the bright regions are where the hydrogen is removed we have a source and a drain and were going to pass a current through that atom to try and turn it on and off and we use these two gate voltages to move the energy levels of the atom up and down so we can actually measure what we call its spectrum I'm going to zoom in there and there those are ejected silicon atoms so the exciting thing for us is we saw that picture before we had to finish making in the device we knew the atom was there but we didn't know it was going to work and then when you measure it you're hoping to get a fingerprint of what that atom looks like and that fingerprint like every individual is unique to buy an atom so let's just imagine what we have we have a little potential well we've got a phosphorous atom with a nuclear spin a little potential well and electrons can fall in that like a bucket now because it's small it's quantized this goes back to quantum physics and they're actually two different energy levels where we can take electrons so we can dive down at the bottom here there's no electrons in the phosphorous we call it ionized in the middle region here it's called the D not the state we put one election on there and we can just about load a second electron and now what I'm going to do is I'm going to use my source and drain to align the energy levels it's a pass current through and when the energy levels are line an electron can hop onto the atom and move across the other side I can get current through the device and then I'm gonna change the gate voltage and move their energy level up until they get to the next energy level and now an electron will move through so I'm expecting to see two peaks in the current as I change the gate voltage and that's exactly what we saw there's the current as a function of the gate voltage you get those two little peaks and eventually when their green line crosses over above all the electrons go and the whole thing conducts and that's where it goes rushing off on the right hand side so that's what we're expecting and the great thing we can do with our devices we can move all the energy levels around so we can get the electrons to switch around within the device and typically what we do when we do that is we get this beautiful spectra that tell you hey I'm a phosphorus atom we can measure what we call the charging energy and that energy is basically from the measurement 47 mini electron volts and that matches beautifully with optical measurements that were done between those two energy levels back in the 1980s so this really says measure make me see that I'm there measure my energy spectra and I will tell you whether I'm a phosphorus atom or an arsenic atom or how many phosphorous atoms I am so that was really the first single lesson transistor we did actually get beginners book of records for doing now the next question I've got about three or four devices I'm going to go through with you they get technically harder so hang in with me the next one is a wire so we want to bring currents in to control the at and how thin can we make those wires so here we've made it one point seven nanometers wide and we're going to measure the resistivity and normally when you make a wire thinner and thinner and thinner there are less paths for the electrons to go and the resistance shoots up an industry was really struggling this is the picture of our thin wire and what happens when we put the phosphorous in neck they crowd together really closely but industry was struggling because they looked at the resistivity of the wires as a function of their diameter and as they made them thinner and thinner you see these black and gray lines the resistivity would start shooting up and so you imagine they've got all these transistors they're packing together they want to get information into there 14 billion transistors but as they make their wires dinner they become very resistive and some what we found is using this technique best technique phosphine is a very small molecule can pack it closely together and as a consequence these are some red stars we found that we could go all the way down to the atomic scale and keep this very low resistivity it's totally unpredicted now the reason why I'm going to try to explain imagine you're a phosphorus atom and you've got an electron the electron this wave and it extends out through space and if you put another phosphorous atom very close to me its wave will overlap with my wave and eventually we're close enough together all the waves will overlap and I'll be able to go through with no resistance a lot of the industry devices the folk the atoms are far enough away that the wave didn't overlap so I had to hop through them and my resistance would be higher so by bringing these close together I make these very very conducting wires and again what's happened now as industries adapt to some of these techniques in their fabrication processes now we're going to go through two more devices imagine now on said I'm a dot I'm a bucket of electrons and I've got my source and drain when I align them I can get electrons hop on and off and I get these peaks in current and as I showed before as I move my source and drain I get a fingerprint of what that dot looks like this dot is vital for us because it's a sensor that allows us to measure the spin of the electron on the atoms some of our first devices we have 4,000 phosphorous atoms we dropped it down to 7 phosphorous atoms and if we look at the spectra it looks kind of similar but it's different you can see that the size of these what we call diamonds changes if I go all the way down to a single phosphorus atom now I start to see just those three charge states so every device we make has a unique spectrum we use that spectra deliberately to design our computer so now what I'm going to do is bring the end this is the last device I'm going to go through last couple of devices here's my device with my bucket of electrons my single electron transistor over here and I'm gonna pass the current through this and there's my phosphorus atom and I'm going to try and determine what's the spin of the electron on that phosphorus atom that's the whole goal because what I want to do is initialize information and read information from that single electron on that phosphorous atom so I'm going to pass the current through here as a function of these two gate biases and what you see these bright features going down as current passes through the device when the energy level of this aligns with the phosphorous set and I get these breaks here and again by measuring all the voltages on this device I can show that the distance between these two breaks is the distance here between our phosphorous atoms that I showed you before again proving it's a phosphorus atom with our spins up and spins down and I'm gonna zoom into one of these regions here when electrons pass through here and I align this energy up electron will hop on here and I will come off the conduction peak and there'll be a break and that's how I'm gonna figure out whether it's a spin up or spin down electron so I'm gonna zoom in to that region and again just applying voltages to my gate I'm gonna do what we call a four level of pause sequence in the first level I've got my spin up and spin down of the electrons on the phosphorus atom and I've got my bucket of electrons sitting in the in the island of that single electron transistor and I'm gonna pulse it down to my load and electron onto the phosphorous now if it's a spin up you'll be sitting in that top energy level and I find that I come off resonance of my CT so the current drops down I go to the readout regime and that electrons spin because it's higher in energy can move over so another electron will load back down and what I see is this beautiful peaking current so what I'm doing now I put an atom in place from the electron spin I bore a center though patterned right nearer and I can now determine whether that spin is up or down I can move the energy levels back up so the electrons come back up and I go back onto resonance and we will do this many many thousands of times we're now able to measure a single spin on a single atom by bringing this sense in thereby and we can do it with very high fidelity the final thing we need to do is to actually control the rotations of these atoms and the way we do this is a results from my colleagues and Romero and Roger and David Jemison they've put a thin wire on the surface and when they pass a current through this wire they create a local oscillating magnetic field and that allows my qubit now to rotate around that sphere so now I've got control of my spin like a read it in and out and I can rotate it around the sphere and I can do that for the electron or the nucleus spin and these are the record coherence times that we predicted so for silicon qubits these go here in terms of seconds which are orders of magnitude higher than supermoon acting qubits and the Fidelity's are much much higher so it's very exciting for us we found that sticking with silicon despite all the technical challenges ten years of designing devices we've actually shown that the qubits are really worthwhile and so what we're on a mission now is to get to what we call a ten qubit quantum integrated circuit so it's replicating the transistor story from the classical computing and we want to do that within the next decade and so I've shown you a hundred years of theory you know ten years of developing the technology and now wham over the last five to ten years we've had a phenomenal series of results 2012 our first single atom transistor we can make a wire that's very thin we can make these sensors that we bring close to measure a single electron we can actually get two qubits to talk to each other we can actually measure the wave function directly so we can actually see the wave function beneath the crystal so we know how to design it from knowing where they are we can independently initialize and read them out even though they're very close together we can show that we get correlations between the spin we flip one the other one flips back on and we've shown that we can individually address two qubits even though they're less than 10 nanometers apart we can flip this one without touching this one but ultimately we've got to design a whole computer so Tinky which is great but we've got to get to a big computer and so we've also been looking at how we're going to make a full scale computer using this technology and these are just some slides here whole computer has to address lots of qubits at the same time in in parallel and so you have to go instead of this line of cuba's you have to go to a two dimensional array and one of the challenges there is how do you get all the contacts into those devices and this is true of any qubit architecture how do you they're so small and close together how do you get in tooth relates them and so the way we're going is to go three dimensional so we can pattern wires on one plane running in one direction grow silicon pattern our qubits and those little reservoirs to read them in another plant grow more silicon and then pattern wires that run perpendicular to the first plane and supply them voltages to two different ways we can individually address the qubits it's a very exciting time it's a unique technology to be able to go 3d and just as a bit of fun Yaris is one of the people working on this projects is patent here a thousand and twenty four cubits and shown how well we can align them with our STM so this was done you know without a huge amount of work but it shows that we've got technology there that will allow us to extend to this 3d architecture so now I'm going to change a little bit so this is the technology that we've developed what I've shown you is essentially there are three pillars of success one is those concepts an idea they take about a hundred years to germinate to the point you can realize them the second one is the technology has to come along at the same time and what you'll find is we need three sets of labs in order to be able to design build and test these devices the first lab is a cleanroom we want to make devices they're very small we have to wear suits so that we don't get dust on our devices the light is yellow so we don't have ultraviolet like exposing our devices and typically it takes you know six months or so to learn the technology of making contacts to are very small devices and when it works you feel pretty good the second one that Adam lab I've talked about how to get the single item in there we need to bring together those two technologies at at a manipulation and crystal growth and that's taken us about a decade to develop and then the final lab is the happy lab that's where the actual chip operates you have to cool it down to very low temperatures these are called dilution fridges they have a mixture of helium 3 and helium 4 they almost get to the absolute zero temperature and then we've got lots of electronics that go down to these very small fast signals to control these single electrons on these single atoms in our devices the amazing thing is you've got to have all three within one location so you can go round around that loop fast and one of the exciting things about our technology is we can do that we can design build and test in one week a particular design of our qubit we're very excited about that we're building lots of fridges so we can design lots of designs and actually build the prototypes as fast as we can and then the final pillar which is not to be underestimated is what I call the implementers those are the people those are the people that really make it work and this comes back to a whole group of people starting back in 2000 the original founders of the center this is after we had finished our interview we thought we did pretty well looking very happy with ourselves we've got the theorist Bruce came that came up with the original idea we've got our theorists and our experimentalist in Melbourne since David Jamison Lloyd hollenberg and there is the forest the Ganga for here at the University of New South Wales as spend rock and drama alone myself and Andrew Durant who are really pushing that technology for is you also need funders so we've been very fortunate to have funding from the Australian Research Council and one of the things I emphasize at the beginning but this training Research Council came up with two fantastic schemes research fellowships to allow people leadership at a young age and centers of excellence that allowed Australians to work on big ambitious projects collaboratively in Australia and that has really put Australia on the world stage we also get funding from the US Army and the semiconductor Research Corporation that overlooks the semiconductor roadmap we get funding from Telstra and CBA's so our corporate partners have started to come in but then also you need visionary visionary vice chancellors says fred Hilmer and he and jacobs both have got behind this and recognized that to support this research in the universities you have to build the facilities to make it happen and support the researchers you've got the advisors we've got a fantastic advisory board people from across the industry and government on the top right inside the we've got you know the Vice Chancellors UTS nearby we've got someone from the CBA we've got Doug Hilux from the cybersecurity growth centre we've got Alex and then ski the chief defense scientists pdh corporate lawyer Stephen Menzies in the audience a whole group of people with different expertise that really help us to push this technology and give us links to important people like government and to the public you need someone that really knows how to command and control people so tony reciters our chief operations officer he was a captain of HMS in Melbourne when we were looking at someone to run this centre we wanted someone that knew command and control we knew someone that would understand how to get people to work collaborates you collaborated ly together he's been fantastic we've got people that do off-planet savita's been with us for a long time Savita and Ezra working in our finite systems and then we've got our technical people watching Holman runs the labs fantastic keeps more running on a daily basis we've just hired Chris George to work in the cleans and here he's showing were these young children how things work and then we've got Matt Boland that runs the NFF and he swears to me that he's smiling in that photograph so cell-free from winning the cleaner of the children watching what he's up to there's a huge group of people over 200 working on this project and the thing that bringing it back to the beginning that amazes me is the community of people you need here's about half of my research team if you look at this we've got people from Germany New Zealand America China Poland Holland that'll make sure I remember the flags France England Russia Bangladesh Korea and of course a few Z's in there so it really is a community of people across the world all of us with different ideas different expertise different backgrounds and that is absolutely crucial for a search looking for words though I wanted to get you to look at some of these pictures and one of the things that you will notice in these pictures is the number of computers that are in there we need computers that run the experiments we need computer that take the data we need computers all the way through to model our systems and understand what we're getting at the end of the day we need a lot of maths a lot of Statistics a lot of coding so going forwards this quantum revolution is hitting the world internationally and we really need to make sure our young people are skilled up and ready for this how long is it going to take we can look now at how long it took for the classical industry to come along 1947 the first transistor took about a decade before got the first integrated circuit and then another five years before we got commercial products and we can plot that for the transistor in this laptop and so that basically tells you that from the first transistor through it's about 15 years and our first transistor was 2012 that's the kind of milestones that we're heading for but internationally the race is hotting up you can see all over the world huge amounts of funding me too this area the European Union IBM's putting money in China has actually established a whole university dedicated to quantum science the Dutch the danish the singapore's it's actually becoming a national sport to get into quantum computing and then there's companies you can see US companies coming in to superconducting qubits and US labs coming into silicon so they're National Labs it's a very exciting time Australia is incredibly well placed we have six centers of excellence in quantum physics across the country it is an opportunity for us to be bold to take leadership in this area we've got a trained workforce and we need to make sure that our future generations come through and take advantage of that thank you [Applause] [Applause] okay one more thing to say so just just very briefly we did have an open day very recently where we opened up we bought school children through and it was absolutely phenomenal to get into showing them our labs and this really went back to the time where I went to the US and saw these semiconductor manufacturing plants our dream was to bring these guys in so they could see what we get up to and I have to say it's been the best day of my year so I'll leave it with her thank you now we are very fortunate to have a few moments to take some questions from the audience for Michelle and you know in line with the spirit of the week National Science Week engaging and inspiring Australians with scientists I want to encourage those questions I also want to point out that Michelle has to get to a Katy Perry concert so we haven't actually got a whole lot of time and and also I would like to take at least the first three questions from younger members of the audience potentially students of the University or students of high schools maybe someone who visited Michelle's lab this week please if you have a question there are microphones over on this side one and over on this side too so stand up and and take the floor and we have a first question and hello hi I've actually been to your open day and there has been questions since I've been there so in the demonstration showed us you said that you need to have the quantum computing operating in temperature that's absolutely near absolute zero yeah so how was you so if it works it mass-produced will become say personalized computer how would you attack with that problem so that's a great question the reason why that's great is because it will manage the expectations so if you look at the first computers they were those massive servers it took a long time for the technology to develop before you could actually get one on your desk it's the same with quantum computing so at the beginning we don't envisage that people are going to happen on their desks they do need very low temperatures and what's fascinating for me is if you look at the way that technology is evolving to operate those quantum computers every year we're designing the chip every year those manufacturers of those dilution fridges that allow you to make them cold I'm making them more compact smaller and working better and so as time evolves 50 years from now who knows but right now we're not planning that everyone has them on their desk so they are bespoke computers only certain type of calculations they can do sorry so you're just saying if you were to use them it can't you can't have a way of having quantum computers without having that temperature like that moment at the moment yep everyone's looking at computers that work at very low temperature whether they're sipping duck to your semiconducting I talked a bit about diamond diamond works at room temperature but it's very hard to manufacture so the moment everyone envisages that these quantum server farms and literally going to be low temperature systems and you've got to have that controlled environment enabled we always be able to run it and so I think one of the one of the challenges is other problems valuable enough that you would put up with those low temperatures and I think they are I will take a question from over here thank I so I'm a first year physics student and I thought there's that presented as was really interesting I was wondering what can I do what can my peers do to get involved and hopefully help you you know down the line you should definitely email us so one of the things that we have done over the years is we've taken both my school students and undergraduates from first year that's come and do work experience with us so we have a big team we need lots of people with coding experience the more people get involved with this the longer they stay and they tend to come all the way through it so yeah send us an email okay very amazing that from like only like 56 years ago we in vacuum tubes are about this big but this big and now we have bits bus phones that are like 100,000 times more powerful I'm optimistic that the rate of development from like vacuum tubes to supercomputers to photocopying will be accelerating because it kind of sits in a exponential curve like getting faster and faster and faster exponentially are you optimistic that Oh be that Wonka video comes to know then later so yeah the reality is you know humans are fantastic at developing technology if you said 50 years ago that we were going to design devices out of single atoms people to laughed at you and so you know technology is rapidly evolving and hopefully what I've given you a sense of the ideas take a long time to germinate well once technology gets in there the semiconductor industry is phenomenal the quantum community at the moment is developing ways of using single photons or by its single spins and I it's you know every year new technology comes out that allows us to understand that world better and the irony for me is we're actually using the atoms to help us build the fauna computer so by making the systems we can model them and from the models we can actually help build the next generation of computers so you know we're in a different paradigm technology's moving fast and yeah it's very exciting thank you hey I was just wondering what's the yield of these devices that are being manufactured compared to other approaches and what are the biggest challenges in making them yes a you you were very difficult to find out yes so one of the things that we tried to do with our technique was to be able to make the same device twice so you know one of my experiences is working in the UK is we were making gallium arsenide transistors if we tried to make the same quantum device twice it was very hard and we spent a lot of time so what we thought with this technique is getting rid of all the things that change all the variables we have to worry about have two atoms keep the temperature low keep the magnetic fields low high yields very high as a consequence at the moment it all depends on how quickly you can scale how quickly you can design and test will be the ones that will get to building a large-scale computer fast enough and that's really the game is to have lots of low temperature systems build and test as fast as you can and make sure you can make the same thing twice it's very hard in the pond so we take a second question here sorry no further one hi I was just wondering why is it easier to build with a single electron than with a single atom what why is it easy to build a transistor with a single electron than with a single atom because the single electron came first so the electron sits on the atom yeah so some you've I've got you've got different ways of make it you can either try and catch an electron and a bigger device which means you've got to engineer it to capture an electron that's actually quite hard or you can just put an atom there and it gives you that electron for free so the atom and the electron go together put the atom in place you get the electron thank you Hey and so you talked about the quantum generation and it sounds brilliant and you also talked about having to train a quantum science or a scientist to work at your facility for six months so there's definitely a large educational overhead for developing this generation have you is there a plan to streamline this education yeah so look I think across across every country at the moment they're looking at how do they train more people in this space so we certainly need more people coming through and I guess one of the things that I've learned is that in this space you need people with deep knowledge so it's not a question of just learning something very quickly and picking it up you have to be in the field for a period of time and so what you're starting to see across every country now they're coming out with quantum degrees they're bringing it up yeah I transferred a whole university dedicated it but getting people trained in this space is going to take a different way of thinking it's certainly something everyone's look here and there is a new Sydney quantum entrepreneurship Academy yeah quantum Academy just forming with support from the state government precisely to train people in the area but also to train the ecosystem of quantum entrepreneurs businesspeople developers engineers etc that need to be in place to support quantum science and so that's exciting we'll take a question over here sorry I'm just I mean this is probably the broadest question but where would you see quantum physics being applied to a more biological or medical industry so that's it so in the in the field of quantum simulation so looking at drug design is an area that everyone's looking at the moment so you know to take a drug to market is a very expensive process classical computers can only model about 20 atoms so when you start to look at the interaction of a drug with the human body it's just too complex that's why we have to have these long and expensive drug testing facilities so with the quantum you know the hope is that we'll be able to understand how those molecules interact with the human body that's classic area in computing and biology that's kind of coming hi I'm a law student so I have limited science knowledge and the question I will I to ask it's about like when I think about computing and the information system the first thing come to my mind is the blockchain which is a new way that maybe the future computing we use to deliver informations and then I was wondering is this kind of new quantum computing will be kind of like provide a technical base for the devices to to be able to receive data at the same time like well in the future computing network yes a little bit so one of the things we do in our Center as well as doing computing which is doing you know fast processing we also do secure communication systems so you can actually use quantum states to pass information episodes securely if you send the quantum state down a fiber and somebody tries to hack into it it actually collapses the kind of state of the information is lost and so one of the long things in the futures have very fast computers quantum computers connecting with a secure quantum network and that's the area where it starts over like things like blockchain thank you thank you we'll take one final question over here and apologies to the people who haven't had an opportunity to ask oh yeah my question is actually kind of similar to the previous one so assuming that everything goes well and the quantum computer is made and anybody can access it how do we protect like passwords and for example like the bank our details so that that's exactly right so quantum quantum communication is the way to do it so the moment everything is sent and people can hack into it's erratically and in the classical world but in the quantum world the whole point is we asked the quantum state what it is it collapses so if you have a secure quantum key you can get the information but if you don't then the information collapses and no one else can hack in so that's this idea of a quantum Internet connecting communications and computing together is the way around it so quantum allows you to hack and it allowed you to protect at the same time thank you thank you so I'll end with one final question you are leading the development of one of the first will the first Australian quantum computing company and you also have incredible support through the University can you explain why you need the company in this space what's it going to do yeah so one of the things I realized you know probably about 5-10 years ago as Australia is leaving this research field and it can actually build and develop the devices here and I suddenly rise if we're leading in the field and we can build it here and it's something that's you know gonna be very useful for many industries 40% of Australian industry is predicted to be impacted we want to build the company to build it and then the question is if you build a company typically in Australia we're not well known for doing that well and so we looked at how can you make it work in the Australian context we're very collaborative we're very competitive that's what Australia's great at the same time but to build a company you've got to keep it close to the research it's another 10 years a way of developing the fundamental research to make that computer work so let's build a company with the University Center of Excellence keep the powerhouse of war people coming through but give a prototype systems of a company with well-defined milestones and it's that you know it's fairly unique across the world that we've come to that realization that keeping the company with the University having industry investors is what will make it successful fantastic I think it will be very successful can you please join me today in thanking Australia you